Energies2016, 9(2), 105; doi:10.3390/en9020105 (registering DOI) - published 12 February 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Increasing attention is being paid to the energy efficiency in metro systems to reduce the operational cost and to advocate the sustainability of railway systems. Classical research has studied the energy-efficient operational strategy and the energy-efficient system design separately to reduce the traction energy consumption. This paper aims to combine the operational strategies and the system design by analyzing how the infrastructure and vehicle parameters of metro systems influence the operational traction energy consumption. Firstly, a solution approach to the optimal train control model is introduced, which is used to design the Optimal Train Control Simulator(OTCS). Then, based on the OTCS, the performance of some important energy-efficient system design strategies is investigated to reduce the trains’ traction energy consumption, including reduction of the train mass, improvement of the kinematic resistance, the design of the energy-saving gradient, increasing the maximum traction and braking forces, introducing regenerative braking and timetable optimization. As for these energy-efficient strategies, the performances are finally evaluated using the OTCS with the practical operational data of the Beijing Yizhuang metro line. The proposed approach gives an example to quantitatively analyze the energy reduction of different strategies in the system design procedure, which may help the decision makers to have an overview of the energy-efficient performances and then to make decisions by balancing the costs and the benefits.
Energies2016, 9(2), 104; doi:10.3390/en9020104 (registering DOI) - published 12 February 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology further enabled the information revolution by powering smartphones and tablets, allowing these devices an unprecedented performance against reasonable cost. Currently, this battery technology is on the verge of carrying the revolution in road transport and energy storage of renewable energy. However, to fully succeed in the latter, a number of hurdles still need to be taken. Battery performance and lifetime constitute a bottleneck for electric vehicles as well as stationary electric energy storage systems to penetrate the market. Electrochemical battery models are one of the engineering tools which could be used to enhance their performance. These models can help us optimize the cell design and the battery management system. In this study, we evaluate the ability of the Porous Electrode Theory (PET) to predict the effect of changing positive electrode density in the overall performance of Li-ion battery cells. It can be concluded that Porous Electrode Theory (PET) is capable of predicting the difference in cell performance due to a changing positive electrode density.
Energies2016, 9(2), 103; doi:10.3390/en9020103 - published 11 February 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This study uses a sliding mode control (SMC) in a generator-based exercise equipment (GBEE) with nonlinear P-V characteristic curves. A P-V characteristics curve can be influenced by varying the pedaling speed of the generator. The traditional maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control method is used with perturb and observe algorithms (P&O), extremum seeking control (ESC), etc. However, these control methods are not robust enough for control. SMC is created by two pattern methods for robustness control, approaching and sliding conditions. However, SMC allows infinite high-frequency switching of the sign function. If the sign function is used to switch the converter, it will cause the converter and switch life to be cut short, and also to form high frequency noise. Therefore, this study proposes an extension theory for an intelligent control method that will effectively improve conversion efficiency and responsiveness. This study compares generator input current waveforms for fast Fourier transform (FFT) for three different control methods. Finally, using simulation validates the stability and FFT analysis with power simulation (PSIM) software. The results of upgrading overall efficiency are about a 5% increase in efficiency and a faster response speed of about 0.5 s. The amount of generator input current harmonic is greatly reduced.
Energies2016, 9(2), 102; doi:10.3390/en9020102 - published 10 February 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Recently, the mining industry has introduced renewable energy technologies to resolve power supply problems at mines operating in polar regions or other remote areas, and to foster substitute industries, able to benefit from abandoned sites of exhausted mines. However, little attention has been paid to the potential placement of floating photovoltaic (PV) systems operated on mine pit lakes because it was assumed that the topographic characteristics of open-pit mines are unsuitable for installing any type of PV systems. This study analyzed the potential of floating PV systems on a mine pit lake in Korea to break this misconception. Using a fish-eye lens camera and digital elevation models, a shading analysis was performed to identify the area suitable for installing a floating PV system. The layout of the floating PV system was designed in consideration of the optimal tilt angle and array spacing of the PV panels. The System Advisor Model (SAM) by National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA, was used to conduct energy simulations based on weather data and the system design. The results indicated that the proposed PV system could generate 971.57 MWh/year. The economic analysis (accounting for discount rate and a 20-year operational lifetime) showed that the net present value would be $897,000 USD, and a payback period of about 12.3 years. Therefore, we could know that the economic effect of the floating PV system on the mine pit lake is relatively higher than that of PV systems in the other abandoned mines in Korea. The annual reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was analyzed and found to be 471.21 tCO2/year, which is twice the reduction effect achieved by forest restoration of an abandoned mine site. The economic feasibility of a floating PV system on a pit lake of an abandoned mine was thus established, and may be considered an efficient reuse option for abandoned mines.
Energies2016, 9(2), 101; doi:10.3390/en9020101 - published 9 February 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We present a framework for the design and simulation of electrical distribution systems and short term electricity markets specific to the UK. The modelling comprises packages relating to the technical and economic features of the electrical grid. The first package models the medium/low distribution networks with elements such as transformers, voltage regulators, distributed generators, composite loads, distribution lines and cables. This model forms the basis for elementary analysis such as load flow and short circuit calculations and also enables the investigation of effects of integrating distributed resources, voltage regulation, resource scheduling and the like. The second part of the modelling exercise relates to the UK short term electricity market with specific features such as balancing mechanism and bid-offer strategies. The framework is used for investigating methods of voltage regulation using multiple control technologies, to demonstrate the effects of high penetration of wind power on balancing prices and finally use these prices towards achieving demand response through aggregated prosumers.
Energies2016, 9(2), 100; doi:10.3390/en9020100 - published 8 February 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: An estimation of the power battery state of charge (SOC) is related to the energy management, the battery cycle life and the use cost of electric vehicles. When a lithium-ion power battery is used in an electric vehicle, the SOC displays a very strong time-dependent nonlinearity under the influence of random factors, such as the working conditions and the environment. Hence, research on estimating the SOC of a power battery for an electric vehicle is of great theoretical significance and application value. In this paper, according to the dynamic response of the power battery terminal voltage during a discharging process, the second-order RC circuit is first used as the equivalent model of the power battery. Subsequently, on the basis of this model, the least squares method (LS) with a forgetting factor and the adaptive unscented Kalman filter (AUKF) algorithm are used jointly in the estimation of the power battery SOC. Simulation experiments show that the joint estimation algorithm proposed in this paper has higher precision and convergence of the initial value error than a single AUKF algorithm.