Open AccessArticle
Spices in a Product Affect Emotions: A Study with an Extruded Snack Product
Foods 2017, 6(8), 70; doi:10.3390/foods6080070 -
Abstract
Food commonly is associated with emotion. The study was designed to determine if a spice blend (cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, and cloves) high in antioxidants can evoke changes in consumer emotions. This was an exploratory study to determine the effects of these four spices
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Food commonly is associated with emotion. The study was designed to determine if a spice blend (cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, and cloves) high in antioxidants can evoke changes in consumer emotions. This was an exploratory study to determine the effects of these four spices on emotions. Three extruded, dry snack products containing 0, 4, or a 5% spice blend were tested. One day of hedonic and just-about-right evaluations (n = 100), followed by three days of emotion testing were conducted. A human clinical trial (n = 10), using the control and the 4% samples, measured total antioxidant capacity and blood glucose levels. The emotion “Satisfied” increased significantly in the 5% blend, showing an effect of a higher spice content. The 4% blend was significantly higher in total antioxidant capacity than the baseline, but blood glucose levels were not significantly different. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Application of Surfactant Micelle-Entrapped Eugenol for Prevention of Growth of the Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Ground Beef
Foods 2017, 6(8), 69; doi:10.3390/foods6080069 -
Abstract
Beef safety may be compromised by O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) contamination. The capacity of surfactant micelles loaded with the plant-derived antimicrobial eugenol to reduce STEC on beef trimmings that were later ground and refrigerated for five days at 5
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Beef safety may be compromised by O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) contamination. The capacity of surfactant micelles loaded with the plant-derived antimicrobial eugenol to reduce STEC on beef trimmings that were later ground and refrigerated for five days at 5 ± 1 °C was tested to determine their utility for beef safety protection. STEC-inoculated trimmings were treated with free eugenol, micelle-encapsulated eugenol, 2% lactic acid (55 °C), sterile distilled water (25 °C), or left untreated (control). Following treatment, trimmings were coarse-ground and stored aerobically at 5 ± 1 °C. Ground beef was then sampled for STEC immediately post-grinding, and again at three and five days of storage. STEC minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in liquid medium for free eugenol and 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-loaded micelles were 0.5% and 0.125%, respectively. STEC numbers on beef trimmings treated by sterile water (6.5 log10 CFU/g), free eugenol (6.5 log10 CFU/g), micelle-loaded eugenol (6.4 log10 CFU/g), and lactic acid (6.4 log10 CFU/g) did not differ compared to untreated controls (6.6 log10 CFU/g) (p = 0.982). Conversely, STEC were significantly reduced by refrigerated storage (0.2 and 0.3 log10 CFU/g at three and five days of storage, respectively) (p = 0.014). Antimicrobial treatments did not significantly decontaminate ground beef, indicating their low utility for beef safety protection. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Antioxidants in Food: The Significance of Characterisation, Identification, Chemical and Biological Assays in Determining the Role of Antioxidants in Food
Foods 2017, 6(8), 68; doi:10.3390/foods6080068 -
Abstract
There is a vast research literature on the antioxidant activity in food. [...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sodium Chloride and Its Influence on the Aroma Profile of Yeasted Bread
Foods 2017, 6(8), 66; doi:10.3390/foods6080066 -
Abstract
The impact of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the yeast activity in bread dough and its influence on the aroma profile of the baked bread was investigated. Key aroma compounds in the bread samples were analysed by two-dimensional high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in
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The impact of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the yeast activity in bread dough and its influence on the aroma profile of the baked bread was investigated. Key aroma compounds in the bread samples were analysed by two-dimensional high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in combination with solvent-assisted flavour evaporation distillation. High-sensitivity proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry was used to detect and quantify 2-phenylethanol in the headspace of the bread dough during fermentation. The analyses revealed significant (p < 0.05) changes in the aroma compounds 2-phenylethanol, (E)-2-nonenal, and 2,4-(E,E)-decadienal. Descriptive sensory analysis and discriminating triangle tests revealed that significant differences were only determinable in samples with different yeast levels but not samples with different NaCl concentrations. This indicates that a reduction in NaCl does not significantly influence the aroma profile of yeasted bread at levels above the odour thresholds of the relevant compounds, thus consumers in general cannot detect an altered odour profile of low‑salt bread crumb. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Controlling Blown Pack Spoilage Using Anti-Microbial Packaging
Foods 2017, 6(8), 67; doi:10.3390/foods6080067 -
