Open AccessArticle
Applicability of an Artificial Neural Network for Predicting Water-Alternating-CO2 Performance
Energies 2017, 10(7), 842; doi:10.3390/en10070842 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The injection of CO2 as part of the water-alternating-gas (WAG) process has been widely employed in many mature oil fields for effectively enhancing oil production and sequestrating carbon permanently inside the reservoirs. In addition to simulations, the use of intelligent tools is
[...] Read more.
The injection of CO2 as part of the water-alternating-gas (WAG) process has been widely employed in many mature oil fields for effectively enhancing oil production and sequestrating carbon permanently inside the reservoirs. In addition to simulations, the use of intelligent tools is of particular interest for evaluating the uncertainties in the WAG process and predicting technical or economic performance. This study proposed the comprehensive evaluations of a water-alternating-CO2 process utilizing the artificial neural network (ANN) models that were initially generated from a qualified numerical data set. Totally two uncertain reservoir parameters and three installed surface operating factors were designed as input variables in each of the three-layer ANN models to predicting a series of WAG production performances after 5, 15, 25, and 35 injection cycles. In terms of the technical view point, the relationships among parameters and important outputs, including oil recovery, CO2 production, and net CO2 storage were accurately reflected by integrating the generated network models. More importantly, since the networks could simulate a series of injection processes, the sequent variations of those technical issues were well presented, indicating the distinct application of ANN in this study compared to previous works. The economic terms were also briefly introduced for a given fiscal condition which included sufficient concerns for a general CO2 flooding project, in a range of possible oil prices. Using the ANN models, the net present value (NPV) optimization results for several specific cases apparently expressed the profitability of the present enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project according to the unstable oil prices, and most importantly provided the most relevant injection schedules corresponding with each different scenario. Obviously, the methodology of applying traditional ANN as shown in this study can be adaptively adjusted for any other EOR project, and in particular, since the models have demonstrated their flexible capacity for economic analyses, the method can be promisingly developed to engage with other economic tools on comprehensively assessing the project. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle
Prediction of Polymer Flooding Performance with an Artificial Neural Network: A Two-Polymer-Slug Case
Energies 2017, 10(7), 844; doi:10.3390/en10070844 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Many previous contributions to methods of forecasting the performance of polymer flooding using artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been made by numerous researchers previously. In most of those forecasting cases, only a single polymer slug was employed to meet the objective of the
[...] Read more.
Many previous contributions to methods of forecasting the performance of polymer flooding using artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been made by numerous researchers previously. In most of those forecasting cases, only a single polymer slug was employed to meet the objective of the study. The intent of this manuscript is to propose an efficient recovery factor prediction tool at different injection stages of two polymer slugs during polymer flooding using an ANN. In this regard, a back-propagation algorithm was coupled with six input parameters to predict three output parameters via a hidden layer composed of 10 neurons. Evaluation of the ANN model performance was made with multiple linear regression. With an acceptable correlation coefficient, the proposed ANN tool was able to predict the recovery factor with errors of <1%. In addition, to understand the influence of each parameter on the output parameters, a sensitivity analysis was applied to the input parameters. The results showed less impact from the second polymer concentration, owing to changes in permeability after the injection of the first polymer slug. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Study on Integration of Fiber Optic Bragg Grating Sensors in Li-Ion Batteries and In Situ Strain and Temperature Monitoring of Battery Cells
Energies 2017, 10(7), 838; doi:10.3390/en10070838 -
Abstract
Current commercial battery management systems (BMSs) do not provide adequate information in real time to mitigate issues of battery cells such as thermal runway. This paper explores and evaluates the integration of fiber optic Bragg grating (FBG) sensors inside lithium-ion battery (LiB) coin
[...] Read more.
