Open AccessArticle
Prediction Model of Photovoltaic Module Temperature for Power Performance of Floating PVs
Energies 2018, 11(2), 447; doi:10.3390/en11020447 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Rapid reduction in the price of photovoltaic (solar PV) cells and modules has resulted in a rapid increase in solar system deployments to an annual expected capacity of 200 GW by 2020. Achieving high PV cell and module efficiency is necessary for many
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Rapid reduction in the price of photovoltaic (solar PV) cells and modules has resulted in a rapid increase in solar system deployments to an annual expected capacity of 200 GW by 2020. Achieving high PV cell and module efficiency is necessary for many solar manufacturers to break even. In addition, new innovative installation methods are emerging to complement the drive to lower $/W PV system price. The floating PV (FPV) solar market space has emerged as a method for utilizing the cool ambient environment of the FPV system near the water surface based on successful FPV module (FPVM) reliability studies that showed degradation rates below 0.5% p.a. with new encapsulation material. PV module temperature analysis is another critical area, governing the efficiency performance of solar cells and module. In this paper, data collected over five-minute intervals from a PV system over a year is analyzed. We use MATLAB to derived equation coefficients of predictable environmental variables to derive FPVM’s first module temperature operation models. When comparing the theoretical prediction to real field PV module operation temperature, the corresponding model errors range between 2% and 4% depending on number of equation coefficients incorporated. This study is useful in validation results of other studies that show FPV systems producing 10% more energy than other land based systems. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Analysis of Air-Side Economizers in Terms of Cooling-Energy Performance in a Data Center Considering Exhaust Air Recirculation
Energies 2018, 11(2), 444; doi:10.3390/en11020444 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Demand is soaring for data centers with advanced data-processing capabilities. In data centers with high-temperature information technology (IT) equipment, enormous cooling systems are operated year-round. To date, studies have aimed to improve the cooling efficiency of server-room units, but cooling-energy-consumption analysis considering the
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Demand is soaring for data centers with advanced data-processing capabilities. In data centers with high-temperature information technology (IT) equipment, enormous cooling systems are operated year-round. To date, studies have aimed to improve the cooling efficiency of server-room units, but cooling-energy-consumption analysis considering the recirculation of exhaust air (EA) has not been researched to a sufficient degree. This study analyzed the cooling-energy saving effects considering the EA-recirculation and supply-air (SA)-temperature conditions when direct and indirect air-side economizers were applied to a data center in Korea. Thirteen case studies were conducted. The results showed that when the EA-recirculation ratio in the direct air-side economizer was 15%, its annual cooling-energy consumption increased by approximately 6.1% compared to the case with no recirculation. The indirect air-side economizer also exhibited an approximately 9% increase in cooling-energy consumption. On the other hand, when the SA temperature changed to 22 °C, the annual cooling-energy consumption of the direct and indirect air-side economizers decreased by approximately 67% and 55%, respectively, compared to a central chilled-water system. This indicates the importance of developing measures to prevent EA recirculation and of securing a wind path for the improvement of air-conditioning efficiency in data centers at the design stage. Full article
Open AccessReview
Ensemble-Based Data Assimilation in Reservoir Characterization: A Review
Energies 2018, 11(2), 445; doi:10.3390/en11020445 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This paper presents a review of ensemble-based data assimilation for strongly nonlinear problems on the characterization of heterogeneous reservoirs with different production histories. It concentrates on ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and ensemble smoother (ES) as representative frameworks, discusses their pros and cons, and
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This paper presents a review of ensemble-based data assimilation for strongly nonlinear problems on the characterization of heterogeneous reservoirs with different production histories. It concentrates on ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and ensemble smoother (ES) as representative frameworks, discusses their pros and cons, and investigates recent progress to overcome their drawbacks. The typical weaknesses of ensemble-based methods are non-Gaussian parameters, improper prior ensembles and finite population size. Three categorized approaches, to mitigate these limitations, are reviewed with recent accomplishments; improvement of Kalman gains, add-on of transformation functions, and independent evaluation of observed data. The data assimilation in heterogeneous reservoirs, applying the improved ensemble methods, is discussed on predicting unknown dynamic data in reservoir characterization. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A General Mathematical Formulation for Winding Layout Arrangement of Electrical Machines
