Open AccessArticle
A Novel Multi-Focus Image Fusion Method Based on Stochastic Coordinate Coding and Local Density Peaks Clustering
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 53; doi:10.3390/fi8040053 -
Abstract
The multi-focus image fusion method is used in image processing to generate all-focus images that have large depth of field (DOF) based on original multi-focus images. Different approaches have been used in the spatial and transform domain to fuse multi-focus images. As one
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The multi-focus image fusion method is used in image processing to generate all-focus images that have large depth of field (DOF) based on original multi-focus images. Different approaches have been used in the spatial and transform domain to fuse multi-focus images. As one of the most popular image processing methods, dictionary-learning-based spare representation achieves great performance in multi-focus image fusion. Most of the existing dictionary-learning-based multi-focus image fusion methods directly use the whole source images for dictionary learning. However, it incurs a high error rate and high computation cost in dictionary learning process by using the whole source images. This paper proposes a novel stochastic coordinate coding-based image fusion framework integrated with local density peaks. The proposed multi-focus image fusion method consists of three steps. First, source images are split into small image patches, then the split image patches are classified into a few groups by local density peaks clustering. Next, the grouped image patches are used for sub-dictionary learning by stochastic coordinate coding. The trained sub-dictionaries are combined into a dictionary for sparse representation. Finally, the simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit (SOMP) algorithm is used to carry out sparse representation. After the three steps, the obtained sparse coefficients are fused following the max L1-norm rule. The fused coefficients are inversely transformed to an image by using the learned dictionary. The results and analyses of comparison experiments demonstrate that fused images of the proposed method have higher qualities than existing state-of-the-art methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Network Forensics Method Based on Evidence Graph and Vulnerability Reasoning
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 54; doi:10.3390/fi8040054 -
Abstract
As the Internet becomes larger in scale, more complex in structure and more diversified in traffic, the number of crimes that utilize computer technologies is also increasing at a phenomenal rate. To react to the increasing number of computer crimes, the field of
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As the Internet becomes larger in scale, more complex in structure and more diversified in traffic, the number of crimes that utilize computer technologies is also increasing at a phenomenal rate. To react to the increasing number of computer crimes, the field of computer and network forensics has emerged. The general purpose of network forensics is to find malicious users or activities by gathering and dissecting firm evidences about computer crimes, e.g., hacking. However, due to the large volume of Internet traffic, not all the traffic captured and analyzed is valuable for investigation or confirmation. After analyzing some existing network forensics methods to identify common shortcomings, we propose in this paper a new network forensics method that uses a combination of network vulnerability and network evidence graph. In our proposed method, we use vulnerability evidence and reasoning algorithm to reconstruct attack scenarios and then backtrack the network packets to find the original evidences. Our proposed method can reconstruct attack scenarios effectively and then identify multi-staged attacks through evidential reasoning. Results of experiments show that the evidence graph constructed using our method is more complete and credible while possessing the reasoning capability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Review on Hot-IP Finding Methods and Its Application in Early DDoS Target Detection
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 52; doi:10.3390/fi8040052 -
Abstract
On the high-speed connections of the Internet or computer networks, the IP (Internet Protocol) packet traffic passing through the network is extremely high, and that makes it difficult for network monitoring and attack detection applications. This paper reviews methods to find the high-occurrence-frequency
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On the high-speed connections of the Internet or computer networks, the IP (Internet Protocol) packet traffic passing through the network is extremely high, and that makes it difficult for network monitoring and attack detection applications. This paper reviews methods to find the high-occurrence-frequency elements in the data stream and applies the most efficient methods to find Hot-IPs that are high-frequency IP addresses of IP packets passing through the network. Fast finding of Hot-IPs in the IP packet stream can be effectively used in early detection of DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attack targets and spreading sources of network worms. Research results show that the Count-Min method gives the best overall performance for Hot-IP detection thanks to its low computational complexity, low space requirement and fast processing speed. We also propose an early detection model of DDoS attack targets based on Hot-IP finding, which can be deployed on the target network routers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
