Open AccessArticle
Construction Management Risk System (CMRS) for Construction Management (CM) Firms
Future Internet 2017, 9(1), 5; doi:10.3390/fi9010005 -
Abstract
After the global financial crisis of 2008, the need for risk management arose because it was necessary to minimize the losses in construction management (CM) firms. This was caused by a decreased amount of orders in the Korean CM market, which intensified order
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After the global financial crisis of 2008, the need for risk management arose because it was necessary to minimize the losses in construction management (CM) firms. This was caused by a decreased amount of orders in the Korean CM market, which intensified order competition between companies. However, research results revealed that risks were not being systematically managed owing to the absence of risk management systems. Thus, it was concluded that it was necessary to develop standard operating systems and implement risk management systems in order to manage risks effectively. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a construction risk management system (CRMS) for systematically managing risks. For this purpose, the field operation managers of CM firms were interviewed and surveyed in order to define risk factors. Upon this, a risk assessment priority analysis was performed. Finally, a risk management system that comprised seven modules and 20 sub-modules and was capable of responding systematically to risks was proposed. Furthermore, the effectiveness of this system was verified through on-site inspection. This system allows early response to risks, accountability verification and immediate response to legal disputes with clients by managing risk records. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Point of View on New Education for Smart Citizenship
Future Internet 2017, 9(1), 4; doi:10.3390/fi9010004 -
Abstract
Smart cities and intelligent communities have an ever-growing demand for specialized smart services, applications, and research-driven innovation. Knowledge of users’ profiles, behavior, and preferences are a potentially dangerous side effect of smart services. Citizens are usually not aware of the knowledge bases generated
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Smart cities and intelligent communities have an ever-growing demand for specialized smart services, applications, and research-driven innovation. Knowledge of users’ profiles, behavior, and preferences are a potentially dangerous side effect of smart services. Citizens are usually not aware of the knowledge bases generated by the IT services they use: this dimension of the contemporary and digital era sheds new light on the elements concerning the concept of citizenship itself, as it affects dimensions like freedom and privacy. This paper addresses this issue from an education system perspective, and advances a non-technical methodology for being aware and recognizing knowledge bases generated by user-service interaction. Starting from narratives, developed in natural language by unskilled smart service users about their experience, the proposed method advances an original methodology, which is identified in the conceptual models derived from these narratives, a bridge towards a deeper understanding of the informative implications of their behavior. The proposal; which is iterative and scalable; has been tested on the field and some examples of lesson contents are presented and discussed. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Towards Incidence Management in 5G Based on Situational Awareness
Future Internet 2017, 9(1), 3; doi:10.3390/fi9010003 -
Abstract
The fifth generation mobile network, or 5G, moves towards bringing solutions to deploying faster networks, with hundreds of thousands of simultaneous connections and massive data transfer. For this purpose, several emerging technologies are implemented, resulting in virtualization and self-organization of most of their
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The fifth generation mobile network, or 5G, moves towards bringing solutions to deploying faster networks, with hundreds of thousands of simultaneous connections and massive data transfer. For this purpose, several emerging technologies are implemented, resulting in virtualization and self-organization of most of their components, which raises important challenges related to safety. In order to contribute to their resolution, this paper proposes a novel architecture for incident management on 5G. The approach combines the conventional risk management schemes with the Endsley Situational Awareness model, thus improving effectiveness in different aspects, among them the ability to adapt to complex and dynamical monitoring environments, and countermeasure tracking or the role of context when decision-making. The proposal takes into account all layers for information processing in 5G mobile networks, ranging from infrastructure to the actuators responsible for deploying corrective measures. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Future Internet in 2016
Future Internet 2017, 9(1), 2; doi:10.3390/fi9010002 -
Abstract The editors of Future Internet would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following  reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Key Technologies in the Context of Future Networks: Operational and Management Requirements
Future Internet 2017, 9(1), 1; doi:10.3390/fi9010001 -
Abstract
The concept of Future Networks is based on the premise that current infrastructures require enhanced control, service customization, self-organization and self-management capabilities to meet the new needs in a connected society, especially of mobile users. In order to provide a high-performance mobile system,
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The concept of Future Networks is based on the premise that current infrastructures require enhanced control, service customization, self-organization and self-management capabilities to meet the new needs in a connected society, especially of mobile users. In order to provide a high-performance mobile system, three main fields must be improved: radio, network, and operation and management. In particular, operation and management capabilities are intended to enable business agility and operational sustainability, where the addition of new services does not imply an excessive increase in capital or operational expenditures. In this context, a set of key-enabled technologies have emerged in order to aid in this field. Concepts such as Software Defined Network (SDN), Network Function Virtualization (NFV) and Self-Organized Networks (SON) are pushing traditional systems towards the next 5G network generation.This paper presents an overview of the current status of these promising technologies and ongoing works to fulfill the operational and management requirements of mobile infrastructures. This work also details the use cases and the challenges, taking into account not only SDN, NFV, cloud computing and SON but also other paradigms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Designing and Implementing Weather Generators as Web Services
