Open AccessArticle
A Raspberry Pi Cluster Instrumented for Fine-Grained Power Measurement
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 61; doi:10.3390/electronics5040061 -
Abstract
Power consumption has become an increasingly important metric when building large supercomputing clusters. One way to reduce power usage in large clusters is to use low-power embedded processors rather than the more typical high-end server CPUs (central processing units). We investigate various [...] Read more.
Power consumption has become an increasingly important metric when building large supercomputing clusters. One way to reduce power usage in large clusters is to use low-power embedded processors rather than the more typical high-end server CPUs (central processing units). We investigate various power-related metrics for seventeen different embedded ARM development boards in order to judge the appropriateness of using them in a computing cluster. We then build a custom cluster out of Raspberry Pi boards, which is specially designed for per-node detailed power measurement. In addition to serving as an embedded cluster testbed, our cluster’s power measurement, visualization and thermal features make it an excellent low-cost platform for education and experimentation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Automatic Measurement of Chew Count and Chewing Rate during Food Intake
Electronics 2016, 5(4), 62; doi:10.3390/electronics5040062 -
Abstract
Research suggests that there might be a relationship between chew count as well as chewing rate and energy intake. Chewing has been used in wearable sensor systems for the automatic detection of food intake, but little work has been reported on the [...] Read more.
Research suggests that there might be a relationship between chew count as well as chewing rate and energy intake. Chewing has been used in wearable sensor systems for the automatic detection of food intake, but little work has been reported on the automatic measurement of chew count or chewing rate. This work presents a method for the automatic quantification of chewing episodes captured by a piezoelectric sensor system. The proposed method was tested on 120 meals from 30 participants using two approaches. In a semi-automatic approach, histogram-based peak detection was used to count the number of chews in manually annotated chewing segments, resulting in a mean absolute error of 10.40%±7.03%. In a fully automatic approach, automatic food intake recognition preceded the application of the chew counting algorithm. The sensor signal was divided into 5-s non-overlapping epochs. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to train a artificial neural network (ANN) to classify epochs as “food intake” or “no intake” with an average F1 score of 91.09%. Chews were counted in epochs classified as food intake with a mean absolute error of 15.01% ± 11.06%. The proposed methods were compared with manual chew counts using an analysis of variance (ANOVA), which showed no statistically significant difference between the two methods. Results suggest that the proposed method can provide objective and automatic quantification of eating behavior in terms of chew counts and chewing rates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Low Delay Video Streaming on the Internet of Things Using Raspberry Pi
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 60; doi:10.3390/electronics5030060 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The Internet of Things is predicted to consist of over 50 billion devices aiming to solve problems in most areas of our digital society. A large part of the data communicated is expected to consist of various multimedia contents, such as live [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things is predicted to consist of over 50 billion devices aiming to solve problems in most areas of our digital society. A large part of the data communicated is expected to consist of various multimedia contents, such as live audio and video. This article presents a solution for the communication of high definition video in low-delay scenarios (<200 ms) under the constraints of devices with limited hardware resources, such as the Raspberry Pi. We verify that it is possible to enable low delay video streaming between Raspberry Pi devices using a distributed Internet of Things system called the SensibleThings platform. Specifically, our implementation transfers a 6 Mbps H.264 video stream of 1280 × 720 pixels at 25 frames per second between devices with a total delay of 181 ms on the public Internet, of which the overhead of the distributed Internet of Things communication platform only accounts for 18 ms of this delay. We have found that the most significant bottleneck of video transfer on limited Internet of Things devices is the video coding and not the distributed communication platform, since the video coding accounts for 90% of the total delay. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Robust and Accurate Algorithm for Wearable Stereoscopic Augmented Reality with Three Indistinguishable Markers
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 59; doi:10.3390/electronics5030059 -
Abstract
In the context of surgical navigation systems based on augmented reality (AR), the key challenge is to ensure the highest degree of realism in merging computer-generated elements with live views of the surgical scene. This paper presents an algorithm suited for wearable [...] Read more.
