Open AccessArticle
Butyrylation of Maize and Potato Starches and Characterization of the Products by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and In Vitro Fermentation
Foods 2018, 7(5), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7050079 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Intake of butyrylated starches may increase colonic butyrate supply, which can be of public health and clinical benefit by maintaining colonic health. The objective was to investigate if an organocatalytic method with tartaric acid as a catalyst could be applied to produce butyrylated
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Intake of butyrylated starches may increase colonic butyrate supply, which can be of public health and clinical benefit by maintaining colonic health. The objective was to investigate if an organocatalytic method with tartaric acid as a catalyst could be applied to produce butyrylated products from different starch sources and to characterize their chemical structure and fermentation capability by using solid-state 13C MAS NMR (magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy and an in vitro fermentation model, respectively. Low-amylose and high-amylose potato starch (LAPS and HAPS) and low-amylose and high-amylose maize starch (LAMS and HAMS) were subjected to organocatalytic butyrylation. This resulted in products with an increasing degree of substitution (DS) measured by heterogenous saponification and back titration with the HCl (chemical method) depending on reaction time. NMR analysis, however, showed that the major part of the acylation was induced by tartarate (75–89%) and only a minor part (11–25%) by butyrate. Generally, the chemical method overestimated the DS by 38% to 91% compared with the DS determination by NMR. Increasing the DS appeared to lower the in vitro fermentation capability of starches independent of the starch source and, therefore, do not seem to present a feasible method to deliver more butyrate to the colon than lower DS products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High-Pressure Treatment of Non-Hydrated Flour Affects Structural Characteristics and Hydration
Foods 2018, 7(5), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7050078 -
Abstract
In recent years, high-pressure treatment (HPT) has become an established process concerning the preservation of food. However, studies dealing with the structural, and consequently functional modification of non-hydrated starchy matrices (moisture content ≤ 15%) by HPT are missing. To close this knowledge gap,
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In recent years, high-pressure treatment (HPT) has become an established process concerning the preservation of food. However, studies dealing with the structural, and consequently functional modification of non-hydrated starchy matrices (moisture content ≤ 15%) by HPT are missing. To close this knowledge gap, pressure (0–600 MPa, 10 min) and pressurization time depending (0–20 min, 450 MPa) alterations of wheat flour were investigated. Pressure rise from 0 to 600 MPa or pressurization time rise from 0 to 20 min resulted in a decline of amylopectin content from 68.3 ± 2.0% to 59.7 ± 1.5% (linearly, R2 = 0.83) and 59.6 ± 0.7% (sigmoidal), respectively. Thereby, detectable total amount of starch decreased from 77.7 ± 0.8% linearly to 67.6 ± 1.7%, and sigmoidal, to 69.4 ± 0.4%, respectively. Increase in pressure caused a linear decrease in gelatinization enthalpy of 33.2 ± 5.6%, and linear increase in hydration properties by 11.0 ± 0.6%. The study revealed structural and technological relevant alterations of starch-based food matrices with low moisture content by HPT, which must be taken into consideration during processing and preservation of food. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microbial Community Analysis of Sauerkraut Fermentation Reveals a Stable and Rapidly Established Community
Foods 2018, 7(5), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7050077 -
Abstract
Despite recent interest in microbial communities of fermented foods, there has been little inquiry into the bacterial community dynamics of sauerkraut, one of the world’s oldest and most prevalent fermented foods. In this study, we utilize 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to profile the
