Foods2014, 3(2), 238-249; doi:10.3390/foods3020238 (doi registration under processing) - published online 17 April 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Coratina cultivar-based olives are very common among 100% Italian extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs). Often, the very spicy character of this cultivar, mostly due to the high polyphenols concentration, requires blending with other “sweetener” oils. In this work, monovarietal EVOO samples from the Coratina cultivar (Apulia, Italy) were investigated and compared with monovarietal EVOO from native or recently introduced Apulian (Italy) cultivars (Ogliarola Garganica, Ogliarola Barese, Cima di Mola, Peranzana, Picholine), from Calabria (Italy) (Carolea and Rossanese) and from other Mediterranean countries, such as Spain (Picual) and Greece (Kalamata and Koroneiki) by 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis (principal component analysis (PCA)). In this regard, NMR signals could allow a first qualitative evaluation of the chemical composition of EVOO and, in particular, of its minor component content (phenols and aldehydes), an intrinsic behavior of EVOO taste, related to the cultivar and geographical origins. Moreover, this study offers an opportunity to address blended EVOOs tastes by using oils from a specific region or country of origin.
Foods2014, 3(2), 217-237; doi:10.3390/foods3020217 (doi registration under processing) - published online 17 April 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The present review deals with analysis of the proteome of animal and plant-derived food stuff, as well as of non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages. The survey is limited to those systems investigated with the help of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries, a most powerful technique allowing access to low- to very-low-abundance proteins, i.e., to those proteins that might characterize univocally a given biological system and, in the case of commercial food preparations, attest their genuineness or adulteration. Among animal foods the analysis of cow’s and donkey’s milk is reported, together with the proteomic composition of egg white and yolk, as well as of honey, considered as a hybrid between floral and animal origin. In terms of plant and fruits, a survey is offered of spinach, artichoke, banana, avocado, mango and lemon proteomics, considered as recalcitrant tissues in that small amounts of proteins are dispersed into a large body of plant polymers and metabolites. As examples of non-alcoholic beverages, ginger ale, coconut milk, a cola drink, almond milk and orgeat syrup are analyzed. Finally, the trace proteome of white and red wines, beer and aperitifs is reported, with the aim of tracing the industrial manipulations and herbal usage prior to their commercialization.
Foods2014, 3(2), 208-216; doi:10.3390/foods3020208 - published online 16 April 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Craved foods are thought to be those that are well liked but restricted. However, this claim has not been demonstrated empirically. Japanese female undergraduate students (n = 144) completed a questionnaire measuring their craving for, degree of liking, and frequency of restricting their eating of 47 widely consumed foods. The food with the highest mean craving score was rice. We plotted the craving scores as a function of restriction and liking scores for the 47 foods. The students’ craving scores were strongly correlated with their restriction scores and liking scores. Thus, craved foods are those that are restricted and liked. However, in both scatter plots, rice was an outlier. While it was the most craved food, neither the restriction nor liking score of rice was very high. These findings were consistent with the view that craved foods are generally liked, yet restricted, implying the generation of food related conflicts. Interestingly, the mechanism of craving rice, the main staple in Japan, may differ from other foods.
Foods2014, 3(2), 194-207; doi:10.3390/foods3020194 - published online 8 April 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on physicochemical changes of starch due to PHS in Hard Red Spring (HRS) and Hard White Spring (HWS) wheat. The mean values of α-amylase activity of non-sprouted and sprouted wheat samples were 0.12 CU/g and 2.00 CU/g, respectively. Sprouted samples exhibited very low peak and final viscosities compared to non-sprouted wheat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that starch granules in sprouted samples were partially hydrolyzed. Based on High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) profiles, the starch from sprouted samples had relatively lower molecular weight than that of non-sprouted samples. Overall, high α-amylase activity caused changes to the physicochemical properties of the PHS damaged wheat.
Foods2014, 3(1), 176-193; doi:10.3390/foods3010176 - published online 11 March 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Milk and yogurt are important elements of the human diet, due to their high nutritional value and their appealing sensory properties. During milk processing (homogenization, pasteurization) and further yogurt manufacture (fermentation) physicochemical changes occur that affect the flavor and texture of these products while the development of standardized processes contributes to the development of desirable textural and flavor characteristics. The processes that take place during milk processing and yogurt manufacture with conventional industrial methods, as well as with innovative methods currently proposed (ultra-high pressure, ultrasound, microfluidization, pulsed electric fields), and their effect on the texture and flavor of the final conventional or probiotic/prebiotic products will be presented in this review.
Foods2014, 3(1), 162-175; doi:10.3390/foods3010162 - published online 27 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This work aims to review and showcase the unique properties of rebaudioside M as a natural non-caloric potential sweetener in food and beverage products. To determine the potential of rebaudioside M, isolated from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, as a high potency sweetener, we examined it with the Beidler Model. This model estimated that rebaudioside M is 200–350 times more potent than sucrose. Numerous sensory evaluations of rebaudioside M’s taste attributes illustrated that this steviol glycoside possesses a clean, sweet taste with a slightly bitter or licorice aftertaste. The major reaction pathways in aqueous solutions (pH 2–8) for rebaudioside M are similar to rebaudioside A. Herein we demonstrate that rebaudioside M could be of great interest to the global food industry because it is well-suited for blending and is functional in a wide variety of food and beverage products.