Open AccessReview
Algal Proteins: Extraction, Application, and Challenges Concerning Production
Foods 2017, 6(5), 33; doi:10.3390/foods6050033 -
Abstract
Population growth combined with increasingly limited resources of arable land and fresh water has resulted in a need for alternative protein sources. Macroalgae (seaweed) and microalgae are examples of under-exploited “crops”. Algae do not compete with traditional food crops for space and resources.
[...] Read more.
Population growth combined with increasingly limited resources of arable land and fresh water has resulted in a need for alternative protein sources. Macroalgae (seaweed) and microalgae are examples of under-exploited “crops”. Algae do not compete with traditional food crops for space and resources. This review details the characteristics of commonly consumed algae, as well as their potential for use as a protein source based on their protein quality, amino acid composition, and digestibility. Protein extraction methods applied to algae to date, including enzymatic hydrolysis, physical processes, and chemical extraction and novel methods such as ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field, and microwave-assisted extraction are discussed. Moreover, existing protein enrichment methods used in the dairy industry and the potential of these methods to generate high value ingredients from algae, such as bioactive peptides and functional ingredients are discussed. Applications of algae in human nutrition, animal feed, and aquaculture are examined. Full article
Figures

Open AccessReview
Bioactive Peptides
Foods 2017, 6(5), 32; doi:10.3390/foods6050032 -
Abstract
The increased consumer awareness of the health promoting effects of functional foods and nutraceuticals is the driving force of the functional food and nutraceutical market. Bioactive peptides are known for their high tissue affinity, specificity and efficiency in promoting health. For this reason,
[...] Read more.
The increased consumer awareness of the health promoting effects of functional foods and nutraceuticals is the driving force of the functional food and nutraceutical market. Bioactive peptides are known for their high tissue affinity, specificity and efficiency in promoting health. For this reason, the search for food-derived bioactive peptides has increased exponentially. Over the years, many potential bioactive peptides from food have been documented; yet, obstacles such as the need to establish optimal conditions for industrial scale production and the absence of well-designed clinical trials to provide robust evidence for proving health claims continue to exist. Other important factors such as the possibility of allergenicity, cytotoxicity and the stability of the peptides during gastrointestinal digestion would need to be addressed. This review discusses our current knowledge on the health effects of food-derived bioactive peptides, their processing methods and challenges in their development. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Validation of a Novel Technique and Evaluation of the Surface Free Energy of Food
Foods 2017, 6(4), 31; doi:10.3390/foods6040031 -
Abstract
Characterizing the physical properties of a surface is largely dependent on determining the contact angle exhibited by a liquid. Contact angles on the surfaces of rough and irregularly-shaped food samples are difficult to measure using a contact angle meter (goniometer). As a consequence,
[...] Read more.
Characterizing the physical properties of a surface is largely dependent on determining the contact angle exhibited by a liquid. Contact angles on the surfaces of rough and irregularly-shaped food samples are difficult to measure using a contact angle meter (goniometer). As a consequence, values for the surface energy and its components can be mismeasured. The aim of this work was to use a novel contact angle measurement method, namely the snake-based ImageJ program, to accurately measure the contact angles of rough and irregular shapes, such as food samples, and so enable more accurate calculation of the surface energy of food materials. In order to validate the novel technique, the contact angles of three different test liquids on four different smooth polymer films were measured using both the ImageJ software with the DropSnake plugin and the widely used contact angle meter. The distributions of the values obtained by the two methods were different. Therefore, the contact angles, surface energies, and polar and dispersive components of plastic films obtained using the ImageJ program and the Drop Shape Analyzer (DSA) were interpreted with the help of simple linear regression analysis. As case studies, the superficial characteristics of strawberry and endive salad epicarp were measured with the ImageJ program and the results were interpreted with the Drop Shape Analyzer equivalent according to our regression models. The data indicated that the ImageJ program can be successfully used for contact angle determination of rough and strongly hydrophobic surfaces, such as strawberry epicarp. However, for the special geometry of droplets on slightly hydrophobic surfaces, such as salad leaves, the program code interpolation part can be altered. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Calabrian Goji vs. Chinese Goji: A Comparative Study on Biological Properties
Foods 2017, 6(4), 30; doi:10.3390/foods6040030 -
Abstract
Lycium barbarum (Goji) fruits are mainly cultivated in northwestern China and are well known for their beneficial and healthy effects. In this work, the biological and functional properties of Calabrian Goji extract, obtained from Goji berries cultivated in the Sibari Plain (in the
[...] Read more.