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Despite recent interest in microbial communities of fermented foods, there has been little inquiry into the bacterial community dynamics of sauerkraut, one of the world’s oldest and most prevalent fermented foods. In this study, we utilize 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to profile the microbial community of naturally fermented sauerkraut throughout the fermentation process while also analyzing the bacterial communities of the starting ingredients and the production environment. Our results indicate that the sauerkraut microbiome is rapidly established after fermentation begins and that the community is stable through fermentation and packaging for commercial sale. Our high-throughput analysis is in agreement with previous studies that utilized traditional microbiological assessments but expands the identified taxonomy. Additionally, we find that the microbial communities of the starting ingredients and the production facility environment exhibit low relative abundance of the lactic acid bacteria that dominate fermented sauerkraut. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Processing on Postprandial Glycemic Response and Consumer Acceptability of Lentil-Containing Food Items
Foods 2018, 7(5), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7050076 -
Abstract
The consumption of pulses is associated with many health benefits. This study assessed post-prandial blood glucose response (PPBG) and the acceptability of food items containing green lentils. In human trials we: (i) defined processing methods (boiling, pureeing, freezing, roasting, spray-drying) that preserve the
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The consumption of pulses is associated with many health benefits. This study assessed post-prandial blood glucose response (PPBG) and the acceptability of food items containing green lentils. In human trials we: (i) defined processing methods (boiling, pureeing, freezing, roasting, spray-drying) that preserve the PPBG-lowering feature of lentils; (ii) used an appropriate processing method to prepare lentil food items, and compared the PPBG and relative glycemic responses (RGR) of lentil and control foods; and (iii) conducted consumer acceptability of the lentil foods. Eight food items were formulated from either whole lentil puree (test) or instant potato (control). In separate PPBG studies, participants consumed fixed amounts of available carbohydrates from test foods, control foods, or a white bread standard. Finger prick blood samples were obtained at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the first bite, analyzed for glucose, and used to calculate incremental area under the blood glucose response curve and RGR; glycemic index (GI) was measured only for processed lentils. Mean GI (± standard error of the mean) of processed lentils ranged from 25 ± 3 (boiled) to 66 ± 6 (spray-dried); the GI of spray-dried lentils was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than boiled, pureed, or roasted lentil. Overall, lentil-based food items all elicited significantly lower RGR compared to potato-based items (40 ± 3 vs. 73 ± 3%; p < 0.001). Apricot chicken, chicken pot pie, and lemony parsley soup had the highest overall acceptability corresponding to “like slightly” to “like moderately”. Processing influenced the PPBG of lentils, but food items formulated from lentil puree significantly attenuated PPBG. Formulation was associated with significant differences in sensory attributes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Kinetic Analysis of Freeze-Thaw Stability of Mayonnaise
Foods 2018, 7(5), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7050075 -
Abstract
Kinetic analysis was used to study the destabilization of mayonnaise by focusing on the fat crystals. Mayonnaise prepared from rapeseed oil and soybean oil was stored at temperatures ranging from −20 to −40 °C. The destabilization kinetic parameters were measured by observing oil
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Kinetic analysis was used to study the destabilization of mayonnaise by focusing on the fat crystals. Mayonnaise prepared from rapeseed oil and soybean oil was stored at temperatures ranging from −20 to −40 °C. The destabilization kinetic parameters were measured by observing oil separation over time. The destabilization rate constant, kd, increased with decreasing temperature. The highest value of kd was 1.28 × 10−3 min−1 at −40 °C for rapeseed oil mayonnaise (RoM) and the lowest was 1.95 × 10−6 min−1 at −20 °C for soybean oil mayonnaise (SoM). At each temperature, the kd value in RoM was higher than that in SoM. However, the order of destabilization, n, followed no specific pattern. The crystallization rate constant, Kc, and Avrami constant, n, were calculated using microscopic images of the fat crystals. The increase in crystallization kinetic parameters with decreasing temperature revealed changes in crystal behavior. Both the destabilization rate constant, kd, and the crystallization rate constant, Kc, depended on the temperature. This temperature dependency behavior showed a correlation between kd and Kc, suggesting that the destabilization rate depended on the rate of growth of fat crystals during the freeze-thawing of mayonnaise. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Cull Cow Meat Quality Using Vacuum Impregnation
