Future Internet2016, 8(2), 15; doi:10.3390/fi8020015 - published 27 April 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In recent years, the interest in delay/disruption tolerant networking (DTN) is growing as a means of communication in times of disaster. To ensure that a DTN works well in an emergency, it is desirable to promote general use of the DTN, so that it will also be used in normal times. Since the DTN uses mobile terminals and vehicles, which are not dedicated network devices, as relay nodes, the routing method should be such that it does not impose a large processing load on relay nodes. This paper considers use of a DTN for a day-to-day service of delivering content to a specific area and proposes a new routing method that is based on information about the routes of fixed-route traveling nodes, such as public transportation vehicles. The destination of a bundle is specified not by a terminal identifier, but by an area, which is identified by its location information. This paper presents an outbound-type bundle protocol, which is used by relay nodes when they have received a forwarding-bundle request from a sending terminal and try to determine whether the bundle can reach its destination area. Using simulation, the superiority of the proposed routing was confirmed by comparing it to existing routing methods in terms of the bundle arrival rate and factors that affect the network load, such as the number of bundle copies, the number of hops and the maximum required buffer size.
Future Internet2016, 8(2), 13; doi:10.3390/fi8020013 - published 20 April 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Clouds do not work in isolation but interact with other clouds and with a variety of systems either developed by the same provider or by external entities with the purpose to interact with them; forming then an ecosystem. A software ecosystem is a collection of software systems that have been developed to coexist and evolve together. The stakeholders of such a system need a variety of models to give them a perspective of the possibilities of the system, to evaluate specific quality attributes, and to extend the system. A powerful representation when building or using software ecosystems is the use of architectural models, which describe the structural aspects of such a system. These models have value for security and compliance, are useful to build new systems, can be used to define service contracts, find where quality factors can be monitored, and to plan further expansion. We have described a cloud ecosystem in the form of a pattern diagram where its components are patterns and reference architectures. A pattern is an encapsulated solution to a recurrent problem. We have recently expanded these models to cover fog systems and containers. Fog Computing is a highly-virtualized platform that provides compute, storage, and networking services between end devices and Cloud Computing Data Centers; a Software Container provides an execution environment for applications sharing a host operating system, binaries, and libraries with other containers. We intend to use this architecture to answer a variety of questions about the security of this system as well as a reference to design interacting combinations of heterogeneous components. We defined a metamodel to relate security concepts which is being expanded.
Future Internet2016, 8(2), 14; doi:10.3390/fi8020014 - published 20 April 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Social norms have traditionally been difficult to quantify. In any particular society, their sheer number and complex interdependencies often limit a system-level analysis. One exception is that of the network of norms that sustain the online Wikipedia community. We study the fifteen-year evolution of this network using the interconnected set of pages that establish, describe, and interpret the community’s norms. Despite Wikipedia’s reputation for ad hoc governance, we find that its normative evolution is highly conservative. The earliest users create norms that both dominate the network and persist over time. These core norms govern both content and interpersonal interactions using abstract principles such as neutrality, verifiability, and assume good faith. As the network grows, norm neighborhoods decouple topologically from each other, while increasing in semantic coherence. Taken together, these results suggest that the evolution of Wikipedia’s norm network is akin to bureaucratic systems that predate the information age.
Future Internet2016, 8(2), 12; doi:10.3390/fi8020012 - published 18 April 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper introduces a method for assessing the influence of Twitter accounts of central e-government agencies. It first stresses the importance of activity and popularity of the e-government accounts, and also the importance of community formation among followers-citizens, as the two main stages of e-government adoption. The proposed approach combines activity and popularity of the accounts and followers’ community characteristics in a ranking system, using an idea originally introduced to measure blogosphere authority. A Twitter Authority Index is produced. The method is demonstrated through an extended example: 56 Twitter accounts of ministries of EU countries are sorted according to their indexes in the proposed ranking system. Detailed values for the ministries’ accounts and average values for the countries that the ministries belong to are reported and commented.
Future Internet2016, 8(2), 11; doi:10.3390/fi8020011 - published 12 April 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Outdoor leisure activities are important for public health as well as family cohesiveness, yet environmental factors may easily affect someone’s ability to participate in such activities. We explored this with a focus on the social web-based treasure hunt game called Geocaching. We collected data on all US and Canadian geocaches from OpenCaching.com and conducted an online survey with twenty geocachers as a follow-up to our data analysis. Data analysis showed that geocaches were more often found in areas that were wealthier, better educated, younger, and more urban, and had higher population density and better weather. Survey results showed similar trends: Most people actively thought about where they would cache and tried to minimize risks, despite cache hiders thinking less about these concerns. These results further emphasize the importance of environmental factors when it comes to participation in outdoor activities and leads to Human–Computer Interaction design implications for location-based online social activities.
Future Internet2016, 8(2), 10; doi:10.3390/fi8020010 - published 29 March 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Every day, each active social network user produces and shares texts, images and videos. While developers can access such data through application programming interfaces (APIs) for creating games, visualizations and routines, end users have less control on such information. Their access is mediated by the social application features, which limits them in combining sources, filtering results and performing actions on groups of elements. In order to fill this gap, we introduce FaceMashup, an end user development (EUD) environment supporting the manipulation of the Facebook graph. We describe the tool interface, documenting the choices we made during the design iterations. Data types are represented through widgets containing user interface (UI) elements similar to those used in the social network application. Widgets can be connected with each other with the drag and drop of their inner fields, and the application updates their content. Finally, we report the results of a user-test on the FaceMashup prototype, which shows a good acceptance of the environment by end-users.