Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Blockchain-Empowered Fair Computational Resource Sharing System in the D2D Network
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 85; doi:10.3390/fi9040085 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Device-to-device (D2D) communication is becoming an increasingly important technology in future networks with the climbing demand for local services. For instance, resource sharing in the D2D network features ubiquitous availability, flexibility, low latency and low cost. However, these features also bring along challenges
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Device-to-device (D2D) communication is becoming an increasingly important technology in future networks with the climbing demand for local services. For instance, resource sharing in the D2D network features ubiquitous availability, flexibility, low latency and low cost. However, these features also bring along challenges when building a satisfactory resource sharing system in the D2D network. Specifically, user mobility is one of the top concerns for designing a cooperative D2D computational resource sharing system since mutual communication may not be stably available due to user mobility. A previous endeavour has demonstrated and proven how connectivity can be incorporated into cooperative task scheduling among users in the D2D network to effectively lower average task execution time. There are doubts about whether this type of task scheduling scheme, though effective, presents fairness among users. In other words, it can be unfair for users who contribute many computational resources while receiving little when in need. In this paper, we propose a novel blockchain-based credit system that can be incorporated into the connectivity-aware task scheduling scheme to enforce fairness among users in the D2D network. Users’ computational task cooperation will be recorded on the public blockchain ledger in the system as transactions, and each user’s credit balance can be easily accessible from the ledger. A supernode at the base station is responsible for scheduling cooperative computational tasks based on user mobility and user credit balance. We investigated the performance of the credit system, and simulation results showed that with a minor sacrifice of average task execution time, the level of fairness can obtain a major enhancement. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Study of Mobility Enhancements for RPL in Convergecast Scenarios
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 86; doi:10.3390/fi9040086 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In recent years, mobility support has become an important requirement in various wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. However, due to the strict resource constraints of power, memory, and processing resources in WSNs, routing protocols are mainly designed without considering mobility. Low-Power and Lossy
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In recent years, mobility support has become an important requirement in various wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. However, due to the strict resource constraints of power, memory, and processing resources in WSNs, routing protocols are mainly designed without considering mobility. Low-Power and Lossy Networks (LLNs) are a special type of WSNs that tolerate data loss. The Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) is a routing protocol for LLNs that adapts IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) and runs on top of the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 802.15.4 standard. RPL supports multipoint-to-point traffic and point-to-multipoint traffic. In this paper we propose a mobility enhancement mechanism in order to improve data collection applications in highly mobile scenarios. The enhancement is based on signal strength monitoring and depth updating in order to improve the routing protocol performance in mobile scenarios. This enhancement helps routing protocols to cope better with topology changes and makes proactive decisions on updating next-hop neighbours. We integrated this mechanism into the RPL and compared it with other existing RPL mobility support enhancements. Results obtained through simulation using Cooja show that our work outperforms other existing RPL mobility supports on different performance metrics. Results also prove the efficiency of our proposal in highly mobile scenarios. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Request Expectation Index Based Cache Replacement Algorithm for Streaming Content Delivery over ICN
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 83; doi:10.3390/fi9040083 -
Abstract
Since the content delivery unit over Information-Centric Networking (ICN) has shifted from files to the segments of a file named chunks, solely either file-level or chunk-level request probability is insufficient for ICN cache management. In this paper, a Request Expectation Index (RXI) based
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Since the content delivery unit over Information-Centric Networking (ICN) has shifted from files to the segments of a file named chunks, solely either file-level or chunk-level request probability is insufficient for ICN cache management. In this paper, a Request Expectation Index (RXI) based cache replacement algorithm for streaming content delivery is proposed. In this algorithm, RXI is introduced to serve as a fine-grained and unified estimation criteria of possible future request probability for cached chunks. RXI is customized for streaming content delivery by adopting both file-level and chunk-level request probability and considering the dynamically varied request status at each route as well. Compared to prior work, the proposed algorithm evicts the chunk with the minimum expectation of future request to maintain a high cache utilization. Additionally, simulation results demonstrate that the RXI-based algorithm can remarkably enhance the streaming content delivery performance and can be deployed in complex network scenarios. The proposed results validate that, by taking fine-grained request probability and request status into consideration, the customized in-network caching algorithm can improve the ICN streaming content delivery performance by high cache utilization, fast content delivery, and lower network traffic. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Combinational Buffer Management Scheme in Mobile Opportunistic Network