Foods 2018, 7(5), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7050074 -
Abstract
Boneless strip loins from mature cows (50 to 70 months of age) were vacuum impregnated (VI) with an isotonic solution (IS) of sodium chloride. This study sought to determine the vacuum impregnation and microstructural properties of meat from cull cows. The experiments were
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Boneless strip loins from mature cows (50 to 70 months of age) were vacuum impregnated (VI) with an isotonic solution (IS) of sodium chloride. This study sought to determine the vacuum impregnation and microstructural properties of meat from cull cows. The experiments were conducted by varying the pressure, p1 (20.3, 71.1 kPa), and time, t1 (0.5, 2.0, 4.0 h), of impregnation. After the VI step, the meat was kept for a time, t2 (0.0, 0.5, 2.0, 4.0 h), in the IS under atmospheric pressure. The microstructural changes, impregnation, deformation, and porosity of the meat were measured in all the treatments. Impregnation and deformation levels in terms of volume fractions of the initial sample at the end of the vacuum step and the VI processes were calculated according to the mathematical model for deformation-relaxation and hydrodynamic mechanisms. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the microstructure of the vacuum-impregnated meat samples. Results showed that both the vacuum and atmospheric pressures generated a positive impregnation and deformation. The highest values of impregnation X (10.5%) and deformation γ (9.3%) were obtained at p1 of 71.1 kPa and t1 of 4.0 h. The sample effective porosity ( εe ) exhibited a significant interaction (p < 0.01) between p1×t1 . The highest εe (14.0%) was achieved at p1 of 20.3 kPa and t1 of 4.0 h, whereas the most extended distension of meat fibers (98 μm) was observed at the highest levels of p1, t1, and t2. These results indicate that meat from mature cows can undergo a vacuum-wetting process successfully, with an IS of sodium chloride to improve its quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Composition, Protein Profile and Rheological Properties of Pseudocereal-Based Protein-Rich Ingredients
Foods 2018, 7(5), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7050073 -
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutrient composition, protein profile, morphology, and pasting properties of protein-rich pseudocereal ingredients (quinoa, amaranth, and buckwheat) and compare them to the more common rice and maize flours. Literature concerning protein-rich pseudocereal ingredients is very
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The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutrient composition, protein profile, morphology, and pasting properties of protein-rich pseudocereal ingredients (quinoa, amaranth, and buckwheat) and compare them to the more common rice and maize flours. Literature concerning protein-rich pseudocereal ingredients is very limited, mainly to protein profiling. The concentrations of macronutrients (i.e., ash, fat, and protein, as well as soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre) were significantly higher for the protein-rich variants of pseudocereal-based flours than their regular protein content variants and the rice and maize flours. On profiling the protein component using sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), all samples showed common bands at ~50 kDa and low molecular weight bands corresponding to the globulin fraction (~50 kDa) and albumin fraction (~10 kDa), respectively; except rice, in which the main protein was glutelin. The morphology of the starch granules was studied using scanning electron microscopy with quinoa and amaranth showing the smallest sized granules, while buckwheat, rice, and maize had the largest starch granules. The pasting properties of the ingredients were generally similar, except for buckwheat and amaranth, which showed the highest and lowest final viscosity, respectively. The results obtained in this study can be used to better understand the functionality and food applications of protein-rich pseudocereal ingredients. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nanoparticles and Controlled Delivery for Bioactive Compounds: Outlining Challenges for New “Smart-Foods” for Health
Foods 2018, 7(5), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7050072 -
Abstract
Nanotechnology is a field of research that has been stressed as a very valuable approach for the prevention and treatment of different human health disorders. This has been stressed as a delivery system for the therapeutic fight against an array of pathophysiological situations.
