Energies2015, 8(2), 1042-1057; doi:10.3390/en8021042 (registering DOI) - published 30 January 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper presents a thermal model for a dish Stirling cavity based on the finite differences method. This model is a theoretical tool to optimize the cavity in terms of thermal efficiency. One of the main outcomes of this work is the evaluation of radiative exchange using the radiosity method; for that purpose, the view factors of all surfaces involved have been accurately calculated. Moreover, this model enables the variation of the cavity and receiver dimensions and the materials to determine the optimal cavity design. The tool has been used to study the cavity optimization regarding geometry parameters and material properties. Receiver absorptivity has been identified as the most influential property of the materials. The optimal aperture height depends on the minimum focal space.
Energies2015, 8(2), 1025-1041; doi:10.3390/en8021025 (registering DOI) - published 30 January 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The paper presents selected isotropic and anisotropic mathematical models to calculate the distribution of solar radiation on the photovoltaic module plane with any spatial orientation. A comparison of solar radiation models for Poland is based on measured data and received from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Power density of solar radiation for different angular positions, especially for representative days of each month, was calculated. Based on the statistical analysis of the percentage root-mean-square error (RMSE%), mean-bias error (MBE%) and the Pearson correlation coefficient of an individual mathematical model, our own correction factor for diffuse radiation was proposed. A modified Liu-Jordan model was compared with six common mathematical models showing better agreement of measured and calculated values of solar radiation density. The presented analysis explains which mathematical model is the most suitable for central Poland (Poznań, 52°25’ N, 16°56’ E) and shows the validity of applying the modified model to improve the accuracy of determination of the radiation power density for a given elevation and azimuth angle using values for a horizontal plane.
Energies2015, 8(2), 995-1024; doi:10.3390/en8020995 (registering DOI) - published 30 January 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: During the last years, special attention has been paid to renewable polygeneration technologies, able of simultaneously producing thermal, cooling, electrical energy and desalinated water from seawater. This paper focuses on an innovative polygeneration system driven by renewable energy sources, including the following technologies: hybrid photovoltaic/thermal collectors, concentrating parabolic trough (CPVT), a biomass heater, a single-stage absorption chiller and a multiple-effect distillation desalination system. The system is designed to cover the base load of an isolated small community. In previous papers, the dynamic simulation model about plant operation is discussed. In this paper, a detailed exergy, economic and environmental analysis of the plant is presented. In addition, the plant was optimized using different objective functions, applying the Design of Experiment (DoE) methodology which evaluates the sensitivity of the different objective functions with respect to the selected design parameters. The results show that an increase of the storage volume is generally negative, whereas increasing the solar field area involves an increase of the exergy destruction rate, but also an improvement of the CPVT exergy output provided; the final result is an increase of both the exergy efficiency and the economic profitability of the polygeneration system.
Energies2015, 8(2), 976-994; doi:10.3390/en8020976 - published 29 January 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Street lighting has a big impact on the energy consumption of Spanish municipalities. To decrease this consumption, the Spanish government has developed two different regulations to improve energy savings and efficiency, and consequently, reduce greenhouse-effect gas emissions. However, after these efforts, they have not obtained the expected results. To improve the effectiveness of these regulations and therefore to optimize energy consumption, a study has been done to analyze the different devices which influence energy consumption with the intention of better understanding their behavior and performance. The devices analyzed were lamps, ballasts, street lamp globes, control systems and dimmable lighting systems. To improve their performance, they have been analyzed from three points of view: changes in technology, use patterns and standards. Thanks to this study, some aspects have been found that could be taken into account if we really wanted to use energy efficiently.
Energies2015, 8(2), 960-975; doi:10.3390/en8020960 - published 28 January 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper deals with the power conversion system architectures to interface a stationary electrochemical storage installation with the network. Theoretical justifications about the conversion system layouts and control, used for actual Italian installations, are given. This paper aims at giving the power energy society an overview of actual possibilities of static conversion of d.c. battery sources.
Energies2015, 8(2), 939-959; doi:10.3390/en8020939 - published 28 January 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Accurate forecasting of fossil fuel energy consumption for power generation is important and fundamental for rational power energy planning in the electricity industry. The least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is a powerful methodology for solving nonlinear forecasting issues with small samples. The key point is how to determine the appropriate parameters which have great effect on the performance of LSSVM model. In this paper, a novel hybrid quantum harmony search algorithm-based LSSVM (QHSA-LSSVM) energy forecasting model is proposed. The QHSA which combines the quantum computation theory and harmony search algorithm is applied to searching the optimal values of and C in LSSVM model to enhance the learning and generalization ability. The case study on annual fossil fuel energy consumption for power generation in China shows that the proposed model outperforms other four comparative models, namely regression, grey model (1, 1) (GM (1, 1)), back propagation (BP) and LSSVM, in terms of prediction accuracy and forecasting risk.