Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Linked Data: A SPARQL Event Processing Architecture
Future Internet 2018, 10(4), 36; doi:10.3390/fi10040036 -
Abstract
This paper presents a decentralized Web-based architecture designed to support the development of distributed, dynamic, context-aware and interoperable services and applications. The architecture enables the detection and notification of changes over the Web of Data by means of a content-based publish-subscribe mechanism where
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This paper presents a decentralized Web-based architecture designed to support the development of distributed, dynamic, context-aware and interoperable services and applications. The architecture enables the detection and notification of changes over the Web of Data by means of a content-based publish-subscribe mechanism where the W3C SPARQL 1.1 Update and Query languages are fully supported and used respectively by publishers and subscribers. The architecture is built on top of the W3C SPARQL 1.1 Protocol and introduces the SPARQL 1.1 Secure Event protocol and the SPARQL 1.1 Subscribe Language as a means for conveying and expressing subscription requests and notifications. The reference implementation of the architecture offers to developers a design pattern for a modular, scalable and effective application development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Matching Game for Decoupled Uplink Downlink Context-Aware Handover
Future Internet 2018, 10(4), 35; doi:10.3390/fi10040035 -
Abstract
In this paper, we address the problem of cell association during a handover performed in a dense heterogeneous network, where the preference of a mobile user’s equipment in terms of uplink traffic is not the same as for the downlink traffic. Therefore, since
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In this paper, we address the problem of cell association during a handover performed in a dense heterogeneous network, where the preference of a mobile user’s equipment in terms of uplink traffic is not the same as for the downlink traffic. Therefore, since mobility is an intrinsic element of cellular networks, designing a handover from the perspective of the uplink and downlink is mandatory in the context of 5G cellular networks. Based on this arena, we propose a decoupled uplink-downlink handover scheme while making use of femtocells in order to maximize the overall network entity utilities and avoid overloading macrocells. However, the fact that the handover process is performed in a dense heterogeneous network makes the issue NP-hard. Therefore, taking into account the need for self-organizing solutions, we modeled the handover process as a matching game with externalities. Thus, we will provide an aspect of intelligence for the execution of the handover process to mobile user’s equipment (UE). To make the proposition more efficient, we integrate an assignment step to assist the matching game. Hence, the base stations will be investigated and filtered, keeping only the helpful base stations as the players in terms of the quality of service for the uplink and downlink. The numerical results verify the superiority of the proposed context-aware algorithm over traditional downlink handover and traditional decoupled uplink and downlink handover schemes, by improving the load balancing, increasing rates and reducing delays. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Replicas Strategy and Cache Optimization of Video Surveillance Systems Based on Cloud Storage
Future Internet 2018, 10(4), 34; doi:10.3390/fi10040034 -
Abstract
With the rapid development of video surveillance technology, especially the popularity of cloud-based video surveillance applications, video data begins to grow explosively. However, in the cloud-based video surveillance system, replicas occupy an amount of storage space. Also, the slow response to video playback
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With the rapid development of video surveillance technology, especially the popularity of cloud-based video surveillance applications, video data begins to grow explosively. However, in the cloud-based video surveillance system, replicas occupy an amount of storage space. Also, the slow response to video playback constrains the performance of the system. In this paper, considering the characteristics of video data comprehensively, we propose a dynamic redundant replicas mechanism based on security levels that can dynamically adjust the number of replicas. Based on the location correlation between cameras, this paper also proposes a data cache strategy to improve the response speed of data reading. Experiments illustrate that: (1) our dynamic redundant replicas mechanism can save storage space while ensuring data security; (2) the cache mechanism can predict the playback behaviors of the users in advance and improve the response speed of data reading according to the location and time correlation of the front-end cameras; and (3) in terms of cloud-based video surveillance, our proposed approaches significantly outperform existing methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Intelligent Content Prefix Classification Approach for Quality of Service Optimization in Information-Centric Networking