In the context of surgical navigation systems based on augmented reality (AR), the key challenge is to ensure the highest degree of realism in merging computer-generated elements with live views of the surgical scene. This paper presents an algorithm suited for wearable stereoscopic augmented reality video see-through systems for use in a clinical scenario. A video-based tracking solution is proposed that relies on stereo localization of three monochromatic markers rigidly constrained to the scene. A PnP-based optimization step is introduced to refine separately the pose of the two cameras. Video-based tracking methods using monochromatic markers are robust to non-controllable and/or inconsistent lighting conditions. The two-stage camera pose estimation algorithm provides sub-pixel registration accuracy. From a technological and an ergonomic standpoint, the proposed approach represents an effective solution to the implementation of wearable AR-based surgical navigation systems wherever rigid anatomies are involved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring and Analyzing of Circadian and Ultradian Locomotor Activity Based on Raspberry-Pi
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 58; doi:10.3390/electronics5030058 -
Abstract
A new device based on the Raspberry-Pi to monitor the locomotion of Arctic marine invertebrates and to analyze chronobiologic data has been made, tested and deployed. The device uses infrared sensors to monitor and record the locomotor activity of the animals, which [...] Read more.
A new device based on the Raspberry-Pi to monitor the locomotion of Arctic marine invertebrates and to analyze chronobiologic data has been made, tested and deployed. The device uses infrared sensors to monitor and record the locomotor activity of the animals, which is later analyzed. The software package consists of two separate scripts: the first designed to manage the acquisition and the evolution of the experiment, the second designed to generate actograms and perform various analyses to detect periodicity in the data (e.g., Fourier power spectra, chi-squared periodograms, and Lomb–Scargle periodograms). The data acquisition hardware and the software has been previously tested during an Arctic mission with an arctic marine invertebrate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Robust Automated Cataract Detection Algorithm Using Diagnostic Opinion Based Parameter Thresholding for Telemedicine Application
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 57; doi:10.3390/electronics5030057 -
Abstract
This paper proposes and evaluates an algorithm to automatically detect the cataracts from color images in adult human subjects. Currently, methods available for cataract detection are based on the use of either fundus camera or Digital Single-Lens Reflex (DSLR) camera; both are [...] Read more.
This paper proposes and evaluates an algorithm to automatically detect the cataracts from color images in adult human subjects. Currently, methods available for cataract detection are based on the use of either fundus camera or Digital Single-Lens Reflex (DSLR) camera; both are very expensive. The main motive behind this work is to develop an inexpensive, robust and convenient algorithm which in conjugation with suitable devices will be able to diagnose the presence of cataract from the true color images of an eye. An algorithm is proposed for cataract screening based on texture features: uniformity, intensity and standard deviation. These features are first computed and mapped with diagnostic opinion by the eye expert to define the basic threshold of screening system and later tested on real subjects in an eye clinic. Finally, a tele-ophthamology model using our proposed system has been suggested, which confirms the telemedicine application of the proposed system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Raspberry Pi: An Effective Vehicle in Teaching the Internet of Things in Computer Science and Engineering
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 56; doi:10.3390/electronics5030056 -
Abstract
The Raspberry Pi is being increasingly adopted as a suitable platform in both research and applications of the Internet of Things (IoT). This study presents a novel project-based teaching and learning approach devised in an Internet of Things course for undergraduate students [...] Read more.
The Raspberry Pi is being increasingly adopted as a suitable platform in both research and applications of the Internet of Things (IoT). This study presents a novel project-based teaching and learning approach devised in an Internet of Things course for undergraduate students in the computer science major, where the Raspberry Pi platform is used as an effective vehicle to greatly enhance students’ learning performance and experience. The devised course begins with learning simple hardware and moves to building a whole prototype system. This paper illustrates the outcome of the proposed approach by demonstrating the prototype IoT systems designed and developed by students at the end of one such IoT course. Furthermore, this study provides insights and lessons regarding how to facilitate the use of the Raspberry Pi platform to successfully achieve the goals of project-based teaching and learning in IoT. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Two Micron Pixel Pitch Active Matrix Spatial Light Modulator Driven by Spin Transfer Switching
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 55; doi:10.3390/electronics5030055 -
Abstract
We have developed an active matrix-addressed magneto-optical spatial light modulator driven by spin-transfer switching (spin-SLM) which has a 100 × 100 array pixel layout with a 2 µm pixel pitch. It has pixel-selection-transistors and logic circuits which convert serial data into parallel [...] Read more.