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Nanotechnology is a field of research that has been stressed as a very valuable approach for the prevention and treatment of different human health disorders. This has been stressed as a delivery system for the therapeutic fight against an array of pathophysiological situations. Actually, industry has applied this technology in the search for new oral delivery alternatives obtained upon the modification of the solubility properties of bioactive compounds. Significant works have been made in the last years for testing the input that nanomaterials and nanoparticles provide for an array of pathophysiological situations. In this frame, this review addresses general questions concerning the extent to which nanoparticles offer alternatives that improve therapeutic value, while avoid toxicity, by releasing bioactive compounds specifically to target tissues affected by specific chemical and pathophysiological settings. In this regard, to date, the contribution of nanoparticles to protect encapsulated bioactive compounds from degradation as a result of gastrointestinal digestion and cellular metabolism, to enable their release in a controlled manner, enhancing biodistribution of bioactive compounds, and to allow them to target those tissues affected by biological disturbances has been demonstrated. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Buchanania obovata: Functionality and Phytochemical Profiling of the Australian Native Green Plum
Foods 2018, 7(5), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7050071 -
Abstract
The green plum is the fruit of Buchanania obovata Engl. and is an Australian Indigenous bush food. Very little study has been done on the green plum, so this is an initial screening study of the functional properties and phytochemical profile found in
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The green plum is the fruit of Buchanania obovata Engl. and is an Australian Indigenous bush food. Very little study has been done on the green plum, so this is an initial screening study of the functional properties and phytochemical profile found in the flesh and seed. The flesh was shown to have antimicrobial properties effective against gram negative (Escherichia coli 9001—NCTC) and gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus 6571—NCTC) bacteria. Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows that the antimicrobial activity causes cell wall disintegration and cytoplasmic leakage in both bacteria. Antioxidant 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) testing shows the flesh has high radical scavenging activity (106.3 ± 28.6 μM Trolox equivalant/g Dry Weight in methanol). The flesh and seed contain a range of polyphenols including gallic acid, ellagic acid, p-coumaric acid, kaempferol, quercetin and trans-ferulic acid that may be responsible for this activity. The seed is eaten as a bush food and contains a delphinidin-based anthocyanin. The green plum has potential as a functional ingredient in food products for its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, and further investigation into its bioactivity, chemical composition and potential applications in different food products is warranted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Discrimination of Clover and Citrus Honeys from Egypt According to Floral Type Using Easily Assessable Physicochemical Parameters and Discriminant Analysis: An External Validation of the Chemometric Approach
Foods 2018, 7(5), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7050070 -
Abstract
Twenty-two honey samples, namely clover and citrus honeys, were collected from the greater Cairo area during the harvesting year 2014–2015. The main purpose of the present study was to characterize the aforementioned honey types and to investigate whether the use of easily assessable
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Twenty-two honey samples, namely clover and citrus honeys, were collected from the greater Cairo area during the harvesting year 2014–2015. The main purpose of the present study was to characterize the aforementioned honey types and to investigate whether the use of easily assessable physicochemical parameters, including color attributes in combination with chemometrics, could differentiate honey floral origin. Parameters taken into account were: pH, electrical conductivity, ash, free acidity, lactonic acidity, total acidity, moisture content, total sugars (degrees Brix-°Bx), total dissolved solids and their ratio to total acidity, salinity, CIELAB color parameters, along with browning index values. Results showed that all honey samples analyzed met the European quality standards set for honey and had variations in the aforementioned physicochemical parameters depending on floral origin. Application of linear discriminant analysis showed that eight physicochemical parameters, including color, could classify Egyptian honeys according to floral origin (p < 0.05). Correct classification rate was 95.5% using the original method and 90.9% using the cross validation method. The discriminatory ability of the developed model was further validated using unknown honey samples. The overall correct classification rate was not affected. Specific physicochemical parameter analysis in combination with chemometrics has the potential to enhance the differences in floral honeys produced in a given geographical zone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Pathogens in Poultry Meat: A Meta-Analysis of European Published Surveys
Foods 2018, 7(5), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7050069 -
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate and summarize the levels of incidence of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat commercialized in Europe. After systematic review, incidence data and study characteristics were extracted from 78
