Future Internet2015, 7(4), 465-483; doi:10.3390/fi7040465 (registering DOI) - published 26 November 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: How to distribute and coordinate tasks in cloud computing is a challenging issue, in order to get optimal resource utilization and avoid overload. In this paper, we present a novel approach on load balancing via ant colony optimization (ACO), for balancing the workload in a cloud computing platform dynamically. Two strategies, forward-backward ant mechanism and max-min rules, are introduced to quickly find out the candidate nodes for load balancing. We formulate pheromone initialization and pheromone update according to physical resources under the cloud computing environment, including pheromone evaporation, incentive, and punishment rules, etc. Combined with task execution prediction, we define the moving probability of ants in two ways, that is, whether the forward ant meets the backward ant, or not, in the neighbor node, with the aim of accelerating searching processes. Simulations illustrate that the proposed strategy can not only provide dynamic load balancing for cloud computing with less searching time, but can also get high network performance under medium and heavily loaded contexts.
Future Internet2015, 7(4), 445-464; doi:10.3390/fi7040445 - published 24 November 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is crumbling, partially due to the lack of a strong understanding of how encryption actually works, but also due to weaknesses in its implementation. This paper outlines an Internet storage technique using secret sharing methods which could be used to overcome the problems inherent with PKI, while supporting new types of architectures incorporating such things as automated failover and break-glass data recovery. The paper outlines a novel architecture: SECRET, which supports a robust cloud-based infrastructure with in-built privacy and failover. In order to understand the performance overhead of SECRET, the paper outlines a range of experiments that investigate the overhead of this and other secret share methods.
Future Internet2015, 7(4), 429-444; doi:10.3390/fi7040429 - published 17 November 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: There is not a unique definition of “empowerment”, nevertheless the idea that it involves, on the one hand, people having control over their own lives and, on the other, some social aspects seems to be a common characteristic. Most authors recognize three levels of empowerment: individual, group, and community level, which are interconnected and changes at one level influence the others. Enhancing individual competence and self-esteem has a direct effect on the control of one’s own life and, in turn, on the social components of empowerment. In this paper we present Smart Angel, a project that aims at creating a network involving families, caregivers, experts, and tutors, as well as the final users and their friends, based on a mobile cloud system in support of both everyday living and urban mobility for people with medium-mild intellectual disabilities, with particular attention to the Down syndrome. The system can be seen as a tool to empower its users to be more independent and therefore increasing their possibility to have an active role in their life and an active participation to the community.
Future Internet2015, 7(4), 405-428; doi:10.3390/fi7040405 - published 27 October 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Trust is one of the most important factors that influence the successful application of network service environments, such as e-commerce, wireless sensor networks, and online social networks. Computation models associated with trust and reputation have been paid special attention in both computer societies and service science in recent years. In this paper, a dynamical computation model of reputation for B2C e-commerce is proposed. Firstly, conceptions associated with trust and reputation are introduced, and the mathematical formula of trust for B2C e-commerce is given. Then a dynamical computation model of reputation is further proposed based on the conception of trust and the relationship between trust and reputation. In the proposed model, classical varying processes of reputation of B2C e-commerce are discussed. Furthermore, the iterative trust and reputation computation models are formulated via a set of difference equations based on the closed-loop feedback mechanism. Finally, a group of numerical simulation experiments are performed to illustrate the proposed model of trust and reputation. Experimental results show that the proposed model is effective in simulating the dynamical processes of trust and reputation for B2C e-commerce.
Future Internet2015, 7(4), 393-404; doi:10.3390/fi7040393 - published 23 October 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Digital watermarking aims at protecting multimedia content by hiding into it some data that can be used for such purposes as, for example, intellectual property protection or integrity control. Sometimes, the owner of an image would prefer to not transmit, publish, or hand to a cloud service the original image, but rather an encrypted version of it. Encrypted images allow for less embedding room with respect to their unencrypted counterparts, as there is less spatial correlation to leverage upon. An architecture for embedding as payload the digital signature of an encrypted image, by means of a reversible watermarking technique, is presented in this work. A noteworthy point is the use of an identity-based cryptosystem to avoid certificate management and improve performance. In addition, the use of IBS-1, a recently proposed signature scheme, allows for a reduction in the size of the signature.
Future Internet2015, 7(4), 372-392; doi:10.3390/fi7040372 - published 1 October 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Automated food and drink recognition methods connect to cloud-based lookup databases (e.g., food item barcodes, previously identified food images, or previously classified NIR (Near Infrared) spectra of food and drink items databases) to match and identify a scanned food or drink item, and report the results back to the user. However, these methods remain of limited value if we cannot further reasonwith the identified food and drink items, ingredients and quantities/portion sizes in a proposed meal in various contexts; i.e., understand from a semantic perspective their types, properties, and interrelationships in the context of a given user’s health condition and preferences. In this paper, we review a number of “food ontologies”, such as the Food Products Ontology/FOODpedia (by Kolchin and Zamula), Open Food Facts (by Gigandetet al.), FoodWiki (Ontology-driven Mobile Safe Food Consumption System by Celik), FOODS-Diabetes Edition (A Food-Oriented Ontology-Driven System by Snae Namahoot and Bruckner), and AGROVOC multilingual agricultural thesaurus (by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization—FAO). These food ontologies, with appropriate modifications (or as a basis, to be added to and further expanded) and together with other relevant non-food ontologies (e.g., about diet-sensitive disease conditions), can supplement the aforementioned lookup databases to enable progression from the mere automated identification of food and drinks in our meals to a more useful application whereby we can automatically reasonwith the identified food and drink items and their details (quantities and ingredients/bromatological composition) in order to better assist users in making the correct, healthy food and drink choices for their particular health condition, age, body weight/BMI (Body Mass Index), lifestyle and preferences, etc.