Open AccessArticle
A Reliability Calculation Method for Web Service Composition Using Fuzzy Reasoning Colored Petri Nets and Its Application on Supercomputing Cloud Platform
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 47; doi:10.3390/fi8040047 -
Abstract
In order to develop a Supercomputing Cloud Platform (SCP) prototype system using Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Petri nets, we researched some technologies for Web service composition. Specifically, in this paper, we propose a reliability calculation method for Web service compositions, which uses [...] Read more.
In order to develop a Supercomputing Cloud Platform (SCP) prototype system using Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Petri nets, we researched some technologies for Web service composition. Specifically, in this paper, we propose a reliability calculation method for Web service compositions, which uses Fuzzy Reasoning Colored Petri Net (FRCPN) to verify the Web service compositions. We put forward a definition of semantic threshold similarity for Web services and a formal definition of FRCPN. We analyzed five kinds of production rules in FRCPN, and applied our method to the SCP prototype. We obtained the reliability value of the end Web service as an indicator of the overall reliability of the FRCPN. The method can test the activity of FRCPN. Experimental results show that the reliability of the Web service composition has a correlation with the number of Web services and the range of reliability transition values. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Data-Enabled Design for Social Change: Two Case Studies
Future Internet 2016, 8(4), 46; doi:10.3390/fi8040046 -
Abstract
Smartness in contemporary society implies the use of massive data to improve the experience of people with connected services and products. The use of big data to collect information about people’s behaviours opens a new concept of “user-centred design” where users are [...] Read more.
Smartness in contemporary society implies the use of massive data to improve the experience of people with connected services and products. The use of big data to collect information about people’s behaviours opens a new concept of “user-centred design” where users are remotely monitored, observed and profiled. In this paradigm, users are considered as sources of information and their participation in the design process is limited to a role of data generators. There is a need to identify methodologies that actively involve people and communities at the core of ecosystems of interconnected products and services. Our contribution to designing for social innovation in ecosystems relies on developing new methods and approaches to transform data-driven design using a participatory and co-creative data-enabled design approach. To this end, we present one of the methods we have developed to design “smart” systems called Experiential Design Landscapes (EDL), and two sample projects, Social Stairs and [Y]our Perspective. Social Stairs faces the topic of behaviour change mediated by sensing technologies. [Y]our Perspective is a social platform to sustain processes of deliberative democracy. Both projects exemplify our approach to data-enabled design as a social proactive participatory design approach. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Cyber Conflicts as a New Global Threat
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 45; doi:10.3390/fi8030045 -
Abstract
In this paper, an attempt is made to analyze the potential threats and consequences of cyber conflicts and, in particular, the risks of a global cyber conflict. The material is based on a comprehensive analysis of the nature of cyber conflict and [...] Read more.
In this paper, an attempt is made to analyze the potential threats and consequences of cyber conflicts and, in particular, the risks of a global cyber conflict. The material is based on a comprehensive analysis of the nature of cyber conflict and its elements from both technical and societal points of view. The approach used in the paper considers the societal component as an essential part of cyber conflicts, allowing basics of cyber conflicts often disregarded by researchers and the public to be highlighted. Finally, the conclusion offers an opportunity to consider cyber conflict as the most advanced form of modern warfare, which imposes the most serious threat and whose effect could be comparable to weapons of mass destruction. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Introduction to the Special Issue on Human–Computer Interaction and the Social Web
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 43; doi:10.3390/fi8030043 -
Abstract In recent years, both Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and the Social Web (also known as Web 2.0) have had exponential growth.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Main Issues in Big Data Security
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 44; doi:10.3390/fi8030044 -
Abstract
Data is currently one of the most important assets for companies in every field. The continuous growth in the importance and volume of data has created a new problem: it cannot be handled by traditional analysis techniques. This problem was, therefore, solved [...] Read more.
Data is currently one of the most important assets for companies in every field. The continuous growth in the importance and volume of data has created a new problem: it cannot be handled by traditional analysis techniques. This problem was, therefore, solved through the creation of a new paradigm: Big Data. However, Big Data originated new issues related not only to the volume or the variety of the data, but also to data security and privacy. In order to obtain a full perspective of the problem, we decided to carry out an investigation with the objective of highlighting the main issues regarding Big Data security, and also the solutions proposed by the scientific community to solve them. In this paper, we explain the results obtained after applying a systematic mapping study to security in the Big Data ecosystem. It is almost impossible to carry out detailed research into the entire topic of security, and the outcome of this research is, therefore, a big picture of the main problems related to security in a Big Data system, along with the principal solutions to them proposed by the research community. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Supporting Elderly People by Ad Hoc Generated Mobile Applications Based on Vocal Interaction
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 42; doi:10.3390/fi8030042 -
Abstract
Mobile devices can be exploited for enabling people to interact with Internet of Things (IoT) services. The MicroApp Generator [1] is a service-composition tool for supporting the generation of mobile applications directly on the mobile device. The user interacts with [...] Read more.