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 82; doi:10.3390/fi9040082 -
Abstract
Nodes in Mobile Opportunistic Network (MON) have to cache packets to deal with the intermittent connection. The buffer management strategy obviously impacts the performance of MON, and it attracts more attention recently. Due to the limited storage capacity of nodes, traditional buffer management
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Nodes in Mobile Opportunistic Network (MON) have to cache packets to deal with the intermittent connection. The buffer management strategy obviously impacts the performance of MON, and it attracts more attention recently. Due to the limited storage capacity of nodes, traditional buffer management strategies just drop messages based on the property of message, and they neglect the collaboration between neighbors, resulting in an ineffective performance improvement. Therefore, effective buffer management strategies are necessary to ensure that each node has enough buffer space to store the message when the node buffer is close to congestion. In this paper, we propose a buffer management strategy by integrating the characteristics of messages and nodes, and migrate the redundant messages to the neighbor to optimize the total utility, instead of deleting them. The simulation experiment results show that it can obviously improve the delivery ratio, the overhead ratio and the average delays, and reduce the amount of hops compared with the traditional ones. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Energy-Efficient Resource and Power Allocation for Underlay Multicast Device-to-Device Transmission
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 84; doi:10.3390/fi9040084 -
Abstract
In this paper, we present an energy-efficient resource allocation and power control scheme for D2D (Device-to-Device) multicasting transmission. The objective is to maximize the overall energy-efficiency of D2D multicast clusters through effective resource allocation and power control schemes, while considering the quality of
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In this paper, we present an energy-efficient resource allocation and power control scheme for D2D (Device-to-Device) multicasting transmission. The objective is to maximize the overall energy-efficiency of D2D multicast clusters through effective resource allocation and power control schemes, while considering the quality of service (QoS) requirements of both cellular users (CUs) and D2D clusters. We first build the optimization model and a heuristic resource and power allocation algorithm is then proposed to solve the energy-efficiency problem with less computational complexity. Numerical results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms existing schemes in terms of throughput per energy consumption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Network Intrusion Detection through Discriminative Feature Selection by Using Sparse Logistic Regression
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 81; doi:10.3390/fi9040081 -
Abstract
Intrusion detection system (IDS) is a well-known and effective component of network security that provides transactions upon the network systems with security and safety. Most of earlier research has addressed difficulties such as overfitting, feature redundancy, high-dimensional features and a limited number of
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Intrusion detection system (IDS) is a well-known and effective component of network security that provides transactions upon the network systems with security and safety. Most of earlier research has addressed difficulties such as overfitting, feature redundancy, high-dimensional features and a limited number of training samples but feature selection. We approach the problem of feature selection via sparse logistic regression (SPLR). In this paper, we propose a discriminative feature selection and intrusion classification based on SPLR for IDS. The SPLR is a recently developed technique for data analysis and processing via sparse regularized optimization that selects a small subset from the original feature variables to model the data for the purpose of classification. A linear SPLR model aims to select the discriminative features from the repository of datasets and learns the coefficients of the linear classifier. Compared with the feature selection approaches, like filter (ranking) and wrapper methods that separate the feature selection and classification problems, SPLR can combine feature selection and classification into a unified framework. The experiments in this correspondence demonstrate that the proposed method has better performance than most of the well-known techniques used for intrusion detection. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Framework for Cloud Based E-Government from the Perspective of Developing Countries
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 80; doi:10.3390/fi9040080 -
Abstract
Despite significant efforts to initiate electronic government projects, developing countries are still struggling to reap the benefits of using e-government services. An effective implementation of e-government infrastructure is necessary to increase the efficiency and transparency of the government services. There are several studies