Future Internet 2018, 10(4), 33; doi:10.3390/fi10040033 -
Abstract
This research proposes an intelligent classification framework for quality of service (QoS) performance improvement in information-centric networking (ICN). The proposal works towards keyword classification techniques to obtain the most valuable information via suitable content prefixes in ICN. In this study, we have achieved
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This research proposes an intelligent classification framework for quality of service (QoS) performance improvement in information-centric networking (ICN). The proposal works towards keyword classification techniques to obtain the most valuable information via suitable content prefixes in ICN. In this study, we have achieved the intelligent function using Artificial Intelligence (AI) implementation. Particularly, to find the most suitable and promising intelligent approach for maintaining QoS matrices, we have evaluated various AI algorithms, including evolutionary algorithms (EA), swarm intelligence (SI), and machine learning (ML) by using the cost function to assess their classification performances. With the goal of enabling a complete ICN prefix classification solution, we also propose a hybrid implementation to optimize classification performances by integration of relevant AI algorithms. This hybrid mechanism searches for a final minimum structure to prevent the local optima from happening. By simulation, the evaluation results show that the proposal outperforms EA and ML in terms of network resource utilization and response delay for QoS performance optimization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Social DTN for Message Communication between SNS Group Members
Future Internet 2018, 10(4), 32; doi:10.3390/fi10040032 -
Abstract
Smartphones have the ability to communicate with other terminals through ad hoc connections. A variety of applications have been developed to exploit this ability. The authors have developed an Android OS (operating system) application (called “social DTN manager”) that builds a DTN (delay,
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Smartphones have the ability to communicate with other terminals through ad hoc connections. A variety of applications have been developed to exploit this ability. The authors have developed an Android OS (operating system) application (called “social DTN manager”) that builds a DTN (delay, disruption, disconnection tolerant networking) among members of a social networking service (SNS) community using a community token. The members can exchange messages over this network. Control messages for building a DTN are forwarded to only those nodes that use the same community token in order to reduce flooding of message copies. When a source node sends a communication request to its destination node, they exchange control messages to establish a communication route. Relay nodes use these messages to create and hold routing information for these nodes in their routing tables. Thereafter, relay nodes can forward data messages based on their routing tables. This again reduces flooding of message copies. The social DTN manager incorporates these functions, Facebook Graph API and Google Nearby Connections API. The authors have installed it in Android terminals and confirmed that a social DTN can successfully be built using this application and that data messages can be exchanged between terminals via reactive routes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Statistical Analysis of Industrial Penetration and Internet Intensity in Taiwan
Future Internet 2018, 10(3), 31; doi:10.3390/fi10030031 -
Abstract
This paper is the first to investigate the effect of industrial penetration (geographic concentration of industries) and internet intensity (the proportion of enterprises that uses the internet) for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whether the relationships are substitutes or complements. The sample observations
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This paper is the first to investigate the effect of industrial penetration (geographic concentration of industries) and internet intensity (the proportion of enterprises that uses the internet) for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whether the relationships are substitutes or complements. The sample observations are based on a unique set of data, namely 153,081 manufacturing plants, and covers 26 two-digit industry categories and 358 geographical townships in Taiwan. The Heckman sample selection model is used to accommodate sample selectivity for unobservable data for firms that use the internet. The empirical results from Heckman’s two-stage estimation show that: (1) a higher degree of industrial penetration will not affect the probability that firms will use the internet, but it will affect the total expenditure on internet intensity; (2) for two-digit SIC (Standard Industrial Classification) industries, industrial penetration generally decreases the total expenditure on internet intensity; and, (3) industrial penetration and internet intensity are substitutes. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Optimal Design of Demand-Responsive Feeder Transit Services with Passengers’ Multiple Time Windows and Satisfaction