We have developed an active matrix-addressed magneto-optical spatial light modulator driven by spin-transfer switching (spin-SLM) which has a 100 × 100 array pixel layout with a 2 µm pixel pitch. It has pixel-selection-transistors and logic circuits which convert serial data into parallel data to reduce input terminals. We have confirmed successful magnetization switching of each pixel by injecting a pulse current generated from the logic circuit, and its optical display capability by showing digital characters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Building IoT Applications with Raspberry Pi and Low Power IQRF Communication Modules
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 54; doi:10.3390/electronics5030054 -
Abstract
Typical Internet of Things (IoT) applications involve collecting information automatically from diverse geographically-distributed smart sensors and concentrating the information into more powerful computers. The Raspberry Pi platform has become a very interesting choice for IoT applications for several reasons: (1) good computing [...] Read more.
Typical Internet of Things (IoT) applications involve collecting information automatically from diverse geographically-distributed smart sensors and concentrating the information into more powerful computers. The Raspberry Pi platform has become a very interesting choice for IoT applications for several reasons: (1) good computing power/cost ratio; (2) high availability; it has become a de facto hardware standard; and (3) ease of use; it is based on operating systems with a big community of users. In IoT applications, data are frequently carried by means of wireless sensor networks in which energy consumption is a key issue. Energy consumption is especially relevant for smart sensors that are scattered over wide geographical areas and may need to work unattended on batteries for long intervals of time. In this scenario, it is convenient to ease the construction of IoT applications while keeping energy consumption to a minimum at the sensors. This work proposes a possible gateway implementation with specific technologies. It solves the following research question: how to build gateways for IoT applications with Raspberry Pi and low power IQRF communication modules. The following contributions are presented: (1) one architecture for IoT gateways that integrates data from sensor nodes into a higher level application based on low-cost/low-energy technologies; (2) bindings in Java and C that ease the construction of IoT applications; (3) an empirical model that describes the consumption of the communications at the nodes (smart sensors) and allows scaling their batteries; and (4) validation of the proposed energy model at the battery-operated nodes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Drift-Diffusion Simulation of GaAs p-i-n and Schottky-Barrier Photodiodes for High-Speed AIIIBV On-Chip Optical Interconnections
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 52; doi:10.3390/electronics5030052 -
Abstract
In this paper, we consider the problem of the research and development of high-speed semiconductor photodetectors suitable for operation as parts of on-chip optical interconnections together with the high-speed laser modulators based on the AIIIBV nanoheterostructures. This research is [...] Read more.
In this paper, we consider the problem of the research and development of high-speed semiconductor photodetectors suitable for operation as parts of on-chip optical interconnections together with the high-speed laser modulators based on the AIIIBV nanoheterostructures. This research is aimed at the development of the models and modelling aids designed for the simulation of carrier transport and accumulation processes taking place in on-chip photosensitive devices during the detection of subpicosecond laser pulses. Another aim of the paper is to apply the aforementioned aids for the investigation of GaAs p-i-n and Schottky-barrier photodiodes. We propose the non-stationary drift-diffusion models, an original numerical simulation technique and the applied software allowing one to simulate the photosensitive devices with different electrophysical, constructive and technological parameters. We have taken into account different kinds of carrier generation and recombination processes, the effects of electron intervalley transition and carrier drift velocity saturation in order to improve the simulation results’ adequacy. We have concluded that the influence of these effects on the performance of photodetectors for on-chip optical interconnections is significant. The response time of GaAs p-i-n and Schottky-barrier photodiodes calculated taking into account the drift velocity dependence on electric field intensity is insufficient for the adequate detection of subpicosecond laser pulses. According to the simulation results, it is reasonable to develop the methods aimed at the increase in the drift velocity of charge carriers in the photodetector active region by means of built-in electric field reduction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
ROSMOD: A Toolsuite for Modeling, Generating, Deploying, and Managing Distributed Real-time Component-based Software using ROS
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 53; doi:10.3390/electronics5030053 -
Abstract
This paper presents the Robot Operating System Model-driven development tool suite, (ROSMOD) an integrated development environment for rapid prototyping component-based software for the Robot Operating System (ROS) middleware. ROSMOD is well suited for the design, development and deployment of large-scale distributed applications [...] Read more.
