Open AccessReview
Overview on the General Approaches to Improve Gluten-Free Pasta and Bread
Foods 2016, 5(4), 87; doi:10.3390/foods5040087 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The use of gluten-free products is increasing since a growing number of people are suffering from celiac disease and thereby need gluten-free diet. Gluten is responsible for the visco-elastic characteristics of wheat-based products; therefore, its lack makes the gluten-free products not similar to
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The use of gluten-free products is increasing since a growing number of people are suffering from celiac disease and thereby need gluten-free diet. Gluten is responsible for the visco-elastic characteristics of wheat-based products; therefore, its lack makes the gluten-free products not similar to wheat-based product, with scarce textural properties. This reason constitutes the major industrial limitation. Thus, obtaining good-quality gluten-free products represents a technological challenge. This review reports the main strategies adopted to produce high quality gluten-free pasta and bread. They are mainly obtained by the utilization of specific ingredients (hydrocolloids, proteins or enzymes) to be incorporated into the standard formulation or the adoption of proper technological variables that can enhance above all the functional properties, the texture and the taste. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Evolution of the Maillard Reaction in Glutamine or Arginine-Dextrinomaltose Model Systems
Foods 2016, 5(4), 86; doi:10.3390/foods5040086 -
Abstract
Enteral formulas are foods designed for medical uses to feed patients who are unable to eat normally. They are prepared by mixing proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and fats and submitted to sterilization. During thermal treatment, the Maillard reaction takes place through the reaction
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Enteral formulas are foods designed for medical uses to feed patients who are unable to eat normally. They are prepared by mixing proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates and fats and submitted to sterilization. During thermal treatment, the Maillard reaction takes place through the reaction of animo acids with reducing sugars. Thus, although glutamine and arginine are usually added to improve the nutritional value of enteral formulas, their final concentration may vary. Thus, in the present paper the early, intermediate, and advanced states of the Maillard reaction were studied in model systems by measuring loss of free amino acids through the decrease of fluorescence intensity with o-phtaldialdehyde (OPA), 5-Hydroximethylfurfural (HMF), furfural, glucosylisomaltol, fluorescence, and absorbance at 420 nm. The systems were prepared by mixing glutamine or arginine with dextrinomaltose (similar ingredients to those used in special enteral formula), and heated at 100 °C, 120 °C and 140 °C for 0 to 30 min. The recorded changes in the concentration of furanic compounds was only useful for longer heating times of high temperatures, while absorbance and fluorescence measurements were useful in all the assayed conditions. In addition, easiness and sensitivity of absorbance and fluorescence make them useful techniques that could be implemented as indicators for monitoring the manufacture of special enteral formulas. Glucosylisomaltol is a useful indicator to monitor the manufacture of glutamine-enriched enteral formulas. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Determinants of Organic Vegetable Purchasing in Jabodetabek Region, Indonesia
Foods 2016, 5(4), 85; doi:10.3390/foods5040085 -
Abstract
Over the last few years, the global market of organic vegetables has grown. This is due to increased consumer concern regarding environmental and health issues, especially for food products. This study aims to examine factors that influence consumer behavior in purchasing organic vegetables.