Energies 2018, 11(2), 446; doi:10.3390/en11020446 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Winding design methods have been a subject of research for many years of the past century. Many methods have been developed, each one characterized by some advantages and drawbacks. Nowadays, the star of slots is the most widespread design tool for electrical machine
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Winding design methods have been a subject of research for many years of the past century. Many methods have been developed, each one characterized by some advantages and drawbacks. Nowadays, the star of slots is the most widespread design tool for electrical machine windings. In this context, this paper presents a simple and effective procedure to determine the distribution of the slot EMFs over the phases and of the winding configuration in all possible typologies of electrical machines equipped with symmetrical windings. The result of this procedure gives a Winding Distribution Table (WDT), which can be used to define coils and coil groups connections and also to simply implement winding optimizations techniques, such as zone widening, imbrication, etc. Moreover, this procedure can be easily implemented on a computer in order to perform automated winding designs for rotating electrical machines. Several examples are provided in order to validate the proposed procedure. Full article
Open AccessArticle
PWM Carrier Displacement in Multi-N-Phase Drives: An Additional Degree of Freedom to Reduce the DC-Link Stress
Energies 2018, 11(2), 443; doi:10.3390/en11020443 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The paper presents a particular Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) strategy to reduce the (Direct Current) DC-link capacitor stress for multi-n-phase drives. A multi-n-phase drive is composed of multiple independent systems of n inverter supplying a multi-n-phase electric machine. The paper focused on the
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The paper presents a particular Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) strategy to reduce the (Direct Current) DC-link capacitor stress for multi-n-phase drives. A multi-n-phase drive is composed of multiple independent systems of n inverter supplying a multi-n-phase electric machine. The paper focused on the investigation of the best phase shifting between carriers for a triple-3-phase drive compared to the 3-phase counterpart in order to reduce the capacitor bench design point. Simulation and experimental results show as the control technique proposed is able to reduce the value of the DC-link capacitor current in any operating condition including fault case. In this sense, the PWM carrier displacement appears like an additional degree of freedom that can be exploited in multi-n-phase drives but also in multi-motor application. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Novel Stochastic-Programming-Based Energy Management System to Promote Self-Consumption in Industrial Processes
Energies 2018, 11(2), 441; doi:10.3390/en11020441 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The introduction of non-conventional energy sources (NCES) to industrial processes is a viable alternative to reducing the energy consumed from the grid. However, a robust coordination of the local energy resources with the power imported from the distribution grid is still an open
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The introduction of non-conventional energy sources (NCES) to industrial processes is a viable alternative to reducing the energy consumed from the grid. However, a robust coordination of the local energy resources with the power imported from the distribution grid is still an open issue, especially in countries that do not allow selling energy surpluses to the main grid. In this paper, we propose a stochastic-programming-based energy management system (EMS) focused on self-consumption that provides robustness to both sudden NCES or load variations, while preventing power injection to the main grid. The approach is based on a finite number of scenarios that combines a deterministic structure based on spectral analysis and a stochastic model that represents variability. The parameters to generate these scenarios are updated when new information arrives. We tested the proposed approach with data from a copper extraction mining process. It was compared to a traditional EMS with perfect prediction, i.e., a best case scenario. Test results show that the proposed EMS is comparable to the EMS with perfect prediction in terms of energy imported from the grid (slightly higher), but with less power changes in the distribution side and enhanced dynamic response to transients of wind power and load. This improvement is achieved with a non-significant computational time overload. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Thermal Assessment of a Novel Combine Evaporative Cooling Wind Catcher
Energies 2018, 11(2), 442; doi:10.3390/en11020442 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Wind catchers are one of the oldest cooling systems that are employed to provide sufficient natural ventilation in buildings. In this study, a laboratory scale wind catcher was equipped with a combined evaporative system. The designed assembly was comprised of a one-sided opening
