Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Cost-Aware Routing of Web Requests
Future Internet 2018, 10(7), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10070057 -
Abstract
Work within next generation networks considers additional network convergence possibilities and the integration of new services to the web. This trend responds to the ongoing growth of end-user demand for services that can be delivered anytime, anywhere, on any web-capable device, and of
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Work within next generation networks considers additional network convergence possibilities and the integration of new services to the web. This trend responds to the ongoing growth of end-user demand for services that can be delivered anytime, anywhere, on any web-capable device, and of traffic generated by new applications, e.g., the Internet of Things. To support the massive traffic generated by the enormous user base and number of devices with reliability and high quality, web services run from redundant servers. As new servers need to be regularly deployed at different geographical locations, energy costs have become a source of major concern for operators. We propose a cost aware method for routing web requests across replicated and distributed servers that can exploit the spatial and temporal variations of both electricity prices and the server network. The method relies on a learning automaton that makes per-request decisions, which can be computed much faster than regular global optimization methods. Using simulation and testbed measurements, we show the cost reductions that are achievable with minimal impact on performance compared to standard web routing algorithms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Big Data Perspective and Challenges in Next Generation Networks
Future Internet 2018, 10(7), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10070056 -
Abstract
With the development towards the next generation cellular networks, i.e., 5G, the focus has shifted towards meeting the higher data rate requirements, potential of micro cells and millimeter wave spectrum. The goals for next generation networks are very high data rates, low latency
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With the development towards the next generation cellular networks, i.e., 5G, the focus has shifted towards meeting the higher data rate requirements, potential of micro cells and millimeter wave spectrum. The goals for next generation networks are very high data rates, low latency and handling of big data. The achievement of these goals definitely require newer architecture designs, upgraded technologies with possible backward support, better security algorithms and intelligent decision making capability. In this survey, we identify the opportunities which can be provided by 5G networks and discuss the underlying challenges towards implementation and realization of the goals of 5G. This survey also provides a discussion on the recent developments made towards standardization, the architectures which may be potential candidates for deployment and the energy concerns in 5G networks. Finally, the paper presents a big data perspective and the potential of machine learning for optimization and decision making in 5G networks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulating the Cost of Cooperation: A Recipe for Collaborative Problem-Solving
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060055 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Collective problem-solving and decision-making, along with other forms of collaboration online, are central phenomena within ICT. There had been several attempts to create a system able to go beyond the passive accumulation of data. However, those systems often neglect important variables such as
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Collective problem-solving and decision-making, along with other forms of collaboration online, are central phenomena within ICT. There had been several attempts to create a system able to go beyond the passive accumulation of data. However, those systems often neglect important variables such as group size, the difficulty of the tasks, the tendency to cooperate, and the presence of selfish individuals (free riders). Given the complex relations among those variables, numerical simulations could be the ideal tool to explore such relationships. We take into account the cost of cooperation in collaborative problem solving by employing several simulated scenarios. The role of two parameters was explored: the capacity, the group’s capability to solve increasingly challenging tasks coupled with the collective knowledge of a group, and the payoff, an individual’s own benefit in terms of new knowledge acquired. The final cooperation rate is only affected by the cost of cooperation in the case of simple tasks and small communities. In contrast, the fitness of the community, the difficulty of the task, and the groups sizes interact in a non-trivial way, hence shedding some light on how to improve crowdsourcing when the cost of cooperation is high. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
StegNet: Mega Image Steganography Capacity with Deep Convolutional Network
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060054 -
Abstract
Traditional image steganography often leans interests towards safely embedding hidden information into cover images with payload capacity almost neglected. This paper combines recent deep convolutional neural network methods with image-into-image steganography. It successfully hides the same size images with a decoding rate of
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Traditional image steganography often leans interests towards safely embedding hidden information into cover images with payload capacity almost neglected. This paper combines recent deep convolutional neural network methods with image-into-image steganography. It successfully hides the same size images with a decoding rate of 98.2% or bpp (bits per pixel) of 23.57 by changing only 0.76% of the cover image on average. Our method directly learns end-to-end mappings between the cover image and the embedded image and between the hidden image and the decoded image. We further show that our embedded image, while with mega payload capacity, is still robust to statistical analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Privacy Preserving Framework for Worker’s Location in Spatial Crowdsourcing Based on Local Differential Privacy