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Over the last few years, the global market of organic vegetables has grown. This is due to increased consumer concern regarding environmental and health issues, especially for food products. This study aims to examine factors that influence consumer behavior in purchasing organic vegetables. In this study, data were obtained from household surveys conducted in the Jabodetabek region (Greater Jakarta) from February to March 2015. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, and a binary logit model were used to analyze the data. Subsequently, the results show that consumers with fewer family members and have a higher income, and are price tolerant, are more likely to purchase organic vegetables. Meanwhile, female consumers are less likely to buy organic vegetables. Another important finding is that positive attitude towards organic products, safety and health, environmental concerns, as well as degree of trust in organic attributes, are the determinants of organic vegetable purchasing among consumers. Therefore, based on the study results, the following recommendations are needed for organic vegetable development in Indonesia: (a) implementing an appropriate pricing strategy; (b) encouraging organic labeling and certification for vegetables; and (c) intensively promoting organic food with respect to consumers’ motives and concerns on health, safety, as well as environmental sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stimulatory Effects of Cinnamon Extract (Cinnamomum cassia) during the Initiation Stage of 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation
Foods 2016, 5(4), 83; doi:10.3390/foods5040083 -
Abstract
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) has an anti-diabetic effect by possibly increasing the lipid storage capacity of white adipocytes; however, this effect remains controversial. The aim of this study was to examine which stage of adipogenesis is critical for the stimulatory effect of
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Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) has an anti-diabetic effect by possibly increasing the lipid storage capacity of white adipocytes; however, this effect remains controversial. The aim of this study was to examine which stage of adipogenesis is critical for the stimulatory effect of cinnamon in adipogenesis using 3T3-L1 cells. Cells were treated with cinnamon extract during three different stages of adipogenesis. We found that genes related to adipogenesis and lipogenesis were enhanced when cinnamon extract was administered during the initiation stage of differentiation but not when administered during the preadipocyte and post stages of differentiation. At the same time, genes that were involved in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation were unexpectedly upregulated. Taken together, cinnamon may boost lipid storage in white adipocytes and increase the fatty acid oxidation capacity throughout the initiation stage of differentiation, which may be beneficial for the prevention of obesity-induced type II diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessReview
How Can Diet Affect the Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End-Products in the Human Body?
Foods 2016, 5(4), 84; doi:10.3390/foods5040084 -
Abstract
The accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is associated with the complications of diabetes, kidney disease, metabolic disorders and degenerative diseases. It is recognized that the pool of glycation products found in the human body comes not only from an endogenous formation,
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The accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is associated with the complications of diabetes, kidney disease, metabolic disorders and degenerative diseases. It is recognized that the pool of glycation products found in the human body comes not only from an endogenous formation, but also from a dietary exposure to exogenous AGEs. In recent years, the development of pharmacologically-active ingredients aimed at inhibiting endogenous glycation has not been successful. Since the accumulation of AGEs in the human body appears to be progressive throughout life, an early preventive action against glycation could be effective through dietary adjustments or supplementation with purified micronutrients. The present article provides an overview of current dietary strategies tested either in vitro, in vivo or both to reduce the endogenous formation of AGEs and to limit exposure to food AGEs. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Volatile Composition of Smoked and Non-Smoked Iranian Rice
Foods 2016, 5(4), 81; doi:10.3390/foods5040081 -
Abstract
In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups
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In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups of volatiles in Iranian rice were aldehydes, ketones, phenol derivatives, furans, linear hydrocarbons, esters and terpenes. The chemical family aldehydes was the most abundant one in the profile of non-smoked rice, while phenol derivatives and furans predominated in smoked samples. This study is the first one reporting comparative data of volatile compounds between smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Goal of Adequate Nutrition: Can It Be Made Affordable, Sustainable, and Universal?
Foods 2016, 5(4), 82; doi:10.3390/foods5040082 -
Abstract
Until about 1900, large proportions of the world population endured hunger and poverty. The 20th century saw world population increase from 1.6 to 6.1 billion, accompanied and to some extent made possible by rapid improvements in health standards and food supply, with associated
