Abstract: Whether the formation of bars is triggered by interactions or by internal processes has been discussed for many decades. In this work, we study differences between both mechanisms by means of numerical simulations. We relate our analysis to fly-by interactions in different mass groups or clusters according to the velocity of the encounters. We find that once the bar is created, the interaction does not much affect its evolution. We also find that bars can be triggered purely by a slow interaction. Those bars affected or triggered by interaction stay for a longer time in the slow regime, i.e., the corotation radius is more than 1.4 times the bar radius.
Abstract: In the present work, it is shown that the problem of the cosmological constant (CC) is practically the consequence of the inadequacy of general relativity to take into account the quantum property of the space. The equations show that the cosmological constant naturally emerges in the hydrodynamic formulation of quantum gravity and that it does not appear in the classical limit because the quantum energy-impulse tensor gives an equal contribution with opposite sign. The work shows that a very large local value of the CC comes from the space where the mass of a quasi-punctual particle is present but that it can be as small as measured on cosmological scale. The theory shows that the small dependence of the CC from the mean mass density of the universe is due to the null contribution coming from the empty space. This fact gives some hints for the explanation of the conundrum of the cosmic coincidence by making a high CC value of the initial instant of universe compatible with the very small one of the present era.
Abstract: Fossil systems are understood to be the end product of galaxy mergers within groups and clusters. Their halo morphology points to their relaxed/virialised nature, thus allowing them to be employed as observational probes for the evolution of cosmic structures, their thermodynamics and dark matter distribution. Cosmological simulations, and their underlying models, are broadly consistent with the early formation epoch for fossils. In a series of studies we have looked into galaxy properties and intergalactic medium (IGM) in fossils, across a wide range of wavelengths, from X-ray through optical to the radio, to have a better understanding of their nature, the attributed halo age, IGM heating and their AGNs and use them as laboratories to constrain galaxy formation models. Adhering to one of less attended properties of fossils, using the the Millennium Simulation, we combine luminosity gap with luminosity segregation (the brightest galaxy offset from the group luminosity centroid) to identify the most dynamically relaxed galaxy groups which allows us to reveal brand new observational connections between galaxies and their environments.
Abstract: The luminosity distance in the standard cosmology as given by ΛCDM and, consequently, the distance modulus for supernovae can be defined by the Padé approximant. A comparison with a known analytical solution shows that the Padé approximant for the luminosity distance has an error of 4 % at redshift = 10 . A similar procedure for the Taylor expansion of the luminosity distance gives an error of 4 % at redshift = 0 . 7 ; this means that for the luminosity distance, the Padé approximation is superior to the Taylor series. The availability of an analytical expression for the distance modulus allows applying the Levenberg–Marquardt method to derive the fundamental parameters from the available compilations for supernovae. A new luminosity function for galaxies derived from the truncated gamma probability density function models the observed luminosity function for galaxies when the observed range in absolute magnitude is modeled by the Padé approximant. A comparison of ΛCDM with other cosmologies is done adopting a statistical point of view.
Abstract: We present results of our investigation of two multi-spin galaxies which were taken from the catalog of polar ring galaxies. All of them possess nucleus-like knots. An analysis of gas and stars kinematics and study of the stellar population were carried out for these objects. A complex structure and peculiar kinematics of both components were revealed. The observed distribution of the stellar age and metallicity in central parts of galaxies (radius is about 8″) and along directions through their knots helps us to understand the merging processes and make conclusion of the knots’ nature in these objects.