ODK Scan: Digitizing Data Collection and Impacting Data Management Processes in Pakistan’s Tuberculosis Control Program
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 51; doi:10.3390/fi8040051 -
Abstract
The present grievous tuberculosis situation can be improved by efficient case management and timely follow-up evaluations. With the advent of digital technology, this can be achieved through quick summarization of the patient-centric data. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness
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The present grievous tuberculosis situation can be improved by efficient case management and timely follow-up evaluations. With the advent of digital technology, this can be achieved through quick summarization of the patient-centric data. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of the ODK Scan paper-to-digital system during a testing period of three months. A sequential, explanatory mixed-method research approach was employed to elucidate technology use. Training, smartphones, the application and 3G-enabled SIMs were provided to the four field workers. At the beginning, baseline measures of the data management aspects were recorded and compared with endline measures to determine the impact of ODK Scan. Additionally, at the end of the study, users’ feedback was collected regarding app usability, user interface design and workflow changes. A total of 122 patients’ records were retrieved from the server and analysed in terms of quality. It was found that ODK Scan recognized 99.2% of multiple choice fill-in bubble responses and 79.4% of numerical digit responses correctly. However, the overall quality of the digital data was decreased in comparison to manually entered data. Using ODK Scan, a significant time reduction is observed in data aggregation and data transfer activities, but data verification and form-filling activities took more time. Interviews revealed that field workers saw value in using ODK Scan, but they were more concerned about the time-consuming aspects of the use of ODK Scan. Therefore, it is concluded that minimal disturbance in the existing workflow, continuous feedback and value additions are the important considerations for the implementing organization to ensure technology adoption and workflow improvements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Senior Living Lab: An Ecological Approach to Foster Social Innovation in an Ageing Society
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 50; doi:10.3390/fi8040050 -
Abstract
The Senior Living Lab (SLL) is a transdisciplinary research platform created by four Universities that aims at promoting ageing well at home through the co-creation of innovative products, services and practices with older adults. While most living labs for ageing well are focused
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The Senior Living Lab (SLL) is a transdisciplinary research platform created by four Universities that aims at promoting ageing well at home through the co-creation of innovative products, services and practices with older adults. While most living labs for ageing well are focused on Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), this social laboratory adopts a transdisciplinary approach, bringing together designers, economists, engineers and healthcare professionals to develop multiple forms of social innovation using participatory methods. The SLL is based on an ecological approach, connecting professionals and users in a cooperative network and involving all of the stakeholders concerned with ageing well, such as existing associations, business entities and policy-makers. Three main themes for the co-design of products and services were identified at the beginning of the SLL conception, each sustained by a major business partner: healthy nutrition to cope with frailty, improved autonomous mobility to foster independence and social communication to prevent isolation. This article shows the innovative transdisciplinary approach of the SLL and discusses the particular challenges that emerged during the first year of its creation, investigating the role of ICTs when designing products and services for older adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Socialism and the Blockchain
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 49; doi:10.3390/fi8040049 -
Abstract
Bitcoin (BTC) is often cited as Libertarian. However, the technology underpinning Bitcoin, blockchain, has properties that make it ideally suited to Socialist paradigms. Current literature supports the Libertarian viewpoint by focusing on the ability of Bitcoin to bypass central authority and provide anonymity;
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Bitcoin (BTC) is often cited as Libertarian. However, the technology underpinning Bitcoin, blockchain, has properties that make it ideally suited to Socialist paradigms. Current literature supports the Libertarian viewpoint by focusing on the ability of Bitcoin to bypass central authority and provide anonymity; rarely is there an examination of blockchain technology’s capacity for decentralised transparency and auditability in support of a Socialist model. This paper conducts a review of the blockchain, Libertarianism, and Socialist philosophies. It then explores Socialist models of public ownership and looks at the unique cooperative properties of blockchain that make the technology ideal for supporting Socialist societies. In summary, this paper argues that blockchain technologies are not just a Libertarian tool, they also enhance Socialist forms of governance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Autonomic Semantic-Based Context-Aware Platform for Mobile Applications in Pervasive Environments