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Until about 1900, large proportions of the world population endured hunger and poverty. The 20th century saw world population increase from 1.6 to 6.1 billion, accompanied and to some extent made possible by rapid improvements in health standards and food supply, with associated advances in agricultural and nutrition sciences. In this paper, I use the application of linear programming (LP) in preparation of rations for farm animals to illustrate a method of calculating the lowest cost of a human diet selected from locally available food items, constrained to provide recommended levels of food energy and nutrients; then, to find a realistic minimum cost, I apply the further constraint that the main sources of food energy in the costed diet are weighted in proportion to the actual reported consumption of food items in that area. Worldwide variations in dietary preferences raise the issue as to the sustainability of popular dietary regimes, and the paper reviews the factors associated with satisfying requirements for adequate nutrition within those regimes. The ultimate physical constraints on food supply are described, together with the ways in which climate change may affect those constraints. During the 20th century, food supply increased sufficiently in most areas to keep pace with the rapid increase in world population. Many challenges will need to be overcome if food supply is to continue to meet demand, and those challenges are made more severe by rising expectations of quality of life in the developing world, as well as by the impacts of climate change on agriculture and aquaculture. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Mushroom Polysaccharides: Chemistry and Antiobesity, Antidiabetes, Anticancer, and Antibiotic Properties in Cells, Rodents, and Humans
Foods 2016, 5(4), 80; doi:10.3390/foods5040080 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
More than 2000 species of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms have been identified to date, many of which are widely consumed, stimulating much research on their health-promoting properties. These properties are associated with bioactive compounds produced by the mushrooms, including polysaccharides. Although β-glucans (homopolysaccharides)
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More than 2000 species of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms have been identified to date, many of which are widely consumed, stimulating much research on their health-promoting properties. These properties are associated with bioactive compounds produced by the mushrooms, including polysaccharides. Although β-glucans (homopolysaccharides) are believed to be the major bioactive polysaccharides of mushrooms, other types of mushroom polysaccharides (heteropolysaccharides) also possess biological properties. Here we survey the chemistry of such health-promoting polysaccharides and their reported antiobesity and antidiabetic properties as well as selected anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects that demonstrate their multiple health-promoting potential. The associated antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulating activities in fat cells, rodents, and humans are also discussed. The mechanisms of action involve the gut microbiota, meaning the polysaccharides act as prebiotics in the digestive system. Also covered here are the nutritional, functional food, clinical, and epidemiological studies designed to assess the health-promoting properties of polysaccharides, individually and as blended mixtures, against obesity, diabetes, cancer, and infectious diseases, and suggestions for further research. The collated information and suggested research needs might guide further studies needed for a better understanding of the health-promoting properties of mushroom polysaccharides and enhance their use to help prevent and treat human chronic diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, Preliminary Characterization and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Green Pea Pods
Foods 2016, 5(4), 78; doi:10.3390/foods5040078 -
Abstract
In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of green pea pod polysaccharide (GPPP) was investigated and optimized using a central composite response surface design coupled with a numerical optimization technique. The effects of ultrasonic power (50–150 W), sonication time (20–80 min), ratio of water to
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In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of green pea pod polysaccharide (GPPP) was investigated and optimized using a central composite response surface design coupled with a numerical optimization technique. The effects of ultrasonic power (50–150 W), sonication time (20–80 min), ratio of water to raw material (20:1–40:1 mL/g) and extraction temperature (40–80 °C) on polysaccharide extraction yield were studied. The maximum extraction yield was obtained with a sonication power of 135.34 W, extraction time of 48.61 min, ratio of water to raw material of 33.6:1 mL/g and extraction temperature of 68.25 °C. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 7.37% ± 0.13%, which was in close agreement with the predicted value (7.20%). The GPPP has been analyzed in order to identify a variety of chemical properties. The FT-IR spectrum demonstrated obvious characteristic peaks of polysaccharides. Furthermore, antioxidant activity of GPPP was evaluated by various antioxidant assays in vitro. The results revealed that GPPP possessed considerable DPPH free radical scavenging activity (91.03%), reducing power (0.63) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.34 mmol/L) at a total amount of 0.9 mg/mL. These findings indicated that GPPP extracted using an ultrasound-assisted extraction technique has potential as a novel source of natural antioxidant agent for future applications. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
