Open AccessArticle
Critical Theoretical Frameworks in Engineering Education: An Anti-Deficit and Liberative Approach
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8040158 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The field of engineering education has adapted different theoretical frameworks from a wide range of disciplines to explore issues of education, diversity, and inclusion among others. The number of theoretical frameworks that explore these issues using a critical perspective has been increasing in
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The field of engineering education has adapted different theoretical frameworks from a wide range of disciplines to explore issues of education, diversity, and inclusion among others. The number of theoretical frameworks that explore these issues using a critical perspective has been increasing in the past few years. In this review of the literature, we present an analysis that draws from Freire’s principles of critical andragogy and pedagogy. Using a set of inclusion criteria, we selected 33 research articles that used critical theoretical frameworks as part of our systematic review of the literature. We argue that critical theoretical frameworks are necessary to develop anti-deficit approaches to engineering education research. We show how engineering education research could frame questions and guide research designs using critical theoretical frameworks for the purpose of liberation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
“There Is Never a Break”: The Hidden Curriculum of Professionalization for Engineering Faculty
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8040157 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The purpose of this exploratory special issue study was to understand the hidden curriculum (HC), or the unwritten, unofficial, or unintended lessons, around the professionalization of engineering faculty across institutions of higher education. Additionally, how engineering faculty connected the role of HC awareness,
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The purpose of this exploratory special issue study was to understand the hidden curriculum (HC), or the unwritten, unofficial, or unintended lessons, around the professionalization of engineering faculty across institutions of higher education. Additionally, how engineering faculty connected the role of HC awareness, emotions, self-efficacy, and self-advocacy concepts was studied. A mixed-method survey was disseminated to 55 engineering faculties across 54 institutions of higher education in the United States. Quantitative questions, which centered around the influences that gender, race, faculty rank, and institutional type played in participants’ responses was analyzed using a combination of decision tree analysis with chi-square and correlational analysis. Qualitative questions were analyzed by a combination of tone-, open-, and focused-coding. The findings pointed to the primary roles that gender and institutional type (e.g., Tier 1) played in issues of fulfilling the professional expectations of the field. Furthermore, it was found that HC awareness and emotions and HC awareness and self-efficacy had moderate positive correlations, whereas, compared to self-advocacy, it had weak, negative correlations. Together, the findings point to the complex understandings and intersectional lived realities of many engineering faculty and hopes that through its findings can create awareness of the challenges and obstacles present in these professional environments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Inter-Worldview Education and the Re-Production of Good Religion
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8040156 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this article, I focus on the increasing interest taken by European political and educational policy makers in inter-worldview education. My article has two parts. The first part consists of a document analysis of pivotal European publications on this and related issues. In
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In this article, I focus on the increasing interest taken by European political and educational policy makers in inter-worldview education. My article has two parts. The first part consists of a document analysis of pivotal European publications on this and related issues. In the second and more critical part of this article, I make explicit my concerns about these European pleas for inter-worldview education. The main criticism that I present below is that the European policy on inter-worldview dialogue views the problem of intolerance too much as an individual problem that can and must be dealt with pedagogically, without recognizing that intolerance is just as much a structural socio-political problem. Important European policy documents, to be examined in the first part of this article, do not discuss how the way our societies are structured results in a sustenance of inequalities and in the marginalization of certain groups of people. At no point does these documents link inter-worldview education to the need “to examine the ideologies and structures of society critically,” as a consequence the plea for dialogue loses some of its critical and transforming potential. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Education and Religion in Secular Age from an African Perspective
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8040155 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this article the author shall argue that before Namibian independence in 1990, Christianity was used by some as a weapon of breaking down, or as a tool of, colonialism, racism, and apartheid. In the name of a religious god unashamed acts of
