Entropy2015, 17(8), 5593-5610; doi:10.3390/e17085593 (registering DOI) - published 3 August 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Fluid machinery operating in the supersonic regime unveil avenues towards more compact technology. However, internal supersonic flows are associated with high aerodynamic and thermal penalties, which usually prevent their practical implementation. Indeed, both shock losses and the limited operational range represent particular challenges to aerodynamic designers that should be taken into account at the initial phase of the design process. This paper presents a design methodology for supersonic passages based on direct evaluations of the velocity field using the method of characteristics and computation of entropy generation across shock waves. This meshless function evaluation tool is then coupled to an optimization scheme, based on evolutionary algorithms that minimize the entropy generation across the supersonic passage. Finally, we assessed the results with 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes calculations.
Entropy2015, 17(8), 5580-5592; doi:10.3390/e17085580 (registering DOI) - published 3 August 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this paper, the problem of robust control of nonlinear fractional-order systems in the presence of uncertainties and external disturbance is investigated. Fuzzy logic systems are used for estimating the unknown nonlinear functions. Based on the fractional Lyapunov direct method and some proposed Lemmas, an adaptive fuzzy controller is designed. The proposed method can guarantee all the signals in the closed-loop systems remain bounded and the tracking errors converge to an arbitrary small region of the origin. Lastly, an illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.
Entropy2015, 17(8), 5561-5579; doi:10.3390/e17085561 (registering DOI) - published 3 August 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper introduces a new simple system with a butterfly chaotic attractor. This system has rich and complex dynamics. With some typical parameters, its Lyapunov dimension is greater than other known three dimensional chaotic systems. It exhibits chaotic behavior over a large range of parameters, and the divergence of flow of this system is not a constant. The dynamics of this new system are analyzed via Lyapunov exponent spectrum, bifurcation diagrams, phase portraits and the Poincaré map. The compound structures of this new system are also analyzed. By means of topological horseshoe theory and numerical computation, the Poincaré map defined for the system is proved to be semi-conjugate to 3-shift map, and thus the system has positive topological entropy.
Entropy2015, 17(8), 5549-5560; doi:10.3390/e17085549 (registering DOI) - published 3 August 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The minimum error entropy (MEE) criterion is an important learning criterion in information theoretical learning (ITL). However, the MEE solution cannot be obtained in closed form even for a simple linear regression problem, and one has to search it, usually, in an iterative manner. The fixed-point iteration is an efficient way to solve the MEE solution. In this work, we study a fixed-point MEE algorithm for linear regression, and our focus is mainly on the convergence issue. We provide a sufficient condition (although a little loose) that guarantees the convergence of the fixed-point MEE algorithm. An illustrative example is also presented.
Entropy2015, 17(8), 5522-5548; doi:10.3390/e17085522 (registering DOI) - published 31 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper outlines a thermodynamic theory of biological evolution. Beginning with a brief summary of the parallel histories of the modern evolutionary synthesis and thermodynamics, we use four physical laws and processes (the first and second laws of thermodynamics, diffusion and the maximum entropy production principle) to frame the theory. Given that open systems such as ecosystems will move towards maximizing dispersal of energy, we expect biological diversity to increase towards a level, Dmax, representing maximum entropic production (Smax). Based on this theory, we develop a mathematical model to predict diversity over the last 500 million years. This model combines diversification, post-extinction recovery and likelihood of discovery of the fossil record. We compare the output of this model with that of the observed fossil record. The model predicts that life diffuses into available energetic space (ecospace) towards a dynamic equilibrium, driven by increasing entropy within the genetic material. This dynamic equilibrium is punctured by extinction events, which are followed by restoration of Dmax through diffusion into available ecospace. Finally we compare and contrast our thermodynamic theory with the MES in relation to a number of important characteristics of evolution (progress, evolutionary tempo, form versus function, biosphere architecture, competition and fitness).
Entropy2015, 17(8), 5503-5521; doi:10.3390/e17085503 (registering DOI) - published 31 July 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A Carnot type engine with a changingphase during the heating and the cooling is modeled with its thermal contact with the heat source. In a first optimization, the optimal high temperature of the cycle is determined to maximize the power output. The temperature and the mass flow rate of the heat source are given. This does not take into account the converter internal fluid and its mass flow rate. It is an exogenous optimization of the converter. In a second optimization, the endogenous optimization, the isothermal heating corresponds only to the vaporization of the selected fluid. The maximization of the power output gives the optimal vaporization temperature of the cycled fluid. Using these two optima allows connecting the temperature of the heat source to the working fluid used. For a given temperature level, mass flow rate and composition of the waste heat to recover, an optimal fluid and its temperature of vaporization are deduced. The optimal conditions size also the internal mass flow rate and the compression ratio (pump size). The optimum corresponds to the maximum of the power output and must be combined with the environmental fluid impact and the technological constraints.