Abstract: Phytosanitary treatments disinfest traded commodities of potential quarantine pests. Phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments use ionizing radiation to accomplish this, and, since their international commercial debut in 2004, the use of this technology has increased by ~10% annually. Generic PI treatments (one dose is used for a group of pests and/or commodities, although not all have been tested for efficacy) are used in virtually all commercial PI treatments, and new generic PI doses are proposed, such as 300 Gy, for all insects except pupae and adult Lepidoptera (moths). Fresh fruits and vegetables tolerate PI better than any other broadly used treatment. Advances that would help facilitate the use of PI include streamlining the approval process, making the technology more accessible to potential users, lowering doses and broadening their coverage, and solving potential issues related to factors that might affect efficacy.
Abstract: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that a high dietary intake of carotenoids may offer protection against age-related macular degeneration, cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Humans cannot synthesize carotenoids and depend on their dietary intake. Major carotenoids that have been found in human plasma can be divided into two groups, carotenes (nonpolar molecules, such as β-carotene, α-carotene or lycopene) and xanthophylls (polar carotenoids that include an oxygen atom in their structure, such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin). Only two dietary carotenoids, namely lutein and zeaxanthin (macular xanthophylls), are selectively accumulated in the human retina. A third carotenoid, meso-zeaxanthin, is formed directly in the human retina from lutein. Additionally, xanthophylls account for about 70% of total carotenoids in all brain regions. Some specific properties of these polar carotenoids must explain why they, among other available carotenoids, were selected during evolution to protect the retina and brain. It is also likely that the selective uptake and deposition of macular xanthophylls in the retina and brain are enhanced by specific xanthophyll-binding proteins. We hypothesize that the high membrane solubility and preferential transmembrane orientation of macular xanthophylls distinguish them from other dietary carotenoids, enhance their chemical and physical stability in retina and brain membranes and maximize their protective action in these organs. Most importantly, xanthophylls are selectively concentrated in the most vulnerable regions of lipid bilayer membranes enriched in polyunsaturated lipids. This localization is ideal if macular xanthophylls are to act as lipid-soluble antioxidants, which is the most accepted mechanism through which lutein and zeaxanthin protect neural tissue against degenerative diseases.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to enhance the quality and sensory characteristics of bread made from frozen dough. Both white and whole-wheat flour were used. In order to improve dough strength and stability during frozen storage, samples were supplemented with vital wheat gluten at the levels of 2%, 4%, 5%, and 6% of flour weight. The characteristics of baked samples were determined through weight loss, specific volume, crust, and crumb color, texture, and sensory evaluation. Dough behavior at sub-zero temperatures was further examined for control samples and samples with 6% gluten using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), while their low molecular sugar content (fructose, glucose, sucrose) was measured using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), as it can be associated with yeast viability and dough freezing point depression. The most stable samples were those with 4% and 6% gluten (for white flour) and those with 4% and 5% gluten (for whole-wheat flour). Gluten addition raised the freezing point of dough samples and preserved low molecular sugar generation after prolonged storage.
Abstract: Triticale (× Triticosecale Whitm.) is a cereal grain with high levels of alkyresorcinols (AR) concentrated in the bran. These phenolic lipids have been shown to reduce or inhibit triglyceride accumulation and protect against oxidation; however, their biological effects have yet to be evaluated in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ARs extracted from triticale bran (TB) added to a high–fat diet on the development of obesity and oxidative stress. CF-1 mice were fed a standard low-fat (LF) diet, a 60% high-fat diet (HF) and HF diets containing either 0.5% AR extract (HF-AR), 10% TB (HF-TB), or 0.5% vitamin E (HF-VE). Energy intake, weight gain, glucose tolerance, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, and body composition were determined. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and glutathione (GSH) assays were performed on mice liver and heart tissues. The findings suggest that ARs may serve as a preventative measure against risks of oxidative damage associated with high-fat diets and obesity through their application as functional foods and neutraceuticals. Future studies aim to identify the in vivo mechanisms of action of ARs and the individual homologs involved in their favorable biological effects.
Abstract: Florida “Valencia” oranges have a wide harvest window, covering four months after first reaching the commercial maturity. However, the influence of harvest time on juice flavor chemicals is not well documented, with the exception of sugars and acids. Therefore, we investigated the major flavor chemicals, volatile (aroma), non-volatile (taste) and mouth feel attributes, in the two harvest seasons (March to June in 2007 and February to May in 2012). Bitter limonoid compounds, limonin and nomilin, decreased gradually. Out of a total of 94 volatiles, 32 increased, 47 peaked mid to late season, and 15 decreased. Juice insoluble solids and pectin content increased over the season; however, pectin methylesterase activity remained unchanged. Fruit harvested in the earlier months had lower flavor quality. Juice from later harvests had a higher sugar/acid ratio with less bitterness, while, many important aroma compounds occurred at the highest concentrations in the middle to late season, but occurred at lower concentrations at the end of the season. The results provide information to the orange juice processing industry for selection of optimal harvest time and for setting of precise blending strategy.