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060053 -
Abstract
With the development of the mobile Internet, location-based services are playing an important role in everyday life. As a new location-based service, Spatial Crowdsourcing (SC) involves collecting and analyzing environmental, social, and other spatiotemporal information of individuals, increasing convenience for users. In SC,
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With the development of the mobile Internet, location-based services are playing an important role in everyday life. As a new location-based service, Spatial Crowdsourcing (SC) involves collecting and analyzing environmental, social, and other spatiotemporal information of individuals, increasing convenience for users. In SC, users (called requesters) publish tasks and other users (called workers) are required to physically travel to specified locations to perform the tasks. However, with SC services, the workers have to disclose their locations to untrusted third parties, such as the Spatial Crowdsourcing Server (SC-server), which could pose a considerable threat to the privacy of workers. In this paper, we propose a new location privacy protection framework based on local difference privacy for spatial crowdsourcing, which does not require the participation of trusted third parties by adding noises locally to workers’ locations. The noisy locations of workers are submitted to the SC-server rather than the real locations. Therefore, the protection of workers’ locations is achieved. Experiments showed that this framework not only preserves the privacy of workers in SC, but also has modest overhead performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Self-Adaptive VM Consolidation Strategy Using Dynamic Multi-Thresholds in IaaS Clouds
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060052 -
Abstract
With the rapid development of cloud computing, the demand for infrastructure resources in cloud data centers has further increased, which has already led to enormous amounts of energy costs. Virtual machine (VM) consolidation as one of the important techniques in Infrastructure as a
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With the rapid development of cloud computing, the demand for infrastructure resources in cloud data centers has further increased, which has already led to enormous amounts of energy costs. Virtual machine (VM) consolidation as one of the important techniques in Infrastructure as a Service clouds (IaaS) can help resolve energy consumption by reducing the number of active physical machines (PMs). However, the necessity of considering energy-efficiency and the obligation of providing high quality of service (QoS) to customers is a trade-off, as aggressive consolidation may lead to performance degradation. Moreover, most of the existing works of threshold-based VM consolidation strategy are mainly focused on single CPU utilization, although the resource request on different VMs are very diverse. This paper proposes a novel self-adaptive VM consolidation strategy based on dynamic multi-thresholds (DMT) for PM selection, which can be dynamically adjusted by considering future utilization on multi-dimensional resources of CPU, RAM and Bandwidth. Besides, the VM selection and placement algorithm of VM consolidation are also improved by utilizing each multi-dimensional parameter in DMT. The experiments show that our proposed strategy has a better performance than other strategies, not only in high QoS but also in less energy consumption. In addition, the advantage of its reduction on the number of active hosts is much more obvious, especially when it is under extreme workloads. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Driving Behavior Planning and Trajectory Generation Method for Autonomous Electric Bus
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060051 -
Abstract
A framework of path planning for autonomous electric bus is presented. ArcGIS platform is utilized for map-building and global path planning. Firstly, a high-precision map is built based on GPS in ArcGIS for global planning. Then the global optimal path is obtained by
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A framework of path planning for autonomous electric bus is presented. ArcGIS platform is utilized for map-building and global path planning. Firstly, a high-precision map is built based on GPS in ArcGIS for global planning. Then the global optimal path is obtained by network analysis tool in ArcGIS. To facilitate local planning, WGS-84 coordinates in the map are converted to local coordinates. Secondly, a double-layer finite state machine (FSM) is devised to plan driving behavior under different driving scenarios, such as structured driving, lane changing, turning, and so on. Besides, local optimal trajectory is generated by cubic polynomial, which takes full account of the safety and kinetics of the electric bus. Finally, the simulation results show that the framework is reliable and feasible for driving behavior planning and trajectory generation. Furthermore, its validity is proven with an autonomous bus platform 12 m in length. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fairness and Trust in Virtual Environments: The Effects of Reputation
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060050 -
Abstract
Reputation supports pro-social behaviors in a variety of social settings and across different ages. When re-encounters are possible, developing a positive reputation can be a valuable asset that will result in better outcomes. However, in real life, cooperative acts are ambiguous and happen
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Reputation supports pro-social behaviors in a variety of social settings and across different ages. When re-encounters are possible, developing a positive reputation can be a valuable asset that will result in better outcomes. However, in real life, cooperative acts are ambiguous and happen in noisy environments in which individuals can have multiple goals, visibility is reduced, and reputation systems may differ. This study examined how reputation within a virtual environment affects fairness in material allocations and trust in information exchange, in a three-actors interaction game in which each player had an incentive to deceive the others. We compared the results of two experimental conditions, one in which informers could be evaluated, and one without reputational opportunities. A reputational system appeared to enhance both trust and fairness even within a virtual environment under anonymous condition. We tested adolescents and adults finding that they were consistently more generous when visibility was increased, but they showed significantly different patterns in resources allocation and information exchange. Male and female participants, across ages, showed other interesting differences. These findings suggest that reputational effects increase fairness and trust even in a noisy, ambiguous and uncertain environment, but this effect is modulated by age and gender. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Certificateless Provable Group Shared Data Possession with Comprehensive Privacy Preservation for Cloud Storage