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The objective of this study was to investigate and summarize the levels of incidence of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat commercialized in Europe. After systematic review, incidence data and study characteristics were extracted from 78 studies conducted in 21 European countries. Pooled prevalence values from 203 extracted observations were estimated from random-effects meta-analysis models adjusted by pathogen, poultry type, sampling stage, cold preservation type, meat cutting type and packaging status. The results suggest that S. aureus is the main pathogen detected in poultry meat (38.5%; 95% CI: 25.4–53.4), followed by Campylobacter spp. (33.3%; 95% CI: 22.3–46.4%), while L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. present lower prevalence (19.3%; 95% CI: 14.4–25.3% and 7.10%; 95% CI: 4.60–10.8%, respectively). Despite the differences in prevalence, all pathogens were found in chicken and other poultry meats, at both end-processing step and retail level, in packed and unpacked products and in several meat cutting types. Prevalence data on cold preservation products also revealed that chilling and freezing can reduce the proliferation of pathogens but might not be able to inactivate them. The results of this meta-analysis highlight that further risk management strategies are needed to reduce pathogen incidence in poultry meat throughout the entire food chain across Europe, in particular for S. aureus and Campylobacter spp. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improvements on the Stability and Vitamin Content of Acerola Juice Obtained by Ultrasonic Processing
Foods 2018, 7(5), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7050068 -
Abstract
This work has examined the influence of ultrasonic processing on acerola juice and its influence in the stability of the juice and in the availability of vitamins B, C, E, and pro-vitamin A. The study has evaluated the changes in these quality parameters
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This work has examined the influence of ultrasonic processing on acerola juice and its influence in the stability of the juice and in the availability of vitamins B, C, E, and pro-vitamin A. The study has evaluated the changes in these quality parameters resulting from changes on ultrasonic power density, processing time and temperature. Ultrasound application increased the availability of pro-vitamin A and vitamins B3, B5, C and E in the juice by releasing them from the apoenzymes to which they are bound and by improving the homogeneity of the juice. The retention of the major vitamins in acerola juice (vitamins A and C) was higher when lower temperatures (10 to 20 °C) and mild ultrasound power density (2000 to 3000 W/L) were applied. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity of Eugenia uniflora L. (Pitanga) Samples Collected in Different Uruguayan Locations
Foods 2018, 7(5), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7050067 -
Abstract
The use of nutrient-rich foods to enhance the wellness, health and lifestyle habits of consumers is globally encouraged. Native fruits are of great interest as they are grown and consumed locally and take part of the ethnobotanic knowledge of the population. Pitanga is
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The use of nutrient-rich foods to enhance the wellness, health and lifestyle habits of consumers is globally encouraged. Native fruits are of great interest as they are grown and consumed locally and take part of the ethnobotanic knowledge of the population. Pitanga is an example of a native fruit from Uruguay, consumed as a jelly or an alcoholic beverage. Pitanga has a red-violet pigmentation, which is a common trait for foods that are a good source of antioxidants. Hence, fruits from different Uruguayan regions were analyzed via miniaturized sample preparation method, HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn and RP-HPLC-DAD techniques to identify and quantify phenolic compounds, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated via DPPH and ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) assays. A multivariate linear regression was applied to correlate the observed antioxidant capacity with the phenolic content. Furthermore, Principal Components Analysis was performed to highlight characteristics between the various samples studied. The main results indicated differences between northern and southern Uruguayan samples. Delphinidin-3-hexoside was present in southern samples (mean of 293.16 µmol/100 g dry weight (DW)) and absent in the sample collected in the north (sample 3). All the samples contain high levels of cyanidin-3-hexoside, but a noticeable difference was found between the northern sample (150.45 µmol/100 g DW) and the southern sample (1121.98 µmol/100 g DW). The antioxidant capacity (mean ORAC of 56370 µmol Trolox®/100 g DW) were high in all the samples compared to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of similar berry-fruits. The results of this study highlight the nutraceutical value of a native fruit that has not been exploited until now. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
HPLC-ED Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Three Bosnian Crataegus Species
Foods 2018, 7(5), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7050066 -
Abstract
The aim of this work was the qualitative and quantitative determination of selected phenolic compounds in three Crataegus species grown in Bosnia. Crataegus plants are consumed for medicinal purposes and as foodstuff in the form of canned fruit, jam, jelly, tea, and wine.