Mobile devices can be exploited for enabling people to interact with Internet of Things (IoT) services. The MicroApp Generator [1] is a service-composition tool for supporting the generation of mobile applications directly on the mobile device. The user interacts with the generated app by using the traditional touch-based interaction. This kind of interaction often is not suitable for elderly and special needs people that cannot see or touch the screen. In this paper, we extend the MicroApp Generator with an interaction approach enabling a user to interact with the generated app only by using his voice, which can be very useful to let special needs people live at home. To this aim, once the mobile app has been generated and executed, the system analyses and describes the user interface, listens to the user speech and performs the associated actions. A preliminary analysis has been conducted to assess the user experience of the proposed approach by a sample composed of elderly users by using a questionnaire as a research instrument. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coproduction as an Approach to Technology-Mediated Citizen Participation in Emergency Management
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 41; doi:10.3390/fi8030041 -
Abstract
Social and mobile computing open up new possibilities for integrating citizens’ information, knowledge, and social capital in emergency management (EM). This participation can improve the capacity of local agencies to respond to unexpected events by involving citizens not only as first line [...] Read more.
Social and mobile computing open up new possibilities for integrating citizens’ information, knowledge, and social capital in emergency management (EM). This participation can improve the capacity of local agencies to respond to unexpected events by involving citizens not only as first line informants, but also as first responders. This participation could contribute to build resilient communities aware of the risks they are threatened by and able to mobilize their social capital to cope with them and, in turn, decrease the impact of threats and hazards. However for this participation to be possible organizations in charge of EM need to realize that involving citizens does not interfere with their protocols and that citizens are a valuable asset that can contribute to the EM process with specific skills and capabilities. In this paper we discuss the design challenges of using social and mobile computing to move to a more participatory EM process that starts by empowering both citizens and organizations in a coproduction service envisioned as a partnership effort. As an example, we describe a case study of a participatory design approach that involved professional EM workers and decision makers in an effort to understand the challenges of using technology-based solutions to integrate citizen skills and capabilities in their operation protocols. The case study made it possible to identify specific roles that citizens might play in a crisis or disaster and to envision scenarios were technologies could be used to integrate their skills into the EM process. In this way the paper contributes to the roles and the scenarios of theory-building about coproduction in EM services. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sensor Observation Service API for Providing Gridded Climate Data to Agricultural Applications
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 40; doi:10.3390/fi8030040 -
Abstract
We developed a mechanism for seamlessly providing weather data and long-term historical climate data from a gridded data source through an international standard web API, which was the Sensor Observation Service (SOS) defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The National Agriculture [...] Read more.
We developed a mechanism for seamlessly providing weather data and long-term historical climate data from a gridded data source through an international standard web API, which was the Sensor Observation Service (SOS) defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO) Japan has been providing gridded climate data consisting of nine daily meteorological variables, which are average, minimum, maximum of air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration, solar radiant exposure, downward longwave radiation, precipitation and wind speed for 35 years covering Japan. The gridded data structure is quite useful for spatial analysis, such as developing crop suitability maps and monitoring regional crop development. Individual farmers, however, make decisions using historical climate information and forecasts for an incoming cropping season of their farms. In this regard, climate data at a point-based structure are convenient for application development to support farmers’ decisions. Through the proposed mechanism in this paper, the agricultural applications and analysis can request point-based climate data from a gridded data source through the standard API with no need to deal with the complicated hierarchical data structure of the gridded climate data source. Clients can easily obtain data and metadata by only accessing the service endpoint. The mechanism also provides several web bindings and data encodings for the clients’ convenience. Caching, including the pre-caching mechanism, was developed and evaluated to secure an effective response time. The mechanism enhances the accessibility and usability of the gridded weather data source, as well as SOS API for agricultural applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ontology-Based Representation and Reasoning in Building Construction Cost Estimation in China
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 39; doi:10.3390/fi8030039 -
Abstract
Cost estimation is one of the most critical tasks for building construction project management. The existing building construction cost estimation methods of many countries, including China, require information from several sources, including material, labor, and equipment, and tend to be manual, time-consuming, [...] Read more.