Lycium barbarum (Goji) fruits are mainly cultivated in northwestern China and are well known for their beneficial and healthy effects. In this work, the biological and functional properties of Calabrian Goji extract, obtained from Goji berries cultivated in the Sibari Plain (in the Italian region of Calabria), were demonstrated. In order to evaluate the use of this extract as a food supplement for cognitive and mental disorders, the quantification of Carotenoids as Zeaxanthin equivalents was made. The antioxidant activity was investigated by evaluating the scavenging properties against 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals and by performing the ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) assay. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was quantified by bleaching test and the ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase enzyme and to scavenge nitric oxide radical was also evaluated. All the results were compared to those obtained from a Chinese Goji extract used as a reference. Based on the reported data, Calabrian Goji might be used as a food supplement with a possible application in cognitive disorders, mental impairments and other neurodegenerative diseases, due to its biological properties and the high levels of Carotenoids. Full article
Figures

Open AccessReview
Starch Characteristics Linked to Gluten-Free Products
Foods 2017, 6(4), 29; doi:10.3390/foods6040029 -
Abstract
The increasing prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) and gluten-related disorders has led to increasing consumer demand for gluten-free products with quality characteristics similar to wheat bread. The replacement of gluten in cereal-based products remains a challenge for scientists, due to its unique role
[...] Read more.
The increasing prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) and gluten-related disorders has led to increasing consumer demand for gluten-free products with quality characteristics similar to wheat bread. The replacement of gluten in cereal-based products remains a challenge for scientists, due to its unique role in network formation, which entraps air bubbles. When gluten is removed from a flour, starch is the main component left. Starch is used as gelling, thickening, adhesion, moisture-retention, stabilizing, film forming, texturizing and anti-staling ingredient. The extent of these properties varies depending on the starch source. The starches can additionally be modified increasing or decreasing certain properties of the starch, depending on the application. Starch plays an important role in the formulation of bakery products and has an even more important role in gluten-free products. In gluten-free products, starch is incorporated into the food formulation to improve baking characteristics such as the specific volume, colour and crumb structure and texture. This review covers a number of topics relating to starch; including; an overview of common and lesser researched starches; chemical composition; morphology; digestibility; functionality and methods of modification. The emphasis of this review is on starch and its properties with respect to the quality of gluten-free products. Full article
Figures

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Aromatic Plants: Antioxidant Capacity and Polyphenol Characterisation
Foods 2017, 6(4), 28; doi:10.3390/foods6040028 -
Abstract
The antioxidant properties and polyphenol content of some selected aromatic plants grown in Greece were studied. Plants were refluxed with 60% methanol after acid hydrolysis. The phenolic substances were quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography–Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD). The antioxidant capacity of the
[...] Read more.
The antioxidant properties and polyphenol content of some selected aromatic plants grown in Greece were studied. Plants were refluxed with 60% methanol after acid hydrolysis. The phenolic substances were quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography–Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD). The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined with the Rancimat test using sunflower oil as substrate. Free radical scavenging activity was measured using the stable free radical 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Results were compared with standard butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid. Total phenol concentration of the extracts was estimated with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent using gallic acid as standard. All plant extracts examined showed antioxidant capacity and contained phenolic compounds. Caffeic acid was detected in all the examined plant extracts. Ferulic acid was also detected in all the methanolic extracts, except from P. lanata, in rather high concentration. The amount of total phenolics varied slightly in plant materials and ranged from 8.2 mg to 31.6 mg of gallic acid/g dry sample. The highest amount was found in O. dictamnus, and the lowest in N. melissifolia. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Mineral and Anti-Nutritional Contents of Niger Seed (Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass., Linseed (Linumusitatissimum L.) and Sesame (Sesamumindicum L.) Varieties Grown in Ethiopia
Foods 2017, 6(4), 27; doi:10.3390/foods6040027 -
Abstract
Oilseeds are rich sources of micronutrients and contribute to combating malnutrition caused by micronutrient deficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the mineral and anti-nutritional contents of different varieties of niger seed, linseed and sesame. Five niger seed, eight linseed and
[...] Read more.