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 48; doi:10.3390/fi8040048 -
Abstract
Currently, the field of smart-* (home, city, health, tourism, etc.) is naturally heterogeneous and multimedia oriented. In such a domain, there is an increasing usage of heterogeneous mobile devices, as well as captors transmitting data (IoT). They are highly connected and can be
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Currently, the field of smart-* (home, city, health, tourism, etc.) is naturally heterogeneous and multimedia oriented. In such a domain, there is an increasing usage of heterogeneous mobile devices, as well as captors transmitting data (IoT). They are highly connected and can be used for many different services, such as to monitor, to analyze and to display information to users. In this context, data management and adaptation in real time are becoming a challenging task. More precisely, at one time, it is necessary to handle in a dynamic, intelligent and transparent framework various data provided by multiple devices with several modalities. This paper presents a Kali-Smart platform, which is an autonomic semantic-based context-aware platform. It is based on semantic web technologies and a middleware providing autonomy and reasoning facilities. Moreover, Kali-Smart is generic and, as a consequence, offers to users a flexible infrastructure where they can easily control various interaction modalities of their own situations. An experimental study has been made to evaluate the performance and feasibility of the proposed platform. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Reliability Calculation Method for Web Service Composition Using Fuzzy Reasoning Colored Petri Nets and Its Application on Supercomputing Cloud Platform
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 47; doi:10.3390/fi8040047 -
Abstract
In order to develop a Supercomputing Cloud Platform (SCP) prototype system using Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Petri nets, we researched some technologies for Web service composition. Specifically, in this paper, we propose a reliability calculation method for Web service compositions, which uses Fuzzy
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In order to develop a Supercomputing Cloud Platform (SCP) prototype system using Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Petri nets, we researched some technologies for Web service composition. Specifically, in this paper, we propose a reliability calculation method for Web service compositions, which uses Fuzzy Reasoning Colored Petri Net (FRCPN) to verify the Web service compositions. We put forward a definition of semantic threshold similarity for Web services and a formal definition of FRCPN. We analyzed five kinds of production rules in FRCPN, and applied our method to the SCP prototype. We obtained the reliability value of the end Web service as an indicator of the overall reliability of the FRCPN. The method can test the activity of FRCPN. Experimental results show that the reliability of the Web service composition has a correlation with the number of Web services and the range of reliability transition values. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Data-Enabled Design for Social Change: Two Case Studies
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 46; doi:10.3390/fi8040046 -
Abstract
Smartness in contemporary society implies the use of massive data to improve the experience of people with connected services and products. The use of big data to collect information about people’s behaviours opens a new concept of “user-centred design” where users are remotely
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Smartness in contemporary society implies the use of massive data to improve the experience of people with connected services and products. The use of big data to collect information about people’s behaviours opens a new concept of “user-centred design” where users are remotely monitored, observed and profiled. In this paradigm, users are considered as sources of information and their participation in the design process is limited to a role of data generators. There is a need to identify methodologies that actively involve people and communities at the core of ecosystems of interconnected products and services. Our contribution to designing for social innovation in ecosystems relies on developing new methods and approaches to transform data-driven design using a participatory and co-creative data-enabled design approach. To this end, we present one of the methods we have developed to design “smart” systems called Experiential Design Landscapes (EDL), and two sample projects, Social Stairs and [Y]our Perspective. Social Stairs faces the topic of behaviour change mediated by sensing technologies. [Y]our Perspective is a social platform to sustain processes of deliberative democracy. Both projects exemplify our approach to data-enabled design as a social proactive participatory design approach. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Cyber Conflicts as a New Global Threat
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 45; doi:10.3390/fi8030045 -
Abstract
In this paper, an attempt is made to analyze the potential threats and consequences of cyber conflicts and, in particular, the risks of a global cyber conflict. The material is based on a comprehensive analysis of the nature of cyber conflict and its