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060049 -
Abstract
Provable Data Possession (PDP) protocol makes it possible for cloud users to check whether the cloud servers possess their original data without downloading all the data. However, most of the existing PDP schemes are based on either public key infrastructure (PKI) or identity-based
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Provable Data Possession (PDP) protocol makes it possible for cloud users to check whether the cloud servers possess their original data without downloading all the data. However, most of the existing PDP schemes are based on either public key infrastructure (PKI) or identity-based cryptography, which will suffer from issues of expensive certificate management or key escrow. In this paper, we propose a new construction of certificateless provable group shared data possession (CL-PGSDP) protocol by making use of certificateless cryptography, which will eliminate the above issues. Meanwhile, by taking advantage of zero-knowledge protocol and randomization method, the proposed CL-PGSDP protocol leaks no information of the stored data and the group user’s identity to the verifiers during the verifying process, which is of the property of comprehensive privacy preservation. In addition, our protocol also supports efficient user revocation from the group. Security analysis and experimental evaluation indicate that our CL-PGSDP protocol provides strong security with desirable efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Future of Legal Publishing Services in the Semantic Web
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060048 -
Abstract
The development of the Semantic Web represents an essential precondition to the definition of new scenarios for the future Internet. This perspective is of particular interest in the legal information domain for the specialized nature of legal information and the peculiarities of the
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The development of the Semantic Web represents an essential precondition to the definition of new scenarios for the future Internet. This perspective is of particular interest in the legal information domain for the specialized nature of legal information and the peculiarities of the legal users’ information needs. In this paper, the evolution in recent years of the Semantic Web in the legal domain is reviewed, with particular emphasis to the most recent developments related to Linked Open Data initiative and to the role, in the legal Semantic Web, of the Publications Office of the European Union in its two-fold role of public institution and legal publisher. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Secure Inter-Frame Space Communications for Wireless LANs
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060047 -
Abstract
The internet of things (IoTs) offers a wide range of consumer benefits, from personal portable devices to internet-connected infrastructure. The wireless local area network (WLAN) is one of the potential candidates for IoTs technology to connect billions of smart devices. Long-range WLAN is
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The internet of things (IoTs) offers a wide range of consumer benefits, from personal portable devices to internet-connected infrastructure. The wireless local area network (WLAN) is one of the potential candidates for IoTs technology to connect billions of smart devices. Long-range WLAN is widely deployed in dense networks as an alternative to cellular networks or satellite internet access because of its low cost, high performance, and existing ecosystem. However, due to the nature of unregulated communications in industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands, WLANs experience interferences from other radios such as radars and frequency hopping devices. Once interference is detected at a WLAN device, the channel is avoided and other channels become crowded. Thus, it degrades network throughput and channel utilization. In this paper, a secure inter-frame space communication system design is proposed for WLANs to share the ISM bands with other radio systems that generate periodic radio signals. The proposed secure inter-frame communication scheme achieves the goal by designing accurate radar detection and secure inter-frame space communication. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly increases the receiver sensitivity and user datagram protocol throughput. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Tiered Control Plane Model for Service Function Chaining Isolation
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060046 -
Abstract
This article presents an architecture for encryption automation in interconnected Network Function Virtualization (NFV) domains. Current NFV implementations are designed for deployment within trusted domains, where overlay networks with static trusted links are utilized for enabling network security. Nevertheless, within a Service Function
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This article presents an architecture for encryption automation in interconnected Network Function Virtualization (NFV) domains. Current NFV implementations are designed for deployment within trusted domains, where overlay networks with static trusted links are utilized for enabling network security. Nevertheless, within a Service Function Chain (SFC), Virtual Network Function (VNF) flows cannot be isolated and end-to-end encrypted because each VNF requires direct access to the overall SFC data-flow. This restricts both end-users and Service Providers from enabling end-to-end security, and in extended VNF isolation within the SFC data traffic. Encrypting data flows on a per-flow basis results in an extensive amount of secure tunnels, which cannot scale efficiently in manual configurations. Additionally, creating secure data plane tunnels between NFV providers requires secure exchange of key parameters, and the establishment of an east–west control plane protocol. In this article, we present an architecture focusing on these two problems, investigating how overlay networks can be created, isolated, and secured dynamically. Accordingly, we propose an architecture for automated establishment of encrypted tunnels in NFV, which introduces a novel, tiered east–west communication channel between network controllers in a multi-domain environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Multiple Access Protocol Based on Gray Forecast for Satellite Network
