Energies2016, 9(9), 692; doi:10.3390/en9090692 (registering DOI) - published 30 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A recent increase in the number of diverse leisure activities and family outdoor activities has increased the need for the automobile-embedded vacuum cleaner. To date, this technology has not been applied in Korea and development efforts are not underway. Many of the existing portable cleaners connecting to the lighter jack of the vehicle use a direct current motor (DC motor). However, they do not have sufficient suction power to satisfy consumers; moreover, they have low durability and efficiency. In this paper, we therefore propose a technology for increasing the efficiency of the low-voltage automobile vacuum cleaner by replacing the existing DC motor with a switched reluctance motor (SRM), which has superior durability and efficiency.
Energies2016, 9(9), 686; doi:10.3390/en9090686 (registering DOI) - published 29 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The diffusion length (L) of photogenerated carriers in the nanoporous electrode is a key parameter that summarizes the collection efficiency behavior in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). At present, there are few techniques able to spatially resolve L over the active area of the device. Most of them require contact patterning and, hence, are intrinsically destructive. Here, we present the first electron diffusion length mapping system for DSCs based on steady state incident photon to collected electron (IPCE) conversion efficiency () analysis. The measurement is conducted by acquiring complete transmittance () and spectra from the photo electrode (PE) and counter electrode (CE) for each spatial point in a raster scan manner. is obtained by a least square fitting of the IPCE ratio spectrum (). An advanced feature is the ability to acquire spectra using low-intensity probe illumination under weakly-absorbed background light (625 nm) with the device biased close to open circuit voltage. These homogeneous conditions permit the linearization of the free electron continuity equation and, hence, to obtain the collection efficiency expressions ( and ). The influence of the parameter’s uncertainty has been quantified by a sensitivity study of L. The result has been validated by quantitatively comparing the average value of L map with the value estimated from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).
Energies2016, 9(9), 685; doi:10.3390/en9090685 (registering DOI) - published 29 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Although it is well known that low nitrogen stimulates lipid accumulation, especially for algae and some oleaginous yeast, few studies have been conducted in fungal species, especially on the impact of different nitrogen deficiency strategies. In this study, we use two promising consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) candidates to examine the impact of two nitrogen deficiency strategies on lipid production, which are the extensively investigated oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, and the commercial cellulase producer Trichoderma reesei. We first utilized bioinformatics approaches to reconstruct the fatty acid metabolic pathway and demonstrated the presence of a triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis pathway in Trichoderma reesei. We then examined the lipid production of Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipomyces in different media using two nitrogen deficiency strategies of nitrogen natural repletion and nitrogen depletion through centrifugation. Our results demonstrated that nitrogen depletion was better than nitrogen repletion with about 30% lipid increase for Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipomyces, and could be an option to improve lipid production in both oleaginous yeast and filamentous fungal species. The resulting distinctive lipid composition profiles indicated that the impacts of nitrogen depletion on yeast were different from those for fungal species. Under three types of C/N ratio conditions, C16 and C18 fatty acids were the predominant forms of lipids for both Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipolytica. While the overall fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles of Trichoderma reesei were similar, the overall FAME profiles of Y. lipolytica observed a shift. The fatty acid metabolic pathway reconstructed in this work supports previous reports of lipid production in T. reesei, and provides a pathway for future omics studies and metabolic engineering efforts. Further investigation to identify the genetic targets responsible for the effect of nitrogen depletion on lipid production improvement will facilitate strain engineering to boost lipid production under more optimal conditions for productivity than those required for nitrogen depletion.
Energies2016, 9(9), 690; doi:10.3390/en9090690 (registering DOI) - published 29 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper presents the design and analysis of nano-structured gratings to improve the conversion efficiency in GaAs solar cells by reducing the light reflection losses. A finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulation tool is used to design and simulate the light reflection losses of the subwavelength grating (SWG) structure in GaAs solar cells. The SWG structures perform as an excellent alternative antireflective (AR) coating due to their capacity to reduce the reflection losses in GaAs solar cells. It allows the gradual change in the refractive index that confirms an excellent AR and the light trapping properties, when compared with the planar thin film structures. The nano-rod structure performs as a single layer AR coating, whereas the triangular (i.e., conical or perfect cone) and parabolic (i.e., trapezoidal/truncated cone) shaped nano-grating structures perform as a multilayer AR coating. The simulation results confirm that the reflection loss of triangular-shaped nano-grating structures having a 300-nm grating height and a 830-nm period is about 2%, which is about 28% less than the flat type substrates. It also found that the intermediate (i.e., trapezoidal and parabolic)-shaped structures, the light reflection loss is lower than the rectangular shaped nano-grating structure, but higher than the triangular shaped nano-grating structure. This analysis confirmed that the triangular shaped nano-gratings are an excellent alternative AR coating for conversion efficiency improvement in GaAs solar cells.
Energies2016, 9(9), 689; doi:10.3390/en9090689 (registering DOI) - published 29 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Motivated by the potential ability of air conditioning (A/C) units in demand response, this paper explores how to utilize A/C units to increase the profit of a smart community. A coalitional game between the households and the load serving entity (LSE) in a smart community is studied, where the LSE joins by selling renewable energy to householders and providing an energy saving service to them through an A/C controller. The A/C controller is designed to reduce the amount of electricity purchased from the main grid by controlling A/C units. An online A/C energy management algorithm is developed, based on Lyapunov optimization, that considers both the A/C energy consumption and the thermal comfort level of consumers. In order to quantify the contribution of A/C units, the Shapley value is adopted for distribution of the reward among the participating householders and the LSE, based on their contribution. The simulation result verifies the effectiveness of the proposed coalitional game for a smart community and the algorithm for A/C.
Energies2016, 9(9), 687; doi:10.3390/en9090687 (registering DOI) - published 29 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper is focused on the discussion and comparison of characteristics and behavior of three low frequency ac (LFAC) transmission system configurations operating under the same control scheme and conditions to identify the most promising operation system for LFAC. Merits of LFAC over high voltage direct current (HVDC) are mentioned first. By changing power flow direction without auxiliary switches in multi-terminal application and easiness of short circuit protection are explained. The three configurations of LFACs are described and applied by the control scheme with the aid of the tool of the PSCAD/EMTDC software to consider the behavior of each LFAC system on line frequency and low frequency sides. For two-phase system, no fluctuation occurs on the line frequency side, which is the advantage over single-phase system. Furthermore, current rating on thyristor devices during operation and number of devices that used in each type of LFAC are calculated and compared. These results can lead to determine the most suitable transmission system for the LFAC system operation.