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In this article the author shall argue that before Namibian independence in 1990, Christianity was used by some as a weapon of breaking down, or as a tool of, colonialism, racism, and apartheid. In the name of a religious god unashamed acts of violence and wars were committed and resulted in genocide of 1904 to 1908. However, such brutalities did not conquer the African spirit of what is identified in this article as the Ubuntu (humaneness). Inspired by their sense of Ubuntu the Africans, in the face of German colonialism and the South African imposed Apartheid system, finally emerged victorious and accepted the model of religious pluralism, diversity, and the principle of African Ubuntu. We shall, furthermore, argue that the Namibian educational system and the Namibian Constitution, Articles 1 and 21, the Republic of Namibia is established as a secular state wherein all persons shall have the right to freedom to practise any religion and to manifest such practice. It means religious diversity and pluralism is a value, a cultural or religious or political ideology, which positively welcomes the encounter of religions. It is often characterized as an attitude of openness in a secular state towards different religions and interreligious dialogue and interfaith programs. As an example we shall focus on the subject of Religious and Moral Education where such religious diversity and pluralism are directly linked to political, social, and economic issues, as well as moral values. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Extending Universal Design for Learning through Concurrent Enrollment: Algebra Teachers’ Perspectives
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8040154 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Concurrent enrollment refers to partnerships between postsecondary institutions and schools through which secondary school students can complete a university class taught by a qualifying secondary school teacher at their secondary school. We propose that concurrent enrollment programs are an under-recognized tool for extending
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Concurrent enrollment refers to partnerships between postsecondary institutions and schools through which secondary school students can complete a university class taught by a qualifying secondary school teacher at their secondary school. We propose that concurrent enrollment programs are an under-recognized tool for extending the impact of Universal Design for Learning (UDL). The context of our study is an equity-focused university course in algebraic mathematical modeling that is also offered through concurrent enrollment in over 30 secondary schools to over 800 secondary students annually in our state of Minnesota, U.S.A. This paper presents a qualitative analysis of secondary school teachers’ experiences implementing the inquiry pedagogy and the equity goals of the course. Several results are important for UDL. Teachers (1) describe equity in social terms of race, ethnicity, income, immigration, and language status in addition to measures of academic success; (2) perceive improvements in students’ attitudes towards mathematics, school, and university education; (3) perceive student academic growth through mathematical writing; and (4) report close relationships with students. If higher education faculty design their on-campus classes to incorporate UDL principles, concurrent enrollment offers the potential to improve inclusive pathways from secondary schools to universities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Virtual Resource for Enhancing the Spatial Comprehension of Crystal Lattices
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8040153 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Students commonly exhibit serious spatial comprehension difficulties when they come to learning crystal systems. To solve this problem, an active methodology based on the use of a Didactic Virtual Tool (DVT)—developed by the authors—is presented in this paper. The students’ opinion was obtained
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Students commonly exhibit serious spatial comprehension difficulties when they come to learning crystal systems. To solve this problem, an active methodology based on the use of a Didactic Virtual Tool (DVT)—developed by the authors—is presented in this paper. The students’ opinion was obtained from a survey carried out on 40 mechanical engineering students. The analysis of the obtained results reveals that, by using this DVT, students achieve a better understanding of the contents where spatial difficulties often arise during conventional teaching. Several DVT features were highly valued by the students, e.g., didactic use was rated 9.5 out of 10 and the methodology using the DVT in the classroom was rated 8.5 out of 10. In addition, the results revealed two factors that the students considered essential for using a DVT, both related to the tool design: (i) the modern aspect, i.e., it is necessary to keep a DVT updated to avoid obsolescence; and (ii) the DVT must be appealing in order to attract the students’ attention. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Critically Compassionate Approach to Financial Literacy: A Pursuit of Moral Spirit
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8040152 -
Abstract
An alternative perspective of financial literacy questioned the conceptual legitimacy of sustained personal fulfillment through maximization of financial net worth. In this alternative view, a focus on financial assets and their accumulation constitutes an activity of objectification that perceives other individuals as vehicles
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An alternative perspective of financial literacy questioned the conceptual legitimacy of sustained personal fulfillment through maximization of financial net worth. In this alternative view, a focus on financial assets and their accumulation constitutes an activity of objectification that perceives other individuals as vehicles for personal social advancement, rather than stories or narratives of themselves. This paper argues that a critically compassionate approach to financial literacy represents a moral pursuit. It begins with the claim that human nature is both controlling and compassionate, and that this dual nature informs about the meaning of financial literacy. From this position, it considers what it may mean to be moral in this context and extending that conception to understandings of financial practice. Finally, it asserts broadening interpretations of financial literacy to include compassionate practices represent a moral consideration. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Tutorials for Integrating CAD/CAM in Engineering Curricula