This paper presents the Robot Operating System Model-driven development tool suite, (ROSMOD) an integrated development environment for rapid prototyping component-based software for the Robot Operating System (ROS) middleware. ROSMOD is well suited for the design, development and deployment of large-scale distributed applications on embedded devices. We present the various features of ROSMOD including the modeling language, the graphical user interface, code generators, and deployment infrastructure. We demonstrate the utility of this tool with a real-world case study: an Autonomous Ground Support Equipment (AGSE) robot that was designed and prototyped using ROSMOD for the NASA Student Launch competition, 2014–2015. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Miniaturized Blood Pressure Telemetry System with RFID Interface
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 51; doi:10.3390/electronics5030051 -
Abstract
This work deals with the development and characterization of a potentially implantable blood pressure telemetry system, based on an active Radio-Frequency IDentification (RFID) tag, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15693 compliant. This approach aims to continuously measure the average, systolic and diastolic [...] Read more.
This work deals with the development and characterization of a potentially implantable blood pressure telemetry system, based on an active Radio-Frequency IDentification (RFID) tag, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15693 compliant. This approach aims to continuously measure the average, systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the small/medium animals. The measured pressure wave undergoes embedded processing and results are stored onboard in a non-volatile memory, providing the data under interrogation by an external RFID reader. In order to extend battery lifetime, RFID energy harvesting has been investigated. The paper presents the experimental characterization in a laboratory and preliminary in-vivo tests. The device is a prototype mainly intended, in a future engineered version, for monitoring freely moving test animals for pharmaceutical research and drug safety assessment purposes, but it could have multiple uses in environmental and industrial applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Prototyping Flow of Flexible and Efficient NISC-Based Architectures for MIMO Turbo Equalization and Demapping
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 50; doi:10.3390/electronics5030050 -
Abstract
In the domain of digital wireless communication, flexible design implementations are increasingly explored for different applications in order to cope with diverse system configurations imposed by the emerging wireless communication standards. In fact, shrinking the design time to meet market pressure, on [...] Read more.
In the domain of digital wireless communication, flexible design implementations are increasingly explored for different applications in order to cope with diverse system configurations imposed by the emerging wireless communication standards. In fact, shrinking the design time to meet market pressure, on the one hand, and adding the emerging flexibility requirement and, hence, increasing system complexity, on the other hand, require a productive design approach that also ensures final design quality. The no instruction set computer (NISC) approach fulfills these design requirements by eliminating the instruction set overhead. The approach offers static scheduling of the datapath, automated register transfer language (RTL)synthesis and allows the designer to have direct control of hardware resources. This paper presents a complete NISC-based design and prototype flow, from architecture specification till FPGA implementation. The proposed design and prototype flow is illustrated through two case studies of flexible implementations, which are dedicated to low-complexity MIMO turbo-equalizer and a universal turbo-demapper. Moreover, the flexibility of the proposed prototypes allows supporting all communication modes defined in the emerging wireless communication standards, such LTE, LTE-Advanced, WiMAX, WiFi and DVB-RCS. For each prototype, its functionality is evaluated, and the resultant performance is verified for all system configurations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Degraded Communication on Interdependent Power Systems: The Application of Grid Splitting
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 49; doi:10.3390/electronics5030049 -
Abstract
Communication is increasingly present for managing and controlling critical infrastructures strengthening their cyber interdependencies. In electric power systems, grid splitting is a topical communication-critical application. It amounts to separating a power system into islands in response to an impending instability, e.g., loss [...] Read more.