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060045 -
Abstract
A satellite network’s multiple access protocol must be well designed to efficiently occupy channel resources and meet various qualities of service requirements. In this paper, a combined free/demand assignment multiple access protocol based on gray forecast is proposed. In terms of access, the
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A satellite network’s multiple access protocol must be well designed to efficiently occupy channel resources and meet various qualities of service requirements. In this paper, a combined free/demand assignment multiple access protocol based on gray forecast is proposed. In terms of access, the adoption of the gray forecast method allows the user to book the number of timeslots to have more than the existing number of burst of packets. In terms of bandwidth allocation, a user priority allocation method is used to prioritize users with high needs and focus on the allocation of satellite resources. Experimental results show that the proposed protocol can effectively improve the channel utilization of the entire system. Thus, this protocol has some advantages over existing protocols in network throughput and end-to-end delay. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Studying Semi-TCP and Its Application in Marine Internet
Future Internet 2018, 10(6), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10060044 -
Abstract
TCP protocol has good performance on the Internet, but its performance is significantly reduced when it is applied to Marine Internet (MI). How to improve the performance of TCP protocol in Marine Internet has become an important research topic. In this paper, an
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TCP protocol has good performance on the Internet, but its performance is significantly reduced when it is applied to Marine Internet (MI). How to improve the performance of TCP protocol in Marine Internet has become an important research topic. In this paper, an improved Semi-TCP is adopted for Marine Internet, and the implementation scheme of Semi-TCP congestion control is introduced. The exposed terminal problem and congestion control problem of high load networks are analyzed in detail. By using a timer, the congestion control algorithm is improved. Performance analysis and comparison of TCP-Lite, Semi-TCP-RTS, and improved Semi-TCP (Semi-TCP-RTS-V2) are carried out on Exata simulation platform, and the experimental results show that Semi-TCP-RTS-V2 has better transmission performance in ship ad hoc networks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Botnet Detection Based On Machine Learning Techniques Using DNS Query Data
Future Internet 2018, 10(5), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10050043 -
Abstract
In recent years, botnets have become one of the major threats to information security because they have been constantly evolving in both size and sophistication. A number of botnet detection measures, such as honeynet-based and Intrusion Detection System (IDS)-based, have been proposed. However,
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In recent years, botnets have become one of the major threats to information security because they have been constantly evolving in both size and sophistication. A number of botnet detection measures, such as honeynet-based and Intrusion Detection System (IDS)-based, have been proposed. However, IDS-based solutions that use signatures seem to be ineffective because recent botnets are equipped with sophisticated code update and evasion techniques. A number of studies have shown that abnormal botnet detection methods are more effective than signature-based methods because anomaly-based botnet detection methods do not require pre-built botnet signatures and hence they have the capability to detect new or unknown botnets. In this direction, this paper proposes a botnet detection model based on machine learning using Domain Name Service query data and evaluates its effectiveness using popular machine learning techniques. Experimental results show that machine learning algorithms can be used effectively in botnet detection and the random forest algorithm produces the best overall detection accuracy of over 90%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Test Bed of Semantic Interaction of Smart Objects in the Web of Things
Future Internet 2018, 10(5), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10050042 -
Abstract
Semantic interaction in the Internet of Things (IoT) is an important concept within current IoT development, given that smart things require further autonomy with greater processing, storage, and communication capacities. The problem is now becoming one of how to get these things to
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Semantic interaction in the Internet of Things (IoT) is an important concept within current IoT development, given that smart things require further autonomy with greater processing, storage, and communication capacities. The problem is now becoming one of how to get these things to interact and collaborate with each other; to form intelligent environments amongst themselves and thus generate better services for users. This article explores a solution approach that consists in providing collaborative behavior to smart things, through the incorporation of an ontology and an architecture. It makes possible things that can communicate and collaborate with each other, allowing the generation of new services of interaction according to user needs. For this task, a real test bed of smart things was created, in which the proposed solution was deployed (Smart Room). Finally, it was concluded that the creation of these types of test bed is feasible, taking into account that response times and the information delivered by the different managed processes are acceptable. New challenges were encountered, however, such as problems of critical region in test beds with conflicting services and management of multiple users. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Route Availability as a Communication Quality Metric of a Mobile Ad Hoc Network
