Abstract: Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis, Sims, cultivar “Sweetheart”) were subject to gamma irradiation at levels suitable for phytosanitary purposes (0, 150, 400 and 1000 Gy) then stored at 8 °C and assessed for fruit quality and total ascorbic acid concentration after one and fourteen days. Irradiation at any dose (≤1000 Gy) did not affect passionfruit quality (overall fruit quality, colour, firmness, fruit shrivel, stem condition, weight loss, total soluble solids level (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) level, TSS/TA ratio, juice pH and rot development), nor the total ascorbic acid concentration. The length of time in storage affected some fruit quality parameters and total ascorbic acid concentration, with longer storage periods resulting in lower quality fruit and lower total ascorbic acid concentration, irrespective of irradiation. There was no interaction between irradiation treatment and storage time, indicating that irradiation did not influence the effect of storage on passionfruit quality. The results showed that the application of 150, 400 and 1000 Gy gamma irradiation to “Sweetheart” purple passionfruit did not produce any deleterious effects on fruit quality or total ascorbic acid concentration during cold storage, thus supporting the use of low dose irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests in purple passionfruit.
Abstract: Consumers’ interest in the way meat is produced is increasing in Europe. The resulting free range and organic meat products retail at a higher price, but are difficult to differentiate from their counterparts. To ascertain authenticity and prevent fraud, relevant markers need to be identified and new analytical methodology developed. The objective of this pilot study was to characterize pork belly meats of different animal welfare classes by their fatty acid (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester—FAME), non-volatile compound (electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry—ESI-MS/MS), and volatile compound (proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry—PTR-MS) fingerprints. Well-defined pork belly meat samples (13 conventional, 15 free range, and 13 organic) originating from the Netherlands were subjected to analysis. Fingerprints appeared to be specific for the three categories, and resulted in 100%, 95.3%, and 95.3% correct identity predictions of training set samples for FAME, ESI-MS/MS, and PTR-MS respectively and slightly lower scores for the validation set. Organic meat was also well discriminated from the other two categories with 100% success rates for the training set for all three analytical approaches. Ten out of 25 FAs showed significant differences in abundance between organic meat and the other categories, free range meat differed significantly for 6 out of the 25 FAs. Overall, FAME fingerprinting presented highest discrimination power.
Abstract: Scientific research demonstrates that two indigenous gut bacteria, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium can contribute to human health. Although these bacteria can be consumed as probiotics, they can also be produced in the gut by bacteria, and are then called prebiotics. The primary objective of this in vitro study was to quantitatively analyze at the genus level how two dietary fibers, wheat dextrin (WD) and partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) changed the levels of these two gut bacteria at 12 and 24 h, via real time qualitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Secondary objectives were changes in fecal pH, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and total gas volume produced. At 12 h WD was more bifidogenic (9.50 CFU log10/mL) than PHGG (9.30 CFU log10/mL) (p = 0.052), and also at 24 h WD (9.41 CFU log10/mL) compared with PHGG (9.27 CFU log10/mL) (p = 0.043). WD produced less total SCFAs at both 12 and 24 h than PHGG, and produced significantly lower amounts of gas at 12 and 24 h (p < 0.001). Both PHGG and WD also promoted growth of Lactobacilli when measured at 12 and 24 h compared with the 0 h analysis, indicating that both fibers are lactogenic. These results demonstrate the prebiotic effect of WD and PHGG. Based on fermentation kinetics, PHGG is more rapidly fermented than WD, and both fibers show prebiotic effects as early as 12 h.
Abstract: Trifolium pratense (red clover) and T. repens (white clover) edible flowers were investigated for their chemical profile and health properties. The total phenols and flavonoids contents were evaluated. Quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, rutin, and myricetin were used as markers and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant effects were investigated by using different in vitro assays. Moreover, α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activities were evaluated. T. repens flowers extract showed a good radical scavenging activity in both DPPH and ABTS tests with IC50 values of 10.3 and 21.4 μg/mL, respectively. White clover extract demonstrated promising α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 25.0 and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results support the use of Trifolium flowers as healthy food ingredients.
Abstract: Non-dairy probiotic products have the advantage of being lactose-free and can be manufactured to sustain the growth of probiotics. In this study, coconut water and oatmeal were used with the probiotic, Lactobacillus plantarum Lp 115-400B (L. plantarum) as a starter culture. Two separate treatments were carried out probiotic (P) and probiotic and prebiotic (PP) added. In both treatments, oatmeal-coconut water matrix was inoculated with 7 log CFU/g of L. plantarum and fermented at 27 °C for 10 h. For the PP treatment, 1 g of inulin/100 mL of the product was added additionally. The fermented products were then refrigerated (4 °C) and the viability of L. plantarum, pH, total acidity, and apparent viscosity of the matrix were monitored at selected time intervals. The shelf life to reach was defined by maintenance of L. plantarum count of 7 log CFU/g product. Refrigerated shelf life was determined to be seven-weeks for the P treatment and five-weeks for PP treatment. A significant reduction of pH was observed at the end of the considered shelf life; conversely, the apparent viscosity of the product did not change significantly.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the use of phytone peptone to optimize the growth and cell density of Lactobacillus reuteri. Four strains of L. reuteri (DSM 20016, SD 2112, CF 2-7F, and MF 2-3,) were used in this study. An overnight culture of individual strains was inoculated into fresh basal media with various protein sources (peptone, tryptone, proteose peptone #3, phytone peptone, tryptic soy broth, yeast extract, and beef extract). Samples were then mixed well and incubated at 37 °C for 15 h. Bacterial growth was monitored by measuring turbidity (optical density 610 nm) at different time intervals during the incubation period. At the end of incubation, samples were plated on de-Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar to determine the bacterial population. Our results showed that phytone peptone promoted the growth of L. reuteri (p < 0.05) by 1.4 log CFU/mL on average compared to the control samples. Therefore, phytone peptone could be included in laboratory media to enhance growth and increase the cell density of L. reuteri.