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 55; doi:10.3390/fi8040055 -
Abstract
Climate and weather realizations are essential inputs for simulating crop growth and yields to analyze the risks associated with future conditions. To simplify the procedure of generating weather realizations and make them available over the Internet, we implemented novel mechanisms for providing weather
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Climate and weather realizations are essential inputs for simulating crop growth and yields to analyze the risks associated with future conditions. To simplify the procedure of generating weather realizations and make them available over the Internet, we implemented novel mechanisms for providing weather generators as web services, as well as a mechanism for sharing identical weather realizations given a climatological information. A web service for preparing long-term climate data was implemented based on an international standard, Sensor Observation Service (SOS). The weather generator services, which are the core components of the framework, analyze climatological data, and can take seasonal climate forecasts as inputs for generating weather realizations. The generated weather realizations are encoded in a standard format, which are ready for use to crop modeling. All outputs are generated in SOS standard, which broadens the extent of data sharing and interoperability with other sectoral applications, e.g., water resources management. These services facilitate the development of other applications requiring input weather realizations, as these can be obtained easily by just calling the service. The workload of analysts related to data preparation and handling of legacy weather generator programs can be reduced. The architectural design and implementation presented here can be used as a prototype for constructing further services on top of an interoperable sensor network system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Multi-Focus Image Fusion Method Based on Stochastic Coordinate Coding and Local Density Peaks Clustering
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 53; doi:10.3390/fi8040053 -
Abstract
The multi-focus image fusion method is used in image processing to generate all-focus images that have large depth of field (DOF) based on original multi-focus images. Different approaches have been used in the spatial and transform domain to fuse multi-focus images. As one
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The multi-focus image fusion method is used in image processing to generate all-focus images that have large depth of field (DOF) based on original multi-focus images. Different approaches have been used in the spatial and transform domain to fuse multi-focus images. As one of the most popular image processing methods, dictionary-learning-based spare representation achieves great performance in multi-focus image fusion. Most of the existing dictionary-learning-based multi-focus image fusion methods directly use the whole source images for dictionary learning. However, it incurs a high error rate and high computation cost in dictionary learning process by using the whole source images. This paper proposes a novel stochastic coordinate coding-based image fusion framework integrated with local density peaks. The proposed multi-focus image fusion method consists of three steps. First, source images are split into small image patches, then the split image patches are classified into a few groups by local density peaks clustering. Next, the grouped image patches are used for sub-dictionary learning by stochastic coordinate coding. The trained sub-dictionaries are combined into a dictionary for sparse representation. Finally, the simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit (SOMP) algorithm is used to carry out sparse representation. After the three steps, the obtained sparse coefficients are fused following the max L1-norm rule. The fused coefficients are inversely transformed to an image by using the learned dictionary. The results and analyses of comparison experiments demonstrate that fused images of the proposed method have higher qualities than existing state-of-the-art methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Network Forensics Method Based on Evidence Graph and Vulnerability Reasoning
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 54; doi:10.3390/fi8040054 -
Abstract
As the Internet becomes larger in scale, more complex in structure and more diversified in traffic, the number of crimes that utilize computer technologies is also increasing at a phenomenal rate. To react to the increasing number of computer crimes, the field of
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As the Internet becomes larger in scale, more complex in structure and more diversified in traffic, the number of crimes that utilize computer technologies is also increasing at a phenomenal rate. To react to the increasing number of computer crimes, the field of computer and network forensics has emerged. The general purpose of network forensics is to find malicious users or activities by gathering and dissecting firm evidences about computer crimes, e.g., hacking. However, due to the large volume of Internet traffic, not all the traffic captured and analyzed is valuable for investigation or confirmation. After analyzing some existing network forensics methods to identify common shortcomings, we propose in this paper a new network forensics method that uses a combination of network vulnerability and network evidence graph. In our proposed method, we use vulnerability evidence and reasoning algorithm to reconstruct attack scenarios and then backtrack the network packets to find the original evidences. Our proposed method can reconstruct attack scenarios effectively and then identify multi-staged attacks through evidential reasoning. Results of experiments show that the evidence graph constructed using our method is more complete and credible while possessing the reasoning capability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Review on Hot-IP Finding Methods and Its Application in Early DDoS Target Detection