Future Internet 2018, 10(3), 30; doi:10.3390/fi10030030 -
Abstract
This paper presents a mixed-integer linear programming model for demand-responsive feeder transit services to assign vehicles located at different depots to pick up passengers at the demand points and transport them to the rail station. The proposed model features passengers’ one or several
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This paper presents a mixed-integer linear programming model for demand-responsive feeder transit services to assign vehicles located at different depots to pick up passengers at the demand points and transport them to the rail station. The proposed model features passengers’ one or several preferred time windows for boarding vehicles at the demand point and their expected ride time. Moreover, passenger satisfaction that was related only to expected ride time is fully accounted for in the model. The objective is to simultaneously minimize the operation costs of total mileage and maximize passenger satisfaction. As the problem is an extension of the nondeterministic polynomial problem with integration of the vehicle route problem, this study further develops an improved bat algorithm to yield meta-optimal solutions for the model in a reasonable amount of time. When this was applied to a case study in Nanjing City, China, the mileage and satisfaction of the proposed model were reduced by 1.4 km and increased by 7.1%, respectively, compared with the traditional model. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to investigate the impact of the number of designed bus routes and weights of objective functions on the model performance. Finally, a comparison of Cplex, standard bat algorithm, and group search optimizer is analyzed to verify the validity of the proposed algorithm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding How GitHub Supports Curation Repositories
Future Internet 2018, 10(3), 29; doi:10.3390/fi10030029 -
Abstract
In recent years, software developers have started to appropriate GitHub repositories to curate resources, in order to systematically select, evaluate, and organize existing artifacts for preservation and future use. Curation behaviors in social media sites, such as users’ experiences to curate tweets from
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In recent years, software developers have started to appropriate GitHub repositories to curate resources, in order to systematically select, evaluate, and organize existing artifacts for preservation and future use. Curation behaviors in social media sites, such as users’ experiences to curate tweets from Twitter and pins on Pinterest, are well documented. However, GitHub, as a social coding platform, presents a new context for this activity, raising questions about the nature of curation on this task-driven online work site. To explore and understand curation on GitHub, we compared and contrasted curation repositories with software repositories using activity logs and analyzed the content of popular curation repositories. Our results show that: (1) curation repositories have become a favorite category of repositories in GitHub; (2) curation repositories leverage collaborative features and practices native to GitHub in new ways; (3) curation repositories collect and preserve high-quality resources for the software developers’ community. Our results suggest that curation is becoming increasingly important to the software developers’ community, and current practices can be better supported with tools designed specifically for curation. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Ecosystemic Evolution Fed by Smart Systems
Future Internet 2018, 10(3), 28; doi:10.3390/fi10030028 -
Open AccessArticle
Security Awareness in Software-Defined Multi-Domain 5G Networks
Future Internet 2018, 10(3), 27; doi:10.3390/fi10030027 -
Abstract
Fifth generation (5G) technologies will boost the capacity and ease the management of mobile networks. Emerging virtualization and softwarization technologies enable more flexible customization of network services and facilitate cooperation between different actors. However, solutions are needed to enable users, operators, and service
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Fifth generation (5G) technologies will boost the capacity and ease the management of mobile networks. Emerging virtualization and softwarization technologies enable more flexible customization of network services and facilitate cooperation between different actors. However, solutions are needed to enable users, operators, and service providers to gain an up-to-date awareness of the security and trustworthiness of 5G systems. We describe a novel framework and enablers for security monitoring, inferencing, and trust measuring. The framework leverages software-defined networking and big data technologies to customize monitoring for different applications. We present an approach for sharing security measurements across administrative domains. We describe scenarios where the correlation of multi-domain information improves the accuracy of security measures with respect to two threats: end-user location tracking and Internet of things (IoT) authentication storms. We explore the security characteristics of data flows in software networks dedicated to different applications with a mobile network testbed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
