Abstract: An enlarged range of scallop products on the market allows the consumer to buy lower priced alternatives, which often raises the question of quality and control. Frozen meat of king scallops (Pecten maximus) and Atlantic sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) were purchased on the German market and compared with fresh shell-on king scallops of various origin. The approximate composition, inclusive citric acid and phosphates, minerals, free amino acids (FAA) and fatty acid profiles were examined in the muscle to identify changes as a result of processing. The FAA glycine and taurine as well the fatty acids 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) were the most abundant, but were reduced in processed samples. Di- and triphosphate contents were not detectable (<0.01 g·kg−1) in untreated meats. Most frozen scallop products contained added citrates and polyphosphates and had distinctly higher water contents (up to 89%) and an increased moisture to protein ratio (M/P) (up to 9) compared with the fresh king scallops (78%, M/P < 5). Labelling of species, verified by PCR-based DNA analysis, and ingredients were not correct in each case. Overall results indicated no relevant differences in mineral content, except high sodium contents, resulting from additives. Labelling does not readily allow the consumer to recognize the extent of processing effects.
Abstract: The effectiveness of chitosan fruit coating to delay the qualitative and nutraceutical traits of three strawberry cultivars, namely “Candonga”, “Jonica” and “Sabrina”, as well as the effects of chitosan on antioxidant enzymes were evaluated. The fruits were coated with 1% and 2% chitosan solution and stored at 2 °C for nine days. Samples were taken every three days. Physico-chemical (weight loss, soluble solid content and titratable acidity) and nutraceutical (total polyphenol, anthocyanin, flavonoid, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant capacity) properties along with the enzymatic activity (catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and lipoxygenase (LOX)) were evaluated. Chitosan treatment significantly reduced water loss and delayed the qualitative changes in color, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content in dose- and cultivar-dependent manners. Additionally, changes in the total polyphenol, anthocyanin and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant capacity of chitosan-coated strawberry fruits were delayed. Chitosan coating enhanced the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, preventing flesh browning and reducing membrane damage. A global view of the responses of the three strawberry cultivars to chitosan coating and storage temperature was obtained using principal component analysis. Chitosan-coated fruit exhibited a slower rate of deterioration, compared to uncoated fruit in all tested cultivars.
Abstract: Thirty samples of powdered infant milk formulas containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been stored at four different temperatures (20, 28, 40 and 55 °C) and periodically monitored for their malondialdehyde (MDA) content up to one year. MDA levels ranged between 250 and 350 ng/kg in sealed samples with a maximum of 566 ng/kg in samples stored at 28 °C for three weeks after opening of their original packages, previously maintained for ten months at 20 °C. Sample stored at 40° and 55 °C were also submitted to CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage) colorimetric analysis, since color is the first sensorial property that consumers may evaluate. Overall, the results demonstrated a good stability of PUFA-enriched infant milk formulas in terms of MDA content. However, some care has to be paid when these products are not promptly consumed and stored for a long time after first opening.
Abstract: Winter squash “type butternut” is harvested in physiological ripening for better commercial distribution, when sensory and/or nutritional quality is not optimum for consumption. The objective of this study was to quantify the content of α-carotene, β-carotene, color and dry matter in the pulp of raw and microwave-cooked winter squash “type butternut” (variety CosmoF1) in three states of commercial maturity. Immature, mature, and very mature fruit, defined at the time of the harvest by the percentage of orange peel and green stalk, were evaluated. The highest concentration of carotenes (α-carotene + β-carotene) in mg.100 g−1 pulp wet basis was found in very mature fruits (31.96 mg), followed by mature fruits (24.65 mg), and immature fruits (18.82 mg). Microwave cooking caused the loss of β-carotene (28.6% wet basis) and α-carotene (34.1%). Cooking promote a greater reduction of α-carotene in immature (40.3%) and mature (34.5%) fruits. The ratio of β-carotene and α-carotene content increased with commercial maturity from 0.93 for immature fruits to 1.0 for very mature fruit, with higher ratio in cooked pulp (1.04) vs. raw pulp (0.96).
Abstract: Iron and vitamin A deficiencies in childhood are public health problems in the developing world. Introduction of cereal-based complementary foods, that are often poor sources of both vitamin A and bioavailable iron, increases the risk of deficiency in young children. Alternative foods with higher levels of vitamin A and bioavailable iron could help alleviate these micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to compare iron bioavailability of β-carotene-rich sweet potato-based complementary foods (orange-flesh based sweet potato (OFSP) ComFa and cream-flesh sweet potato based (CFSP) ComFa with a household cereal-based complementary food (Weanimix) and a commercial cereal (Cerelac®), using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Iron bioavailability relative to total iron, concentrations of iron-uptake inhibitors (fibre, phytates, and polyphenols), and enhancers (ascorbic acid, ß-carotene and fructose) was also evaluated. All foods contained similar amounts of iron, but bioavailability varied: Cerelac® had the highest, followed by OFSP ComFa and Weanimix, which had equivalent bioavailable iron; CFSP ComFa had the lowest bioavailability. The high iron bioavailability from Cerelac® was associated with the highest levels of ascorbic acid, and the lowest levels of inhibitors; polyphenols appeared to limit sweet potato-based food iron bioavailability. Taken together, the results do not support that CFSP- and OFSP ComFa are better sources of bioavailable iron compared with non-commercial/household cereal-based weaning foods; however, they may be a good source of provitamin A in the form of β-carotene.
Abstract: The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA), consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming systems. According to the PCA, potato samples treated with inorganic fertilizers exhibited a variation positively related to amounts of crude protein, yield, cooking or tissue discoloration and extract decomposition. Potato samples treated according to biodynamic principles, with composted cow manure, were more positively related to traits such as Quality- and EAA-indices, dry matter content, taste quality, relative proportion of pure protein and biocrystallization value. Distinctions between years, crop rotation and cultivars used were sometimes more significant than differences between manuring systems. Grown after barley the potato crop exhibited better quality traits compared to when grown after ley in both the conventional and the biodynamic farming system.