Electronics2016, 5(3), 43; doi:10.3390/electronics5030043 (registering DOI) - published 26 July 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Geometry measurements are very important to monitor a machine part’s health and performance. Optical measurement system have several advantages for the acquisition of a parts geometry: measurement speed, precision, point density and contactless operation. Measuring parts inside of assembled machines is also desirable to keep maintenance cost low. The Raspberry Pi is a small and cost efficient computer that creates new opportunities for compact measurement systems. We have developed a fringe projection system which is capable of measuring in very limited space. A Raspberry Pi 2 is used to generate the projection patterns, acquire the image and reconstruct the geometry. Together with a small LED projector, the measurement system is small and easy to handle. It consists of off-the-shelf products which are nonetheless capable of measuring with an uncertainty of less than 100 μ.
Electronics2016, 5(3), 44; doi:10.3390/electronics5030044 (registering DOI) - published 26 July 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In recent years, wearable haptic systems (WHS) have gained increasing attention as a novel and exciting paradigm for human–robot interaction (HRI). These systems can be worn by users, carried around, and integrated in their everyday lives, thus enabling a more natural manner to deliver tactile cues. At the same time, the design of these types of devices presents new issues: the challenge is the correct identification of design guidelines, with the two-fold goal of minimizing system encumbrance and increasing the effectiveness and naturalness of stimulus delivery. Fabrics can represent a viable solution to tackle these issues. They are specifically thought “to be worn”, and could be the key ingredient to develop wearable haptic interfaces conceived for a more natural HRI. In this paper, the author will review some examples of fabric-based WHS that can be applied to different body locations, and elicit different haptic perceptions for different application fields. Perspective and future developments of this approach will be discussed.
Abstract: We present an integrated sensing glove that combines two of the most visionary wearable sensing technologies to provide both hand posture sensing and tactile pressure sensing in a unique, lightweight, and stretchable device. Namely, hand posture reconstruction employs Knitted Piezoresistive Fabrics that allows us to measure bending. From only five of these sensors (one for each finger) the full hand pose of a 19 degrees of freedom (DOF) hand model is reconstructed leveraging optimal sensor placement and estimation techniques. To this end, we exploit a-priori information of synergistic coordination patterns in grasping tasks. Tactile sensing employs a piezoresistive fabric allowing us to measure normal forces in more than 50 taxels spread over the palmar surface of the glove. We describe both sensing technologies, report on the software integration of both modalities, and describe a preliminary evaluation experiment analyzing hand postures and force patterns during grasping. Results of the reconstruction are promising and encourage us to push further our approach with potential applications in neuroscience, virtual reality, robotics and tele-operation.
Abstract: Voltage sag is considered to be the most serious problem of power quality. It is caused by faults in the power system or by the starting of large induction motors. Voltage sag causes about 80% of the power quality problems in power systems. One of the main reasons for voltage sag is short circuit fault, which can be compensated for by a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) as an efficient and economical flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) device. In this paper, compensation of this voltage sag using DSTATCOM is reviewed, in which a sliding mode control (SMC) technique is employed. The results of this control system are compared with a P+Resonant control system. It will be shown that this control system is able to compensate the voltage sag over a broader range compared to other common control systems. Simulation results are obtained using PSCAD/EMTDC software and compared to that of a similar method.
Abstract: As part of the smart grid development, more and more technologies are developed and deployed on the power grid to enhance the system reliability. A primary purpose of the smart grid is to significantly increase the capability of computer-based remote control and automation. As a result, the level of connectivity has become much higher, and cyber security also becomes a potential threat to the cyber-physical systems (CPSs). In this paper, a survey of the state-of-the-art is conducted on the cyber security of the power grid concerning issues of: (1) the structure of CPSs in a smart grid; (2) cyber vulnerability assessment; (3) cyber protection systems; and (4) testbeds of a CPS. At Washington State University (WSU), the Smart City Testbed (SCT) has been developed to provide a platform to test, analyze and validate defense mechanisms against potential cyber intrusions. A test case is provided in this paper to demonstrate how a testbed helps the study of cyber security and the anomaly detection system (ADS) for substations.
Abstract: In this paper, an analytical and accurate in-to-out (I2O) human body path loss (PL) model at 2.45 GHz is derived based on a 3D heterogeneous human body model under safety constraints. The bit error rate (BER) performance for this channel using multiple efficient modulation schemes is investigated and the link budget is analyzed based on a predetermined satisfactory BER of 10−3. In addition, an incremental relay-based cooperative quality of service-aware (QoS-aware) routing protocol for the proposed I2O WBAN is presented and compared with an existing scheme. Linear programming QoS metric expressions are derived and employed to maximize the network lifetime, throughput, minimizing delay. Results show that binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) outperforms other modulation techniques for the proposed I2O WBAN systems, enabling the support of a 30 Mbps data transmission rate up to 1.6 m and affording more reliable communication links when the transmitter power is increased. Moreover, the proposed incremental cooperative routing protocol outperforms the existing two-relay technique in terms of energy efficiency. Open issues and on-going research within the I2O WBAN area are presented and discussed as an inspiration towards developments in health IoT applications.