Energies2016, 9(6), 419; doi:10.3390/en9060419 (registering DOI) - published 31 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Large dv/dt and di/dt outputs of power devices in the DC-fed motor power inverter can generate conducted and/or radiated emissions through parasitics that interfere with low voltage electric systems in electric vehicles (EVs) and nearby vehicles. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters, ferrite chokes, and shielding added in the product process based on the “black box” approach can reduce the emission levels in a specific frequency range. However, these countermeasures may also introduce an unexpected increase in EMI noises in other frequency ranges due to added capacitances and inductances in filters resonating with elements of the power inverter, and even increase the weight and dimension of the power inverter system in EVs with limited space. In order to predict the interaction between the mitigation techniques and power inverter geometry, an accurate model of the system is needed. A power inverter system was modeled based on series of two-port network measurements to study the impact of EMI generated by power devices on radiated emission of AC cables. Parallel resonances within the circuit can cause peaks in the S21 (transmission coefficient between the phase-node-to-chassis voltage and the center-conductor-to-shield voltage of the AC cable connecting to the motor) and Z11 (input impedance at Port 1 between the Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) phase node and chassis) at those resonance frequencies and result in enlarged noise voltage peaks at Port 1. The magnitude of S21 between two ports was reduced to decrease the amount of energy coupled from the noise source between the phase node and chassis to the end of the AC cable by lowering the corresponding quality factor. The equivalent circuits were built by analyzing current-following paths at three critical resonance frequencies. Interference voltage peaks can be suppressed by mitigating the resonances. The capacitances and inductances generating the parallel resonances and responsible elements were determined by the calculation through the equivalent circuits. A combination of mitigation strategies including adding common-mode (CM) ferrite chokes through the Y-caps and the AC bus bar was designed to mitigate the resonances at 6 MHz, 11 MHz, and 26 MHz related to the CM conducted emission by IGBT switching and the radiated emission of the AC cable. The values of Z11 decreased respectively by 15 dB at 6 MHz, 0.4 dB at 11 MHz, and 11.5 dB at 26 MHz and the values of S21 decreased respectively by 8.6 dB at 6 MHz, 7 dB at 11 MHz, and 6.3 dB at 26 MHz. An equivalent model of the power inverter system for real-time simulation in time domain was built to validate the mitigation strategy in simulation software PSPICE.
Energies2016, 9(6), 420; doi:10.3390/en9060420 (registering DOI) - published 31 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A near-optimal rule-based mode control (RBC) strategy was proposed for a target plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) taking into account the drivetrain losses. Individual loss models were developed for drivetrain components including the gears, planetary gear (PG), bearings, and oil pump, based on experimental data and mathematical governing equations. Also, a loss model for the power electronic system was constructed, including loss from the motor-generator while rotating in the unloaded state. To evaluate the effect of the drivetrain losses on the operating mode control strategy, backward simulations were performed using dynamic programming (DP). DP selects the operating mode, which provides the highest efficiency for given driving conditions. It was found that the operating mode selection changes when drivetrain losses are included, depending on driving conditions. An operating mode schedule was developed with respect to the wheel power and vehicle speed, and based on the operating mode schedule, a RBC was obtained, which can be implemented in an on-line application. To evaluate the performance of the RBC, a forward simulator was constructed for the target PHEV. The simulation results show near-optimal performance of the RBC compared with dynamic-programming-based mode control in terms of the mode operation time and fuel economy. The RBC developed with drivetrain losses taken into account showed a 4%–5% improvement of the fuel economy over a similar RBC, which neglected the drivetrain losses.
