Open AccessEditorial
Understanding the Fresh Produce Safety Challenges
Foods 2017, 6(3), 23; doi:10.3390/foods6030023 -
Abstract Consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is important for a balanced diet and healthy life-style. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on Ready-to-Eat Meats Using Bacteriocin Mixtures Based on Mode-of-Action
Foods 2017, 6(3), 22; doi:10.3390/foods6030022 -
Abstract
Bacteriocin-producing (Bac+) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) comprising selected strains of Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Enterococcus faecium and thailandicus were examined for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes during hotdog challenge studies. The Bac+ strains, or their
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Bacteriocin-producing (Bac+) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) comprising selected strains of Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Enterococcus faecium and thailandicus were examined for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes during hotdog challenge studies. The Bac+ strains, or their cell-free supernatants (CFS), were grouped according to mode-of-action (MOA) as determined from prior studies. Making a mixture of as many MOAs as possible is a practical way to obtain a potent natural antimicrobial mixture to address L. monocytogenes contamination of RTE meat products (i.e., hotdogs). The heat resistance of the bacteriocins allowed the use of pasteurization to eliminate residual producer cells for use as post-process surface application or their inclusion into hotdog meat emulsion during cooking. The use of Bac+ LAB comprising 3× MOAs directly as co-inoculants on hotdogs was not effective at inhibiting L. monocytogenes. However, the use of multiple MOA Bac+ CFS mixtures in a variety of trials demonstrated the effectiveness of this approach by showing a >2-log decrease of L. monocytogenes in treatment samples and 6–7 log difference vs. controls. These data suggest that surface application of multiple mode-of-action bacteriocin mixtures can provide for an Alternative 2, and possibly Alternative 1, process category as specified by USDA-FSIS for control of L. monocytogenes on RTE meat products. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Produce: Outbreaks, Prevalence and Contamination Levels
Foods 2017, 6(3), 21; doi:10.3390/foods6030021 -
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous
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Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous system infections, as well as abortion in pregnant women. Generally, processed ready-to-eat and cold-stored meat and dairy products are considered high-risk foods for L. monocytogenes infections that cause human illness (listeriosis). However, recently, several listeriosis outbreaks have been linked to fresh produce contamination around the world. Additionally, many studies have detected L. monocytogenes in fresh produce samples and even in some minimally processed vegetables. Thus L. monocytogenes may contaminate fresh produce if present in the growing environment (soil and water). Prevention of biofilm formation is an important control measure to reduce the prevalence and survival of L. monocytogenes in growing environments and on fresh produce. This article specifically focuses on fresh produce–associated listeriosis outbreaks, prevalence in growing environments, contamination levels of fresh produce, and associated fresh produce safety challenges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis
Foods 2017, 6(3), 20; doi:10.3390/foods6030020 -
Abstract
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the
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Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%–37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%–29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%–16.9%), (−)-borneol (2.1%–6.9%), (−)-camphor (0.7%–7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%–4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary
Red Yeast Rice
Foods 2017, 6(3), 19; doi:10.3390/foods6030019 -
Abstract
Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin
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Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
Study Approach of Antioxidant Properties in Foods: Update and Considerations
Foods 2017, 6(3), 17; doi:10.3390/foods6030017 -
Abstract
The assessment of interactions between natural antioxidants and other food matrix components represents the main step in the investigation of total antioxidant properties, in terms of potential health benefits. The diversity of chemical structures of natural compounds, besides their possible interactions, as well