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Despite significant efforts to initiate electronic government projects, developing countries are still struggling to reap the benefits of using e-government services. An effective implementation of e-government infrastructure is necessary to increase the efficiency and transparency of the government services. There are several studies that observed causes like lack of infrastructure support, lack of payment gateway and improper e-government service delivery channel as main barriers to a wider adoption of e-government services. The main contribution of this research is to propose a cloud-based G2G (Government-to-government) e-government framework for a viable e-government solution from the perspective of developing countries. We have introduced a list of concepts and a systematic process to guide the implementation of e-government project based on the government’s vision, goals, chosen services through the service delivery channel to the appropriate cloud service and deployment model. We have used Nepal as a context of the case study and applied the framework to a real e-government project of driving licensing department using action research methodology. The results from the study show that the G2G approach of e-government implementation would be the best for providing effective government services to the stakeholders of developing countries. The proposed framework also supports a smooth integration of government services and reduces the time of the overall project. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Malicious Cognitive User Identification Algorithm in Centralized Spectrum Sensing System
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 79; doi:10.3390/fi9040079 -
Abstract
Collaborative spectral sensing can fuse the perceived results of multiple cognitive users, and thus will improve the accuracy of perceived results. However, the multi-source features of the perceived results result in security problems in the system. When there is a high probability of
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Collaborative spectral sensing can fuse the perceived results of multiple cognitive users, and thus will improve the accuracy of perceived results. However, the multi-source features of the perceived results result in security problems in the system. When there is a high probability of a malicious user attack, the traditional algorithm can correctly identify the malicious users. However, when the probability of attack by malicious users is reduced, it is almost impossible to use the traditional algorithm to correctly distinguish between honest users and malicious users, which greatly reduces the perceived performance. To address the problem above, based on the β function and the feedback iteration mathematical method, this paper proposes a malicious user identification algorithm under multi-channel cooperative conditions (β-MIAMC), which involves comprehensively assessing the cognitive user’s performance on multiple sub-channels to identify the malicious user. Simulation results show under the same attack probability, compared with the traditional algorithm, the β-MIAMC algorithm can more accurately identify the malicious users, reducing the false alarm probability of malicious users by more than 20%. When the attack probability is greater than 7%, the proposed algorithm can identify the malicious users with 100% certainty. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Proposed Fuzzy-NN Algorithm with LoRaCommunication Protocol for Clustered Irrigation Systems
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 78; doi:10.3390/fi9040078 -
Abstract
Modern irrigation systems utilize sensors and actuators, interconnected together as a single entity. In such entities, A.I. algorithms are implemented, which are responsible for the irrigation process. In this paper, the authors present an irrigation Open Watering System (OWS) architecture that spatially clusters
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Modern irrigation systems utilize sensors and actuators, interconnected together as a single entity. In such entities, A.I. algorithms are implemented, which are responsible for the irrigation process. In this paper, the authors present an irrigation Open Watering System (OWS) architecture that spatially clusters the irrigation process into autonomous irrigation sections. Authors’ OWS implementation includes a Neuro-Fuzzy decision algorithm called FITRA, which originates from the Greek word for seed. In this paper, the FITRA algorithm is described in detail, as are experimentation results that indicate significant water conservations from the use of the FITRA algorithm. Furthermore, the authors propose a new communication protocol over LoRa radio as an alternative low-energy and long-range OWS clusters communication mechanism. The experimental scenarios confirm that the FITRA algorithm provides more efficient irrigation on clustered areas than existing non-clustered, time scheduled or threshold adaptive algorithms. This is due to the FITRA algorithm’s frequent monitoring of environmental conditions, fuzzy and neural network adaptation as well as adherence to past irrigation preferences. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Comprehensive Survey on Real-Time Applications of WSN
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 77; doi:10.3390/fi9040077 -
Abstract
Nowadays, the investigation of the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has materialized its functional area ubiquitously such as environmental engineering, industrial and business applications, military, feedstock and habitat, agriculture sector, seismic detection, intelligent buildings, smart grids, and predictive maintenance, etc. Although some challenges still