Current commercial battery management systems (BMSs) do not provide adequate information in real time to mitigate issues of battery cells such as thermal runway. This paper explores and evaluates the integration of fiber optic Bragg grating (FBG) sensors inside lithium-ion battery (LiB) coin cells. Strain and internal and external temperatures were recorded using FBG sensors, and the battery cells were evaluated at a cycling C/20 rate. The preliminary results present scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of electrode degradation upon sensor integration and the systematic process of sensor integration to eliminate degradation in electrodes during cell charge/discharge cycles. Recommendation for successful FBG sensor integration is given, and the strain and temperature data is presented. The FBG sensor was placed on the inside of the coin cell between the electrodes and the separator layers towards the most electrochemically active area. On the outside, the temperature of the coin cell casing as well as the ambient temperature was recorded. Results show stable strain behavior within the cell and about 10 °C difference between the inside of the coin cell and the ambient environment over time during charging/discharging cycles. This study is intended to contribute to the safe integration of FBG sensors inside hermetically sealed batteries and to detection of real-time temperature and strain gradient inside a cell, ultimately improving reliability of current BMSs. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Technical Assessment of Different Operating Conditions of an On-Board Autothermal Reformer for Fuel Cell Vehicles
Energies 2017, 10(7), 839; doi:10.3390/en10070839 -
Abstract
This paper evaluates the performance of a fuel cell/battery vehicle with an on-board autothermal reformer, fed by different liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels. A sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the system behavior under the variation of the steam to carbon and oxygen
[...] Read more.
This paper evaluates the performance of a fuel cell/battery vehicle with an on-board autothermal reformer, fed by different liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels. A sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the system behavior under the variation of the steam to carbon and oxygen to carbon ratios. This is done in order to identify the most suitable operating conditions for a direct on-board production of hydrogen to be used in a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. The same system should be able to process different fuels, to allow the end-user to freely decide which one to use to refuel the vehicle. Hence, the obtained operating conditions result in a trade-off between system flexibility as the feeding fuel changes, CO poisoning effect on the fuel cell and overall efficiency. The system is thus coupled to a high temperature fuel cell, modeled by means of a self-made tool, able to reproduce the polarization curve as the input syngas composition varies, and the overall system is afterwards tested on a plug-in fuel cell/battery vehicle simulator, in order to provide a thorough feasibility analysis, focusing on the entire system efficiency. Results show that a proper energy management strategy can mitigate the effect of the fuel variation on the reformer efficiency, allowing for good overall powertrain performance. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Simulation versus Optimisation: Theoretical Positions in Energy System Modelling
Energies 2017, 10(7), 840; doi:10.3390/en10070840 -
Abstract
In recent years, several tools and models have been developed and used for the design and analysis of future national energy systems. Many of these models focus on the integration of various renewable energy resources and the transformation of existing fossil-based energy systems
[...] Read more.
In recent years, several tools and models have been developed and used for the design and analysis of future national energy systems. Many of these models focus on the integration of various renewable energy resources and the transformation of existing fossil-based energy systems into future sustainable energy systems. The models are diverse and often end up with different results and recommendations. This paper analyses this diversity of models and their implicit or explicit theoretical backgrounds. In particular, two archetypes are defined and compared. On the one hand, the prescriptive investment optimisation or optimal solutions approach. On the other hand the analytical simulation or alternatives assessment approach. Awareness of the dissimilar theoretical assumption behind the models clarifies differences between the models, explains dissimilarities in results, and provides a theoretical and methodological foundation for understanding and interpreting results from the two archetypes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
An Improved Droop Control Method for Multi-Terminal VSC-HVDC Converter Stations
Energies 2017, 10(7), 843; doi:10.3390/en10070843 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Multi-terminal high voltage direct current transmission based on voltage source converter (VSC-HVDC) grids can connect non-synchronous alternating current (AC) grids to a hybrid alternating current and direct current (AC/DC) power system, which is one of the key technologies in the construction of smart
[...] Read more.
Multi-terminal high voltage direct current transmission based on voltage source converter (VSC-HVDC) grids can connect non-synchronous alternating current (AC) grids to a hybrid alternating current and direct current (AC/DC) power system, which is one of the key technologies in the construction of smart grids. However, it is still a problem to control the converter to achieve the function of each AC system sharing the reserve capacity of the entire network. This paper proposes an improved control strategy based on the slope control of the DC voltage and AC frequency (V–f slope control), in which the virtual inertia is introduced. This method can ensure that each AC sub-system shares the primary frequency control function. Additionally, with the new control method, it is easy to apply the secondary frequency control method of traditional AC systems to AC/DC hybrid systems to achieve the steady control of the DC voltage and AC frequency of the whole system. Most importantly, the new control method is better than the traditional control method in terms of dynamic performance. In this paper, a new control method is proposed, and the simulation model has been established in Matlab/Simulink to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control method. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Highly Efficient 3rd Generation Multi-Junction Solar Cells Using Silicon Heterojunction and Perovskite Tandem: Prospective Life Cycle Environmental Impacts
Energies 2017, 10(7), 841; doi:10.3390/en10070841 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this study, the environmental impacts of monolithic silicon heterojunction organometallic perovskite tandem cells (SHJ-PSC) and single junction organometallic perovskite solar cells (PSC) are compared with the impacts of crystalline silicon based solar cells using a prospective life cycle assessment with a time
[...] Read more.