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The assessment of interactions between natural antioxidants and other food matrix components represents the main step in the investigation of total antioxidant properties, in terms of potential health benefits. The diversity of chemical structures of natural compounds, besides their possible interactions, as well as the biological role and different modes of action makes it difficult to assess a single and reliable procedure for the evaluation of antioxidant activity. Today, much attention is given to the distinction between extractable and non-extractable antioxidants as a key tool in the description of the nutritional and healthy properties of food matrices. The starting point for the investigation of antioxidant effects of food extracts is the analysis of antioxidant properties of pure compounds and their interactions. Another complementary approach could be represented by the study of how different biologically active compound-rich extracts contribute to the total antioxidant capacity. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Occurrence and Antioxidant Activity of C1 Degradation Products in Cocoa
Foods 2017, 6(3), 18; doi:10.3390/foods6030018 -
Abstract
Procyanidin C1 is by far the main flavan-3-ol trimer in cocoa. Like other flavan-3-ols, however, it suffers a lot during heat treatments such as roasting. RP-HPLCHRMS/MS(ESI(−))analysis applied to an aqueous model medium containing commercial procyanidin C1 proved that epimerization is the main reaction
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Procyanidin C1 is by far the main flavan-3-ol trimer in cocoa. Like other flavan-3-ols, however, it suffers a lot during heat treatments such as roasting. RP-HPLCHRMS/MS(ESI(−))analysis applied to an aqueous model medium containing commercial procyanidin C1 proved that epimerization is the main reaction involved in its degradation (accounting for 62% of degradation products). In addition to depolymerization, cocoa procyanidin C1 also proved sensitive to oxidation, yielding once- and twice-oxidized dimers. No chemical oligomer involving the native trimer was found in either model medium or cocoa, while two C1 isomers were retrieved. C1 degradation products exhibited antioxidant activity (monitored by RPHPLC-Online TEAC) close to that of C1 (when expressed in µM TE/mg·kg−1). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Can the Palatability of Healthy, Satiety-Promoting Foods Increase with Repeated Exposure during Weight Loss?
Foods 2017, 6(2), 16; doi:10.3390/foods6020016 -
Abstract
Repeated exposure to sugary, fatty, and salty foods often enhances their appeal. However, it is unknown if exposure influences learned palatability of foods typically promoted as part of a healthy diet. We tested whether the palatability of pulse containing foods provided during a
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Repeated exposure to sugary, fatty, and salty foods often enhances their appeal. However, it is unknown if exposure influences learned palatability of foods typically promoted as part of a healthy diet. We tested whether the palatability of pulse containing foods provided during a weight loss intervention which were particularly high in fiber and low in energy density would increase with repeated exposure. At weeks 0, 3, and 6, participants (n = 42; body mass index (BMI) 31.2 ± 4.3 kg/m2) were given a test battery of 28 foods, approximately half which had been provided as part of the intervention, while the remaining half were not foods provided as part of the intervention. In addition, about half of each of the foods (provided as part or not provided as part of the intervention) contained pulses. Participants rated the taste, appearance, odor, and texture pleasantness of each food, and an overall flavor pleasantness score was calculated as the mean of these four scores. Linear mixed model analyses showed an exposure type by week interaction effect for taste, texture and overall flavor pleasantness indicating statistically significant increases in ratings of provided foods in taste and texture from weeks 0 to 3 and 0 to 6, and overall flavor from weeks 0 to 6. Repeated exposure to these foods, whether they contained pulses or not, resulted in a ~4% increase in pleasantness ratings. The long-term clinical relevance of this small increase requires further study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Fat-Reduced Puff Pastry Using Response Surface Methodology
Foods 2017, 6(2), 15; doi:10.3390/foods6020015 -
Abstract
Puff pastry is a high-fat bakery product with fat playing a key role, both during the production process and in the final pastry. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was successfully used to evaluate puff pastry quality for the development of a