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In this paper, an attempt is made to analyze the potential threats and consequences of cyber conflicts and, in particular, the risks of a global cyber conflict. The material is based on a comprehensive analysis of the nature of cyber conflict and its elements from both technical and societal points of view. The approach used in the paper considers the societal component as an essential part of cyber conflicts, allowing basics of cyber conflicts often disregarded by researchers and the public to be highlighted. Finally, the conclusion offers an opportunity to consider cyber conflict as the most advanced form of modern warfare, which imposes the most serious threat and whose effect could be comparable to weapons of mass destruction. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Introduction to the Special Issue on Human–Computer Interaction and the Social Web
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 43; doi:10.3390/fi8030043 -
Abstract In recent years, both Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and the Social Web (also known as Web 2.0) have had exponential growth.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Main Issues in Big Data Security
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 44; doi:10.3390/fi8030044 -
Abstract
Data is currently one of the most important assets for companies in every field. The continuous growth in the importance and volume of data has created a new problem: it cannot be handled by traditional analysis techniques. This problem was, therefore, solved through
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Data is currently one of the most important assets for companies in every field. The continuous growth in the importance and volume of data has created a new problem: it cannot be handled by traditional analysis techniques. This problem was, therefore, solved through the creation of a new paradigm: Big Data. However, Big Data originated new issues related not only to the volume or the variety of the data, but also to data security and privacy. In order to obtain a full perspective of the problem, we decided to carry out an investigation with the objective of highlighting the main issues regarding Big Data security, and also the solutions proposed by the scientific community to solve them. In this paper, we explain the results obtained after applying a systematic mapping study to security in the Big Data ecosystem. It is almost impossible to carry out detailed research into the entire topic of security, and the outcome of this research is, therefore, a big picture of the main problems related to security in a Big Data system, along with the principal solutions to them proposed by the research community. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Supporting Elderly People by Ad Hoc Generated Mobile Applications Based on Vocal Interaction
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 42; doi:10.3390/fi8030042 -
Abstract
Mobile devices can be exploited for enabling people to interact with Internet of Things (IoT) services. The MicroApp Generator [1] is a service-composition tool for supporting the generation of mobile applications directly on the mobile device. The user interacts with the
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Mobile devices can be exploited for enabling people to interact with Internet of Things (IoT) services. The MicroApp Generator [1] is a service-composition tool for supporting the generation of mobile applications directly on the mobile device. The user interacts with the generated app by using the traditional touch-based interaction. This kind of interaction often is not suitable for elderly and special needs people that cannot see or touch the screen. In this paper, we extend the MicroApp Generator with an interaction approach enabling a user to interact with the generated app only by using his voice, which can be very useful to let special needs people live at home. To this aim, once the mobile app has been generated and executed, the system analyses and describes the user interface, listens to the user speech and performs the associated actions. A preliminary analysis has been conducted to assess the user experience of the proposed approach by a sample composed of elderly users by using a questionnaire as a research instrument. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coproduction as an Approach to Technology-Mediated Citizen Participation in Emergency Management
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 41; doi:10.3390/fi8030041 -
Abstract
Social and mobile computing open up new possibilities for integrating citizens’ information, knowledge, and social capital in emergency management (EM). This participation can improve the capacity of local agencies to respond to unexpected events by involving citizens not only as first line informants,