Communication is increasingly present for managing and controlling critical infrastructures strengthening their cyber interdependencies. In electric power systems, grid splitting is a topical communication-critical application. It amounts to separating a power system into islands in response to an impending instability, e.g., loss of generator synchronism due to a component fault, by appropriately disconnecting transmission lines and grouping synchronous generators. The successful application of grid splitting depends on the communication infrastructure to collect system-wide synchronized measurements and to relay the command to open line switches. Grid splitting may be ineffective if communication is degraded and its outcome may also depend on the system loading conditions. This paper investigates the effects of degraded communication and load variability on grid splitting. To this aim, a communication delay model is coupled with a transient electrical model and applied to the IEEE 39-Bus and the IEEE 118-Bus Test System. Case studies show that the loss of generator synchronism following a fault is mitigated by timely splitting the network into islands. On the other hand, the results show that communication delays and increased network flows can degrade the performance of grid splitting. The developed framework enables the identification of the requirements of the dedicated communication infrastructure for a successful grid-splitting procedure. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Comparative Review of Footwear-Based Wearable Systems
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 48; doi:10.3390/electronics5030048 -
Abstract
Footwear is an integral part of daily life. Embedding sensors and electronics in footwear for various different applications started more than two decades ago. This review article summarizes the developments in the field of footwear-based wearable sensors and systems. The electronics, sensing [...] Read more.
Footwear is an integral part of daily life. Embedding sensors and electronics in footwear for various different applications started more than two decades ago. This review article summarizes the developments in the field of footwear-based wearable sensors and systems. The electronics, sensing technologies, data transmission, and data processing methodologies of such wearable systems are all principally dependent on the target application. Hence, the article describes key application scenarios utilizing footwear-based systems with critical discussion on their merits. The reviewed application scenarios include gait monitoring, plantar pressure measurement, posture and activity classification, body weight and energy expenditure estimation, biofeedback, navigation, and fall risk applications. In addition, energy harvesting from the footwear is also considered for review. The article also attempts to shed light on some of the most recent developments in the field along with the future work required to advance the field. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Skin Admittance Measurement for Emotion Recognition: A Study over Frequency Sweep
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 46; doi:10.3390/electronics5030046 -
Abstract
The electrodermal activity (EDA) is a reliable physiological signal for monitoring the sympathetic nervous system. Several studies have demonstrated that EDA can be a source of effective markers for the assessment of emotional states in humans. There are two main methods for [...] Read more.
The electrodermal activity (EDA) is a reliable physiological signal for monitoring the sympathetic nervous system. Several studies have demonstrated that EDA can be a source of effective markers for the assessment of emotional states in humans. There are two main methods for measuring EDA: endosomatic (internal electrical source) and exosomatic (external electrical source). Even though the exosomatic approach is the most widely used, differences between alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) methods and their implication in the emotional assessment field have not yet been deeply investigated. This paper aims at investigating how the admittance contribution of EDA, studied at different frequency sources, affects the EDA statistical power in inferring on the subject’s arousing level (neutral or aroused). To this extent, 40 healthy subjects underwent visual affective elicitations, including neutral and arousing levels, while EDA was gathered through DC and AC sources from 0 to 1 kHz. Results concern the accuracy of an automatic, EDA feature-based arousal recognition system for each frequency source. We show how the frequency of the external electrical source affects the accuracy of arousal recognition. This suggests a role of skin susceptance in the study of affective stimuli through electrodermal response. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Embedded Sensing and Communication Platform, and a Healthcare Model for Remote Monitoring of Chronic Diseases
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 47; doi:10.3390/electronics5030047 -
Abstract
This paper presents a new remote healthcare model, which, exploiting wireless biomedical sensors, an embedded local unit (gateway) for sensor data acquisition-processing-communication, and a remote e-Health service center, can be scaled in different telemedicine scenarios. The aim is avoiding hospitalization cost and [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new remote healthcare model, which, exploiting wireless biomedical sensors, an embedded local unit (gateway) for sensor data acquisition-processing-communication, and a remote e-Health service center, can be scaled in different telemedicine scenarios. The aim is avoiding hospitalization cost and long waiting lists for patients affected by chronic illness who need continuous and long-term monitoring of some vital parameters. In the “1:1” scenario, the patient has a set of biomedical sensors and a gateway to exchange data and healthcare protocols with the remote service center. In the “1:N” scenario the use of gateway and sensors is managed by a professional caregiver, e.g., assigned by the Public Health System to a number N of different patients. In the “point of care” scenario the patient, instead of being hospitalized, can take the needed measurements at a specific health corner, which is then connected to the remote e-Health center. A mix of commercially available sensors and new custom-designed ones is presented. The new custom-designed sensors range from a single-lead electrocardiograph for easy measurements taken by the patients at their home, to a multi-channel biomedical integrated circuit for acquisition of multi-channel bio signals, to a new motion sensor for patient posture estimation and fall detection. Experimental trials in real-world telemedicine applications assess the proposed system in terms of easy usability from patients, specialist and family doctors, and caregivers, in terms of scalability in different scenarios, and in terms of suitability for implementation of needed care plans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Wearable Multimodal Skin Sensing for the Diabetic Foot
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 45; doi:10.3390/electronics5030045 -
Abstract
Ulceration of the diabetic foot is currently difficult to detect reliably in a timely manner causing undue suffering and cost. Current best practice is for daily monitoring by those living with diabetes coupled to scheduled monitoring by the incumbent care provider. Although [...] Read more.