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Nowadays, the investigation of the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has materialized its functional area ubiquitously such as environmental engineering, industrial and business applications, military, feedstock and habitat, agriculture sector, seismic detection, intelligent buildings, smart grids, and predictive maintenance, etc. Although some challenges still exist in the wireless sensor network, in spite of the shortcoming, it has been gaining significant attention among researchers and technologists due to its versatility and robustness. WSN is subject to a high potential technology that has been successfully implemented and tested in real-time scenarios, as well as deployed practically in various applications. In this paper, we have carried out an extensive survey in real-time applications of wireless sensor network deployment in a practical scenario such as the real-time intelligent monitoring of temperature, criminal activity in borders and surveillance on traffic monitoring, vehicular behavior on roads, water level and pressure, and remote monitoring of patients. The application of the Wireless Sensor Network in the assorted field of research areas has been widely deliberated. WSN is found to be the most effective solution in remote areas which are not yet explored due to its perilous nature and unreachable places. Here, in this study, we have cited the recent and updated research on the ubiquitous usage of WSN in diverse fields in an extensive and comprehensive approach. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Understanding the Digital Marketing Environment with KPIs and Web Analytics
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 76; doi:10.3390/fi9040076 -
Abstract
In the practice of Digital Marketing (DM), Web Analytics (WA) and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) can and should play an important role in marketing strategy formulation. It is the aim of this article to survey the various DM metrics to determine and address
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In the practice of Digital Marketing (DM), Web Analytics (WA) and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) can and should play an important role in marketing strategy formulation. It is the aim of this article to survey the various DM metrics to determine and address the following question: What are the most relevant metrics and KPIs that companies need to understand and manage in order to increase the effectiveness of their DM strategies? Therefore, to achieve these objectives, a Systematic Literature Review has been carried out based on two main themes (i) Digital Marketing and (ii) Web Analytics. The search terms consulted in the databases have been (i) DM and (ii) WA obtaining a result total of n = 378 investigations. The databases that have been consulted for the extraction of data were Scopus, PubMed, PsyINFO, ScienceDirect and Web of Science. In this study, we define and identify the main KPIs in measuring why, how and for what purpose users interact with web pages and ads. The main contribution of the study is to lay out and clarify quantitative and qualitative KPIs and indicators for DM performance in order to achieve a consensus on the use and measurement of these indicators. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Creation and Staging of Android Theatre “Sayonara”towards Developing Highly Human-Like Robots
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 75; doi:10.3390/fi9040075 -
Abstract
Even after long-term exposures, androids with a strikingly human-like appearance evoke unnatural feelings. The behavior that would induce human-like feelings after long exposures is difficult to determine, and it often depends on the cultural background of the observers. Therefore, in this study, we
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Even after long-term exposures, androids with a strikingly human-like appearance evoke unnatural feelings. The behavior that would induce human-like feelings after long exposures is difficult to determine, and it often depends on the cultural background of the observers. Therefore, in this study, we generate an acting performance system for the android, in which an android and a human interact in a stage play in the real world. We adopt the theatrical theory called Contemporary Colloquial Theatre Theory to give the android natural behaviors so that audiences can comfortably observe it even after long-minute exposure. A stage play is created and shown in various locations, and the audiences are requested to report their impressions of the stage and their cultural and psychological backgrounds in a self-evaluating questionnaire. Overall analysis indicates that the audience had positive feelings, in terms of attractiveness, towards the android on the stage even after 20 min of exposure. The singularly high acceptance of the android by Japanese audiences seems to be correlated with a high animism tendency, rather than to empathy. We also discuss how the stage play approach is limited and could be extended to contribute to realization of human–robot interaction in the real world. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Throughput-Aware Cooperative Reinforcement Learning for Adaptive Resource Allocation in Device-to-Device Communication
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 72; doi:10.3390/fi9040072 -
Abstract
Device-to-device (D2D) communication is an essential feature for the future cellular networks as it increases spectrum efficiency by reusing resources between cellular and D2D users. However, the performance of the overall system can degrade if there is no proper control over interferences produced
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Device-to-device (D2D) communication is an essential feature for the future cellular networks as it increases spectrum efficiency by reusing resources between cellular and D2D users. However, the performance of the overall system can degrade if there is no proper control over interferences produced by the D2D users. Efficient resource allocation among D2D User equipments (UE) in a cellular network is desirable since it helps to provide a suitable interference management system. In this paper, we propose a cooperative reinforcement learning algorithm for adaptive resource allocation, which contributes to improving system throughput. In order to avoid selfish devices, which try to increase the throughput independently, we consider cooperation between devices as promising approach to significantly improve the overall system throughput. We impose cooperation by sharing the value function/learned policies between devices and incorporating a neighboring factor. We incorporate the set of states with the appropriate number of system-defined variables, which increases the observation space and consequently improves the accuracy of the learning algorithm. Finally, we compare our work with existing distributed reinforcement learning and random allocation of resources. Simulation results show that the proposed resource allocation algorithm outperforms both existing methods while varying the number of D2D users and transmission power in terms of overall system throughput, as well as D2D throughput by proper Resource block (RB)-power level combination with fairness measure and improving the Quality of service (QoS) by efficient controlling of the interference level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Traffic Engineering Strategies for Improving the Performance of TCP Friendly Rate Control Protocol