Energies2016, 9(6), 422; doi:10.3390/en9060422 (registering DOI) - published 31 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The results in this work show the influence of long-term operation on the decomposition of working fluids in eight different organic rankine cycle (ORC) power plants (both heat-led and electricity-led) in a range of 900 to 2 . All case study plants are using octamethyltrisiloxane (MDM) as a working fluid; the facilities are between six to 12 years old. Detailed analyses, including the fluid distribution throughout the cycle, are conducted on one system. All presented fluid samples are analyzed via head space gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). Besides the siloxane composition, the influence of contaminants, such as mineral oil-based lubricants (and their components), is examined. In most cases, the original working fluid degrades to fractions of siloxanes with a lower boiling point (low boilers) and fractions with a higher boiling point (high boilers). As a consequence of the analyses, a new fluid recycling and management system was designed and tested in one case study plant (Case Study #8). Pre-post comparisons of fluid samples prove the effectiveness of the applied methods. The results show that the recovery of used working fluid offers an alternative to the purchase of fresh fluid, since operating costs can be significantly reduced. For large facilities, the prices for new fluid range from € 15 per liter (in 2006) to € 22 per liter (in 2013), which is a large reinvestment, especially in light of filling volumes of 4000 liters to 7000 liters per unit. Using the aforementioned method, a price of € 8 per liter of recovered MDM can be achieved.
Energies2016, 9(6), 426; doi:10.3390/en9060426 (registering DOI) - published 31 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In existing forecasting research papers support vector regression with chaotic mapping function and evolutionary algorithms have shown their advantages in terms of forecasting accuracy improvement. However, for classical particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms, trapping in local optima results in an earlier standstill of the particles and lost activities, thus, its core drawback is that eventually it produces low forecasting accuracy. To continue exploring possible improvements of the PSO algorithm, such as expanding the search space, this paper applies quantum mechanics to empower each particle to possess quantum behavior, to enlarge its search space, then, to improve the forecasting accuracy. This investigation presents a support vector regression (SVR)-based load forecasting model which hybridizes the chaotic mapping function and quantum particle swarm optimization algorithm with a support vector regression model, namely the SVRCQPSO (support vector regression with chaotic quantum particle swarm optimization) model, to achieve more accurate forecasting performance. Experimental results indicate that the proposed SVRCQPSO model achieves more accurate forecasting results than other alternatives.
Energies2016, 9(6), 425; doi:10.3390/en9060425 (registering DOI) - published 31 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Due to the dynamic process of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) caused by turbulence and large rotor inertia, variable-speed wind turbines (VSWTs) cannot maintain the optimal tip speed ratio (TSR) from cut-in wind speed up to the rated speed. Therefore, in order to increase the total captured wind energy, the existing aerodynamic design for VSWT blades, which only focuses on performance improvement at a single TSR, needs to be improved to a multi-point design. In this paper, based on a closed-loop system of VSWTs, including turbulent wind, rotor, drive train and MPPT controller, the distribution of operational TSR and its description based on inflow wind energy are investigated. Moreover, a multi-point method considering the MPPT dynamic process for the aerodynamic optimization of VSWT blades is proposed. In the proposed method, the distribution of operational TSR is obtained through a dynamic simulation of the closed-loop system under a specific turbulent wind, and accordingly the multiple design TSRs and the corresponding weighting coefficients in the objective function are determined. Finally, using the blade of a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 1.5 MW wind turbine as the baseline, the proposed method is compared with the conventional single-point optimization method using the commercial software Bladed. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Energies2016, 9(6), 417; doi:10.3390/en9060417 (registering DOI) - published 30 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system is considered to be an ideal alternative for the internal combustion engine, especially when used on a city bus. Hybrid buses with fuel cell systems and energy storage systems are now undergoing transit service demonstrations worldwide. A hybrid PEM fuel cell city bus with a hierarchical control system is studied in this paper. Firstly, the powertrain and hierarchical control structure is introduced. Secondly, the vehicle control strategy including start-stop strategy, energy management strategy, and fuel cell control strategy, including the hydrogen system and air system control strategies, are described in detail. Finally, the performance of the fuel cell was analyzed based on road test data. Results showed that the different subsystems were well-coordinated. Each component functioned in concert in order to ensure that both safety and speed requirements were satisfied. The output current of the fuel cell system changed slowly and the output voltage was limited to a certain range, thereby enhancing durability of the fuel cell. Furthermore, the economic performance was optimized by avoiding low load conditions.