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Puff pastry is a high-fat bakery product with fat playing a key role, both during the production process and in the final pastry. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was successfully used to evaluate puff pastry quality for the development of a fat-reduced version. The technological parameters modified included the level of roll-in fat, the number of fat layers (50–200) and the final thickness (1.0–3.5 mm) of the laminated dough. Quality characteristics of puff pastry were measured using the Texture Analyzer with an attached Extended Craft Knife (ECK) and Multiple Puncture Probe (MPP), the VolScan and the C-Cell imaging system. The number of fat layers and final dough thickness, in combination with the amount of roll-in fat, had a significant impact on the internal and external structural quality parameters. With technological changes alone, a fat-reduced (≥30%) puff pastry was developed. The qualities of fat-reduced puff pastries were comparable to conventional full-fat (33 wt %) products. A sensory acceptance test revealed no significant differences in taste of fatness or ‘liking of mouthfeel’. Additionally, the fat-reduced puff pastry resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation to ‘liking of flavor’ and overall acceptance by the assessors. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effect of Different Flours on the Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural, Furfural, and Dicarbonyl Compounds in Heated Glucose/Flour Systems
Foods 2017, 6(2), 14; doi:10.3390/foods6020014 -
Abstract
Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic
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Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of the Geographic Origin of Parmigiano Reggiano (P.D.O.) Cheeses Deploying Non-Targeted Mass Spectrometry and Chemometrics
Foods 2017, 6(2), 13; doi:10.3390/foods6020013 -
Abstract
Parmigiano Reggiano is an Italian product with a protected designation of origin (P.D.O.). It is an aged hard cheese made from raw milk. P.D.O. products are protected by European regulations. Approximately 3 million wheels are produced each year, and the product attracts a
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Parmigiano Reggiano is an Italian product with a protected designation of origin (P.D.O.). It is an aged hard cheese made from raw milk. P.D.O. products are protected by European regulations. Approximately 3 million wheels are produced each year, and the product attracts a relevant premium price due to its quality and all around the world well known typicity. Due to the high demand that exceeds the production, several fraudulent products can be found on the market. The rate of fraud is estimated between 20% and 40%, the latter predominantly in the grated form. We have developed a non-target method based on Liquid Chomatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) that allows the discrimination of Parmigiano Reggiano from non-authentic products with milk from different geographical origins or products, where other aspects of the production process do not comply with the rules laid down in the production specifications for Parmeggiano Reggiano. Based on a database created with authentic samples provided by the Consortium of Parmigiano Reggiano Cheese, a reliable classification model was built. The overall classification capabilities of this non-targeted method was verified on 32 grated cheese samples. The classification was 87.5% accurate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Soaking and Roasting on the Physicochemical and Pasting Properties of Soybean Flour
Foods 2017, 6(2), 12; doi:10.3390/foods6020012 -
Abstract
The effects of soaking and roasting on the physicochemical and pasting properties of soybean flour were evaluated. Soybean seeds were soaked overnight in tap water for 0–72 h, hand dehulled, dried, and part of the sample was roasted. Roasted and unroasted soy beans
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The effects of soaking and roasting on the physicochemical and pasting properties of soybean flour were evaluated. Soybean seeds were soaked overnight in tap water for 0–72 h, hand dehulled, dried, and part of the sample was roasted. Roasted and unroasted soy beans were milled into flour and analyzed. The results showed that the total carbohydrates (22.8–27.9 g/100 g), the ash content (3.5–3.6 g/100 g), and the total polyphenols (0.29–0.51 g/100g) did not significantly change during both the soaking and roasting processes. However, the total proteins (35.8–46.0 g/100 g) and lipid contents (21.4–29.5 g/100 g) were significantly (p < 0.05) affected only by soaking, with a decrease in total protein and an increase in lipid contents. Phytate content (0.22–0.26 g/100 g) decreased significantly (p < 0.05) only with roasting. The tannins (0.01–0.30 g/100 g) and soluble proteins (4.0–29.0 g/100 g) significantly (p < 0.05) diminished with both treatments. There was a significant increase in the least gelation concentration (20–30 g/100 mL), a decrease in the swelling power (1.3–2.0 mL/mL), and consequently, reduction in the viscosity (range peak viscosity 18–210 cP) of the flour slurry after soaking and roasting. All these qualities—needed for producing nutritious flour for infants—highlighted the efficiency of these endogenous technologies. Full article
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Open AccessErratum
Correction: Ghasemi, M., et al. Increase of Chamazulene and α-Bisabolol Contents of the Essential Oil of German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) Using Salicylic Acid Treatments under Normal and Heat Stress Conditions Foods 2016, 5, 56
Foods 2017, 6(2), 11; doi:10.3390/foods6020011 -