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8030151 -
Abstract
This article addresses the issue of educating engineering students with the knowledge and skills of Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). In particular, three carefully designed tutorials—cutting tool offsetting, tool-path generation for freeform surfaces, and the integration of advanced machine tools (e.g., hexapod-based machine
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This article addresses the issue of educating engineering students with the knowledge and skills of Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). In particular, three carefully designed tutorials—cutting tool offsetting, tool-path generation for freeform surfaces, and the integration of advanced machine tools (e.g., hexapod-based machine tools) with solid modeling—are described. The tutorials help students gain an in-depth understanding of how the CAD/CAM-relevant hardware devices and software packages work in real-life settings. At the same time, the tutorials help students achieve the following educational outcomes: (1) an ability to apply the knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering; (2) an ability to design a system, component, or process to meet the desired needs, (3) an ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems; and (4) an ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools that are necessary for engineering practice. The tutorials can be modified for incorporating other contemporary issues (e.g., additive manufacturing, reverse engineering, and sustainable manufacturing), which can be delved into as a natural extension of this study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Community Based Participatory Approach to Training Young Adults to Design and Implement a Social Marketing Framed Lifestyle Intervention on Their College Campus
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8030150 -
Abstract
Background: Using a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approach may increase the likelihood of relevance and acceptability of the designed intervention, especially on a college campus. Furthermore, recruiting and training college students to design a social marketing framed healthy lifestyle intervention for their peers
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Background: Using a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approach may increase the likelihood of relevance and acceptability of the designed intervention, especially on a college campus. Furthermore, recruiting and training college students to design a social marketing framed healthy lifestyle intervention for their peers will allow the intervention to be tailored to the needs of the campus. Objectives: To describe the process of online-course training college students to develop a campus-based, social marketing health promotion intervention. Methods: Four universities recruited current college students (18+ y.o.) to develop a social marketing and environmental intervention (SMEI), which was completed during a 16-week, online/in-person hybrid semester course. Researchers and Extension professionals trained students to design 24 weeks of intervention events that would be implemented the upcoming year. Results: Seventy-eight students enrolled in the study and social marketing and environmental intervention course among the four intervention states (Florida = 30, South Dakota = 8, Tennessee = 13, West Virginia = 27); students were predominately Caucasian (65.8%), females (84.0%), and sophomore status in college (64.9%). Throughout the semester, students assessed their campus environments, set priorities, and developed weekly events and resources needed to implement the intervention on their campuses. By the end of the semester, with researcher support, students had designed 24 weeks of intervention events (marketing, recruiting, and implementation) focusing on nutrition/food/diet, physical activity, stress management, sleep, and time management. These events and resources were catalogued into a digital toolkit of instructions and activities for each week of intervention events. Conclusion: Using a Community-Based Participatory Research approach with college students interested in health allows for the development of an intervention that stems from grass roots efforts and is tailored to the acceptability and needs of their peers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Supporting Students in Building and Using Models: Development on the Quality and Complexity Dimensions
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8030149 -
Abstract
Past research has identified elements underlying modeling as a core science and engineering practice, as well as dimensions along which students’ learn how to use models and how they perceive the nature of modeling. To extend these findings by a perspective on how
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Past research has identified elements underlying modeling as a core science and engineering practice, as well as dimensions along which students’ learn how to use models and how they perceive the nature of modeling. To extend these findings by a perspective on how modeling practice can be used in classrooms, we used design-based research to investigate how the modeling practice elements, i.e., construct, use, evaluate, and revise, were integrated in a middle school unit about water quality that included using an online modeling tool. We focus on N = 3 groups as cases to track and analyze 7th grade students’ modeling practice and metamodeling knowledge across the unit. Students constructed, used, evaluated, and revised their models based on data they collected and concepts they learned. Results indicate most students succeeded in constructing complex models using the modeling tool by consecutively adding and specifying variables and relationships. This is a positive finding compared to prior research on students’ metamodeling knowledge. Similar to these studies, we observed several basic metamodeling conceptions and generally less progress in this field than in students’ models. We discuss implications for applying modeling practice in classrooms and explain how students make use of the different modeling practice elements by developing their models in the complexity and quality dimensions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reflect, Analyze, Act, Repeat: Creating Critical Consciousness through Critical Service-Learning at a Professional Development School