Abstract
Active (anti-microbial) packaging was prepared using three different formulations; Auranta FV; Inbac-MDA and sodium octanoate at two concentrations (2.5 and 3.5 times their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, the lowest concentration that will inhibit the visible growth of the organisms) against Clostridium estertheticum,
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Active (anti-microbial) packaging was prepared using three different formulations; Auranta FV; Inbac-MDA and sodium octanoate at two concentrations (2.5 and 3.5 times their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, the lowest concentration that will inhibit the visible growth of the organisms) against Clostridium estertheticum, DSMZ 8809). Inoculated beef samples were packaged using the active packaging and monitored for 100 days storage at 2 °C for blown pack spoilage. The time to the onset of blown pack spoilage was significantly (p < 0.01) increased using Auranta FV and sodium octanoate (caprylic acid sodium salt) at both concentrations. Moreover, sodium octanoate packs had significantly (p < 0.01) delayed blown pack spoilage as compared to Auranta FV. It was therefore concluded that Auranta FV or sodium octanoate, incorporated into the packaging materials used for vacuum packaged beef, would inhibit blown pack spoilage and in the case of the latter, well beyond the 42 days storage period currently required for beef primals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Baker’s Yeast Production on Date Extract Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)
Foods 2017, 6(8), 64; doi:10.3390/foods6080064 -
Abstract
This work aims to study the production of the biomass of S. cerevisiae on an optimized medium using date extract as the only carbon source in order to obtain a good yield of the biomass. The biomass production was carried out according to
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This work aims to study the production of the biomass of S. cerevisiae on an optimized medium using date extract as the only carbon source in order to obtain a good yield of the biomass. The biomass production was carried out according to the central composite experimental design (CCD) as a response surface methodology using Minitab 16 software. Indeed, under optimal biomass production conditions, temperature (32.9 °C), pH (5.35) and the total reducing sugar extracted from dates (70.93 g/L), S. cerevisiae produced 40 g/L of their biomass in an Erlenmeyer after only 16 h of fermentation. The kinetic performance of the S. cerevisiae strain was investigated with three unstructured models i.e., Monod, Verhulst, and Tessier. The conformity of the experimental data fitted showed a good consistency with Monod and Tessier models with R2 = 0.945 and 0.979, respectively. An excellent adequacy was noted in the case of the Verhulst model (R2 = 0.981). The values of kinetic parameters (Ks, Xm, μm, p and q) calculated by the Excel software, confirmed that Monod and Verhulst were suitable models, in contrast, the Tessier model was inappropriately fitted with the experimental data due to the illogical value of Ks (−9.434). The profiles prediction of the biomass production with the Verhulst model, and that of the substrate consumption using Leudeking Piret model over time, demonstrated a good agreement between the simulation models and the experimental data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nutritional Guidelines and Fermented Food Frameworks
Foods 2017, 6(8), 65; doi:10.3390/foods6080065 -
Abstract
This review examines different nutritional guidelines, some case studies, and provides insights and discrepancies, in the regulatory framework of Food Safety Management of some of the world’s economies. There are thousands of fermented foods and beverages, although the intention was not to review
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This review examines different nutritional guidelines, some case studies, and provides insights and discrepancies, in the regulatory framework of Food Safety Management of some of the world’s economies. There are thousands of fermented foods and beverages, although the intention was not to review them but check their traditional and cultural value, and if they are still lacking to be classed as a category on different national food guides. For understanding the inconsistencies in claims of concerning fermented foods among various regulatory systems, each legal system should be considered unique. Fermented foods and beverages have long been a part of the human diet, and with further supplementation of probiotic microbes, in some cases, they offer nutritional and health attributes worthy of recommendation of regular consumption. Despite the impact of fermented foods and beverages on gastro-intestinal wellbeing and diseases, their many health benefits or recommended consumption has not been widely translated to global inclusion in world food guidelines. In general, the approach of the legal systems is broadly consistent and their structures may be presented under different formats. African traditional fermented products are briefly mentioned enhancing some recorded adverse effects. Knowing the general benefits of traditional and supplemented fermented foods, they should be a daily item on most national food guides. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Utility of Milk Coagulant Enzyme of Moringa oleifera Seed in Cheese Production from Soy and Skim Milks
Foods 2017, 6(8), 62; doi:10.3390/foods6080062 -
Abstract