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Wind catchers are one of the oldest cooling systems that are employed to provide sufficient natural ventilation in buildings. In this study, a laboratory scale wind catcher was equipped with a combined evaporative system. The designed assembly was comprised of a one-sided opening with an adjustable wetted pad unit and a wetted blades section. Theoretical analysis of the wind catcher was carried out and a set of experiments were organized to validate the results of the obtained models. The effect of wind speed, wind catcher height, and mode of the opening unit (open or closed) was investigated on temperature drop and velocity of the moving air through the wind catcher as well as provided sensible cooling load. The results showed that under windy conditions, inside air velocity was slightly higher when the pad was open. Vice versa, when the wind speed was zero, the closed pad resulted in an enhancement in air velocity inside the wind catcher. At wind catcher heights of 2.5 and 3.5 m and wind speeds of lower than 3 m/s, cooling loads have been approximately doubled by applying the closed-pad mode. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Network-Constrained Unit Commitment Based on Reserve Models Fully Considering the Stochastic Characteristics of Wind Power
Energies 2018, 11(2), 435; doi:10.3390/en11020435 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The existing optimization approaches regarding network-constrained unit commitment with large wind power integration face great difficulties in reconciling the two crucial but contradictory objectives: computational efficiency and the economy of the solutions. This paper proposes a new network-constrained unit commitment approach, which aims
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The existing optimization approaches regarding network-constrained unit commitment with large wind power integration face great difficulties in reconciling the two crucial but contradictory objectives: computational efficiency and the economy of the solutions. This paper proposes a new network-constrained unit commitment approach, which aims to better achieve these two objectives, by introducing newly proposed reserve models and simplified network constraints. This approach constructs the reserve models based on a sufficiently large number of stochastic wind power scenarios to fully and accurately capture the stochastic characteristics of wind power. These reserve models are directly incorporated into the traditional unit commitment formulation to simultaneously optimize the on/off decision variables and system reserve levels, therefore, this approach can comprehensively evaluate the costs and benefits of the scheduled reserves and thus produce very economical schedule. Meanwhile, these reserve models bring in very little computational burden because they simply consist of a small number of continuous variables and linear constraints. Besides, this approach can evaluate the impact of network congestion on the schedule by just introducing a small number of network constraints that are closely related to network congestion, i.e., the simplified network constraints, and thus concurrently ensures its high computational efficiency. Numerical results show that the proposed approach can produce more economical schedule than stochastic approach and deterministic approach but has similar computational efficiency as the deterministic approach. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Fully Three Dimensional Semianalytical Model for Shale Gas Reservoirs with Hydraulic Fractures
Energies 2018, 11(2), 436; doi:10.3390/en11020436 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Two challenges exist for modeling gas transport in shale. One is the existence of complex gas transport mechanisms, and the other is the impact of hydraulic fracture networks. In this study, a truly three dimensional semianalytical model was developed for shale gas reservoirs
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Two challenges exist for modeling gas transport in shale. One is the existence of complex gas transport mechanisms, and the other is the impact of hydraulic fracture networks. In this study, a truly three dimensional semianalytical model was developed for shale gas reservoirs with hydraulic fractures of various shapes. Using the instantaneous point source solution, the pressure are solved for a bounded reservoir with fully 3D, partially penetrated hydraulic fractures of different strike angles and dip angles. The fractures could have various shapes such as rectangles, disks and ellipses. The shale gas diffusion equations considers complex transport mechanism such as gas slippage and gas diffusion. This semianalytical model is verified with a commercial software and an analytical method for single fully penetrated rectangle fracture, and the production results of shale gas are consistent. The impacts of fracture height and strike angles are investigated by five systematically constructed models. The comparison shows that the production increases proportionally with the fracture height, and decreases with the increase of strike angles. The method proposed in this study could also be applied in well testing to analyze the reservoir properties and used to forecast the production for tight oil and conventional resources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Systematic Controller Design for a Grid-Connected Inverter with LCL Filter Using a Discrete-Time Integral State Feedback Control and State Observer