World Market Development and Consumer Acceptance of Irradiation Technology
Foods 2016, 5(4), 79; doi:10.3390/foods5040079 -
Abstract
Food irradiation is an efficient technology that can be used to ensure food safety by eliminating insects and pathogens to prolong the shelf life. The process could be applied to fresh or frozen products without affecting the nutritional value. Presently more than 60
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Food irradiation is an efficient technology that can be used to ensure food safety by eliminating insects and pathogens to prolong the shelf life. The process could be applied to fresh or frozen products without affecting the nutritional value. Presently more than 60 countries have adopted the technology. However, the technology adaptation differs from one country to another and, in some cases, consumers’ misunderstanding and lack of acceptance may hinder the technology adaptation process. This review summarizes the development of irradiation treatment worldwide and consumer attitudes towards the introduction of this technology. Also, the wholesomeness, beneficial effects, and regulation of irradiation are assessed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Chemometrics Methods for Specificity, Authenticity and Traceability Analysis of Olive Oils: Principles, Classifications and Applications
Foods 2016, 5(4), 77; doi:10.3390/foods5040077 -
Abstract
Background. Olive oils (OOs) show high chemical variability due to several factors of genetic, environmental and anthropic types. Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for natural compositions and polymorphic diversification resulting in different varietal patterns and phenotypes. Anthropic factors, however, are at the
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Background. Olive oils (OOs) show high chemical variability due to several factors of genetic, environmental and anthropic types. Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for natural compositions and polymorphic diversification resulting in different varietal patterns and phenotypes. Anthropic factors, however, are at the origin of different blends’ preparation leading to normative, labelled or adulterated commercial products. Control of complex OO samples requires their (i) characterization by specific markers; (ii) authentication by fingerprint patterns; and (iii) monitoring by traceability analysis. Methods. These quality control and management aims require the use of several multivariate statistical tools: specificity highlighting requires ordination methods; authentication checking calls for classification and pattern recognition methods; traceability analysis implies the use of network-based approaches able to separate or extract mixed information and memorized signals from complex matrices. Results. This chapter presents a review of different chemometrics methods applied for the control of OO variability from metabolic and physical-chemical measured characteristics. The different chemometrics methods are illustrated by different study cases on monovarietal and blended OO originated from different countries. Conclusion. Chemometrics tools offer multiple ways for quantitative evaluations and qualitative control of complex chemical variability of OO in relation to several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Application of Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Routine in Optimizing Food and Bioengineering Processes
Foods 2016, 5(4), 76; doi:10.3390/foods5040076 -
Abstract
Optimization is a crucial step in the analysis of experimental results. Deterministic methods only converge on local optimums and require exponentially more time as dimensionality increases. Stochastic algorithms are capable of efficiently searching the domain space; however convergence is not guaranteed. This article
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Optimization is a crucial step in the analysis of experimental results. Deterministic methods only converge on local optimums and require exponentially more time as dimensionality increases. Stochastic algorithms are capable of efficiently searching the domain space; however convergence is not guaranteed. This article demonstrates the novelty of the hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA), which combines both stochastic and deterministic routines for improved optimization results. The new hybrid genetic algorithm developed is applied to the Ackley benchmark function as well as case studies in food, biofuel, and biotechnology processes. For each case study, the hybrid genetic algorithm found a better optimum candidate than reported by the sources. In the case of food processing, the hybrid genetic algorithm improved the anthocyanin yield by 6.44%. Optimization of bio-oil production using HGA resulted in a 5.06% higher yield. In the enzyme production process, HGA predicted a 0.39% higher xylanase yield. Hybridization of the genetic algorithm with a deterministic algorithm resulted in an improved optimum compared to statistical methods. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Fermentation-Assisted Extraction of Isothiocyanates from Brassica Vegetable Using Box-Behnken Experimental Design
