Abstract: Children are very vulnerable to bacterial infections and they are sometimes subject to antimicrobials for healing. The presence of resistance genes may counteract effects of antimicrobials. This work has thereby compared the amount of tetracycline resistance genes, tet(A) and tet(B), between conventional and organic meat-based or vegetable-based baby foods and used the quantification of these genes to assess the presence of tetracycline residues in these samples. Counts of bacteria harboring the tet(A) gene were higher than those containing tet(B), and there was no difference between the organic and the conventional samples. Samples with detectable amounts of tetracycline residues were also positive for the presence of tet genes, and when the presence of the genes was not detected, the samples were also negative for the presence of residues. The percentages of tetracycline residues were higher in organic samples than in conventional ones. It cannot be concluded that organic formulas are safer than conventional ones for the studied parameters.
Abstract: In this review, we overview the most important contributions of vibrational spectroscopy based techniques in the study of probiotics and lactic acid bacteria. First, we briefly introduce the fundamentals of these techniques, together with the main multivariate analytical tools used for spectral interpretation. Then, four main groups of applications are reported: (a) bacterial taxonomy (Subsection 4.1); (b) bacterial preservation (Subsection 4.2); (c) monitoring processes involving lactic acid bacteria and probiotics (Subsection 4.3); (d) imaging-based applications (Subsection 4.4). A final conclusion, underlying the potentialities of these techniques, is presented.
Abstract: The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in several types of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products and in the environment of meat processing plants. A total of 129 samples of RTE meat products and 110 samples from work surfaces and equipment were analyzed. L. monocytogenes was detected in 6 out of 35 cooked products (17.14%), 21 out of 57 raw-cured products (36.84%), and 9 out of 37 dry-cured, salted products (24.32%). The number of sample units that exceeded the food safety limit of 100 cfu/g decreased from the manufacture date to half shelf life, and then it was further reduced at the end of shelf life. L. monocytogenes was detected in 25 out of 110 (22.72%) food contact surfaces. The number of positive and negative results from both food and environmental samples were cross-tabulated and the calculated Cohen’s kappa coefficient (κ) was 0.3233, indicating a fair agreement in terms of Listeria contamination. L. monocytogenes was recovered after cleaning and disinfection procedures in four plants, highlighting the importance of thorough cleaning and disinfection.
Abstract: The objective of this review was to present an update of the currently managed studies on the characterization physical, chemical, and sensory analysis of several tomato cultivars. This review has indicated the importance of farming system and genotype on sensory and biochemical characteristics. It is necessary to use selected genotypes responding positively to organic farming in terms of sensory, biochemical characteristics and productivity aspects and to evaluate systems over more than one year of sampling.
Abstract: Mercury concentration in the muscular tissue of farmed southern bluefin tuna, Thunnus maccoyii (SBT) is known to vary. Data suggests that mercury concentration is negatively correlated with the lipid concentration of tissues. Those areas that accumulate higher levels of lipid are noted to have a lower mercury concentration than lean tissues. Here we further delineate variation in mercury concentration within SBT muscular tissues by determining the concentration of mercury in the muscle myomeres (those sections within whole muscles) of transverse sectional steaks of farmed SBT. Mercury concentration in myomeres is observed to significantly decrease with dorsal and ventral distance from the spine or lateral line of fish. By extension, evidence is provided for the variation of mercury concentration within tissue cuts present in SBT steaks. This paper provides the first documentation of variation in mercury concentration within muscular tissue of fish.
Abstract: Seaweed (edible algae) is not a staple food in the Western diet, despite occasional use as a traditional ingredient in coastal areas. High nutritional value, combined with the expansion of the health-food industry, has led to a resurgence of seaweed in the British diet. While seaweed could be useful in tackling dietary iodine insufficiency, consumption of some species and sources of seaweed has also been associated with risks, such as toxicity from high iodine levels, or accumulation of arsenic, heavy metals and contaminants. The current retail level of seaweed and edible algae in the UK market, either as whole foods or ingredients, was evaluated with particular focus on labelling and iodine content. Seaweed-containing products (n = 224) were identified. Only 22 products (10%) stated information regarding iodine content and another 40 (18%) provided information sufficient to estimate the iodine content. For these products, the median iodine content was 110 μg/g (IQR 21–503) and 585 μg per estimated serving (IQR 105–2520). While calculations for iodine exposure per serving relied on assumptions, 26 products could potentially lead to an iodine intake above the (European) tolerable adult upper level of 600 μg/day. In the context of the data presented, there is scope to improve product labelling (species, source, processing, content).