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The aim of this work was the qualitative and quantitative determination of selected phenolic compounds in three Crataegus species grown in Bosnia. Crataegus plants are consumed for medicinal purposes and as foodstuff in the form of canned fruit, jam, jelly, tea, and wine. Two samples of plant material, dry leaves with flowers, and berries of three Crataegus species—Crataegus rhipidophylla Gand., Crataegus x subsphaericea Gand., and Crataegus x macrocarpa Hegetschw.—were analyzed. Twelve ethanolic extracts were isolated from the selected plant material using Soxhlet and ultrasound extraction, respectively. Soxhlet extraction proved to be more effective than ultrasound extraction. A simple and sensitive method, high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, HPLC-ED, was used for the simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Crataegus species. The content of gallic acid in the extracts ranged from 0.001 to 0.082 mg/g dry weight (DW), chlorogenic acid from 0.19 to 8.70 mg/g DW, and rutin from 0.03 to 13.49 mg/g DW. Two flavonoids, vitexin and hyperoside, commonly found in chemotaxonomic investigations of Crataegus species, were not detected in the examined extracts. In general, leaves with flowers samples are richer in gallic acid and rutin, whereas the berries samples are richer in chlorogenic acid. Distinct similarities were found in the relative distribution of gallic acid among the three species. Extracts of C. x macrocarpa had the highest content of all detected compounds, while significant differences were found in rutin content, depending on the plant organ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting content of phenolic compounds in Crataegus rhipidophylla Gand., Crataegus x subsphaericea, and Crataegusxmacrocarpa from Bosnia. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
What Is “Natural”? Consumer Responses to Selected Ingredients
Foods 2018, 7(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7040065 -
Abstract
Interest in “natural” food has grown enormously over the last decade. Because the United States government has not set a legal definition for the term “natural”, customers have formed their own sensory perceptions and opinions on what constitutes natural. In this study, we
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Interest in “natural” food has grown enormously over the last decade. Because the United States government has not set a legal definition for the term “natural”, customers have formed their own sensory perceptions and opinions on what constitutes natural. In this study, we examined 20 ingredients to determine what consumers consider to be natural. Using a national database, 630 consumers were sampled (50% male and 50% female) online, and the results were analyzed using percentages and chi-square tests. No ingredient was considered natural by more than 69% of respondents. We found evidence that familiarity may play a major role in consumers’ determination of naturalness. We also found evidence that chemical sounding names and the age of the consumer have an effect on whether an ingredient and potentially a food is considered natural. Interestingly, a preference towards selecting GMO (genetically modified organisms) foods had no significant impact on perceptions of natural. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Reformulation as an Integrated Approach of Four Disciplines: A Qualitative Study with Food Companies
Foods 2018, 7(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7040064 -
Abstract
In 2014, the Dutch government agreed with the food sector to lower salt, sugar, saturated fat and energy in foods. To reformulate, an integrated approach of four disciplines (Nutrition & Health, Food Technology, Legislation, and Consumer Perspectives) is important for food companies (Framework
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In 2014, the Dutch government agreed with the food sector to lower salt, sugar, saturated fat and energy in foods. To reformulate, an integrated approach of four disciplines (Nutrition & Health, Food Technology, Legislation, and Consumer Perspectives) is important for food companies (Framework for Reformulation). The objective of this study was to determine whether this framework accurately reflects reformulation processes in food companies. Seventeen Dutch food companies in the bakery, meat and convenience sector were interviewed with a semi-structured topic list. Interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed. Interviews illustrated that there were opportunities to lower salt, sugar and saturated fat (Nutrition & Health). However, there were barriers to replacing the functionality of these ingredients (Food Technology). Most companies would like the government to push reformulation more (Legislation). Traditional meat products and luxury sweet bakery products were considered less suitable for reformulation (Consumer Perspectives). In addition, the reduction of E-numbers was considered important. The important role of the retailer is stressed by the respondents. In conclusion, all four disciplines are important in the reformulation processes in food companies. Reformulation does not only mean the reduction of salt, saturated fat and sugar for companies, but also the reduction of E-numbers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of a Proprietary Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor from White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on Weight and Fat Loss in Humans
Foods 2018, 7(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7040063 -
Abstract
The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of a proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) supplementation interventions in humans on modification of body weight and fat mass. A systematic literature search was performed
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The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of a proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) supplementation interventions in humans on modification of body weight and fat mass. A systematic literature search was performed using three databases: PubMed, the Cochrane collaboration, and Google Scholar. In addition, the manufacturer was contacted for internal unpublished data, and finally, the reference section of relevant original research and review papers were mined for additional studies. Eleven studies were selected for the meta-analysis of weight loss (a total of 573 subjects), and three studies for the meta-analysis of body fat reduction (a total of 110 subjects), as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation showed an average effect on weight loss difference of −1.08 kg (95% CI (confidence interval), −0.42 kg to −1.16 kg, p < 0.00001), and the average effect on body fat reduction was 3.26 kg (95% CI, −2.35 kg to −4.163 kg, p = 0.02). This meta-analysis found statistically significant effects of Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation on body weight and body fat. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Fortification with Fish (Pseudophycis bachus) Powder on Nutritional Quality of Durum Wheat Pasta
Foods 2018, 7(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7040062 -
Abstract
This paper investigates the nutraceutical (phenolic content and antioxidant activity) and nutritional potential (protein and starch digestibility) of supplementation of durum wheat semolina with 5–20% fish powder (Pseudophycis bachus). In general, all enriched pasta with fish powder showed a significant decrease
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This paper investigates the nutraceutical (phenolic content and antioxidant activity) and nutritional potential (protein and starch digestibility) of supplementation of durum wheat semolina with 5–20% fish powder (Pseudophycis bachus). In general, all enriched pasta with fish powder showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in reducing sugar released during an in vitro digestion, and reductions in standardized area under the curve (AUC) values, compared to control pasta. The potentially bioaccessible fraction of pasta enriched with 20% fish powder (FP) was characterized as having a 177–191% increase in phenolic content and a 145–556% higher antiradical activity. Elevation of these parameters in fortified pasta was accompanied by interaction of wheat starch, protein, and fish powder protein. Supplementation of fish powder also influenced protein digestibility (a reduction from 84.60% for control pasta to 80.80% for pasta with 20% fish powder). Fortification improved the nutraceutical and nutritional potential of the studied pasta with the effects depending on factors including protein-starch-phenolic interactions. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Can Zymomonas mobilis Substitute Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Cereal Dough Leavening?