Energies 2018, 11(2), 437; doi:10.3390/en11020437 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Inductive-capacitive-inductive (LCL)-type filters are currently preferred as a replacement for L-type filters in distributed generation (DG) power systems, due to their superior harmonic attenuation capability. However, the third-order dynamics introduced by LCL filters pose a challenge to design a satisfactory controller for such
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Inductive-capacitive-inductive (LCL)-type filters are currently preferred as a replacement for L-type filters in distributed generation (DG) power systems, due to their superior harmonic attenuation capability. However, the third-order dynamics introduced by LCL filters pose a challenge to design a satisfactory controller for such a system. Conventionally, an LCL-filtered grid-connected inverter can be effectively controlled by using a full-state feedback control. However, this control approach requires the measurement of all system state variables, which brings about more complexity for the inverter system. To address this issue, this paper presents a systematic procedure to design an observer-based integral state feedback control for a LCL-filtered grid-connected inverter in the discrete-time domain. The proposed control scheme consists of an integral state feedback controller and a full-state observer which uses the control input, grid-side currents, and grid voltages to predict all the system state variables. Therefore, only the grid-side current sensors and grid voltage sensors are required to implement the proposed control scheme. Due to the discrete-time integrator incorporated in the state feedback controller, the proposed control scheme ensures both the reference tracking and disturbance rejection performance of the inverter system in a practical and simple way. As a result, superior control performance can be achieved by using the reduced number of sensors, which significantly reduces the cost and complexity of the LCL-filtered grid-connected inverter system in DG applications. To verify the practical usefulness of the proposed control scheme, a 2 kW three-phase prototype grid-connected inverter has been constructed, and the proposed control system has been implemented based on 32-bit floating-point digital signal processor (DSP) TMS320F28335. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated through the comprehensive simulation and experimental results. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Power-Balancing Based Induction Machine Model for Power System Dynamic Analysis in Electromechanical Timescale
Energies 2018, 11(2), 438; doi:10.3390/en11020438 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Power balance, including active and reactive power, between the system supply and the demand from induction motor loads is a potentially necessary condition for system stable operation. Motion of system states depends on the balancing of active and reactive powers. Therefore, this paper
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Power balance, including active and reactive power, between the system supply and the demand from induction motor loads is a potentially necessary condition for system stable operation. Motion of system states depends on the balancing of active and reactive powers. Therefore, this paper proposes an induction machine model in electromechanical timescale from a power balancing viewpoint, in which the induction motor load is modeled as a voltage vector driven by power balancing between the system supply and the demand from induction motor load, so as to describe the dynamic characteristics of induction motor loads in a physical way for power system dynamic analysis. Then a voltage magnitude-phase dynamic analysis with the proposed induction machine model is constructed. Based on the voltage magnitude-phase dynamic analysis, the characteristics of grid-connected induction motor loads are explored, and the instability mechanisms of grid-connected induction motor loads induced by a large disturbance are discussed. It is shown that the dynamic behavior of grid-connected induction motor loads can be described as the dynamic process of the terminal voltage vector driven by coupled active and reactive power balancing in different timescales. In this way, the dynamic behavior of induction motor loads in terms of voltage magnitude-phase dynamics and its physical characteristics are clearly illustrated. Time-domain simulation results are presented to validate the above analyses. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Power Loss Minimization for Transformers Connected in Parallel with Taps Based on Power Chargeability Balance
Energies 2018, 11(2), 439; doi:10.3390/en11020439 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this paper, a model and solution approach for minimizing internal power losses in Transformers Connected in Parallel (TCP) with tap-changers is proposed. The model is based on power chargeability balance and seeks to keep the load voltage within an admissible range. For