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Social and mobile computing open up new possibilities for integrating citizens’ information, knowledge, and social capital in emergency management (EM). This participation can improve the capacity of local agencies to respond to unexpected events by involving citizens not only as first line informants, but also as first responders. This participation could contribute to build resilient communities aware of the risks they are threatened by and able to mobilize their social capital to cope with them and, in turn, decrease the impact of threats and hazards. However for this participation to be possible organizations in charge of EM need to realize that involving citizens does not interfere with their protocols and that citizens are a valuable asset that can contribute to the EM process with specific skills and capabilities. In this paper we discuss the design challenges of using social and mobile computing to move to a more participatory EM process that starts by empowering both citizens and organizations in a coproduction service envisioned as a partnership effort. As an example, we describe a case study of a participatory design approach that involved professional EM workers and decision makers in an effort to understand the challenges of using technology-based solutions to integrate citizen skills and capabilities in their operation protocols. The case study made it possible to identify specific roles that citizens might play in a crisis or disaster and to envision scenarios were technologies could be used to integrate their skills into the EM process. In this way the paper contributes to the roles and the scenarios of theory-building about coproduction in EM services. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sensor Observation Service API for Providing Gridded Climate Data to Agricultural Applications
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 40; doi:10.3390/fi8030040 -
Abstract
We developed a mechanism for seamlessly providing weather data and long-term historical climate data from a gridded data source through an international standard web API, which was the Sensor Observation Service (SOS) defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The National Agriculture and
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We developed a mechanism for seamlessly providing weather data and long-term historical climate data from a gridded data source through an international standard web API, which was the Sensor Observation Service (SOS) defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO) Japan has been providing gridded climate data consisting of nine daily meteorological variables, which are average, minimum, maximum of air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration, solar radiant exposure, downward longwave radiation, precipitation and wind speed for 35 years covering Japan. The gridded data structure is quite useful for spatial analysis, such as developing crop suitability maps and monitoring regional crop development. Individual farmers, however, make decisions using historical climate information and forecasts for an incoming cropping season of their farms. In this regard, climate data at a point-based structure are convenient for application development to support farmers’ decisions. Through the proposed mechanism in this paper, the agricultural applications and analysis can request point-based climate data from a gridded data source through the standard API with no need to deal with the complicated hierarchical data structure of the gridded climate data source. Clients can easily obtain data and metadata by only accessing the service endpoint. The mechanism also provides several web bindings and data encodings for the clients’ convenience. Caching, including the pre-caching mechanism, was developed and evaluated to secure an effective response time. The mechanism enhances the accessibility and usability of the gridded weather data source, as well as SOS API for agricultural applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ontology-Based Representation and Reasoning in Building Construction Cost Estimation in China
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 39; doi:10.3390/fi8030039 -
Abstract
Cost estimation is one of the most critical tasks for building construction project management. The existing building construction cost estimation methods of many countries, including China, require information from several sources, including material, labor, and equipment, and tend to be manual, time-consuming, and
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Cost estimation is one of the most critical tasks for building construction project management. The existing building construction cost estimation methods of many countries, including China, require information from several sources, including material, labor, and equipment, and tend to be manual, time-consuming, and error-prone. To solve these problems, a building construction cost estimation model based on ontology representation and reasoning is established, which includes three major components, i.e., concept model ontology, work item ontology, and construction condition ontology. Using this model, the cost estimation information is modeled into OWL axioms and SWRL rules that leverage the semantically rich ontology representation to reason about cost estimation. Based on OWL axioms and SWRL rules, the cost estimation information can be translated into a set of concept models, work items, and construction conditions associated with the specific construction conditions. The proposed method is demonstrated in Protégé 3.4.8 through case studies based on the Measurement Specifications of Building Construction and Decoration Engineering taken from GB 50500-2013 (the Chinese national mandatory specifications). Finally, this research discusses the limitations of the proposed method and future research directions. The proposed method can help a building construction cost estimator extract information more easily and quickly. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Novel QoS Provisioning Algorithm for Optimal Multicast Routing in WMNs
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 38; doi:10.3390/fi8030038 -
Abstract
The problem of optimal multicast routing in Wireless Mess Networks (WMNs) with Quality-of-Service (QoS) provisioning, which is Non-Deterministic Polynomial (NP)-complete, is studied in this paper. The existing algorithms are not very efficient or effective. In order to find an approximation optimal solution for