In this study, the environmental impacts of monolithic silicon heterojunction organometallic perovskite tandem cells (SHJ-PSC) and single junction organometallic perovskite solar cells (PSC) are compared with the impacts of crystalline silicon based solar cells using a prospective life cycle assessment with a time horizon of 2025. This approach provides a result range depending on key parameters like efficiency, wafer thickness, kerf loss, lifetime, and degradation, which are appropriate for the comparison of these different solar cell types with different maturity levels. The life cycle environmental impacts of SHJ-PSC and PSC solar cells are similar or lower compared to conventional crystalline silicon solar cells, given comparable lifetimes, with the exception of mineral and fossil resource depletion. A PSC single-junction cell with 20% efficiency has to exceed a lifetime of 24 years with less than 3% degradation per year in order to be competitive with the crystalline silicon single-junction cells. If the installed PV capacity has to be maximised with only limited surface area available, the SHJ-PSC tandem is preferable to the PSC single-junction because their environmental impacts are similar, but the surface area requirement of SHJ-PSC tandems is only 70% or lower compared to PSC single-junction cells. The SHJ-PSC and PSC cells have to be embedded in proper encapsulation to maximise the stability of the PSC layer as well as handled and disposed of correctly to minimise the potential toxicity impacts of the heavy metals used in the PSC layer. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Power Quality and Energy Efficiency in the Pre-Evaluation of an Outdoor Lighting Renewal with Light-Emitting Diode Technology: Experimental Study and Amortization Analysis
Energies 2017, 10(7), 836; doi:10.3390/en10070836 -
Abstract
In this work, a practical methodology is proposed to analyze, before undertaking a large investment, an outdoor lighting installation renewal with light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires. The main problems found in many of the luminaires tested are associated with inrush peak currents in cold
[...] Read more.
In this work, a practical methodology is proposed to analyze, before undertaking a large investment, an outdoor lighting installation renewal with light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires. The main problems found in many of the luminaires tested are associated with inrush peak currents in cold start (which may cause ignition problems with random shutdowns), the harmonic distortions caused by their AC/DC associated electronic nature driver, and their working and efficiency dependency on the ambient temperature. All these issues have been tested in the context of a large metal halide (MH) to LED luminaires lighting point renewal where six commercial LED projectors have been analyzed with the above considerations. This research has isolated a single-phase circuit powered with constant stabilized 230 VAC voltage source in a real public lighting installation. All of them have been sequentially installed and their main electrical and power-quality parameters measured and recorded. The results indicate that each luminaire option will influence the expected long-term reliability (>50.000 h or more as expressed by the U.S. Department of Energy) of the lighting installation (in the case poor power quality is generated on the grid). The economic analysis made to estimate the profitability of the investment may be severely affected by the difference between the declared and the real consumption values in which they perform in our specific installation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Data Analysis and Neuro-Fuzzy Technique for EOR Screening: Application in Angolan Oilfields
Energies 2017, 10(7), 837; doi:10.3390/en10070837 -
Abstract
In this work, a neuro-fuzzy (NF) simulation study was conducted in order to screen candidate reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects in Angolan oilfields. First, a knowledge pattern is extracted by combining both the searching potential of fuzzy-logic (FL) and the learning
[...] Read more.
In this work, a neuro-fuzzy (NF) simulation study was conducted in order to screen candidate reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects in Angolan oilfields. First, a knowledge pattern is extracted by combining both the searching potential of fuzzy-logic (FL) and the learning capability of neural network (NN) to make a priori decisions. The extracted knowledge pattern is validated against rock and fluid data trained from successful EOR projects around the world. Then, data from Block K offshore Angolan oilfields are then mined and analysed using box-plot technique for the investigation of the degree of suitability for EOR projects. The trained and validated model is then tested on the Angolan field data (Block K) where EOR application is yet to be fully established. The results from the NF simulation technique applied in this investigation show that polymer, hydrocarbon gas, and combustion are the suitable EOR techniques. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Break-Even Points of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Peak Shaving Applications
Energies 2017, 10(7), 833; doi:10.3390/en10070833 -
Abstract
In the last few years, several investigations have been carried out in the field of optimal sizing of energy storage systems (ESSs) at both the transmission and distribution levels. Nevertheless, most of these works make important assumptions about key factors affecting ESS profitability
[...] Read more.