Oilseeds are rich sources of micronutrients and contribute to combating malnutrition caused by micronutrient deficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the mineral and anti-nutritional contents of different varieties of niger seed, linseed and sesame. Five niger seed, eight linseed and ten sesame varieties were used. Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used for mineral analysis and the standard method was adopted to estimate tannin and phytate. Twelve mineral elements; Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, S, Se and Zn were analyzed for each oilseed variety. In niger seed, phosphorous was the most abundant mineral element ranging from 661 to 867 mg/100 g and selenium was the least, ranging from 0.1 to 0.33 mg/100 g. Potassium was recorded in the range of 502 to 732 mg/100 g for linseed varieties. Calcium was the most common mineral element in sesame (1112 to 1787 mg/100 g). The average phytate contents of niger seed, linseed and sesame varieties were353 mg/100 g, 104 mg/100 g and 285 mg/100 g, respectively. Tannin ranged from 91 to 201 mg/100 g, 96 to 695 mg/100 g and 85 to 660 mg/100 g in niger seed, linseed and sesame, respectively. In conclusion, there is a significant variation among the varieties within each crop species as well as among the different oilseeds in terms of their mineral and anti-nutritional contents. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Retail Conventional, Organic, and Grass Full-Fat Butters by Their Fat Contents, Free Fatty Acid Contents, and Triglyceride and Fatty Acid Profiling
Foods 2017, 6(4), 26; doi:10.3390/foods6040026 -
Abstract
In the Netherlands, butter is produced from milk originating from three different production systems: conventional, organic, and grass-fed cows. The aim of the current study was to characterize these types of butters, and pinpoint distinct compositional differences. Retail conventional (n = 28),
[...] Read more.
In the Netherlands, butter is produced from milk originating from three different production systems: conventional, organic, and grass-fed cows. The aim of the current study was to characterize these types of butters, and pinpoint distinct compositional differences. Retail conventional (n = 28), organic (n = 14), and grass (n = 12) full-fat butters were collected during the winter and summer seasons. Samples were analyzed for their fat content, free fatty acid (FFA) content, and triglyceride (TG) and fatty acid (FA) profiles. The fat content was significantly lower in conventional butters than in organic butters and the FFA content was significantly lower in conventional butters compared with grass butters. Also, organic butters differed significantly from their conventional counterparts with regard to their TG and FA profiles. The TG profiles of the organic and grass butters did not differ significantly. The FA profiles of grass butters were less distinct, since only a few FAs differed significantly from conventional (six FAs) and organic (eight FAs) butters. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Pigments in Extra-Virgin Olive Oils Produced in Tuscany (Italy) in Different Years
Foods 2017, 6(4), 25; doi:10.3390/foods6040025 -
Abstract
Pigments are responsible for the color of olive oils, and are an important ingredient that is directly related to the quality of this food. However, the concentration of pigments can vary significantly depending on the climate conditions, harvesting time, and olive cultivars. In
[...] Read more.
Pigments are responsible for the color of olive oils, and are an important ingredient that is directly related to the quality of this food. However, the concentration of pigments can vary significantly depending on the climate conditions, harvesting time, and olive cultivars. In this work, we quantified the main pigments in several extra-virgin olive oils produced from a blend of three cultivars (Moraiolo, Frantoio, and Leccino) typical of Tuscany (Italy) harvested in three different years: 2012, 2013, and 2014. Pigments—namely, β-carotene, lutein, pheophytin A, and pheophytin B—were quantified by a method based on the mathematical analysis of the near ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra of the oils. Data were analyzed by a multivariate statistical approach. The results show that the pigments’ content of extra-virgin olive oils produced in 2014 can be well distinguished with respect to previous years. This can be explained by the anomalous climate conditions, which strongly affected Italy and, in particular, Tuscany, where the olives were harvested. This study represents an interesting example of how pigment content can be significant in characterizing olive oils. Moreover, this is the first report of pigment quantification in extra-virgin olive oils produced in Tuscany. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Study of Phenols in Apulian Italian Wines
Foods 2017, 6(4), 24; doi:10.3390/foods6040024 -
Abstract
Nutraceutics is a growing research field in which researchers study and attempt to improve the biological properties of metabolites in food. Wine is one of the most consumed products in the world and contains a plethora of molecules biologically relevant to human health.
[...] Read more.