Cost estimation is one of the most critical tasks for building construction project management. The existing building construction cost estimation methods of many countries, including China, require information from several sources, including material, labor, and equipment, and tend to be manual, time-consuming, and error-prone. To solve these problems, a building construction cost estimation model based on ontology representation and reasoning is established, which includes three major components, i.e., concept model ontology, work item ontology, and construction condition ontology. Using this model, the cost estimation information is modeled into OWL axioms and SWRL rules that leverage the semantically rich ontology representation to reason about cost estimation. Based on OWL axioms and SWRL rules, the cost estimation information can be translated into a set of concept models, work items, and construction conditions associated with the specific construction conditions. The proposed method is demonstrated in Protégé 3.4.8 through case studies based on the Measurement Specifications of Building Construction and Decoration Engineering taken from GB 50500-2013 (the Chinese national mandatory specifications). Finally, this research discusses the limitations of the proposed method and future research directions. The proposed method can help a building construction cost estimator extract information more easily and quickly. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Novel QoS Provisioning Algorithm for Optimal Multicast Routing in WMNs
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 38; doi:10.3390/fi8030038 -
Abstract
The problem of optimal multicast routing in Wireless Mess Networks (WMNs) with Quality-of-Service (QoS) provisioning, which is Non-Deterministic Polynomial (NP)-complete, is studied in this paper. The existing algorithms are not very efficient or effective. In order to find an approximation optimal solution [...] Read more.
The problem of optimal multicast routing in Wireless Mess Networks (WMNs) with Quality-of-Service (QoS) provisioning, which is Non-Deterministic Polynomial (NP)-complete, is studied in this paper. The existing algorithms are not very efficient or effective. In order to find an approximation optimal solution for WMNs in feasible time from source to the set of destination nodes, combining the previous deterministic algorithm with the well-known Minimum Path Cost Heuristic (MPH) algorithm, a novel multicast heuristic approximation (NMHA) algorithm with QoS provisioning is proposed in this paper to deal with it. The theoretical validations for the proposed algorithm are presented to show its performance and efficiency. After that, the random static networks with different destination nodes are evaluated. Simulations in these networks show that the proposed algorithm can achieve the approximate optimal solution with the approximation factor of 2(1 + ε)(1 − 1/q) and the time complexity of O(qmn2τK−1). Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Instagram and WhatsApp in Health and Healthcare: An Overview
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 37; doi:10.3390/fi8030037 -
Abstract
Instagram and WhatsApp are two social media and networking services introduced in 2010. They are currently subsidiaries of Facebook, Inc., California, USA. Using evidence from the published literature and case reports indexed in PubMed and other sources, we present an overview of [...] Read more.
Instagram and WhatsApp are two social media and networking services introduced in 2010. They are currently subsidiaries of Facebook, Inc., California, USA. Using evidence from the published literature and case reports indexed in PubMed and other sources, we present an overview of the various applications of Instagram and WhatsApp in health and healthcare. We also briefly describe the main issues surrounding the uses of these two apps in health and medicine. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
A Survey of Game Theoretic Approaches to Modelling Decision-Making in Information Warfare Scenarios
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 34; doi:10.3390/fi8030034 -
Abstract
Our increasing dependence on information technologies and autonomous systems has escalated international concern for information- and cyber-security in the face of politically, socially and religiously motivated cyber-attacks. Information warfare tactics that interfere with the flow of information can challenge the survival of [...] Read more.
Our increasing dependence on information technologies and autonomous systems has escalated international concern for information- and cyber-security in the face of politically, socially and religiously motivated cyber-attacks. Information warfare tactics that interfere with the flow of information can challenge the survival of individuals and groups. It is increasingly important that both humans and machines can make decisions that ensure the trustworthiness of information, communication and autonomous systems. Subsequently, an important research direction is concerned with modelling decision-making processes. One approach to this involves modelling decision-making scenarios as games using game theory. This paper presents a survey of information warfare literature, with the purpose of identifying games that model different types of information warfare operations. Our contribution is a systematic identification and classification of information warfare games, as a basis for modelling decision-making by humans and machines in such scenarios. We also present a taxonomy of games that map to information warfare and cyber crime problems as a precursor to future research on decision-making in such scenarios. We identify and discuss open research questions including the role of behavioural game theory in modelling human decision making and the role of machine decision-making in information warfare scenarios. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Applying the Action-Research Method to Develop a Methodology to Reduce the Installation and Maintenance Times of Information Security Management Systems
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 36; doi:10.3390/fi8030036 -
Abstract
Society is increasingly dependent on Information Security Management Systems (ISMS), and having these kind of systems has become vital for the development of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs). However, these companies require ISMS that have been adapted to their special features and [...] Read more.