Foods 2016, 5(4), 75; doi:10.3390/foods5040075 -
Abstract
Recent studies showed that Brassica vegetables are rich in numerous health-promoting compounds such as carotenoids, polyphenols, flavonoids, and glucosinolates (GLS), as well as isothiocyanates (ITCs) and are involved in health promotion upon consumption. ITCs are breakdown products of GLS, and typically used in
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Recent studies showed that Brassica vegetables are rich in numerous health-promoting compounds such as carotenoids, polyphenols, flavonoids, and glucosinolates (GLS), as well as isothiocyanates (ITCs) and are involved in health promotion upon consumption. ITCs are breakdown products of GLS, and typically used in the food industry as a food preservative and colouring agent. They are also used in the pharmaceutical industry due to their several pharmacological properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, anti-inflammatory, and chemoprotective effects, etc. Due to their widespread application in food and pharmaceuticals, the present study was designed to extract ITCs from York cabbage. In order to optimise the fermentation-assisted extraction process for maximum yield of ITCs from York cabbage, Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) was applied. Additionally, the GLS content of York cabbage was quantified and the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on GLS was evaluated. A range of GLS such as glucoraphanin, glucoiberin, glucobrassicin, sinigrin, gluconapin, neoglucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin were identified and quantified in fresh York cabbage. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis, and also examined by appropriate statistical methods. LAB facilitated the degradation of GLS, and the consequent formation of breakdown products such as ITCs. Results showed that the solid-to-liquid (S/L) ratio, fermentation time and agitation rate had a significant effect on the yield of ITCs (2.2 times increment). The optimum fermentation conditions to achieve a higher ITCs extraction yield were: S/L ratio of 0.25 w/v, fermentation time of 36 h, and agitation rate of 200 rpm. The obtained yields of ITCs (45.62 ± 2.13 μM sulforaphane equivalent (SFE)/mL) were comparable to the optimised conditions, indicating the accuracy of the model for the fermentation-assisted extraction of ITCs. This method has good prospects in industrial applications for the extraction of ITCs, and can be helpful in the food, pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quality Evaluation of Biscuits Supplemented with Alfalfa Seed Flour
Foods 2016, 5(4), 68; doi:10.3390/foods5040068 -
Abstract
The effect of alfalfa seed flour supplementation on the quality characteristics of refined wheat flour-based biscuits was studied. The proximate composition of refined wheat flour and alfalfa seed flour was determined. Refined wheat flour contained 12.43% moisture, 11.52% crude protein, 1.61% crude fat,
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The effect of alfalfa seed flour supplementation on the quality characteristics of refined wheat flour-based biscuits was studied. The proximate composition of refined wheat flour and alfalfa seed flour was determined. Refined wheat flour contained 12.43% moisture, 11.52% crude protein, 1.61% crude fat, 0.71% crude fiber, 1.43% ash and 70.83% nitrogen free extract, while alfalfa seed flour contained 5.79%, 29.49%, 12.71%, 5.53%, 4.80% and 41.73% moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash and nitrogen free extract correspondingly. Alfalfa seed flour at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% supplementation levels was incorporated in refined wheat flour to produce composite flour. The biscuits prepared were subjected to quality evaluation. Physical analysis of biscuits disclosed that supplementation of alfalfa seed flour decreased the width from 47.25 to 42 mm and the spread factor from 62.7 to 53.12, while it increased the thickness from 7.53 to 8.10 mm. Supplementation of refined wheat flour–based biscuits with alfalfa seed flour at different inclusion levels significantly (p < 0.05) increased the crude protein content from 10.19% to 15.30%, the crude fiber content from 0.73% to 1.62%, the crude fat content from 17.46% to 21.59% and the ash content from 1.37% to 1.92%, whereas it decreased the moisture content from 3.57% to 3.26% and the nitrogen free extract from 66.90% to 59.32%. The effect of supplementation on the mineral contents of biscuits was also significant (p < 0.05). Potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron and zinc contents increased from 105.30, 14.65, 43.91, 3.74 and 0.94 to 145.00, 26.64, 79.60, 7.93 and 1.60 mg/100 g, respectively. Sensory evaluation revealed that the quality score of biscuits in terms of color, taste, texture and overall acceptability decreased with increased supplementation. The present research work confirmed that a maximum of 10% alfalfa seed flour supplementation in refined wheat flour could produce acceptable biscuits with an appropriate nutritional profile. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Evaluation of Alternatives to Nitrites and Sulfites to Inhibit the Growth of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in Meat Products
Foods 2016, 5(4), 74; doi:10.3390/foods5040074 -
Abstract
In recent years, the use of nitrites and sulfites as food preservatives has been a cause for concern due to the health problems that these additives can cause in humans. Natural products have been studied as an alternative, but most of them have