Future Internet 2018, 10(5), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10050041 -
Abstract
Using ad hoc communication between mobile terminals, MANETs (mobile ad hoc networks) are independent of any communication infrastructure but their communication quality can degrade because, as terminals move about in the service area, routes are constantly disconnected and then re-established. There has been
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Using ad hoc communication between mobile terminals, MANETs (mobile ad hoc networks) are independent of any communication infrastructure but their communication quality can degrade because, as terminals move about in the service area, routes are constantly disconnected and then re-established. There has been no proposal for a quality metric that models this unstable state, i.e., route nonuniformity. This paper proposes a new concept of route availability (RA) as a metric of route nonuniformity in a MANET and verifies how effectively it represents the quality of service (QoS) of a network or the quality of experience (QoE) of video streaming. We have built an environment that emulates a MANET capable of video streaming, and developed a method of measuring RA for two representative MANET routing methods: AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector) and OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing). We have examined the relationship between RA and conventional network QoS metrics: packet loss rate and throughput. We have also checked RA using a subjective quality assessment test. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An EV Charging Scheduling Mechanism Based on Price Negotiation
Future Internet 2018, 10(5), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10050040 -
Abstract
Scheduling EV user’s charging behavior based on charging price and applying renewable energy resources are the effective methods to release the load pressure of power grids brought about by the large-scale popularity of electric vehicles (EVs). This paper presents a novel approach for
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Scheduling EV user’s charging behavior based on charging price and applying renewable energy resources are the effective methods to release the load pressure of power grids brought about by the large-scale popularity of electric vehicles (EVs). This paper presents a novel approach for EV charging scheduling based on price negotiation. Firstly, the EV charging system framework based on price negotiation and renewable energy resources is discussed. Secondly, the price negotiation model is presented, including the initial price models and the conditions of transactions. Finally, an EV charging scheduling mechanism based on price negotiation (CSM-PN), including the price adjustment strategies of both the operator and EV users is proposed to seek a final transaction during multi-round price negotiation. Simulation results show that this novel approach can effectively improve the charging station operator’s income, reduce the EV users’ costs, and balance the load of the power grid while improving the efficiency of the EV charging system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Fair Cooperative MAC Protocol in IEEE 802.11 WLAN
Future Internet 2018, 10(5), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10050039 -
Abstract
Cooperative communication techniques have recently enabled wireless technologies to overcome their challenges. The main objective of these techniques is to improve resource allocation. In this paper, we propose a new protocol in medium access control (MAC) of the IEEE 802.11 standard. In our
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Cooperative communication techniques have recently enabled wireless technologies to overcome their challenges. The main objective of these techniques is to improve resource allocation. In this paper, we propose a new protocol in medium access control (MAC) of the IEEE 802.11 standard. In our new protocol, which is called Fair Cooperative MAC (FC-MAC), every relay node participates in cooperation proportionally to its provided cooperation gain. This technique improves network resource allocation by exploiting the potential capacity of all relay candidates. Simulation results demonstrate that the FC-MAC protocol presents better performance in terms of throughput, fairness, and network lifetime. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
MinHash-Based Fuzzy Keyword Search of Encrypted Data across Multiple Cloud Servers
Future Internet 2018, 10(5), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/fi10050038 -
Abstract
To enhance the efficiency of data searching, most data owners store their data files in different cloud servers in the form of cipher-text. Thus, efficient search using fuzzy keywords becomes a critical issue in such a cloud computing environment. This paper proposes a
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To enhance the efficiency of data searching, most data owners store their data files in different cloud servers in the form of cipher-text. Thus, efficient search using fuzzy keywords becomes a critical issue in such a cloud computing environment. This paper proposes a method that aims at improving the efficiency of cipher-text retrieval and lowering storage overhead for fuzzy keyword search. In contrast to traditional approaches, the proposed method can reduce the complexity of Min-Hash-based fuzzy keyword search by using Min-Hash fingerprints to avoid the need to construct the fuzzy keyword set. The method will utilize Jaccard similarity to rank the results of retrieval, thus reducing the amount of calculation for similarity and saving a lot of time and space overhead. The method will also take consideration of multiple user queries through re-encryption technology and update user permissions dynamically. Security analysis demonstrates that the method can provide better privacy preservation and experimental results show that efficiency of cipher-text using the proposed method can improve the retrieval time and lower storage overhead as well. Full article
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