In the last few years, several investigations have been carried out in the field of optimal sizing of energy storage systems (ESSs) at both the transmission and distribution levels. Nevertheless, most of these works make important assumptions about key factors affecting ESS profitability such as efficiency and life cycles and especially about the specific costs of the ESS, without considering the uncertainty involved. In this context, this work aims to answer the question: what should be the costs of different ESS technologies in order to make a profit when considering peak shaving applications? The paper presents a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the interaction between the profitability of an ESS project and some key parameters influencing the project performance. The proposed approach determines the break-even points for different ESSs considering a wide range of life cycles, efficiencies, energy prices, and power prices. To do this, an optimization algorithm for the sizing of ESSs is proposed from a distribution company perspective. From the results, it is possible to conclude that, depending on the values of round trip efficiency, life cycles, and power price, there are four battery energy storage systems (BESS) technologies that are already profitable when only peak shaving applications are considered: lead acid, NaS, ZnBr, and vanadium redox. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Development of a Diesel Engine Thermal Overload Monitoring System with Applications and Test Results
Energies 2017, 10(7), 830; doi:10.3390/en10070830 -
Abstract
In this research, the development of a diesel engine thermal overload monitoring system is presented with applications and test results. The designed diesel engine thermal overload monitoring system consists of two set of sensors, i.e., a lambda sensor to measure the oxygen concentration
[...] Read more.
In this research, the development of a diesel engine thermal overload monitoring system is presented with applications and test results. The designed diesel engine thermal overload monitoring system consists of two set of sensors, i.e., a lambda sensor to measure the oxygen concentration and a fast response thermocouple to measure the temperature of the gas leaving the cylinder. A medium speed Ruston diesel engine is instrumented to measure the required engine process parameters, measurements are taken at constant load and variable fuel delivery i.e., normal and excessive injection. It is indicated that with excessive injection, the test engine is of high risk to be operated at thermal overload condition. Further tests were carried out on a Sulzer 7RTA84T engine to explore the influence of engine operating at thermal overload condition on exhaust gas temperature and oxygen concentration in the blow down gas. It is established that a lower oxygen concentration in the blow down gas corresponds to a higher exhaust gas temperature. The piston crown wear rate will then be much higher due to the high rate of heat transfer from a voluminous flame. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effect of Fuel Injection Strategy on the Carbonaceous Structure Formation and Nanoparticle Emission in a DISI Engine Fuelled with Butanol
Energies 2017, 10(7), 832; doi:10.3390/en10070832 -
Abstract
Within the context of ever wider expansion of direct injection in spark ignition engines, this investigation was aimed at improved understanding of the correlation between fuel injection strategy and emission of nanoparticles. Measurements performed on a wall guided engine allowed identifying the mechanisms
[...] Read more.
Within the context of ever wider expansion of direct injection in spark ignition engines, this investigation was aimed at improved understanding of the correlation between fuel injection strategy and emission of nanoparticles. Measurements performed on a wall guided engine allowed identifying the mechanisms involved in the formation of carbonaceous structures during combustion and their evolution in the exhaust line. In-cylinder pressure was recorded in combination with cycle-resolved flame imaging, gaseous emissions and particle size distribution. This complete characterization was performed at three injection phasing settings, with butanol and commercial gasoline. Optical accessibility from below the combustion chamber allowed visualization of diffusive flames induced by fuel deposits; these localized phenomena were correlated to observed changes in engine performance and pollutant species. With gasoline fueling, minor modifications were observed with respect to combustion parameters, when varying the start of injection. The alcohol, on the other hand, featured marked sensitivity to the fuel delivery strategy. Even though the start of injection was varied in a relatively narrow crank angle range during the intake stroke, significant differences were recorded, especially in the values of particle emissions. This was correlated to the fuel jet-wall interactions; the analysis of diffusive flames, their location and size confirmed the importance of liquid film formation in direct injection engines, especially at medium and high load. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Computational Tool for Comparative Energy Cost Analysis of Multiple-Crop Production Systems
Energies 2017, 10(7), 831; doi:10.3390/en10070831 -
Abstract
Various crops can be considered as potential bioenergy and biofuel production feedstocks. The selection of the crops to be cultivated for that purpose is based on several factors. For an objective comparison between different crops, a common framework is required to assess their
[...] Read more.