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In this paper, a model and solution approach for minimizing internal power losses in Transformers Connected in Parallel (TCP) with tap-changers is proposed. The model is based on power chargeability balance and seeks to keep the load voltage within an admissible range. For achieving this, tap positions are adjusted in such a way that all TCP are set in similar/same power chargeability. The main contribution of this paper is the inclusion of several construction features (rated voltage, rated power, voltage ratio, short-circuit impedance and tap steps) in the minimization of power losses in TCP that are not included in previous works. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used for solving the proposed model that is a system of nonlinear equations with discrete decision variables. The GA scans different sets for tap positions with the aim of balancing the power supplied by each transformer to the load. For this purpose, a fitness function is used for minimizing two conditions: The first condition consists on the mismatching between power chargeability for each transformer and a desired chargeability; and the second condition is the mismatching between the nominal load voltage and the load voltage obtained by changing the tap positions. The proposed method is generalized for any given number of TCP and was implemented for three TCP, demonstrating that the power losses are minimized and the load voltage remains within an admissible range. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Adaptive Stabilization and Dynamic Performance Preservation of Cascaded DC-DC Systems by Incorporating Low Pass Filters
Energies 2018, 11(2), 440; doi:10.3390/en11020440 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This paper proposes a method to stabilize and enhance the dynamic performance of a cascaded DC-DC system by adaptively reshaping the source output impedance. The method aims to reduce the ratio of the source output impedance to the load input impedance, referred to
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This paper proposes a method to stabilize and enhance the dynamic performance of a cascaded DC-DC system by adaptively reshaping the source output impedance. The method aims to reduce the ratio of the source output impedance to the load input impedance, referred to as the minor loop gain, to eliminate the interaction between the load and the source systems. This interaction can deteriorate the dynamic performance or might lead to instability. Thus, the bus current is used to improve the dynamic performance by reducing the magnitude of the source’s output impedance adaptively according to the loading condition such that the dynamic performance is consistently improved. Utilizing the bus current facilitates the compatibility between the proposed controller and most widely used DC-DC converters controlled in voltage mode, including non-minimum phase converters. In addition to the flexibility the bus current provides to embed the proposed solution with conventional control schemes. Experimental results have validated the effectiveness of the proposed controller along with time-based simulation and theoretical analysis, for minimum and non-minimum phase converters. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Harmonic Analysis of Single-Phase Neutral-Point-Clamped Cascaded Inverter in Advanced Traction Power Supply System Based on the Big Triangular Carrier Equivalence Method
Energies 2018, 11(2), 431; doi:10.3390/en11020431 -
Abstract
An advanced traction power supply system based on a single phase neutral-point-clamped (NPC) cascaded inverter is studied. The big triangular carrier equivalence method in double coordinate system is proposed, which can reduce one coordinate system, thus simplifying the calculation. Based on the big
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An advanced traction power supply system based on a single phase neutral-point-clamped (NPC) cascaded inverter is studied. The big triangular carrier equivalence method in double coordinate system is proposed, which can reduce one coordinate system, thus simplifying the calculation. Based on the big triangular carrier equivalence method, the harmonic characteristics of a single phase NPC cascaded inverter are calculated by double Fourier transform and voltage harmonics expressions of 5-level, 9-level and 13-level output waveforms are derived. Finally, the performance and calculated results of the proposed method were verified by simulations and experiments. The result provides a theoretical basis for further studies on traction network resonance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Challenges of Microgrids in Remote Communities: A STEEP Model Application
Energies 2018, 11(2), 432; doi:10.3390/en11020432 -
Abstract
There is a growing interest in the application of microgrids around the world because of their potential for achieving a flexible, reliable, efficient and smart electrical grid system and supplying energy to off-grid communities, including their economic benefits. Several research studies have examined
