Fibers2013, 1(3), 82-92; doi:10.3390/fib1030082 - published online 3 December 2013 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We report on investigation the potential of a 7 wt% (8.35 × 1020 Tm3+/cm3) doped silicate fibers for high-gain fiber amplifiers. Such a high ion concentration significantly reduces the required fiber length of high-power 2 μm fiber laser systems and allows the high-repetition rate operation in 2 μm mode-locked fiber lasers. To evaluate the feasibility of extracting high gain-per-unit-length from this gain medium, we measure several key material properties of the silicate fiber, including the absorption/emission cross-sections, upper-state lifetime, fiber background loss, and photodarkening resistance. We show through numerical simulations that a signal gain-per-unit-length of 3.78 dB/cm at 1950 nm can be achieved in a watt-level core-pumped Tm3+-doped silicate fiber amplifier. In addition, an 18-dB 2013-nm amplifier is demonstrated in a 50-cm 7 wt% Tm3+-doped double-clad silicate fiber. Finally, we experimentally confirm that the reported silicate host exhibits no observable photodarkening.
Fibers2013, 1(3), 70-81; doi:10.3390/fib1030070 - published online 22 November 2013 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We report our recent progress on fabricating dehydrated tellurite glass fibers. Low OH content (1 ppm in weight) has been achieved in a new halogen-containing lead tellurite glass fiber. Low OH-induced attenuation of 10 dB/m has been confirmed in the range of 3–4 µm using three measurement methods. This shows the dehydrated halo-tellurite glass fiber is a promising candidate for nonlinear applications in a 2–5 µm region.
Fibers2013, 1(3), 59-69; doi:10.3390/fib1030059 - published online 23 October 2013 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Flax stems of Modran variety were subjected to water retting under laboratory conditions and its physical properties were compared with non-retted fibers. Physical properties including percentage of impurities, weighted average length, linear density, tenacity and elongation were analyzed and the results were compared. The analysis of retted and non-retted flax fibers showed that retting is the most important step in the processing of flax fibers and it directly affects quality attributes like strength, fineness, and homogeneity. Scanning Electron microscope images of fibers were also analyzed and the retted fibers showed much cleaner surface when compared to decorticated non-retted fibers.
Fibers2013, 1(3), 47-58; doi:10.3390/fib1030047 - published online 18 October 2013 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The formation of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) wool fibers formed by dipping chitosan or gellan gum-treated wool fibers into biopolymer solutions of opposite charge is reported. Treating wool fibers with chitosan (CH) and gellan gum (GG) solutions containing food dyes resulted in improved mechanical characteristics compared to wool fibers. In contrast, pH modification of the solutions resulted in the opposite effect. The mechanical characteristics of PEC-treated fibers were affected by the order of addition, i.e., dipping GG-treated fibers into chitosan resulted in mechanical reinforcement, whereas the reverse-order process did not.
Fibers2013, 1(3), 36-46; doi:10.3390/fib1030036 - published online 15 October 2013 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We have developed a computing method to determine the geometrical parameters of fibers and the textile periodical structure. This method combines two two-dimensional discrete fast Fourier transforms to calculate a diffraction pattern from a diffraction pattern image of material under consideration. The result is the same as that of observation of a diffraction pattern which is achieved by illuminating the diffraction pattern image of material by a beam of coherent monochromatic light. After the first transform we obtain the Fraunhofer diffraction picture with clearly visible elements of the periodical structure of material, but distances in this picture are reciprocally proportional to distances in the periodical structure of the source object so additional calculations are required. After the second transform we have a clear periodical structure of diffraction maximums where distances between them are equal to distances between repeating elements in the source material (fibers, knots, yarns, etc.).
Fibers2013, 1(2), 21-35; doi:10.3390/fib1020021 - published online 30 August 2013 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Flax fibers used for various applications are obtained from flax stems. Retting followed by drying and mechanical separation leads to the production of fibers. This review article discusses the application of electro-technologies in the production of bast fibers from the flax stem. In these technologies, flax stems harvested from the field are subjected to microwave assisted retting, followed by electro–osmotic dewatering which reduces the water content of the stems. Dewatered stems are transferred to a microwave chamber for further drying, thus retted stems are obtained for further processing.