TwinNet: A Double Sub-Network Framework for Detecting Universal Adversarial Perturbations
Future Internet 2018, 10(3), 26; doi:10.3390/fi10030026 -
Abstract
Deep neural network has achieved great progress on tasks involving complex abstract concepts. However, there exist adversarial perturbations, which are imperceptible to humans, which can tremendously undermine the performance of deep neural network classifiers. Moreover, universal adversarial perturbations can even fool classifiers on
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Deep neural network has achieved great progress on tasks involving complex abstract concepts. However, there exist adversarial perturbations, which are imperceptible to humans, which can tremendously undermine the performance of deep neural network classifiers. Moreover, universal adversarial perturbations can even fool classifiers on almost all examples with just a single perturbation vector. In this paper, we propose TwinNet, a framework for neural network classifiers to detect such adversarial perturbations. TwinNet makes no modification of the protected classifier. It detects adversarially perturbated examples by enhancing different types of features in dedicated networks and fusing the output of the networks later. The paper empirically shows that our framework can identify adversarial perturbations effectively with a slight loss in accuracy when predicting normal examples, which outperforms state-of-the-art works. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Interference Management in Femtocells by the Adaptive Network Sensing Power Control Technique
Future Internet 2018, 10(3), 25; doi:10.3390/fi10030025 -
Abstract
The overlay integration of low-power femtocells over macrocells in a heterogeneous network (HetNet) plays an important role in dealing with the increasing demand of spectral efficiency, coverage and higher data rates, at a nominal cost to network operators. However, the downlink (DL) transmission
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The overlay integration of low-power femtocells over macrocells in a heterogeneous network (HetNet) plays an important role in dealing with the increasing demand of spectral efficiency, coverage and higher data rates, at a nominal cost to network operators. However, the downlink (DL) transmission power of an inadequately deployed femtocell causes inter-cell interference (ICI), which leads to severe degradation and sometimes link failure for nearby macrocell users. In this paper, we propose an adaptive network sensing (ANS) technique for downlink power control to obviate the ICI. The simulation results have shown that the ANS power control technique successfully decreases the cell-edge macro user’s interference and enhances the throughput performance of macro users, while also optimizing the coverage and capacity of the femtocell. When compared with the Femto User Equipment (FUE)-assisted and Macro User Equipment (MUE)-assisted power control technique, the proposed technique offers a good tradeoff in reducing interference to macro users, while maintaining the quality of service (QoS) requirement of the femtocell users. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How Data Will Transform Industrial Processes: Crowdsensing, Crowdsourcing and Big Data as Pillars of Industry 4.0
Future Internet 2018, 10(3), 24; doi:10.3390/fi10030024 -
Abstract
We are living in the era of the fourth industrial revolution, namely Industry 4.0. This paper presents the main aspects related to Industry 4.0, the technologies that will enable this revolution, and the main application domains that will be affected by it. The
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We are living in the era of the fourth industrial revolution, namely Industry 4.0. This paper presents the main aspects related to Industry 4.0, the technologies that will enable this revolution, and the main application domains that will be affected by it. The effects that the introduction of Internet of Things (IoT), Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), crowdsensing, crowdsourcing, cloud computing and big data will have on industrial processes will be discussed. The main objectives will be represented by improvements in: production efficiency, quality and cost-effectiveness; workplace health and safety, as well as quality of working conditions; products’ quality and availability, according to mass customisation requirements. The paper will further discuss the common denominator of these enhancements, i.e., data collection and analysis. As data and information will be crucial for Industry 4.0, crowdsensing and crowdsourcing will introduce new advantages and challenges, which will make most of the industrial processes easier with respect to traditional technologies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