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 74; doi:10.3390/fi9040074 -
Abstract
Multimedia services will play a prominent role in the next generation of internet. With increasing real time requirements, internet technology has to provide Quality of Service (QoS) for various kinds of real time streaming services. When the bandwidth required exceeds the available network
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Multimedia services will play a prominent role in the next generation of internet. With increasing real time requirements, internet technology has to provide Quality of Service (QoS) for various kinds of real time streaming services. When the bandwidth required exceeds the available network resources, network paths can get congested, which results in a delay in packet delivery and packet loss. This situation leads to the design of new strategies for congestion avoidance and control. One of the popular and appropriate congestion control mechanisms that is useful in transmitting multimedia applications in the transport layer is TCP Friendly Rate Control Protocol (TFRC). However, TFRC still suffers from packet loss and delay due to long distance heavy traffic and network fluctuations. This paper introduces a number of key concerns like enhanced Round Trip Time (RTT) and Retransmission Time Out (RTO) calculations, Enhanced Average Loss Interval (ALI) methods and improved Time to Live (TTL) features are applied to TFRC to enhance the performance of TFRC over wired networks. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Quality of Service Based NOMA Group D2D Communications
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 73; doi:10.3390/fi9040073 -
Abstract
Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) provides superior spectral efficiency and is considered as a promising multiple access scheme for fifth generation (5G) wireless systems. The spectrum efficiency can be further enhanced by enabling device-to-device (D2D) communications. In this work, we propose quality of service
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Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) provides superior spectral efficiency and is considered as a promising multiple access scheme for fifth generation (5G) wireless systems. The spectrum efficiency can be further enhanced by enabling device-to-device (D2D) communications. In this work, we propose quality of service (QoS) based NOMA (Q-NOMA) group D2D communications in which the D2D receivers (DRs) are ordered according to their QoS requirements. We discuss two possible implementations of proposed Q-NOMA group D2D communications based on the two power allocation coefficient policies. In order to capture the key aspects of D2D communications, which are device clustering and spatial separation, we model the locations of D2D transmitters (DTs) by Gauss–Poisson process (GPP). The DRs are then considered to be clustered around DTs. Multiple DTs can exist in proximity of each other. In order to characterize the performance, we derive the Laplace transform of the interference at the probe D2D receiver and obtain a closed-form expression of its outage probability using stochastic geometry tools. The performance of proposed Q-NOMA group D2D communications is then evaluated and benchmarked against conventional paired D2D communications. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
FttC-Based Fronthaul for 5G Dense/Ultra-Dense Access Network: Performance and Costs in Realistic Scenarios
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 71; doi:10.3390/fi9040071 -
Abstract
One distinctive feature of the next 5G systems is the presence of a dense/ultra-dense wireless access network with a large number of access points (or nodes) at short distances from each other. Dense/ultra-dense access networks allow for providing very high transmission capacity to
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One distinctive feature of the next 5G systems is the presence of a dense/ultra-dense wireless access network with a large number of access points (or nodes) at short distances from each other. Dense/ultra-dense access networks allow for providing very high transmission capacity to terminals. However, the deployment of dense/ultra-dense networks is slowed down by the cost of the fiber-based infrastructure required to connect radio nodes to the central processing units and then to the core network. In this paper, we investigate the possibility for existing FttC access networks to provide fronthaul capabilities for dense/ultra-dense 5G wireless networks. The analysis is realistic in that it is carried out considering an actual access network scenario, i.e., the Italian FttC deployment. It is assumed that access nodes are connected to the Cabinets and to the corresponding distributors by a number of copper pairs. Different types of cities grouped in terms of population have been considered. Results focus on fronthaul transport capacity provided by the FttC network and have been expressed in terms of the available fronthaul bit rate per node and of the achievable coverage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Challenges When Using Jurimetrics in Brazil—A Survey of Courts
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 68; doi:10.3390/fi9040068 -