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8030148 -
Abstract
Universities engage students in traditional service-learning projects that often yield “good feelings”, even a savior mentality, but typically leave the root causes of social justice issues unexamined and untouched. In contrast to traditional service-learning, critical service-learning bridges this gap with an explicit focus
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Universities engage students in traditional service-learning projects that often yield “good feelings”, even a savior mentality, but typically leave the root causes of social justice issues unexamined and untouched. In contrast to traditional service-learning, critical service-learning bridges this gap with an explicit focus on justice and equity, situating scholars’ work with the community rather than for it. A public university in the southeast offered a doctoral course that focused on critical service-learning in the context of a professional development school partnership. Designed as an ethnographic multi-case study, each graduate student in the on-site course represents a case. Data collection included interviews, observations, written reflections, and artefacts. The analysis revealed that developing critical service-learning projects with educators—rather than for them—supported participants’ critical consciousness. Findings and discussion highlight that facilitating community-engaged scholarship through critical service-learning impacts graduate students and middle-grades educators’ research interests, work, and future directions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Expanding the Scope of Universal Design: Implications for Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8030147 -
Abstract
This article encourages postsecondary educators to expand the scope of applications of universal design and universal instructional design by exploring how principles of UD and UID can be applied to other social identities, and specifically to gender identity and sexual orientation. There are
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This article encourages postsecondary educators to expand the scope of applications of universal design and universal instructional design by exploring how principles of UD and UID can be applied to other social identities, and specifically to gender identity and sexual orientation. There are many parallels that can be drawn between students who are excluded because of their disability and students who are marginalized on the basis of nonconforming gender identity or sexual orientation. It is important that faculty and staff understand intersectionality and interdependence among social identities and consider what steps they can take to apply UID principles in ways that consider multiple aspects of identity in order to provide inclusive educational experiences for all students. Scenarios for further discussion are provided. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Representation of Religion in Religion Education: Notes from the South African Periphery
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8030146 -
Abstract
Scholars of Religion Education (RE) have promoted a non-confessional approach to the teaching of religions that explores and examines the religious history of humankind, with due attention paid to its complexity and plurality. In this promotion, the public representation of religion and its
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Scholars of Religion Education (RE) have promoted a non-confessional approach to the teaching of religions that explores and examines the religious history of humankind, with due attention paid to its complexity and plurality. In this promotion, the public representation of religion and its impact on RE has not received sufficient attention. An often hegemonic representation of religion constitutes an important part of religion in public life. Moreover, this article argues that this representation is a phenomenon shared by secular, secularizing, and deeply religious societies. It shows that a Western understanding of secularization has guided dominant RE visions and practices, informed by a particular mode of representation. As an illustration of how education in and representation of religion merges in RE, the article analyses the South African policy document for religion education. While the policy promotes RE as an educational practice, it also makes room for a representation of religion. This article urges that various forms of the representation of religion should be more carefully examined in other contexts, particularly by those who want to promote a non-confessional and pluralistic approach to RE. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Construction and Evaluation of an Instrument to Measure Content Knowledge in Biology: The CK-IBI
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8030145 -
Abstract
The teaching process is well described as an interaction between teacher, student, and content. Thus, it seems obvious that teachers must know the content to help students to learn it. Instruments have been developed to measure teachers’ content knowledge (CK) in biology, but