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There is a growing interest in the application of microgrids around the world because of their potential for achieving a flexible, reliable, efficient and smart electrical grid system and supplying energy to off-grid communities, including their economic benefits. Several research studies have examined the application issues of microgrids. However, a lack of in-depth considerations for the enabling planning conditions has been identified as a major reason why microgrids fail in several off-grid communities. This development requires research efforts that consider better strategies and framework for sustainable microgrids in remote communities. This paper first presents a comprehensive review of microgrid technologies and their applications. It then proposes the STEEP model to examine critically the failure factors based on the social, technical, economic, environmental and policy (STEEP) perspectives. The model details the key dimensions and actions necessary for addressing the challenge of microgrid failure in remote communities. The study uses remote communities within Nigeria, West Africa, as case studies and demonstrates the need for the STEEP approach for better understanding of microgrid planning and development. Better insights into microgrid systems are expected to address the drawbacks and improve the situation that can lead to widespread and sustainable applications in off-grid communities around the world in the future. The paper introduces the sustainable planning framework (SPF) based on the STEEP model, which can form a general basis for planning microgrids in any remote location. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of the X-in-the-Loop Testing Method in the FCV Hybrid Degree Test
Energies 2018, 11(2), 433; doi:10.3390/en11020433 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
With the development of fuel cell vehicle technology, an effective testing method that can be applied to develop and verify the fuel cell vehicle powertrain system is urgently required. This paper presents the X-in-the-Loop (XiL) testing method in the fuel cell vehicle (FCV)
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With the development of fuel cell vehicle technology, an effective testing method that can be applied to develop and verify the fuel cell vehicle powertrain system is urgently required. This paper presents the X-in-the-Loop (XiL) testing method in the fuel cell vehicle (FCV) hybrid degree test to resolve the first and key issues for the powertrain system design, and the test process and scenarios were designed. The hybrid degree is redefined into the static hybrid degree for system architecture design and the dynamic hybrid degree for vehicle control strategy design, and an integrated testing platform was introduced and a testing application was implemented by following the designed testing flowchart with two loops. Experimental validations show that the sizing of the FCE (Fuel Cell Engine), battery pack, and traction motor with the powertrain architecture can be determined, the control strategy can be evaluated seamlessly, and a systematic powertrain testing solution can be achieved through the whole development process. This research has developed a new testing platform and proposed a novel testing method on the fuel cell vehicle powertrain system, which will be a contribution to fuel cell vehicle technology and its industrialization. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Power System Network Splitting Strategy Based on Contingency Analysis
Energies 2018, 11(2), 434; doi:10.3390/en11020434 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
This paper proposes a network splitting strategy following critical line outages based on N-1 contingency analysis. Network splitting is the best option for certain critical outages when the tendency of severe cascading failures is very high. Network splitting is executed by splitting the
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This paper proposes a network splitting strategy following critical line outages based on N-1 contingency analysis. Network splitting is the best option for certain critical outages when the tendency of severe cascading failures is very high. Network splitting is executed by splitting the power system network into feasible set of islands. Thus, it is essential to identify the optimal splitting solution (in terms of minimal power flow disruption) that satisfies certain constraints. This paper determines the optimal splitting solution for each of the critical line outage using discrete evolutionary programming (DEP) optimization technique assisted by heuristic initialization approach. Heuristic initialization provides the best initial cutsets which will guide the optimization technique to find the optimal splitting solution. Generation–load balance and transmission line overloading analysis are carried out in each island to ensure the steady state stability is achieved. Load shedding scheme is initiated if the power balance criterion is violated in any island to sustain the generation–load balance. The proposed technique is validated on the IEEE 118 bus system. Results show that the proposed approach produces an optimal splitting solution with lower power flow disruption during network splitting execution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Data Mining and Neural Networks Based Self-Adaptive Protection Strategies for Distribution Systems with DGs and FCLs
Energies 2018, 11(2), 426; doi:10.3390/en11020426 -
Abstract
In light of the development of renewable energy and concerns over environmental protection, distributed generations (DGs) have become a trend in distribution systems. In addition, fault current limiters (FCLs) may be installed in such systems to prevent the short-circuit current from exceeding the