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In recent years, the use of nitrites and sulfites as food preservatives has been a cause for concern due to the health problems that these additives can cause in humans. Natural products have been studied as an alternative, but most of them have hardly been applied in the food industry for technological and economic reasons. In this sense, organic salts such as sodium acetate are a good alternative due to their affordability. Thus, this study evaluated the capacity of sodium nitrite, sodium sulfite, a sodium acetate product (TQI C-6000), and chitosan to inhibit two important foodborne pathogens, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes. The MIC of each chemical was in vitro evaluated and their antibacterial action was subsequently checked in situ using minced meat as a food model. MIC values of sodium nitrite (10,000 mg/L) and sodium sulfite (50,000 mg/L) for Salmonella enterica were higher than the values allowed by legislation (450 mg/L for sulfites and 150 mg/L for nitrites). Additionally, the sodium acetate product caused the inhibition of Salmonella enterica and Listeria at a relative low quantity. The two foodborne pathogens were inhibited in the food model with 1% of the sodium acetate product. Additionally, there were no significant differences between sodium nitrite, sodium sulfite, and sodium acetate products in the inhibition of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in the food model. Thus, products based on sodium acetate can be an alternative to traditional preservatives in food products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antibacterial Activity of Fructus forsythia Essential Oil and the Application of EO-Loaded Nanoparticles to Food-Borne Pathogens
Foods 2016, 5(4), 73; doi:10.3390/foods5040073 -
Abstract
Fructus forsythia essential oil (FEO) with excellent antibacterial activity was rarely reported. The objective of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity and the antibacterial mechanism of FEO against two food-borne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus
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Fructus forsythia essential oil (FEO) with excellent antibacterial activity was rarely reported. The objective of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity and the antibacterial mechanism of FEO against two food-borne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in vitro. When treated FEO, the zones of inhibition (ZOI) of E. coli (20.5 ± 0.25 mm) and S. aureus (24.3 ± 0.21 mm) were much larger than control (p < 0.05). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of FEO were 3.13 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. The antibacterial mechanism of FEO against E. coil was due to the changes in permeability and integrity of cell membrane leading to the leakage of nucleic acids and proteins. With the superior antibacterial activity of FEO, the nano-encapsulation method has been applied in FEO. When compared to FEO and blank chitosan nanoparticles, FEO-loaded nanoparticles (chitosan to FEO of 1:1) can effectively inhibit the growth of E. coil above 90% at room temperature. It is necessary to consider that FEO and FEO-loaded nanoparticles will become promising antibacterial additives for food preservative, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Production and Properties of a Thermostable, pH—Stable Exo-Polygalacturonase Using Aureobasidium pullulans Isolated from Saharan Soil of Algeria Grown on Tomato Pomace
Foods 2016, 5(4), 72; doi:10.3390/foods5040072 -
Abstract
Polygalacturonase is a valuable biocatalyst for several industrial applications. Production of polygalacturonase using the Aureobasidium pullulans stain isolated from Saharan soil of Algeria was investigated. Its capacity to produce polygalacturonase was assessed under submerged culture using tomato pomace as an abundant agro-industrial substrate.
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Polygalacturonase is a valuable biocatalyst for several industrial applications. Production of polygalacturonase using the Aureobasidium pullulans stain isolated from Saharan soil of Algeria was investigated. Its capacity to produce polygalacturonase was assessed under submerged culture using tomato pomace as an abundant agro-industrial substrate. Optimization of the medium components, which enhance polygalacturonase activity of the strain Aureobasidium pullulans, was achieved with the aid of response surface methodology. The composition of the optimized medium was as follows: tomato pomace 40 g/L, lactose 1.84 g/L, CaCl20.09 g/L and pH 5.16. Practical validation of the optimum medium provided polygalacturonase activity of 22.05 U/mL, which was 5-fold higher than in unoptimized conditions. Batch cultivation in a 20 L bioreactor performed with the optimal nutrients and conditions resulted in a high polygalacturonase content (25.75 U/mL). The enzyme showed stability over a range of temperature (5–90 °C) with an optimum temperature of 60 °C with pH 5.0, exhibiting 100% residual activity after 1h at 60 °C. This enzyme was stable at a broad pH range (5.0–10). The enzyme proved to be an exo-polygalacturonase, releasing galacturonic acid by hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acid. Moreover, the exo-polygalacturonase was able to enhance the clarification of both apple and citrus juice. As a result, an economical polygalacturonase production process was defined and proposed using an industrial food by-product. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
Seafood Safety and Quality: The Consumer’s Role
Foods 2016, 5(4), 71; doi:10.3390/foods5040071 -
Abstract