Society is increasingly dependent on Information Security Management Systems (ISMS), and having these kind of systems has become vital for the development of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs). However, these companies require ISMS that have been adapted to their special features and have been optimized as regards the resources needed to deploy and maintain them, with very low costs and short implementation periods. This paper discusses the different cycles carried out using the ‘Action Research (AR)’ method, which have allowed the development of a security management methodology for SMEs that is able to automate processes and reduce the implementation time of the ISMS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Turning Video Resource Management into Cloud Computing
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 35; doi:10.3390/fi8030035 -
Abstract
Big data makes cloud computing more and more popular in various fields. Video resources are very useful and important to education, security monitoring, and so on. However, issues of their huge volumes, complex data types, inefficient processing performance, weak security, and long [...] Read more.
Big data makes cloud computing more and more popular in various fields. Video resources are very useful and important to education, security monitoring, and so on. However, issues of their huge volumes, complex data types, inefficient processing performance, weak security, and long times for loading pose challenges in video resource management. The Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) is an open-source framework, which can provide cloud-based platforms and presents an opportunity for solving these problems. This paper presents video resource management architecture based on HDFS to provide a uniform framework and a five-layer model for standardizing the current various algorithms and applications. The architecture, basic model, and key algorithms are designed for turning video resources into a cloud computing environment. The design was tested by establishing a simulation system prototype. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Dynamic Complexity of the Cyber Security Ecosystem of Colombia
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 33; doi:10.3390/fi8030033 -
Abstract
This paper presents two proposals for the analysis of the complexity of the Cyber security Ecosystem of Colombia (CEC). This analysis shows the available knowledge about entities engaged in cyber security in Colombia and the relationships between them, which allow an understanding [...] Read more.
This paper presents two proposals for the analysis of the complexity of the Cyber security Ecosystem of Colombia (CEC). This analysis shows the available knowledge about entities engaged in cyber security in Colombia and the relationships between them, which allow an understanding of the synergy between the different existing components. The complexity of the CEC is detailed from the view of the Influence Diagram of System Dynamics and the Domain Diagram of Software Engineering. The resulting model makes cyber security evident as a strategic component of national security. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Case Study: IBM Watson Analytics Cloud Platform as Analytics-as-a-Service System for Heart Failure Early Detection
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 32; doi:10.3390/fi8030032 -
Abstract
In the recent years the progress in technology and the increasing availability of fast connections have produced a migration of functionalities in Information Technologies services, from static servers to distributed technologies. This article describes the main tools available on the market to [...] Read more.
In the recent years the progress in technology and the increasing availability of fast connections have produced a migration of functionalities in Information Technologies services, from static servers to distributed technologies. This article describes the main tools available on the market to perform Analytics as a Service (AaaS) using a cloud platform. It is also described a use case of IBM Watson Analytics, a cloud system for data analytics, applied to the following research scope: detecting the presence or absence of Heart Failure disease using nothing more than the electrocardiographic signal, in particular through the analysis of Heart Rate Variability. The obtained results are comparable with those coming from the literature, in terms of accuracy and predictive power. Advantages and drawbacks of cloud versus static approaches are discussed in the last sections. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Conflict and Computation on Wikipedia: A Finite-State Machine Analysis of Editor Interactions
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 31; doi:10.3390/fi8030031 -
Abstract
What is the boundary between a vigorous argument and a breakdown of relations? What drives a group of individuals across it? Taking Wikipedia as a test case, we use a hidden Markov model to approximate the computational structure and social grammar of [...] Read more.