SDN Based Collaborative Scheme for Mitigation of DDoS Attacks
Future Internet 2018, 10(3), 23; doi:10.3390/fi10030023 -
Abstract
Software Defined Networking (SDN) has proved itself to be a backbone in the new network design and is quickly becoming an industry standard. The idea of separation of control plane and data plane is the key concept behind SDN. SDN not only allows
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Software Defined Networking (SDN) has proved itself to be a backbone in the new network design and is quickly becoming an industry standard. The idea of separation of control plane and data plane is the key concept behind SDN. SDN not only allows us to program and monitor our networks but it also helps in mitigating some key network problems. Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack is among them. In this paper we propose a collaborative DDoS attack mitigation scheme using SDN. We design a secure controller-to-controller (C-to-C) protocol that allows SDN-controllers lying in different autonomous systems (AS) to securely communicate and transfer attack information with each other. This enables efficient notification along the path of an ongoing attack and effective filtering of traffic near the source of attack, thus saving valuable time and network resources. We also introduced three different deployment approaches i.e., linear, central and mesh in our testbed. Based on the experimental results we demonstrate that our SDN based collaborative scheme is fast and reliable in efficiently mitigating DDoS attacks in real time with very small computational footprints. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Learning and Mining Player Motion Profiles in Physically Interactive Robogames
Future Internet 2018, 10(3), 22; doi:10.3390/fi10030022 -
Abstract
Physically-Interactive RoboGames (PIRG) are an emerging application whose aim is to develop robotic agents able to interact and engage humans in a game situation. In this framework, learning a model of players’ activity is relevant both to understand their engagement, as well as
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Physically-Interactive RoboGames (PIRG) are an emerging application whose aim is to develop robotic agents able to interact and engage humans in a game situation. In this framework, learning a model of players’ activity is relevant both to understand their engagement, as well as to understand specific strategies they adopted, which in turn can foster game adaptation. Following such directions and given the lack of quantitative methods for player modeling in PIRG, we propose a methodology for representing players as a mixture of existing player’s types uncovered from data. This is done by dealing both with the intrinsic uncertainty associated with the setting and with the agent necessity to act in real time to support the game interaction. Our methodology first focuses on encoding time series data generated from player-robot interaction into images, in particular Gramian angular field images, to represent continuous data. To these, we apply latent Dirichlet allocation to summarize the player’s motion style as a probabilistic mixture of different styles discovered from data. This approach has been tested in a dataset collected from a real, physical robot game, where activity patterns are extracted by using a custom three-axis accelerometer sensor module. The obtained results suggest that the proposed system is able to provide a robust description for the player interaction. Full article
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Open AccessPerspective
Robotics Construction Kits: From “Objects to Think with” to “Objects to Think and to Emote with”
Future Internet 2018, 10(2), 21; doi:10.3390/fi10020021 -
Abstract
This paper discusses new ideas about the use of educational robotics in social-emotional learning. In particular, educational robotics could be a tool intended to allow children to acquire some of the basic aspects of human emotions and emotional functioning, and to understand how
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This paper discusses new ideas about the use of educational robotics in social-emotional learning. In particular, educational robotics could be a tool intended to allow children to acquire some of the basic aspects of human emotions and emotional functioning, and to understand how these relate to the mind and body. More specifically, by using robots such as the LEGO Mindstorm construction kits—which allow users to both construct the body of the robot and to provide it with a behavioural repertory—children have the opportunity to visualize (and manipulate) the relationship between the robot’s body and mind. This allows them to simulate “embodied emotional minds” and to reflect on new neuroscientific concepts regarding body-mind and cognition-emotion relationships. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Blockchain and Smart Contracts for Insurance: Is the Technology Mature Enough?