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The problem of optimal multicast routing in Wireless Mess Networks (WMNs) with Quality-of-Service (QoS) provisioning, which is Non-Deterministic Polynomial (NP)-complete, is studied in this paper. The existing algorithms are not very efficient or effective. In order to find an approximation optimal solution for WMNs in feasible time from source to the set of destination nodes, combining the previous deterministic algorithm with the well-known Minimum Path Cost Heuristic (MPH) algorithm, a novel multicast heuristic approximation (NMHA) algorithm with QoS provisioning is proposed in this paper to deal with it. The theoretical validations for the proposed algorithm are presented to show its performance and efficiency. After that, the random static networks with different destination nodes are evaluated. Simulations in these networks show that the proposed algorithm can achieve the approximate optimal solution with the approximation factor of 2(1 + ε)(1 − 1/q) and the time complexity of O(qmn2τK−1). Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Instagram and WhatsApp in Health and Healthcare: An Overview
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 37; doi:10.3390/fi8030037 -
Abstract
Instagram and WhatsApp are two social media and networking services introduced in 2010. They are currently subsidiaries of Facebook, Inc., California, USA. Using evidence from the published literature and case reports indexed in PubMed and other sources, we present an overview of the
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Instagram and WhatsApp are two social media and networking services introduced in 2010. They are currently subsidiaries of Facebook, Inc., California, USA. Using evidence from the published literature and case reports indexed in PubMed and other sources, we present an overview of the various applications of Instagram and WhatsApp in health and healthcare. We also briefly describe the main issues surrounding the uses of these two apps in health and medicine. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
A Survey of Game Theoretic Approaches to Modelling Decision-Making in Information Warfare Scenarios
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 34; doi:10.3390/fi8030034 -
Abstract
Our increasing dependence on information technologies and autonomous systems has escalated international concern for information- and cyber-security in the face of politically, socially and religiously motivated cyber-attacks. Information warfare tactics that interfere with the flow of information can challenge the survival of individuals
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Our increasing dependence on information technologies and autonomous systems has escalated international concern for information- and cyber-security in the face of politically, socially and religiously motivated cyber-attacks. Information warfare tactics that interfere with the flow of information can challenge the survival of individuals and groups. It is increasingly important that both humans and machines can make decisions that ensure the trustworthiness of information, communication and autonomous systems. Subsequently, an important research direction is concerned with modelling decision-making processes. One approach to this involves modelling decision-making scenarios as games using game theory. This paper presents a survey of information warfare literature, with the purpose of identifying games that model different types of information warfare operations. Our contribution is a systematic identification and classification of information warfare games, as a basis for modelling decision-making by humans and machines in such scenarios. We also present a taxonomy of games that map to information warfare and cyber crime problems as a precursor to future research on decision-making in such scenarios. We identify and discuss open research questions including the role of behavioural game theory in modelling human decision making and the role of machine decision-making in information warfare scenarios. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Applying the Action-Research Method to Develop a Methodology to Reduce the Installation and Maintenance Times of Information Security Management Systems
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 36; doi:10.3390/fi8030036 -
Abstract
Society is increasingly dependent on Information Security Management Systems (ISMS), and having these kind of systems has become vital for the development of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs). However, these companies require ISMS that have been adapted to their special features and have
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Society is increasingly dependent on Information Security Management Systems (ISMS), and having these kind of systems has become vital for the development of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs). However, these companies require ISMS that have been adapted to their special features and have been optimized as regards the resources needed to deploy and maintain them, with very low costs and short implementation periods. This paper discusses the different cycles carried out using the ‘Action Research (AR)’ method, which have allowed the development of a security management methodology for SMEs that is able to automate processes and reduce the implementation time of the ISMS. Full article
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