What is the boundary between a vigorous argument and a breakdown of relations? What drives a group of individuals across it? Taking Wikipedia as a test case, we use a hidden Markov model to approximate the computational structure and social grammar of more than a decade of cooperation and conflict among its editors. Across a wide range of pages, we discover a bursty war/peace structure where the systems can become trapped, sometimes for months, in a computational subspace associated with significantly higher levels of conflict-tracking “revert” actions. Distinct patterns of behavior characterize the lower-conflict subspace, including tit-for-tat reversion. While a fraction of the transitions between these subspaces are associated with top-down actions taken by administrators, the effects are weak. Surprisingly, we find no statistical signal that transitions are associated with the appearance of particularly anti-social users, and only weak association with significant news events outside the system. These findings are consistent with transitions being driven by decentralized processes with no clear locus of control. Models of belief revision in the presence of a common resource for information-sharing predict the existence of two distinct phases: a disordered high-conflict phase, and a frozen phase with spontaneously-broken symmetry. The bistability we observe empirically may be a consequence of editor turn-over, which drives the system to a critical point between them. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Importance of the Security Culture in SMEs as Regards the Correct Management of the Security of Their Assets
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 30; doi:10.3390/fi8030030 -
Abstract
The information society is increasingly more dependent on Information Security Management Systems (ISMSs), and the availability of these kinds of systems is now vital for the development of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs). However, these companies require ISMSs that have been adapted [...] Read more.
The information society is increasingly more dependent on Information Security Management Systems (ISMSs), and the availability of these kinds of systems is now vital for the development of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs). However, these companies require ISMSs that have been adapted to their special features, and which are optimized as regards the resources needed to deploy and maintain them. This article shows how important the security culture within ISMSs is for SMEs, and how the concept of security culture has been introduced into a security management methodology (MARISMA is a Methodology for “Information Security Management System in SMEs” developed by the Sicaman Nuevas Tecnologías Company, Research Group GSyA and Alarcos of the University of Castilla-La Mancha.) for SMEs. This model is currently being directly applied to real cases, thus allowing a steady improvement to be made to its implementation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Windows Based Data Sets for Evaluation of Robustness of Host Based Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) to Zero-Day and Stealth Attacks
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 29; doi:10.3390/fi8030029 -
Abstract
The Windows Operating System (OS) is the most popular desktop OS in the world, as it has the majority market share of both servers and personal computing necessities. However, as its default signature-based security measures are ineffectual for detecting zero-day and stealth [...] Read more.
The Windows Operating System (OS) is the most popular desktop OS in the world, as it has the majority market share of both servers and personal computing necessities. However, as its default signature-based security measures are ineffectual for detecting zero-day and stealth attacks, it needs an intelligent Host-based Intrusion Detection System (HIDS). Unfortunately, a comprehensive data set that reflects the modern Windows OS’s normal and attack surfaces is not publicly available. To fill this gap, in this paper two open data sets generated by the cyber security department of the Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA) are introduced, namely: Australian Defence Force Academy Windows Data Set (ADFA-WD); and Australian Defence Force Academy Windows Data Set with a Stealth Attacks Addendum (ADFA-WD: SAA). Statistical analysis results based on these data sets show that, due to the low foot prints of modern attacks and high similarity of normal and attacked data, both these data sets are complex, and highly intelligent Host based Anomaly Detection Systems (HADS) design will be required. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Substring Position Search over Encrypted Cloud Data Supporting Efficient Multi-User Setup
Future Internet 2016, 8(3), 28; doi:10.3390/fi8030028 -
Abstract
Existing Searchable Encryption (SE) solutions are able to handle simple Boolean search queries, such as single or multi-keyword queries, but cannot handle substring search queries over encrypted data that also involve identifying the position of the substring within the document. These types [...] Read more.
Existing Searchable Encryption (SE) solutions are able to handle simple Boolean search queries, such as single or multi-keyword queries, but cannot handle substring search queries over encrypted data that also involve identifying the position of the substring within the document. These types of queries are relevant in areas such as searching DNA data. In this paper, we propose a tree-based Substring Position Searchable Symmetric Encryption (SSP-SSE) to overcome the existing gap. Our solution efficiently finds occurrences of a given substring over encrypted cloud data. Specifically, our construction uses the position heap tree data structure and achieves asymptotic efficiency comparable to that of an unencrypted position heap tree. Our encryption takes O(kn) time, and the resulting ciphertext is of size O(kn), where k is a security parameter and n is the size of stored data. The search takes O(m2+occ) time and three rounds of communication, where m is the length of the queried substring and occ is the number of occurrences of the substring in the document collection. We prove that the proposed scheme is secure against chosen-query attacks that involve an adaptive adversary. Finally, we extend SSP-SSE to the multi-user setting where an arbitrary group of cloud users can submit substring queries to search the encrypted data. Full article
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