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The teaching process is well described as an interaction between teacher, student, and content. Thus, it seems obvious that teachers must know the content to help students to learn it. Instruments have been developed to measure teachers’ content knowledge (CK) in biology, but few of them have been provided to the scientific community. Furthermore, most of them have a topic-specific approach, so there is a need for a more comprehensive measure. In efforts to meet this need we have developed an instrument called the CK in biology inventory (CK-IBI), which has a broader scope than previously published instruments and covers knowledge of five biological disciplines (i.e., ecology, evolution, genetics and microbiology, morphology, and physiology). More than 700 pre-service biology teachers were enrolled to participate in tests to assess the instrument’s objectivity, reliability, and validity in two cross-sectional evaluations. Item and scale analyses as well as validity checks indicate that the final version of the CK-IBI (37 items; Cronbach’s α = 0.83) can be scored objectively, is unidimensional, reliable, and validly measures pre-service biology teachers’ CK. As the instrument was used in a German context, it has been translated into English to enable its scrutiny and use by international communities. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Early Childhood Science and Engineering: Engaging Platforms for Fostering Domain-General Learning Skills
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8030144 -
Abstract
Early childhood science and engineering education offer a prime context to foster approaches-to-learning (ATL) and executive functioning (EF) by eliciting children’s natural curiosity about the world, providing a unique opportunity to engage children in hands-on learning experiences that promote critical thinking, problem solving,
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Early childhood science and engineering education offer a prime context to foster approaches-to-learning (ATL) and executive functioning (EF) by eliciting children’s natural curiosity about the world, providing a unique opportunity to engage children in hands-on learning experiences that promote critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, persistence, and other adaptive domain-general learning skills. Indeed, in any science experiment or engineering problem, children make observations, engage in collaborative conversations with teachers and peers, and think flexibly to come up with predictions or potential solutions to their problem. Inherent to science and engineering is the idea that one learns from initial failures within an iterative trial-and-error process where children practice risk-taking, persistence, tolerance for frustration, and sustaining focus. Unfortunately, science and engineering instruction is typically absent from early childhood classrooms, and particularly so in programs that serve children from low-income families. However, our early science and engineering intervention research shows teachers how to build science and engineering instruction into activities that are already happening in their classrooms, which boosts their confidence and removes some of the stigma around science and engineering. In this paper, we discuss the promise of research that uses early childhood science and engineering experiences as engaging, hands-on, interactive platforms to instill ATL and EF in young children living below the poverty line. We propose that early childhood science and engineering offer a central theme that captures children’s attention and allows for integrated instruction across domain-general (ATL, EF, and social–emotional) and domain-specific (e.g., language, literacy, mathematics, and science) content, allowing for contextualized experiences that make learning more meaningful and captivating for children. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Walking the Talk: Enhancing Future Teachers’ Capacity to Embed Social-Emotional Learning in Middle Years Classrooms
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8030143 -
Abstract
Early adolescence marks a developmental period during which there is a window of opportunity to explicitly teach and make a significant difference in a young person’s development of social and emotional competencies (SECs). All students can benefit from the inclusion of SECs and
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Early adolescence marks a developmental period during which there is a window of opportunity to explicitly teach and make a significant difference in a young person’s development of social and emotional competencies (SECs). All students can benefit from the inclusion of SECs and failing to develop such SECs can result in poor outcomes in several domains including personal, social, and academic outcomes. Research on social and emotional programs for young adolescent learners has shown that a ‘skills and drills’ approach is far less effective than focusing on mind-sets and classroom climate. Although the role teachers play in explicitly teaching and supporting young adolescents’ SECs has been recognised, teachers have reported a lack of confidence in knowing what, and how to teach these skills. This paper reports on a teacher education course that embedded social and emotional skills into both coursework design and assessment expectations. Results drawn from an analysis of students’ responses to their main assessment task showed that pre-service teachers had a growing awareness of SECs and, in particular, were able to recognise the importance of focusing on the building of students’ SECs to support academic success across a broad range of curriculum areas. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Attitude towards Mobile Learning in English Language Education
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8030142 -
Abstract
Mobile devices, especially smart phones, are the most frequently used technological devices for daily routines. Mobile devices can be used for various purposes to meet different needs. Since education is a core requirement for human beings, smart phones are being integrated into education.