In this study, the potential use of Moringa oleifera as a clotting agent of different types of milk (whole, skim, and soy milk) was investigated. M. oleifera seed extract showed high milk-clotting activity followed by flower extract. Specific clotting activity of seed extract
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In this study, the potential use of Moringa oleifera as a clotting agent of different types of milk (whole, skim, and soy milk) was investigated. M. oleifera seed extract showed high milk-clotting activity followed by flower extract. Specific clotting activity of seed extract was 200 times higher than that of flower extract. Seed extract is composed by four main protein bands (43.6, 32.2, 19.4, and 16.3 kDa). Caseinolytic activity assessed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and tyrosine quantification, showed a high extent of casein degradation using M. oleifera seed extract. Milk soy cheese was soft and creamy, while skim milk cheese was hard and crumbly. According to these results, it is concluded that seed extract of M. oleifera generates suitable milk clotting activity for cheesemaking. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report comparative data of M. oleifera milk clotting activity between different types of soy milk. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale)
Foods 2017, 6(8), 63; doi:10.3390/foods6080063 -
Abstract
Garlic, Alliumsativum, is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale, has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated
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Garlic, Alliumsativum, is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale, has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum, cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Seasonal Variation in Fat Quality and Conjugated Linoleic Acid Content of Dairy Products from the Tropics: Evidence of Potential Impact on Human Health
Foods 2017, 6(8), 61; doi:10.3390/foods6080061 -
Abstract
Seasonal variation in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content and atherogenicity index (AI) of retail dairy products (whole milk, butter, and prato, a soft yellow cheese) from Brazil was investigated. CLA content of dairy products ranged from 0.55 to 1.53 g CLA/100 g
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Seasonal variation in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content and atherogenicity index (AI) of retail dairy products (whole milk, butter, and prato, a soft yellow cheese) from Brazil was investigated. CLA content of dairy products ranged from 0.55 to 1.53 g CLA/100 g fatty acids and was on average 25% higher during the rainy season compared to the dry season. Dairy products from the rainy season also had lower AI levels, indicating a lower risk of causing cardiovascular disease in consumers. This seasonality led to estimated seasonal variations of milk fat quality consumed by the population of southeastern Brazil, meaning 15% and 19% variation in daily intake of CLA and AI values, respectively. Dietary consumption of CLA (g/day) was greater in the rainy season, despite higher intake of dairy products during the dry season. We show that dairy products produced during the rainy season in Brazil are expected to be more beneficial to human health than are those produced during the dry season. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rheological, Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Golden Berry (Physalis peruviana L.) after Convective and Microwave Drying
Foods 2017, 6(8), 60; doi:10.3390/foods6080060 -
Abstract
Studies on methods for fixing foods (with a slight loss of bioactive compounds) and obtaining attractive products are important with respect to current technology. The drying process allows for a product with highly bioactive properties. Drying of Physalis fruit was carried out in
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Studies on methods for fixing foods (with a slight loss of bioactive compounds) and obtaining attractive products are important with respect to current technology. The drying process allows for a product with highly bioactive properties. Drying of Physalis fruit was carried out in a conventional manner, and in a microwave under reduced pressure at 120 W and 480 W. After drying, the fruits were subjected to strength and rheological tests. Water activity, content of carotenoids and polyphenols and antioxidant activity as well as colour were also examined. The study showed that Physalis is a difficult material for drying. The best results were obtained using microwave drying at a power of 480 W. Physalis fruit microwave-dried by this method is characterized by higher resistance to compression than the fruit dried by convection. Dried fruit obtained in this way was characterized by higher contents of bioactive compounds, better antioxidant properties, and at the same time the lowest water activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties on Meat Homogenates of Essential Oils Obtained from Four Thymus Species Achieved from Organic Growth
Foods 2017, 6(8), 59; doi:10.3390/foods6080059 -
Abstract
In the organic food industry, no chemical additives can be used to prevent microbial spoilage. As a consequence, the essential oils (EOs) obtained from organic aromatic herbs and spices are gaining interest for their potential as preservatives. The organic Thymus zygis, Thymus
