Future Internet2016, 8(3), 41; doi:10.3390/fi8030041 - published 10 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Social and mobile computing open up new possibilities for integrating citizens’ information, knowledge, and social capital in emergency management (EM). This participation can improve the capacity of local agencies to respond to unexpected events by involving citizens not only as first line informants, but also as first responders. This participation could contribute to build resilient communities aware of the risks they are threatened by and able to mobilize their social capital to cope with them and, in turn, decrease the impact of threats and hazards. However for this participation to be possible organizations in charge of EM need to realize that involving citizens does not interfere with their protocols and that citizens are a valuable asset that can contribute to the EM process with specific skills and capabilities. In this paper we discuss the design challenges of using social and mobile computing to move to a more participatory EM process that starts by empowering both citizens and organizations in a coproduction service envisioned as a partnership effort. As an example, we describe a case study of a participatory design approach that involved professional EM workers and decision makers in an effort to understand the challenges of using technology-based solutions to integrate citizen skills and capabilities in their operation protocols. The case study made it possible to identify specific roles that citizens might play in a crisis or disaster and to envision scenarios were technologies could be used to integrate their skills into the EM process. In this way the paper contributes to the roles and the scenarios of theory-building about coproduction in EM services.
Future Internet2016, 8(3), 40; doi:10.3390/fi8030040 - published 9 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We developed a mechanism for seamlessly providing weather data and long-term historical climate data from a gridded data source through an international standard web API, which was the Sensor Observation Service (SOS) defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO) Japan has been providing gridded climate data consisting of nine daily meteorological variables, which are average, minimum, maximum of air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration, solar radiant exposure, downward longwave radiation, precipitation and wind speed for 35 years covering Japan. The gridded data structure is quite useful for spatial analysis, such as developing crop suitability maps and monitoring regional crop development. Individual farmers, however, make decisions using historical climate information and forecasts for an incoming cropping season of their farms. In this regard, climate data at a point-based structure are convenient for application development to support farmers’ decisions. Through the proposed mechanism in this paper, the agricultural applications and analysis can request point-based climate data from a gridded data source through the standard API with no need to deal with the complicated hierarchical data structure of the gridded climate data source. Clients can easily obtain data and metadata by only accessing the service endpoint. The mechanism also provides several web bindings and data encodings for the clients’ convenience. Caching, including the pre-caching mechanism, was developed and evaluated to secure an effective response time. The mechanism enhances the accessibility and usability of the gridded weather data source, as well as SOS API for agricultural applications.
Future Internet2016, 8(3), 39; doi:10.3390/fi8030039 - published 3 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Cost estimation is one of the most critical tasks for building construction project management. The existing building construction cost estimation methods of many countries, including China, require information from several sources, including material, labor, and equipment, and tend to be manual, time-consuming, and error-prone. To solve these problems, a building construction cost estimation model based on ontology representation and reasoning is established, which includes three major components, i.e., concept model ontology, work item ontology, and construction condition ontology. Using this model, the cost estimation information is modeled into OWL axioms and SWRL rules that leverage the semantically rich ontology representation to reason about cost estimation. Based on OWL axioms and SWRL rules, the cost estimation information can be translated into a set of concept models, work items, and construction conditions associated with the specific construction conditions. The proposed method is demonstrated in Protégé 3.4.8 through case studies based on the Measurement Specifications of Building Construction and Decoration Engineering taken from GB 50500-2013 (the Chinese national mandatory specifications). Finally, this research discusses the limitations of the proposed method and future research directions. The proposed method can help a building construction cost estimator extract information more easily and quickly.
Future Internet2016, 8(3), 38; doi:10.3390/fi8030038 - published 1 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The problem of optimal multicast routing in Wireless Mess Networks (WMNs) with Quality-of-Service (QoS) provisioning, which is Non-Deterministic Polynomial (NP)-complete, is studied in this paper. The existing algorithms are not very efficient or effective. In order to find an approximation optimal solution for WMNs in feasible time from source to the set of destination nodes, combining the previous deterministic algorithm with the well-known Minimum Path Cost Heuristic (MPH) algorithm, a novel multicast heuristic approximation (NMHA) algorithm with QoS provisioning is proposed in this paper to deal with it. The theoretical validations for the proposed algorithm are presented to show its performance and efficiency. After that, the random static networks with different destination nodes are evaluated. Simulations in these networks show that the proposed algorithm can achieve the approximate optimal solution with the approximation factor of 2(1 + ε)(1 − 1/q) and the time complexity of O(qmn2τK−1).
Future Internet2016, 8(3), 37; doi:10.3390/fi8030037 - published 26 July 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Instagram and WhatsApp are two social media and networking services introduced in 2010. They are currently subsidiaries of Facebook, Inc., California, USA. Using evidence from the published literature and case reports indexed in PubMed and other sources, we present an overview of the various applications of Instagram and WhatsApp in health and healthcare. We also briefly describe the main issues surrounding the uses of these two apps in health and medicine.
Future Internet2016, 8(3), 34; doi:10.3390/fi8030034 - published 22 July 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Our increasing dependence on information technologies and autonomous systems has escalated international concern for information- and cyber-security in the face of politically, socially and religiously motivated cyber-attacks. Information warfare tactics that interfere with the flow of information can challenge the survival of individuals and groups. It is increasingly important that both humans and machines can make decisions that ensure the trustworthiness of information, communication and autonomous systems. Subsequently, an important research direction is concerned with modelling decision-making processes. One approach to this involves modelling decision-making scenarios as games using game theory. This paper presents a survey of information warfare literature, with the purpose of identifying games that model different types of information warfare operations. Our contribution is a systematic identification and classification of information warfare games, as a basis for modelling decision-making by humans and machines in such scenarios. We also present a taxonomy of games that map to information warfare and cyber crime problems as a precursor to future research on decision-making in such scenarios. We identify and discuss open research questions including the role of behavioural game theory in modelling human decision making and the role of machine decision-making in information warfare scenarios.