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 52; doi:10.3390/fi8040052 -
Abstract
On the high-speed connections of the Internet or computer networks, the IP (Internet Protocol) packet traffic passing through the network is extremely high, and that makes it difficult for network monitoring and attack detection applications. This paper reviews methods to find the high-occurrence-frequency
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On the high-speed connections of the Internet or computer networks, the IP (Internet Protocol) packet traffic passing through the network is extremely high, and that makes it difficult for network monitoring and attack detection applications. This paper reviews methods to find the high-occurrence-frequency elements in the data stream and applies the most efficient methods to find Hot-IPs that are high-frequency IP addresses of IP packets passing through the network. Fast finding of Hot-IPs in the IP packet stream can be effectively used in early detection of DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attack targets and spreading sources of network worms. Research results show that the Count-Min method gives the best overall performance for Hot-IP detection thanks to its low computational complexity, low space requirement and fast processing speed. We also propose an early detection model of DDoS attack targets based on Hot-IP finding, which can be deployed on the target network routers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
ODK Scan: Digitizing Data Collection and Impacting Data Management Processes in Pakistan’s Tuberculosis Control Program
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 51; doi:10.3390/fi8040051 -
Abstract
The present grievous tuberculosis situation can be improved by efficient case management and timely follow-up evaluations. With the advent of digital technology, this can be achieved through quick summarization of the patient-centric data. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness
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The present grievous tuberculosis situation can be improved by efficient case management and timely follow-up evaluations. With the advent of digital technology, this can be achieved through quick summarization of the patient-centric data. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of the ODK Scan paper-to-digital system during a testing period of three months. A sequential, explanatory mixed-method research approach was employed to elucidate technology use. Training, smartphones, the application and 3G-enabled SIMs were provided to the four field workers. At the beginning, baseline measures of the data management aspects were recorded and compared with endline measures to determine the impact of ODK Scan. Additionally, at the end of the study, users’ feedback was collected regarding app usability, user interface design and workflow changes. A total of 122 patients’ records were retrieved from the server and analysed in terms of quality. It was found that ODK Scan recognized 99.2% of multiple choice fill-in bubble responses and 79.4% of numerical digit responses correctly. However, the overall quality of the digital data was decreased in comparison to manually entered data. Using ODK Scan, a significant time reduction is observed in data aggregation and data transfer activities, but data verification and form-filling activities took more time. Interviews revealed that field workers saw value in using ODK Scan, but they were more concerned about the time-consuming aspects of the use of ODK Scan. Therefore, it is concluded that minimal disturbance in the existing workflow, continuous feedback and value additions are the important considerations for the implementing organization to ensure technology adoption and workflow improvements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Senior Living Lab: An Ecological Approach to Foster Social Innovation in an Ageing Society
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 50; doi:10.3390/fi8040050 -
Abstract
The Senior Living Lab (SLL) is a transdisciplinary research platform created by four Universities that aims at promoting ageing well at home through the co-creation of innovative products, services and practices with older adults. While most living labs for ageing well are focused
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The Senior Living Lab (SLL) is a transdisciplinary research platform created by four Universities that aims at promoting ageing well at home through the co-creation of innovative products, services and practices with older adults. While most living labs for ageing well are focused on Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), this social laboratory adopts a transdisciplinary approach, bringing together designers, economists, engineers and healthcare professionals to develop multiple forms of social innovation using participatory methods. The SLL is based on an ecological approach, connecting professionals and users in a cooperative network and involving all of the stakeholders concerned with ageing well, such as existing associations, business entities and policy-makers. Three main themes for the co-design of products and services were identified at the beginning of the SLL conception, each sustained by a major business partner: healthy nutrition to cope with frailty, improved autonomous mobility to foster independence and social communication to prevent isolation. This article shows the innovative transdisciplinary approach of the SLL and discusses the particular challenges that emerged during the first year of its creation, investigating the role of ICTs when designing products and services for older adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Socialism and the Blockchain
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 49; doi:10.3390/fi8040049 -
Abstract
Bitcoin (BTC) is often cited as Libertarian. However, the technology underpinning Bitcoin, blockchain, has properties that make it ideally suited to Socialist paradigms. Current literature supports the Libertarian viewpoint by focusing on the ability of Bitcoin to bypass central authority and provide anonymity;