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In the organic food industry, no chemical additives can be used to prevent microbial spoilage. As a consequence, the essential oils (EOs) obtained from organic aromatic herbs and spices are gaining interest for their potential as preservatives. The organic Thymus zygis, Thymus mastichina, Thymus capitatus and Thymus vulgaris EOs, which are common in Spain and widely used in the meat industry, could be used as antibacterial agents in food preservation. The aims of this study were to determine (i) the antibacterial activity using, as culture medium, extracts from meat homogenates (minced beef, cooked ham or dry-cured sausage); and (ii) the antioxidant properties of organic EOs obtained from T. zygis, T. mastichina, T. capitatus and T. vulgaris. The antioxidant activity was determined using different methodologies, such as Ferrous ion-chelating ability assay, Ferric reducing antioxidant power, ABTS radical cation (ABTS+) scavenging activity assay and 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method; while the antibacterial activity was determined against 10 bacteria using the agar diffusion method in different meat model media. All EOs analyzed, at all concentrations, showed antioxidant activity. T. capitatus and T. zygis EOs were the most active. The IC50 values, for DPPH, ABTS and FIC assays were 0.60, 1.41 and 4.44 mg/mL, respectively, for T. capitatus whilst for T. zygis were 0.90, 2.07 and 4.95 mg/mL, respectively. Regarding antibacterial activity, T. zygis and T. capitatus EOs, in all culture media, had the highest inhibition halos against all tested bacteria. In general terms, the antibacterial activity of all EOs assayed was higher in the medium made with minced beef than with the medium elaborated with cooked ham or dry-cured sausage. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical and Sensorial Characterization of Honey Spirits
Foods 2017, 6(8), 58; doi:10.3390/foods6080058 -
Abstract
Distilled spirits are usually made from fermented sugar-based materials, such as wines or fermented fruits, but other products can be used, namely berries or honey. In this work, an evaluation of honey spirits is done based on its physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fourteen
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Distilled spirits are usually made from fermented sugar-based materials, such as wines or fermented fruits, but other products can be used, namely berries or honey. In this work, an evaluation of honey spirits is done based on its physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fourteen honey spirit samples of different brands of honey spirit were purchased at the market and from artisan Portuguese producers. Several analytical determinations, namely alcoholic strength, dry matter, density, total acidity, chromatic characteristics, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and higher alcohols were done to characterize all samples. The results pointed out several differences in physicochemical composition of samples. In general, these drinks are characterized by an alcohol strength between 37.4% and 53.0% and a low methanol content, quite null for most samples. Samples with higher ethanol content corresponded to the artisanal samples. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were also observed in the volatile composition and chromatic characteristics suggesting different production technologies. A first list of sensory attributes was obtained for this beverage. Therefore, further research must be done in order to characterize this spirit drink, which has gained market value. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Astaxanthin-Rich Microalgae “Haematococcus pluvialis” and Wholemeal Flours Incorporation in Improving the Physical and Functional Properties of Cookies
Foods 2017, 6(8), 57; doi:10.3390/foods6080057 -
Abstract
Marine-based food supplements can improve human nutrition. In an effort to modulate glycaemic response and enhance nutritional aspects, marine-derived algal food rich in astaxanthin was used in the formulation of a model food (wholemeal cookie). Astaxanthin substitution of cookies made from three flours
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Marine-based food supplements can improve human nutrition. In an effort to modulate glycaemic response and enhance nutritional aspects, marine-derived algal food rich in astaxanthin was used in the formulation of a model food (wholemeal cookie). Astaxanthin substitution of cookies made from three flours (wheat, barley and oat) demonstrated a significant reduction in the rate of glucose released during in vitro digestion together with an increase in the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity of the food. The significantly (p < 0.005) lower free glucose release was observed from cookies with 15% astaxanthin, followed by 10% and then 5% astaxanthin in comparison with control cookies of each flour. Total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) value also notably increased with increase in astaxanthin content. The results evidence the potential use of microalgae to enhance the bioactive compounds and lower the glycaemic response of wholemeal flour cookie. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect on Quality Characteristics of Tomatoes Grown Under Well-Watered and Drought Stress Conditions
Foods 2017, 6(8), 56; doi:10.3390/foods6080056 -
Abstract
Tomatoes are one of the most nutritionally and economically important crops in New Zealand and around the world. Tomatoes require large amounts of water to grow well and are adversely affected by drought stress. However, few studies have evaluated the physicochemical characteristics of