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Mobile devices, especially smart phones, are the most frequently used technological devices for daily routines. Mobile devices can be used for various purposes to meet different needs. Since education is a core requirement for human beings, smart phones are being integrated into education. However, it remains to be seen whether they have an impact on learning or not. Consequently, integration of these technologies, or “mobile learning”, has become a popular research study in the field of instructional technology. It is important to investigate the impact of smart phones in language education since students today use them frequently. This attitudinal study aims to investigate the attitude of students in higher education towards smart phone use in the context of foreign language learning. In particular, it gathers information about how smart phones are used for language learning. Participants of the study were 294 prep school students from a well-known university in Turkey. Descriptive study was selected as a research method and mixed-method was the research design for the study. The findings of the study showed that participants care about instant and easy access to information in language learning. In addition to drawing attention to the ease of information access, participants provided suggestions about future applications of smartphones in language learning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reflections on a Three-Year-Long Teacher-Centered, Participatory Action Research Experience on Teaching Chemical Bonding in a Swiss Vocational School
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8030141 -
Abstract
Chemistry is considered to be a difficult subject and chemistry education courses are not very popular among many students. Innovations in the curriculum and pedagogy may help to overcome difficulties in learning as well as motivational problems. Participatory action research (PAR) seems to
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Chemistry is considered to be a difficult subject and chemistry education courses are not very popular among many students. Innovations in the curriculum and pedagogy may help to overcome difficulties in learning as well as motivational problems. Participatory action research (PAR) seems to be a suitable approach for developing such an innovation for the chemistry classroom. This paper reflects on the adoption of a PAR model to teacher-centered action research. A project is discussed aiming at iteratively improving lessons on chemical bonding in a Swiss vocational school. The lesson was focusing on self-determined, autonomous learning in small groups in a multimedia-supported learning environment to foster student motivation for learning. The project is based on the cooperation of a chemistry teacher and a PAR expert group of chemistry teachers operating far away from the school. The cooperation was implemented by synchronous and asynchronous digital communication. The lessons have been cyclically developed over three consecutive years of teaching. The findings from the current study indicate that the implemented practice of action research helped to both improve the teacher’s pedagogical repertoire for his chemistry lessons and contributed to the teacher’s continuing professional development in terms of better understanding how student-centered his lessons should be. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How Christian Universities Respond to Extremism
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8030140 -
Abstract
This research article explores how two English universities with Anglican foundations responded to UK government requirements to counter radicalization on campus. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with student union representatives, senior staff in the universities responsible for implementing the legal requirements and also those
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This research article explores how two English universities with Anglican foundations responded to UK government requirements to counter radicalization on campus. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with student union representatives, senior staff in the universities responsible for implementing the legal requirements and also those with special responsibility for religion. Christian foundation education institutions are required to implement government policy in response to visible radical and religious extremism. The UK higher education context is post-Christian (with lower levels of religious adherence) and post-secular (with greater plurality and greater prominence of controversial religious-related issues). It presents challenges for Christian university identity when meeting the complex concerns about dangers to students, university independence and free speech, and common values and public accountability. The research found that key to universities being able to respond effectively to the challenge of legal compliance and student welfare, was staff expertise in religion, but they have doubts about their capacity to respond effectively, and both staff and student have fears about this policy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Adaptation Study of Measurement Properties for the Characteristics of Resilience in Sports Team Inventory
Educ. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8030139 -
Abstract
This multi-study paper reports the translation process and the validity and reliability analysis of the Characteristics of Resilience in Sports Teams Inventory (CREST) for the use of Turkish population. In three related studies, 414 team sports athletes from Turkey were sampled. We adopted
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This multi-study paper reports the translation process and the validity and reliability analysis of the Characteristics of Resilience in Sports Teams Inventory (CREST) for the use of Turkish population. In three related studies, 414 team sports athletes from Turkey were sampled. We adopted Beaton et al.’s (2000) methodology for the translation of self-report measures for cross-cultural adaption studies. The first study provided content validity for an initial item set as the preliminary study. The second study explored the factor analysis of the CREST structure. The third study explored re-testing of the explored structure in a different set of participants and criterion-related validity provided. The analysis of Study 1 revealed that the items were understood by the participants and ready for application for the general Turkish population. The exploratory factor analysis in the Study 2 revealed that the CREST had two sub-dimensions as it was in the original inventory. The Cronbach’s alpha values for the dimensions of demonstrating resilience characteristics and vulnerabilities shown under pressure were 0.94 and 0.90, respectively. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value was 0.94. The confirmatory factor analysis in the third study showed that the structure of the inventory was confirmed in another sports context. Accordingly, the CREST is a valid and reliable tool for use by Turkish athletes and to measure team resilience that is one of the critical determinants of team performance. Further understanding of team resilience as a process can be gain by using the CREST, especially in future process-oriented research for team sports. Full article
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