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Bitcoin (BTC) is often cited as Libertarian. However, the technology underpinning Bitcoin, blockchain, has properties that make it ideally suited to Socialist paradigms. Current literature supports the Libertarian viewpoint by focusing on the ability of Bitcoin to bypass central authority and provide anonymity; rarely is there an examination of blockchain technology’s capacity for decentralised transparency and auditability in support of a Socialist model. This paper conducts a review of the blockchain, Libertarianism, and Socialist philosophies. It then explores Socialist models of public ownership and looks at the unique cooperative properties of blockchain that make the technology ideal for supporting Socialist societies. In summary, this paper argues that blockchain technologies are not just a Libertarian tool, they also enhance Socialist forms of governance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Autonomic Semantic-Based Context-Aware Platform for Mobile Applications in Pervasive Environments
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 48; doi:10.3390/fi8040048 -
Abstract
Currently, the field of smart-* (home, city, health, tourism, etc.) is naturally heterogeneous and multimedia oriented. In such a domain, there is an increasing usage of heterogeneous mobile devices, as well as captors transmitting data (IoT). They are highly connected and can be
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Currently, the field of smart-* (home, city, health, tourism, etc.) is naturally heterogeneous and multimedia oriented. In such a domain, there is an increasing usage of heterogeneous mobile devices, as well as captors transmitting data (IoT). They are highly connected and can be used for many different services, such as to monitor, to analyze and to display information to users. In this context, data management and adaptation in real time are becoming a challenging task. More precisely, at one time, it is necessary to handle in a dynamic, intelligent and transparent framework various data provided by multiple devices with several modalities. This paper presents a Kali-Smart platform, which is an autonomic semantic-based context-aware platform. It is based on semantic web technologies and a middleware providing autonomy and reasoning facilities. Moreover, Kali-Smart is generic and, as a consequence, offers to users a flexible infrastructure where they can easily control various interaction modalities of their own situations. An experimental study has been made to evaluate the performance and feasibility of the proposed platform. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Reliability Calculation Method for Web Service Composition Using Fuzzy Reasoning Colored Petri Nets and Its Application on Supercomputing Cloud Platform
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 47; doi:10.3390/fi8040047 -
Abstract
In order to develop a Supercomputing Cloud Platform (SCP) prototype system using Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Petri nets, we researched some technologies for Web service composition. Specifically, in this paper, we propose a reliability calculation method for Web service compositions, which uses Fuzzy
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In order to develop a Supercomputing Cloud Platform (SCP) prototype system using Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Petri nets, we researched some technologies for Web service composition. Specifically, in this paper, we propose a reliability calculation method for Web service compositions, which uses Fuzzy Reasoning Colored Petri Net (FRCPN) to verify the Web service compositions. We put forward a definition of semantic threshold similarity for Web services and a formal definition of FRCPN. We analyzed five kinds of production rules in FRCPN, and applied our method to the SCP prototype. We obtained the reliability value of the end Web service as an indicator of the overall reliability of the FRCPN. The method can test the activity of FRCPN. Experimental results show that the reliability of the Web service composition has a correlation with the number of Web services and the range of reliability transition values. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Data-Enabled Design for Social Change: Two Case Studies
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 46; doi:10.3390/fi8040046 -
Abstract
Smartness in contemporary society implies the use of massive data to improve the experience of people with connected services and products. The use of big data to collect information about people’s behaviours opens a new concept of “user-centred design” where users are remotely
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Smartness in contemporary society implies the use of massive data to improve the experience of people with connected services and products. The use of big data to collect information about people’s behaviours opens a new concept of “user-centred design” where users are remotely monitored, observed and profiled. In this paradigm, users are considered as sources of information and their participation in the design process is limited to a role of data generators. There is a need to identify methodologies that actively involve people and communities at the core of ecosystems of interconnected products and services. Our contribution to designing for social innovation in ecosystems relies on developing new methods and approaches to transform data-driven design using a participatory and co-creative data-enabled design approach. To this end, we present one of the methods we have developed to design “smart” systems called Experiential Design Landscapes (EDL), and two sample projects, Social Stairs and [Y]our Perspective. Social Stairs faces the topic of behaviour change mediated by sensing technologies. [Y]our Perspective is a social platform to sustain processes of deliberative democracy. Both projects exemplify our approach to data-enabled design as a social proactive participatory design approach. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Cyber Conflicts as a New Global Threat
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 45; doi:10.3390/fi8030045 -
Abstract
In this paper, an attempt is made to analyze the potential threats and consequences of cyber conflicts and, in particular, the risks of a global cyber conflict. The material is based on a comprehensive analysis of the nature of cyber conflict and its