Various crops can be considered as potential bioenergy and biofuel production feedstocks. The selection of the crops to be cultivated for that purpose is based on several factors. For an objective comparison between different crops, a common framework is required to assess their economic or energetic performance. In this paper, a computational tool for the energy cost evaluation of multiple-crop production systems is presented. All the in-field and transport operations are considered, providing a detailed analysis of the energy requirements of the components that contribute to the overall energy consumption. A demonstration scenario is also described. The scenario is based on three selected energy crops, namely Miscanthus, Arundo donax and Switchgrass. The tool can be used as a decision support system for the evaluation of different agronomical practices (such as fertilization and agrochemicals application), machinery systems, and management practices that can be applied in each one of the individual crops within the production system. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Hybrid Photovoltaic Systems with Accumulation—Support for Electric Vehicle Charging
Energies 2017, 10(7), 834; doi:10.3390/en10070834 -
Abstract
The paper presents the concept of a hybrid power system with additional energy storage to support electric vehicles (EVs) charging stations. The aim is to verify the possibilities of mutual cooperation of individual elements of the system from the point of view of
[...] Read more.
The paper presents the concept of a hybrid power system with additional energy storage to support electric vehicles (EVs) charging stations. The aim is to verify the possibilities of mutual cooperation of individual elements of the system from the point of view of energy balances and to show possibilities of utilization of accumulation for these purposes using mathematical modeling. The description of the technical solution of the concept is described by a mathematical model in the Matlab Simulink programming environment. Individual elements of the assembled model are described in detail, together with the algorithm of the control logic of charging the supporting storage system. The resulting model was validated via an actual small-scale hybrid system (HS). Within the outputs of the mathematical model, two simulation scenarios are presented, with the aid of which the benefits of the concept presented were verified. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Economic Optimization of Component Sizing for Residential Battery Storage Systems
Energies 2017, 10(7), 835; doi:10.3390/en10070835 -
Abstract
Battery energy storage systems (BESS) coupled with rooftop-mounted residential photovoltaic (PV) generation, designated as PV-BESS, draw increasing attention and market penetration as more and more such systems become available. The manifold BESS deployed to date rely on a variety of different battery technologies,
[...] Read more.
Battery energy storage systems (BESS) coupled with rooftop-mounted residential photovoltaic (PV) generation, designated as PV-BESS, draw increasing attention and market penetration as more and more such systems become available. The manifold BESS deployed to date rely on a variety of different battery technologies, show a great variation of battery size, and power electronics dimensioning. However, given today’s high investment costs of BESS, a well-matched design and adequate sizing of the storage systems are prerequisites to allow profitability for the end-user. The economic viability of a PV-BESS depends also on the battery operation, storage technology, and aging of the system. In this paper, a general method for comprehensive PV-BESS techno-economic analysis and optimization is presented and applied to the state-of-art PV-BESS to determine its optimal parameters. Using a linear optimization method, a cost-optimal sizing of the battery and power electronics is derived based on solar energy availability and local demand. At the same time, the power flow optimization reveals the best storage operation patterns considering a trade-off between energy purchase, feed-in remuneration, and battery aging. Using up to date technology-specific aging information and the investment cost of battery and inverter systems, three mature battery chemistries are compared; a lead-acid (PbA) system and two lithium-ion systems, one with lithium-iron-phosphate (LFP) and another with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) cathode. The results show that different storage technology and component sizing provide the best economic performances, depending on the scenario of load demand and PV generation. Full article
Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Arsalis A.; Alexandrou, A.N.; Georghiou, G.E. Thermoeconomic Modeling and Parametric Study of a Photovoltaic-Assisted 1 MWe Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power System. Energies 2016, 9, 663
Energies 2017, 10(6), 829; doi:10.3390/en10060829 -
Open AccessArticle
Separation of CO2 in a Solid Waste Management Incineration Facility Using Activated Carbon Derived from Pine Sawdust
Energies 2017, 10(6), 827; doi:10.3390/en10060827 -
Abstract
The selective separation of CO2 from gas mixtures representative of flue gas generated in waste incineration systems is studied on two activated carbons obtained from pine sawdust and compared to a commercial activated carbon. Dynamic adsorption experiments were conducted in a fixed-bed
[...] Read more.