Abstract The authors wish to make the following corrections to their paper [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique
Foods 2017, 6(2), 10; doi:10.3390/foods6020010 -
Abstract
The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with
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The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Health-Promoting Compounds in Pigmented Thai and Wild Rice
Foods 2017, 6(1), 9; doi:10.3390/foods6010009 -
Abstract
Organic pigmented Thai rice and wild rice are commonly available in specialized Italian markets and food shops, and they are gaining popularity among consumers demanding healthy foods. Indeed, the typical colour of kernels, which is the unique characteristic of pigmented cereals, is due
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Organic pigmented Thai rice and wild rice are commonly available in specialized Italian markets and food shops, and they are gaining popularity among consumers demanding healthy foods. Indeed, the typical colour of kernels, which is the unique characteristic of pigmented cereals, is due to the accumulation of pigments that are also responsible for a number of healthy effects. The aim of this study was to provide a portrait of two organic pigmented Thai rice varieties from Thailand and one wild rice variety from Canada, imported into Italy and at Italian consumers’ disposal. To this end, the proximate composition and the content of health-promoting compounds, such as carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, were determined in Thai and wild rice. Moreover, the effect of cooking on phytochemicals was assessed, in order to provide reliable data on the dietary intake of bioactive compounds by samples under investigation. Results show that studied samples have a content of phytochemicals higher than white rice and comparable to other cereals. The cooking process determined a decrease of bioactive compounds in all varieties under investigation. However, some samples were found more resistant to cooking stress, and some phytochemicals were little affected by this process. Therefore, pigmented Thai and wild rice may represent a valuable source of healthy compounds and an alternative to other wholesome foods required by consumers. Full article
Open AccessReview
Reducing Postharvest Losses during Storage of Grain Crops to Strengthen Food Security in Developing Countries
Foods 2017, 6(1), 8; doi:10.3390/foods6010008 -
Abstract
While fulfilling the food demand of an increasing population remains a major global concern, more than one-third of food is lost or wasted in postharvest operations. Reducing the postharvest losses, especially in developing countries, could be a sustainable solution to increase food availability,
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While fulfilling the food demand of an increasing population remains a major global concern, more than one-third of food is lost or wasted in postharvest operations. Reducing the postharvest losses, especially in developing countries, could be a sustainable solution to increase food availability, reduce pressure on natural resources, eliminate hunger and improve farmers’ livelihoods. Cereal grains are the basis of staple food in most of the developing nations, and account for the maximum postharvest losses on a calorific basis among all agricultural commodities. As much as 50%–60% cereal grains can be lost during the storage stage due only to the lack of technical inefficiency. Use of scientific storage methods can reduce these losses to as low as 1%–2%. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of the grain postharvest losses in developing countries, the status and causes of storage losses and discusses the technological interventions to reduce these losses. The basics of hermetic storage, various technology options, and their effectiveness on several crops in different localities are discussed in detail. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Extraction, Identification and Photo-Physical Characterization of Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) Carotenoids
Foods 2017, 6(1), 4; doi:10.3390/foods6010004 -
Abstract
Carotenoid pigments were extracted and purified from persimmon fruits using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). Eleven pigments were isolated and five of them were clearly identified as all-trans-violaxanthine, all-trans-lutein, all-trans-zeaxanthin all-trans-cryptoxanthin and all-trans-β-carotene. Absorption