All the good news about seafood—the health and nutritional benefits, the wide varieties and flavors—has had a positive effect on consumption: people are eating more seafood (http://www.seagrant.sunysb.edu/seafood/pdfs/SeafoodSavvy.pdf). Yet consumers want to be assured that seafood is as safe as, or safer
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All the good news about seafood—the health and nutritional benefits, the wide varieties and flavors—has had a positive effect on consumption: people are eating more seafood (http://www.seagrant.sunysb.edu/seafood/pdfs/SeafoodSavvy.pdf). Yet consumers want to be assured that seafood is as safe as, or safer to eat than, other foods. When you hear “seafood safety”, think of a safety net designed to protect you, the consumer, from food-borne illness. Every facet of the seafood industry, from harvester to consumer, plays a role in holding up the safety net. The role of state and federal agencies, fishermen, aquaculturists, retailers, processors, restaurants, and scientists is to provide, update, and carry out the necessary handling, processing, and inspection procedures to give consumers the safest seafood possible. The consumer’s responsibility is to follow through with proper handling techniques, from purchase to preparation. It doesn’t matter how many regulations and inspection procedures are set up; the final edge of the safety net is held by the consumer. This article will give you the information you need to educate yourself and be assured that the fish and shellfish you consume are safe. The most common food-borne illnesses are caused by a combination of bacteria naturally present in our environment and food handling errors made in commercial settings, food service institutions, or at home. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Essential Oil Characterization of Thymus vulgaris from Various Geographical Locations
Foods 2016, 5(4), 70; doi:10.3390/foods5040070 -
Abstract
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is a commonly used flavoring agent and medicinal herb. Several chemotypes of thyme, based on essential oil compositions, have been established, including (1) linalool; (2) borneol; (3) geraniol; (4) sabinene hydrate; (5) thymol; (6) carvacrol, as well as
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Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is a commonly used flavoring agent and medicinal herb. Several chemotypes of thyme, based on essential oil compositions, have been established, including (1) linalool; (2) borneol; (3) geraniol; (4) sabinene hydrate; (5) thymol; (6) carvacrol, as well as a number of multiple-component chemotypes. In this work, two different T. vulgaris essential oils were obtained from France and two were obtained from Serbia. The chemical compositions were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In addition, chiral gas chromatography was used to determine the enantiomeric compositions of several monoterpenoid components. The T. vulgaris oil from Nyons, France was of the linalool chemotype (linalool, 76.2%; linalyl acetate, 14.3%); the oil sample from Jablanicki, Serbia was of the geraniol chemotype (geraniol, 59.8%; geranyl acetate, 16.7%); the sample from Pomoravje District, Serbia was of the sabinene hydrate chemotype (cis-sabinene hydrate, 30.8%; trans-sabinene hydrate, 5.0%); and the essential oil from Richerenches, France was of the thymol chemotype (thymol, 47.1%; p-cymene, 20.1%). A cluster analysis based on the compositions of these essential oils as well as 81 additional T. vulgaris essential oils reported in the literature revealed 20 different chemotypes. This work represents the first chiral analysis of T. vulgaris monoterpenoids and a comprehensive description of the different chemotypes of T. vulgaris. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Gluten-Free Bread: Influence of Sourdough and Compressed Yeast on Proofing and Baking Properties
Foods 2016, 5(4), 69; doi:10.3390/foods5040069 -
Abstract
The use of sourdough is the oldest biotechnological process to leaven baked goods, and it represents a suitable technology to improve traditional bread texture, aroma, and shelf life. A limited number of studies concerning the use of sourdough in gluten-free (GF) breadmaking have
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The use of sourdough is the oldest biotechnological process to leaven baked goods, and it represents a suitable technology to improve traditional bread texture, aroma, and shelf life. A limited number of studies concerning the use of sourdough in gluten-free (GF) breadmaking have been published in comparison to those on traditional bread. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of GF breads obtained by using a previously in-lab developed GF-sourdough (SD), compressed yeast (CY; Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or their mixture (SDCY) as leavening agents; more specifically, it aims to confirm the findings of a previous studies and to further improve (both in terms of recipe and process) the features of the resulting GF breads. Dough pH and rheological properties were measured. Fresh and stored breads were characterized for weight, height, specific volume, crust and crumb color, moisture, water activity, crumb hardness, and porosity. The combination SDCY was effective in improving bread volume and softness when compared to SD only. Furthermore, SD- and SDCY-crumbs exhibited a less crumbly behavior during storage (69 h, 25 °C, 60% of relative humidity) in comparison to CY-breads. This study confirms the positive effect of SD in GF breadmaking, in particular when used in combination with CY. Full article
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