Nutraceutics is a growing research field in which researchers study and attempt to improve the biological properties of metabolites in food. Wine is one of the most consumed products in the world and contains a plethora of molecules biologically relevant to human health. In this article, several polyphenols with potential antioxidant activity were measured in wines from Apulia, in Southeast Italy. Hydroxytyrosol, gallic and syringic acids, luteolin, quercetin, and trans-resveratrol were identified and quantified by HPLC. The amount of the analyzed metabolites in wines were largely dependent on their color, with red ones being the richest compared to white and rose wines. Gallic acid was the most abundant polyphenol, followed by syringic acid and luteolin. Nevertheless, significant amounts of hydroxytyrosol, quercetin, and trans-resveratrol were also found. The average concentration of polyphenols found in these wines could have potential health-promoting effects, especially if consumed in moderate quantities on a regular basis. Full article
Figures

Open AccessEditorial
Understanding the Fresh Produce Safety Challenges
Foods 2017, 6(3), 23; doi:10.3390/foods6030023 -
Abstract Consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is important for a balanced diet and healthy life-style. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on Ready-to-Eat Meats Using Bacteriocin Mixtures Based on Mode-of-Action
Foods 2017, 6(3), 22; doi:10.3390/foods6030022 -
Abstract
Bacteriocin-producing (Bac+) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) comprising selected strains of Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Enterococcus faecium and thailandicus were examined for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes during hotdog challenge studies. The Bac+ strains, or their
[...] Read more.
Bacteriocin-producing (Bac+) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) comprising selected strains of Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Enterococcus faecium and thailandicus were examined for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes during hotdog challenge studies. The Bac+ strains, or their cell-free supernatants (CFS), were grouped according to mode-of-action (MOA) as determined from prior studies. Making a mixture of as many MOAs as possible is a practical way to obtain a potent natural antimicrobial mixture to address L. monocytogenes contamination of RTE meat products (i.e., hotdogs). The heat resistance of the bacteriocins allowed the use of pasteurization to eliminate residual producer cells for use as post-process surface application or their inclusion into hotdog meat emulsion during cooking. The use of Bac+ LAB comprising 3× MOAs directly as co-inoculants on hotdogs was not effective at inhibiting L. monocytogenes. However, the use of multiple MOA Bac+ CFS mixtures in a variety of trials demonstrated the effectiveness of this approach by showing a >2-log decrease of L. monocytogenes in treatment samples and 6–7 log difference vs. controls. These data suggest that surface application of multiple mode-of-action bacteriocin mixtures can provide for an Alternative 2, and possibly Alternative 1, process category as specified by USDA-FSIS for control of L. monocytogenes on RTE meat products. Full article
Figures

Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Produce: Outbreaks, Prevalence and Contamination Levels
Foods 2017, 6(3), 21; doi:10.3390/foods6030021 -
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous
[...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous system infections, as well as abortion in pregnant women. Generally, processed ready-to-eat and cold-stored meat and dairy products are considered high-risk foods for L. monocytogenes infections that cause human illness (listeriosis). However, recently, several listeriosis outbreaks have been linked to fresh produce contamination around the world. Additionally, many studies have detected L. monocytogenes in fresh produce samples and even in some minimally processed vegetables. Thus L. monocytogenes may contaminate fresh produce if present in the growing environment (soil and water). Prevention of biofilm formation is an important control measure to reduce the prevalence and survival of L. monocytogenes in growing environments and on fresh produce. This article specifically focuses on fresh produce–associated listeriosis outbreaks, prevalence in growing environments, contamination levels of fresh produce, and associated fresh produce safety challenges. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis
Foods 2017, 6(3), 20; doi:10.3390/foods6030020 -
Abstract
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the
[...] Read more.
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%–37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%–29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%–16.9%), (−)-borneol (2.1%–6.9%), (−)-camphor (0.7%–7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%–4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities. Full article
Figures

Open AccessCommentary
Red Yeast Rice
Foods 2017, 6(3), 19; doi:10.3390/foods6030019 -
Abstract
Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin
[...] Read more.
Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
Study Approach of Antioxidant Properties in Foods: Update and Considerations
Foods 2017, 6(3), 17; doi:10.3390/foods6030017 -
Abstract
The assessment of interactions between natural antioxidants and other food matrix components represents the main step in the investigation of total antioxidant properties, in terms of potential health benefits. The diversity of chemical structures of natural compounds, besides their possible interactions, as well
[...] Read more.
The assessment of interactions between natural antioxidants and other food matrix components represents the main step in the investigation of total antioxidant properties, in terms of potential health benefits. The diversity of chemical structures of natural compounds, besides their possible interactions, as well as the biological role and different modes of action makes it difficult to assess a single and reliable procedure for the evaluation of antioxidant activity. Today, much attention is given to the distinction between extractable and non-extractable antioxidants as a key tool in the description of the nutritional and healthy properties of food matrices. The starting point for the investigation of antioxidant effects of food extracts is the analysis of antioxidant properties of pure compounds and their interactions. Another complementary approach could be represented by the study of how different biologically active compound-rich extracts contribute to the total antioxidant capacity. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Occurrence and Antioxidant Activity of C1 Degradation Products in Cocoa
Foods 2017, 6(3), 18; doi:10.3390/foods6030018 -
Abstract
Procyanidin C1 is by far the main flavan-3-ol trimer in cocoa. Like other flavan-3-ols, however, it suffers a lot during heat treatments such as roasting. RP-HPLCHRMS/MS(ESI(−))analysis applied to an aqueous model medium containing commercial procyanidin C1 proved that epimerization is the main reaction
[...] Read more.