Foods 2018, 7(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7040061 -
Abstract
Baker’s yeast intolerance is rising among Western populations, where Saccharomyces cerevisiae is spread in fermented food and food components. Zymomonas mobilis is a bacterium commonly used in tropical areas to produce alcoholic beverages, and it has only rarely been considered for dough leavening
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Baker’s yeast intolerance is rising among Western populations, where Saccharomyces cerevisiae is spread in fermented food and food components. Zymomonas mobilis is a bacterium commonly used in tropical areas to produce alcoholic beverages, and it has only rarely been considered for dough leavening probably because it only ferments glucose, fructose and sucrose, which are scarcely present in flour. However, through alcoholic fermentation, similarly to S. cerevisiae, it provides an equimolar mixture of ethanol and CO2 that can rise a dough. Here, we propose Z. mobilis as a new leavening agent, as an alternative to S. cerevisiae, overcoming its technological limit with different strategies: (1) adding glucose to the dough formulation; and (2) exploiting the maltose hydrolytic activity of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis associated with Z. mobilis. CO2 production, dough volume increase, pH value, microbial counts, sugars consumption and ethanol production were monitored. Results suggest that glucose addition to the dough lets Z. mobilis efficiently leaven a dough, while glucose released by L. sanfranciscensis is not so well fermented by Z. mobilis, probably due to the strong acidification. Nevertheless, the use of Z. mobilis as a leavening agent could contribute to increasing the variety of baked goods alternative to those leavened by S. cerevisiae. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Terminalia ferdinandiana (Kakadu Plum) Kernels: A Novel Nutrition Source
Foods 2018, 7(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7040060 -
Abstract
Terminalia ferdinandiana (Kakadu plum) is a native Australian fruit. Industrial processing of T. ferdinandiana fruits into puree generates seeds as a by-product, which are generally discarded. The aim of our present study was to process the seed to separate the kernel and determine
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Terminalia ferdinandiana (Kakadu plum) is a native Australian fruit. Industrial processing of T. ferdinandiana fruits into puree generates seeds as a by-product, which are generally discarded. The aim of our present study was to process the seed to separate the kernel and determine its nutritional composition. The proximate, mineral and fatty acid compositions were analysed in this study. Kernels are composed of 35% fat, while proteins account for 32% dry weight (DW). The energy content and fiber were 2065 KJ/100 g and 21.2% DW, respectively. Furthermore, the study showed that kernels were a very rich source of minerals and trace elements, such as potassium (6693 mg/kg), calcium (5385 mg/kg), iron (61 mg/kg) and zinc (60 mg/kg) DW, and had low levels of heavy metals. The fatty acid composition of the kernels consisted of omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (50.2%), monounsaturated oleic acid (29.3%) and two saturated fatty acids namely palmitic acid (12.0%) and stearic acid (7.2%). The results indicate that T. ferdinandiana kernels have the potential to be utilized as a novel protein source for dietary purposes and non-conventional supply of linoleic, palmitic and oleic acids. Full article
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