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In this paper, an attempt is made to analyze the potential threats and consequences of cyber conflicts and, in particular, the risks of a global cyber conflict. The material is based on a comprehensive analysis of the nature of cyber conflict and its elements from both technical and societal points of view. The approach used in the paper considers the societal component as an essential part of cyber conflicts, allowing basics of cyber conflicts often disregarded by researchers and the public to be highlighted. Finally, the conclusion offers an opportunity to consider cyber conflict as the most advanced form of modern warfare, which imposes the most serious threat and whose effect could be comparable to weapons of mass destruction. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Introduction to the Special Issue on Human–Computer Interaction and the Social Web
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 43; doi:10.3390/fi8030043 -
Abstract In recent years, both Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and the Social Web (also known as Web 2.0) have had exponential growth.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Main Issues in Big Data Security
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 44; doi:10.3390/fi8030044 -
Abstract
Data is currently one of the most important assets for companies in every field. The continuous growth in the importance and volume of data has created a new problem: it cannot be handled by traditional analysis techniques. This problem was, therefore, solved through
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Data is currently one of the most important assets for companies in every field. The continuous growth in the importance and volume of data has created a new problem: it cannot be handled by traditional analysis techniques. This problem was, therefore, solved through the creation of a new paradigm: Big Data. However, Big Data originated new issues related not only to the volume or the variety of the data, but also to data security and privacy. In order to obtain a full perspective of the problem, we decided to carry out an investigation with the objective of highlighting the main issues regarding Big Data security, and also the solutions proposed by the scientific community to solve them. In this paper, we explain the results obtained after applying a systematic mapping study to security in the Big Data ecosystem. It is almost impossible to carry out detailed research into the entire topic of security, and the outcome of this research is, therefore, a big picture of the main problems related to security in a Big Data system, along with the principal solutions to them proposed by the research community. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Supporting Elderly People by Ad Hoc Generated Mobile Applications Based on Vocal Interaction
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 42; doi:10.3390/fi8030042 -
Abstract
Mobile devices can be exploited for enabling people to interact with Internet of Things (IoT) services. The MicroApp Generator [1] is a service-composition tool for supporting the generation of mobile applications directly on the mobile device. The user interacts with the
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Mobile devices can be exploited for enabling people to interact with Internet of Things (IoT) services. The MicroApp Generator [1] is a service-composition tool for supporting the generation of mobile applications directly on the mobile device. The user interacts with the generated app by using the traditional touch-based interaction. This kind of interaction often is not suitable for elderly and special needs people that cannot see or touch the screen. In this paper, we extend the MicroApp Generator with an interaction approach enabling a user to interact with the generated app only by using his voice, which can be very useful to let special needs people live at home. To this aim, once the mobile app has been generated and executed, the system analyses and describes the user interface, listens to the user speech and performs the associated actions. A preliminary analysis has been conducted to assess the user experience of the proposed approach by a sample composed of elderly users by using a questionnaire as a research instrument. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coproduction as an Approach to Technology-Mediated Citizen Participation in Emergency Management
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 41; doi:10.3390/fi8030041 -
Abstract
Social and mobile computing open up new possibilities for integrating citizens’ information, knowledge, and social capital in emergency management (EM). This participation can improve the capacity of local agencies to respond to unexpected events by involving citizens not only as first line informants,
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Social and mobile computing open up new possibilities for integrating citizens’ information, knowledge, and social capital in emergency management (EM). This participation can improve the capacity of local agencies to respond to unexpected events by involving citizens not only as first line informants, but also as first responders. This participation could contribute to build resilient communities aware of the risks they are threatened by and able to mobilize their social capital to cope with them and, in turn, decrease the impact of threats and hazards. However for this participation to be possible organizations in charge of EM need to realize that involving citizens does not interfere with their protocols and that citizens are a valuable asset that can contribute to the EM process with specific skills and capabilities. In this paper we discuss the design challenges of using social and mobile computing to move to a more participatory EM process that starts by empowering both citizens and organizations in a coproduction service envisioned as a partnership effort. As an example, we describe a case study of a participatory design approach that involved professional EM workers and decision makers in an effort to understand the challenges of using technology-based solutions to integrate citizen skills and capabilities in their operation protocols. The case study made it possible to identify specific roles that citizens might play in a crisis or disaster and to envision scenarios were technologies could be used to integrate their skills into the EM process. In this way the paper contributes to the roles and the scenarios of theory-building about coproduction in EM services. Full article
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