Procyanidin C1 is by far the main flavan-3-ol trimer in cocoa. Like other flavan-3-ols, however, it suffers a lot during heat treatments such as roasting. RP-HPLCHRMS/MS(ESI(−))analysis applied to an aqueous model medium containing commercial procyanidin C1 proved that epimerization is the main reaction involved in its degradation (accounting for 62% of degradation products). In addition to depolymerization, cocoa procyanidin C1 also proved sensitive to oxidation, yielding once- and twice-oxidized dimers. No chemical oligomer involving the native trimer was found in either model medium or cocoa, while two C1 isomers were retrieved. C1 degradation products exhibited antioxidant activity (monitored by RPHPLC-Online TEAC) close to that of C1 (when expressed in µM TE/mg·kg−1). Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Can the Palatability of Healthy, Satiety-Promoting Foods Increase with Repeated Exposure during Weight Loss?
Foods 2017, 6(2), 16; doi:10.3390/foods6020016 -
Abstract
Repeated exposure to sugary, fatty, and salty foods often enhances their appeal. However, it is unknown if exposure influences learned palatability of foods typically promoted as part of a healthy diet. We tested whether the palatability of pulse containing foods provided during a
[...] Read more.
Repeated exposure to sugary, fatty, and salty foods often enhances their appeal. However, it is unknown if exposure influences learned palatability of foods typically promoted as part of a healthy diet. We tested whether the palatability of pulse containing foods provided during a weight loss intervention which were particularly high in fiber and low in energy density would increase with repeated exposure. At weeks 0, 3, and 6, participants (n = 42; body mass index (BMI) 31.2 ± 4.3 kg/m2) were given a test battery of 28 foods, approximately half which had been provided as part of the intervention, while the remaining half were not foods provided as part of the intervention. In addition, about half of each of the foods (provided as part or not provided as part of the intervention) contained pulses. Participants rated the taste, appearance, odor, and texture pleasantness of each food, and an overall flavor pleasantness score was calculated as the mean of these four scores. Linear mixed model analyses showed an exposure type by week interaction effect for taste, texture and overall flavor pleasantness indicating statistically significant increases in ratings of provided foods in taste and texture from weeks 0 to 3 and 0 to 6, and overall flavor from weeks 0 to 6. Repeated exposure to these foods, whether they contained pulses or not, resulted in a ~4% increase in pleasantness ratings. The long-term clinical relevance of this small increase requires further study. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Fat-Reduced Puff Pastry Using Response Surface Methodology
Foods 2017, 6(2), 15; doi:10.3390/foods6020015 -
Abstract
Puff pastry is a high-fat bakery product with fat playing a key role, both during the production process and in the final pastry. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was successfully used to evaluate puff pastry quality for the development of a
[...] Read more.
Puff pastry is a high-fat bakery product with fat playing a key role, both during the production process and in the final pastry. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was successfully used to evaluate puff pastry quality for the development of a fat-reduced version. The technological parameters modified included the level of roll-in fat, the number of fat layers (50–200) and the final thickness (1.0–3.5 mm) of the laminated dough. Quality characteristics of puff pastry were measured using the Texture Analyzer with an attached Extended Craft Knife (ECK) and Multiple Puncture Probe (MPP), the VolScan and the C-Cell imaging system. The number of fat layers and final dough thickness, in combination with the amount of roll-in fat, had a significant impact on the internal and external structural quality parameters. With technological changes alone, a fat-reduced (≥30%) puff pastry was developed. The qualities of fat-reduced puff pastries were comparable to conventional full-fat (33 wt %) products. A sensory acceptance test revealed no significant differences in taste of fatness or ‘liking of mouthfeel’. Additionally, the fat-reduced puff pastry resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation to ‘liking of flavor’ and overall acceptance by the assessors. Full article
Figures

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effect of Different Flours on the Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural, Furfural, and Dicarbonyl Compounds in Heated Glucose/Flour Systems
Foods 2017, 6(2), 14; doi:10.3390/foods6020014 -
Abstract
Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic
[...] Read more.
Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety. Full article
Figures

Figure 1