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Carotenoid pigments were extracted and purified from persimmon fruits using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). Eleven pigments were isolated and five of them were clearly identified as all-trans-violaxanthine, all-trans-lutein, all-trans-zeaxanthin all-trans-cryptoxanthin and all-trans-β-carotene. Absorption and fluorescence spectra were recorded. To evaluate the potential of 1O2 quenching of the purified carotenoids, we used a monocarboxylic porphyrin (P1COOH) as the photosensitizer to produce 1O2. The rate constants of singlet oxygen quenching (Kq) were determined by monitoring the near-infrared (1270 nm) luminescence of 1O2 produced by photosensitizer excitation. The lifetime of singlet oxygen was measured in the presence of increasing concentrations of carotenoids in hexane. Recorded Kq values show that all-trans-β-cryptoxanthin, all-trans-β-carotene, all-trans-lycopene and all-trans-zeaxanthin quench singlet oxygen in hexane efficiently (associated Kq values of 1.6 × 109, 1.3 × 109, 1.1 × 109 and 1.1 × 109 M−1·s−1, respectively). The efficiency of singlet oxygen quenching of β-cryptoxanthin can thus change the consideration that β-carotene and lycopene are the most efficient singlet oxygen quenchers acting as catalysts for deactivation of the harmful 1O2. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Theoretical Analysis for Assessing the Variability of Secondary Model Thermal Inactivation Kinetic Parameters
Foods 2017, 6(1), 7; doi:10.3390/foods6010007 -
Abstract
Traditionally, for the determination of the kinetic parameters of thermal inactivation of a heat labile substance, an appropriate index is selected and its change is measured over time at a series of constant temperatures. The rate of this change is described through an
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Traditionally, for the determination of the kinetic parameters of thermal inactivation of a heat labile substance, an appropriate index is selected and its change is measured over time at a series of constant temperatures. The rate of this change is described through an appropriate primary model and a secondary model is applied to assess the impact of temperature. By this approach, the confidence intervals of the estimates of the rate constants are not taken into account. Consequently, the calculated variability of the secondary model parameters can be significantly lower than the actual variability. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the influence of the variability of the primary model parameters in establishing the confidence intervals of the secondary model parameters. Using a Monte Carlo technique and assuming normally distributed DT values (parameter associated with a primary inactivation model), the error propagating on the DTref and z-values (secondary model parameters) was assessed. When DT confidence intervals were broad, the secondary model’s parameter variability was appreciably high and could not be adequately estimated through the traditional deterministic approach that does not take into account the variation on the DT values. In such cases, the proposed methodology was essential for realistic estimations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Availability and Antioxidant Capacity of Maillard Compounds Present in Bread Crust: Studies in Caco-2 Cells
Foods 2017, 6(1), 5; doi:10.3390/foods6010005 -
Abstract
Bread crust is one of the major contributors to the intake of Maillard reaction products (MRP). MRP improve the organoleptic properties of foods and can provide biological actions such as antioxidant properties. The transport and availability of Amadori compounds (measured as furosine) and
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Bread crust is one of the major contributors to the intake of Maillard reaction products (MRP). MRP improve the organoleptic properties of foods and can provide biological actions such as antioxidant properties. The transport and availability of Amadori compounds (measured as furosine) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)—early and intermediary MRP—from enzymatically digested bread crust (BC) and from its soluble low-molecular weight (LMW) and high-molecular weight (HMW) fractions were investigated in the Caco-2 cell line. The absorption of the early and final MRP pool was tested by measuring the absorbance recovery (280 and 420 nm). The ability of soluble BC or its fractions to lessen the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was examined. Amadori compounds (furosine) were transported across Caco-2 cell monolayers from the soluble BC in percentages ranging between 40% and 56%; the lower amount of the compound supplied, the higher transport rate. However, HMF transport rate (35%) was unaffected by the initial amount of the compound. Amadori compounds and HMF contained in the LMW fraction were more efficiently transported than those present in the HMW fraction, suggesting improved absorption when supplied as free forms or linked to LMW compounds. Absorbance recovery at 280 nm was higher from the LMW fraction, whereas higher recovery was detected for the HMW fraction at 420 nm. The digested BC—but not its isolated fractions—was able to significantly reduce ROS production at basal conditions and after subjecting cells to an oxidant. A clear positive action of BC on the antioxidant defence is manifested, seemingly attributable to the combined presence of soluble LMW and HMW products. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Foods in 2016
Foods 2017, 6(1), 6; doi:10.3390/foods6010006 -
Abstract The editors of Foods would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article