The selective separation of CO2 from gas mixtures representative of flue gas generated in waste incineration systems is studied on two activated carbons obtained from pine sawdust and compared to a commercial activated carbon. Dynamic adsorption experiments were conducted in a fixed-bed adsorption column using a binary mixture (N2/CO2) with a composition representative of incineration streams at temperatures from 30 to 70 °C. The adsorption behavior of humid mixtures (N2/CO2/H2O) was also evaluated in order to assess the influence of water vapor in CO2 adsorption at different relative humidity in the feed gas: 22% and 60%. Moreover, CO2 adsorption was studied in less favorable conditions, i.e., departing from a bed initially saturated with H2O. In addition, the effect of CO2 on H2O adsorption was examined.Experimental results showed that the CO2 adsorption capacity can be reduced significantly by the adsorption of H2O (up to 60% at high relative humidity conditions). On the other hand, the breakthrough tests over the adsorbent initially saturated with water vapor indicated that H2O is little affected by CO2 adsorption. The experimental results pointed out the biomass based carbons as best candidates for CO2 separation under incineration flue gas conditions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Natural Gas Hydrate as a Storage Mechanism for Safe, Sustainable and Economical Production from Offshore Petroleum Reserves
Energies 2017, 10(6), 828; doi:10.3390/en10060828 -
Abstract
Century Fathom presents an innovative process to utilize clathrate hydrates for the production, storage and transportation of natural gas from off-shore energy reserves in deep ocean environments. The production scheme was developed by considering the preferred state of natural gas in the deep
[...] Read more.
Century Fathom presents an innovative process to utilize clathrate hydrates for the production, storage and transportation of natural gas from off-shore energy reserves in deep ocean environments. The production scheme was developed by considering the preferred state of natural gas in the deep ocean and addressing the hazards associated with conventional techniques to transport natural gas. It also is designed to mitigate the significant shipping cost inherent with all methods. The resulting proposed scheme restrains transport in the hydrate form to the ocean and does not attempt to supply energy to the residential consumer. Instead; the target recipients are industrial operations. The resulting operational concept is intrinsically safer by design; environmentally sustainable and significantly cost-effective compared with currently proposed schemes for the use of natural gas hydrates and has the potential to be the optimal solution for new production of reserves; depending on the distance to shore and capacity of the petroleum reserve. A potential additional benefit is the byproduct of desalinated water. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar System with Different Cooling Methods and a Bi-Reflector PV System (BRPVS): An Experimental Study and Comparative Analysis
Energies 2017, 10(6), 826; doi:10.3390/en10060826 -
Abstract
Reducing the price of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has been a constant challenge. Despite recent advances, solar PV systems are still more costly than conventional energy resources. For the first time, this study examines the effectiveness of three different structures/materials: (i) silvered glass
[...] Read more.
Reducing the price of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has been a constant challenge. Despite recent advances, solar PV systems are still more costly than conventional energy resources. For the first time, this study examines the effectiveness of three different structures/materials: (i) silvered glass plane mirror; (ii) convex spherical mirrors; and (iii) aluminum (Al) foil as reflector. Comparative analysis of four different cooling techniques, i.e., water sprinkling system, passive heat sink method, active air fan method, and closed loop method, for enhancement of output power was performed. A novel Bi reflector solar PV system (BRPVS) was suggested to control the working of the reflectors. The Al foil enhanced the power output compared to the others. In addition, the effect of using a reflector on the temperature of a solar PV system was studied. High operating temperatures resulted in a decrease in the maximum output power under the same solar radiation conditions. The combined enhancement of the output power by both Al foil BRPVS system and cooling system was almost 22.75–38.55%. An optimal control algorithm to use cooling and BRPVS in an efficient manner is described. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Editorial Special Issue “Combustion and Propulsion”
Energies 2017, 10(6), 824; doi:10.3390/en10060824 -
Abstract The increasing demand for socially and environmentally sustainable development requires appropriate use of energy resources, particularly in the transportation of people and goods.[...] Full article