Abstract
Jurimetrics is the application of quantitative methods, usually statistics, to law. An important step to implement a jurimetric analysis is to extract raw data from courts and organize that data in a way that can be processed. Most of the raw data is
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Jurimetrics is the application of quantitative methods, usually statistics, to law. An important step to implement a jurimetric analysis is to extract raw data from courts and organize that data in a way that can be processed. Most of the raw data is unstructured and written in natural language, which stands as a challenge to Computer Science experts. As it requires expertise in law, statistics, and computer science, jurimetrics is a multidisciplinary field. When trying to implement a jurimetric system in Brazil, additional challenges were identified due to the heterogeneity of the different court systems, the lack of standards, and how the open data laws in Brazil are interpreted and implemented. In this article, we present a survey of Brazilian courts in terms of readiness to implement a jurimetric system. Analyzing a sample of data, we have found, in light of Brazil’s open data regulation, privacy issues and technical issues. Finally, we propose a roadmap that encompasses both technology and public policy to meet those challenges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Signal Consensus in TSP of the Same Grid in Road Network
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 69; doi:10.3390/fi9040069 -
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a consensus algorithm with input constraints for traffic light signals in transit signal priority (TSP). TSP ensures control strategy of traffic light signals can be adjusted and applied according to the real-time traffic status, and provides priority for
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In this paper, we propose a consensus algorithm with input constraints for traffic light signals in transit signal priority (TSP). TSP ensures control strategy of traffic light signals can be adjusted and applied according to the real-time traffic status, and provides priority for buses. We give the convergence conditions of the consensus algorithms with and without input constraints in TSP respectively and analyze the convergence performance of them by using matrix theory and graph theory, and PTV-VISSIM is used to simulate the traffic accident probability of three cases at intersections. Simulation results are presented that a consensus is asymptotically reached for all weights of priority; the algorithm with input constraints is more suitable for TSP than the algorithm without input constraints, and the traffic accident rate is reduced. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring Data Model Relations in OpenStreetMap
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 70; doi:10.3390/fi9040070 -
Abstract
The OpenStreetMap (OSM) geographic data model has three principal object types: nodes (points), ways (polygons and polylines), and relations (logical grouping of all three object types to express real-world geographical relationships). While there has been very significant analysis of OSM over the past
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The OpenStreetMap (OSM) geographic data model has three principal object types: nodes (points), ways (polygons and polylines), and relations (logical grouping of all three object types to express real-world geographical relationships). While there has been very significant analysis of OSM over the past decade or so, very little research attention has been given to OSM relations. In this paper, we provide an exploratory overview of relations in OSM for four European cities. In this exploration, we undertake analysis of relations to assess their complexity, composition and flexibility within the OSM data model. We show that some of the patterns discovered by researchers related to OSM nodes and ways also exist in relations. We find some other interesting aspects of relations which we believe can act as a catalyst for a more sustained future research effort on relations in OSM. These aspects include: the potential influence of bulk imports of geographical data to OSM, tagging of relations, and contribution patterns of edits to OSM relations. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Deep Classifiers-Based License Plate Detection, Localization and Recognition on GPU-Powered Mobile Platform
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 66; doi:10.3390/fi9040066 -
Abstract
The realization of a deep neural architecture on a mobile platform is challenging, but can open up a number of possibilities for visual analysis applications. A neural network can be realized on a mobile platform by exploiting the computational power of the embedded
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The realization of a deep neural architecture on a mobile platform is challenging, but can open up a number of possibilities for visual analysis applications. A neural network can be realized on a mobile platform by exploiting the computational power of the embedded GPU and simplifying the flow of a neural architecture trained on the desktop workstation or a GPU server. This paper presents an embedded platform-based Italian license plate detection and recognition system using deep neural classifiers. In this work, trained parameters of a highly precise automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) system are imported and used to replicate the same neural classifiers on a Nvidia Shield K1 tablet. A CUDA-based framework is used to realize these neural networks. The flow of the trained architecture is simplified to perform the license plate recognition in real-time. Results show that the tasks of plate and character detection and localization can be performed in real-time on a mobile platform by simplifying the flow of the trained architecture. However, the accuracy of the simplified architecture would be decreased accordingly. Full article
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