Ulceration of the diabetic foot is currently difficult to detect reliably in a timely manner causing undue suffering and cost. Current best practice is for daily monitoring by those living with diabetes coupled to scheduled monitoring by the incumbent care provider. Although some metrics have proven useful in the detection or prediction of ulceration, no single metric can currently be relied upon for diagnosis. We have developed a prototype multivariate extensible sensor platform with which we demonstrate the ability to gather acceleration, rotation, galvanic skin response, environmental temperature, humidity, force, skin temperature and bioimpedance signals in real time, for later analysis, utilising low cost Raspberry Pi and Arduino devices. We demonstrate the utility of the Raspberry Pi computer in research which is of particular interest to this issue of electronics—Raspberry Pi edition. We conclude that the hardware presented shows potential as an adaptable research tool capable of gathering synchronous data over multiple sensor modalities. This research tool will be utilised to optimise sensor selection, placement and algorithm development prior to translation into a sock, insole or platform diagnostic device at a later date. The combination of a number of clinically relevant parameters is expected to provide greater understanding of tissue state in the foot but requires further volunteer testing and analysis beyond the scope of this paper which will be reported in due course. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Raspberry Pi Based Portable Endoscopic 3D Measurement System
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 43; doi:10.3390/electronics5030043 -
Abstract
Geometry measurements are very important to monitor a machine part’s health and performance. Optical measurement system have several advantages for the acquisition of a parts geometry: measurement speed, precision, point density and contactless operation. Measuring parts inside of assembled machines is also [...] Read more.
Geometry measurements are very important to monitor a machine part’s health and performance. Optical measurement system have several advantages for the acquisition of a parts geometry: measurement speed, precision, point density and contactless operation. Measuring parts inside of assembled machines is also desirable to keep maintenance cost low. The Raspberry Pi is a small and cost efficient computer that creates new opportunities for compact measurement systems. We have developed a fringe projection system which is capable of measuring in very limited space. A Raspberry Pi 2 is used to generate the projection patterns, acquire the image and reconstruct the geometry. Together with a small LED projector, the measurement system is small and easy to handle. It consists of off-the-shelf products which are nonetheless capable of measuring with an uncertainty of less than 100 μm. Full article
Open AccessReview
A Fabric-Based Approach for Wearable Haptics
Electronics 2016, 5(3), 44; doi:10.3390/electronics5030044 -
Abstract
In recent years, wearable haptic systems (WHS) have gained increasing attention as a novel and exciting paradigm for human–robot interaction (HRI). These systems can be worn by users, carried around, and integrated in their everyday lives, thus enabling a more natural manner [...] Read more.
In recent years, wearable haptic systems (WHS) have gained increasing attention as a novel and exciting paradigm for human–robot interaction (HRI). These systems can be worn by users, carried around, and integrated in their everyday lives, thus enabling a more natural manner to deliver tactile cues. At the same time, the design of these types of devices presents new issues: the challenge is the correct identification of design guidelines, with the two-fold goal of minimizing system encumbrance and increasing the effectiveness and naturalness of stimulus delivery. Fabrics can represent a viable solution to tackle these issues. They are specifically thought “to be worn”, and could be the key ingredient to develop wearable haptic interfaces conceived for a more natural HRI. In this paper, the author will review some examples of fabric-based WHS that can be applied to different body locations, and elicit different haptic perceptions for different application fields. Perspective and future developments of this approach will be discussed. Full article
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