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Tomatoes are one of the most nutritionally and economically important crops in New Zealand and around the world. Tomatoes require large amounts of water to grow well and are adversely affected by drought stress. However, few studies have evaluated the physicochemical characteristics of commercial tomatoes grown under water stress conditions. Four tomato cultivars (Incas, Marmande, Scoresby Dwarf, and Window Box Red) were grown in a greenhouse under well-watered and drought stress conditions and the tomatoes were harvested when ripe. The physicochemical properties and antioxidant contents of the fruits were compared. There were significant differences between cultivars in quality characteristics—such as dry matter, total soluble solids, and pH parameters—but there were no differences in the quality characteristics between the two treatments of the fruits (p > 0.05); however, there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the antioxidant compositions (lycopene, total phenolics, and flavonoids) and antioxidant activities (DPPH and ABTS) of the fruits of both cultivars and treatments. Overall, these results indicated that tomatoes increased their bioactive compounds without changing any quality characteristics when exposed to water stress conditions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Investigation of Sensory Specific Satiety and Food Size When Children Consume a Whole or Diced Vegetable
Foods 2017, 6(7), 55; doi:10.3390/foods6070055 -
Abstract
Children’s vegetable consumption is often lower than that needed to promote optimal health and development, and practical approaches for increasing vegetable consumption are needed. Sensory Specific Satiety (SSS) reduces the liking and consumption of a consumed food over the course of an eating
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Children’s vegetable consumption is often lower than that needed to promote optimal health and development, and practical approaches for increasing vegetable consumption are needed. Sensory Specific Satiety (SSS) reduces the liking and consumption of a consumed food over the course of an eating occasion and is an important factor in meal termination. The present study aimed to investigate the development of SSS when children ate vegetables of different sizes. The absence of SSS would be an encouraging sign to provide children more vegetables during a meal. Seventy-two children (33 boys, ages 8.8 ± 1.5 years) were recruited from Australian primary schools. Participating children consumed either whole or diced carrots for a maximum period of 10-min from a 500 g box. Cucumber was used as a control vegetable. Children’s liking of carrots and cucumber was measured with a 5-point child friendly hedonic scale prior to and after carrot consumption. In comparison to cucumber, liking for neither diced (p = 0.57) nor whole carrots (p = 0.18) changed during ad libitum consumption of carrots, indicating that SSS did not occur. However, children (n = 36) who finished eating carrots within the 10-min time limit, spent more time eating the whole carrots compared to the diced carrots (p < 0.05), which tended to result in a higher consumption of whole carrots (p < 0.06). This suggests that, in order to increase vegetable consumption, it is better to present children whole carrots than diced carrots. These findings might aid in the development of strategies to promote children’s greater vegetable consumption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nutrient and Total Polyphenol Contents of Dark Green Leafy Vegetables, and Estimation of Their Iron Bioaccessibility Using the In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model
Foods 2017, 6(7), 54; doi:10.3390/foods6070054 -
Abstract
Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLVs) are considered as important sources of iron and vitamin A. However, iron concentration may not indicate bioaccessibility. The objectives of this study were to compare the nutrient content and iron bioaccessibility of five sweet potato cultivars, including three
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Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLVs) are considered as important sources of iron and vitamin A. However, iron concentration may not indicate bioaccessibility. The objectives of this study were to compare the nutrient content and iron bioaccessibility of five sweet potato cultivars, including three orange-fleshed types, with other commonly consumed DGLVs in Ghana: cocoyam, corchorus, baobab, kenaf and moringa, using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Moringa had the highest numbers of iron absorption enhancers on an “as-would-be-eaten” basis, β-carotene (14169 μg/100 g; p < 0.05) and ascorbic acid (46.30 mg/100 g; p < 0.001), and the best iron bioaccessibility (10.28 ng ferritin/mg protein). Baobab and an orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves had a lower iron bioaccessibility (6.51 and 6.76 ng ferritin/mg protein, respectively) compared with that of moringa, although these three greens contained similar (p > 0.05) iron (averaging 4.18 mg/100 g) and β-carotene levels. The ascorbic acid concentration of 25.50 mg/100 g in the cooked baobab did not enhance the iron bioaccessibility. Baobab and the orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves contained the highest levels of total polyphenols (1646.75 and 506.95 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents/100 g, respectively; p < 0.001). This suggests that iron bioaccessibility in greens cannot be inferred based on the mineral concentration. Based on the similarity of the iron bioaccessibility of the sweet potato leaves and cocoyam leaf (a widely-promoted “nutritious” DGLV in Ghana), the former greens have an added advantage of increasing the dietary intake of provitamin A. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Future Protein Supply and Demand: Strategies and Factors Influencing a Sustainable Equilibrium