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In light of the development of renewable energy and concerns over environmental protection, distributed generations (DGs) have become a trend in distribution systems. In addition, fault current limiters (FCLs) may be installed in such systems to prevent the short-circuit current from exceeding the capacity of the power apparatus. However, DGs and FCLs can lead to problems, the most critical of which is miscoordination in protection system. This paper proposes overcurrent protection strategies for distribution systems with DGs and FCLs. Through the proposed approach, relays with communication ability can determine their own operating states with the help of an operation setting decision tree and topology-adaptive neural network model based on data processed through continuous wavelet transform. The performance and effectiveness of the proposed protection strategies are verified by the simulation results obtained from various system topologies with or without DGs, FCLs, and load variations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Research on Hydraulic Technology for Seam Permeability Enhancement in Underground Coal Mines in China
Energies 2018, 11(2), 427; doi:10.3390/en11020427 -
Abstract
Coalbed methane (gas) is a high quality and clean resource, but it also causes disasters in coal mines in China. The low permeability of coal seams is the main reason that developing coalbed methane (CBM) as an energy resource is difficult, so increasing
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Coalbed methane (gas) is a high quality and clean resource, but it also causes disasters in coal mines in China. The low permeability of coal seams is the main reason that developing coalbed methane (CBM) as an energy resource is difficult, so increasing coal seam permeability is the key to CBM development in China. In this paper, the principal techniques for seam permeability enhancement are presented. The paper focuses on hydraulic technology for seam permeability enhancement (HTSPE), which is considered an economic and highly efficient technology for seam permeability enhancement. The process of HTSPE development is reviewed and the current status of the theories behind HTSPE and the technology and equipment for its use are summarized. The goal is to identify the gaps in HTSPE research and the problems in its implementation. In the future, integration and diversification of the technologies along with on-board intelligence and miniaturization may be the trends for the equipment. Finally, it is shown that tree-shaped borehole fracturing can be used to develop CBM in underground coal mines. This study could be used as a valuable example for other coal deposits being mined under similar geological conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Aircraft Noise Assessment—From Single Components to Large Scenarios
Energies 2018, 11(2), 429; doi:10.3390/en11020429 -
Abstract
The strategic European paper “Flightpath 2050” claims dramatic reductions of noise for aviation transport scenarios in 2050: “...The perceived noise emission of flying aircraft is reduced by 65%. These are relative to the capabilities of typical new aircraft in 2000...”. There is a
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The strategic European paper “Flightpath 2050” claims dramatic reductions of noise for aviation transport scenarios in 2050: “...The perceived noise emission of flying aircraft is reduced by 65%. These are relative to the capabilities of typical new aircraft in 2000...”. There is a consensus among experts that these far reaching objectives cannot be accomplished by application of noise reduction technologies at the level of aircraft components only. Comparably drastic claims simultaneously expressed in Flightpath 2050 for carbon dioxide and NOX reduction underline the need for step changes in aircraft technologies and aircraft configurations. New aircraft concepts with entirely different propulsion concepts will emerge, including unconventional power supplies from renewable energy sources, ranging from electric over hybrid to synthetic fuels. Given this foreseen revolution in aircraft technology the question arises, how the noise impact of these new aircraft may be assessed. Within the present contribution, a multi-level, multi-fidelity approach is proposed which enables aircraft noise assessment. It is composed by coupling noise prediction methods at three different levels of detail. On the first level, high fidelity methods for predicting the aeroacoustic behavior of aircraft components (and installations) are required since in the early stages of the development of innovative noise reduction technology test data is not available. The results are transferred to the second level, where radiation patterns of entire conventional and future aircraft concepts are assembled and noise emissions for single aircraft are computed. In the third level, large scale scenarios with many aircraft are considered to accurately predict the noise exposure for receivers on the ground. It is shown that reasonable predictions of the ground noise exposure level may be obtained. Furthermore, even though simplifications and omissions are introduced, it is shown that the method is capable of transferring all relevant physical aspects through the levels. Full article
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