Future Internet 2018, 10(2), 20; doi:10.3390/fi10020020 -
Abstract
Blockchain is receiving increasing attention from academy and industry, since it is considered a breakthrough technology that could bring huge benefits to many different sectors. In 2017, Gartner positioned blockchain close to the peak of inflated expectations, acknowledging the enthusiasm for this technology
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Blockchain is receiving increasing attention from academy and industry, since it is considered a breakthrough technology that could bring huge benefits to many different sectors. In 2017, Gartner positioned blockchain close to the peak of inflated expectations, acknowledging the enthusiasm for this technology that is now largely discussed by media. In this scenario, the risk to adopt it in the wake of enthusiasm, without objectively judging its actual added value is rather high. Insurance is one the sectors that, among others, started to carefully investigate the possibilities of blockchain. For this specific sector, however, the hype cycle shows that the technology is still in the innovation trigger phase, meaning that the spectrum of possible applications has not been fully explored yet. Insurers, as with many other companies not necessarily active only in the financial sector, are currently requested to make a hard decision, that is, whether to adopt blockchain or not, and they will only know if they were right in 3–5 years. The objective of this paper is to support actors involved in this decision process by illustrating what a blockchain is, analyzing its advantages and disadvantages, as well as discussing several use cases taken from the insurance sector, which could easily be extended to other domains. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Virtual Career Fairs: Perspectives from Norwegian Recruiters and Exhibitors
Future Internet 2018, 10(2), 19; doi:10.3390/fi10020019 -
Abstract
The present work introduces virtual fairs, particularly the perceived benefits, challenges, and relevance of such fairs for recruitment and employer branding. These aspects were explored in a semi-structured interview with an organizer of virtual fairs across Scandinavia, and a focus group composed of
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The present work introduces virtual fairs, particularly the perceived benefits, challenges, and relevance of such fairs for recruitment and employer branding. These aspects were explored in a semi-structured interview with an organizer of virtual fairs across Scandinavia, and a focus group composed of Norwegian recruiters and exhibitors. The results of the data collection can be summarized in the form of themes that relate to web analytics, web services and optimization. The benefits of virtual fairs pertain to the (a) visibility and branding; (b) costs; and (c) analytics-based customization. Challenges of virtual career fairs pertain to the (a) lack of online engagement, (b) preparation and staffing costs; (c) lack of guidelines; (d) talent access and identification; (e) security and infrastructure; (f) long-term planning; (g) and inter-dependencies. The discussion summarizes the implications of branding and recruitment and the value they add to business, also noting how context effects may come into play. The article concludes by exploring the possibility that virtual fairs will complement or become the new standard in recruitment and outlines future avenues for research and practice. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks
Future Internet 2018, 10(2), 18; doi:10.3390/fi10020018 -
Abstract
Currently, at the dawn of 5G networks, and the era of the Internet-of-Things, wireless and mobile networking is becoming increasingly ubiquitous [...]
Full article
Open AccessArticle
Increasing Trustworthiness of Face Authentication in Mobile Devices by Modeling Gesture Behavior and Location Using Neural Networks
Future Internet 2018, 10(2), 17; doi:10.3390/fi10020017 -
Abstract
Personal mobile devices currently have access to a significant portion of their user’s private sensitive data and are increasingly used for processing mobile payments. Consequently, securing access to these mobile devices is a requirement for securing access to the sensitive data and potentially
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Personal mobile devices currently have access to a significant portion of their user’s private sensitive data and are increasingly used for processing mobile payments. Consequently, securing access to these mobile devices is a requirement for securing access to the sensitive data and potentially costly services. Face authentication is one of the promising biometrics-based user authentication mechanisms that has been widely available in this era of mobile computing. With a built-in camera capability on smartphones, tablets, and laptops, face authentication provides an attractive alternative of legacy passwords for its memory-less authentication process, which is so sophisticated that it can unlock the device faster than a fingerprint. Nevertheless, face authentication in the context of smartphones has proven to be vulnerable to attacks. In most current implementations, a sufficiently high-resolution face image displayed on another mobile device will be enough to circumvent security measures and bypass the authentication process. In order to prevent such bypass attacks, gesture recognition together with location is proposed to be additionally modeled. Gestures provide a faster and more convenient method of authentication compared to a complex password. The focus of this paper is to build a secure authentication system with face, location and gesture recognition as components. User gestures and location data are a sequence of time series; therefore, in this paper we propose to use unsupervised learning in the long short-term memory recurrent neural network to actively learn to recognize, group and discriminate user gestures and location. Moreover, a clustering-based technique is also implemented for recognizing gestures and location. Full article
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