Foods 2017, 6(7), 53; doi:10.3390/foods6070053 -
Abstract
A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world’s resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative
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A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world’s resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative environmental impact, generating greenhouse gas emissions, requiring more water and more land. Addressing this “perfect storm” will necessitate more sustainable production of existing sources of protein as well as alternative sources for direct human consumption. This paper outlines some potential demand scenarios and provides an overview of selected existing and novel protein sources in terms of their potential to sustainably deliver protein for the future, considering drivers and challenges relating to nutritional, environmental, and technological and market/consumer domains. It concludes that different factors influence the potential of existing and novel sources. Existing protein sources are primarily hindered by their negative environmental impacts with some concerns around health. However, they offer social and economic benefits, and have a high level of consumer acceptance. Furthermore, recent research emphasizes the role of livestock as part of the solution to greenhouse gas emissions, and indicates that animal-based protein has an important role as part of a sustainable diet and as a contributor to food security. Novel proteins require the development of new value chains, and attention to issues such as production costs, food safety, scalability and consumer acceptance. Furthermore, positive environmental impacts cannot be assumed with novel protein sources and care must be taken to ensure that comparisons between novel and existing protein sources are valid. Greater alignment of political forces, and the involvement of wider stakeholders in a governance role, as well as development/commercialization role, is required to address both sources of protein and ensure food security. Full article
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Open AccessReview
An Overview of Seafood Supply, Food Safety and Regulation in New South Wales, Australia
Foods 2017, 6(7), 52; doi:10.3390/foods6070052 -
Abstract
Seafood consumption is increasing in Australia, especially in New South Wales (NSW). Average per capita seafood consumption in NSW is higher than the national average. Seafood supply in NSW comes from domestic (wild catch and aquaculture) and overseas (seafood imports) sources. The contribution
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Seafood consumption is increasing in Australia, especially in New South Wales (NSW). Average per capita seafood consumption in NSW is higher than the national average. Seafood supply in NSW comes from domestic (wild catch and aquaculture) and overseas (seafood imports) sources. The contribution of wild catch and aquaculture in domestic seafood production (2012–2013) was 73.42% and 26.52%, respectively. Seafood-associated foodborne illness outbreaks are not common and on an average four outbreaks occur each year in NSW. Most of the outbreaks in 2015 and 2016 were related to ciguatera poisoning. The regulation of the seafood industry and the management of food safety is an example of the coordinated work of multiple government agencies and organizations in which NSW Food Authority is responsible for managing the overall risks through the Seafood Safety Scheme. Overall, seafood supply in NSW is of high quality and poses low food safety risk to consumers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Μetal Uptake by Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Irrigated with Water Polluted with Chromium and Nickel
Foods 2017, 6(7), 51; doi:10.3390/foods6070051 -
Abstract
The water aquifers of the regions of Asopos River in Viotia and Messapia in Evia (Greece) have been contaminated with hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and bivalent nickel (Ni (II)). Given that these areas are the two biggest tuber producing regions of Greece, in
[...] Read more.
The water aquifers of the regions of Asopos River in Viotia and Messapia in Evia (Greece) have been contaminated with hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and bivalent nickel (Ni (II)). Given that these areas are the two biggest tuber producing regions of Greece, in our previous work, the cross-contamination of the food chain with these two heavy metals was quantified. In the present study, the potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cultivation in these regions is evaluated. The scope of our study was to investigate the uptake of chromium and nickel by sunflower, in a greenhouse experiment. The study included two cultivation periods of plants in six irrigation lines with different levels of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) ranging from 0 μg/L (control) to 10,000 μg/L. In all plant parts, statistically significant increased levels of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) were found when compared to control ones. Also, a positive correlation, both for Cr and Ni, between levels of heavy metals in irrigation water and plants was observed. Following European Food Safety Authority recommendations, the obtained oil was evaluated as safe for consumption, therefore, sunflower cultivation could be a valid bioremediation solution for the Asopos and Messapia regions. Full article
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