Open AccessArticle
Globalization and Digitalization as Challenges for a Professional Career in Manufacturing Industries—Differences in Awareness and Knowledge of Students from Brazil and Germany
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 55; doi:10.3390/educsci7020055 -
Abstract
In this study, we provide the outcomes of a survey with Brazilian and German students about two main topics: (1) students’ willingness and motivation to work abroad; and (2) the students’ awareness about current industrial challenges, their knowledge perception and perspectives about the
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In this study, we provide the outcomes of a survey with Brazilian and German students about two main topics: (1) students’ willingness and motivation to work abroad; and (2) the students’ awareness about current industrial challenges, their knowledge perception and perspectives about the workplace of the future. We survey 733 college students from technical and natural sciences degrees in the period of October to December 2016 and compare our findings with the existing literature. We analyze the results by stressing the relevance of management’s international experience for the success of company’s internationalization as well as the importance of student’s awareness about current industrial challenges for the development of national industry. The analysis shows that Brazilian students have a significant higher willingness to work abroad and are less money-driven compared to students from Germany. On the other hand, German surveyed students have a higher awareness regarding industrial digitalization than students from Brazil. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Health Literacy amongst Health Professional University Students: A Study Using the Health Literacy Questionnaire
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 54; doi:10.3390/educsci7020054 -
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to assess and compare health literacy levels in a range of university-based health students. Methods: A survey containing the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) was administered to students enrolled in university-based medical, allied health or nursing degree programs. The HLQ
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Background: This study aimed to assess and compare health literacy levels in a range of university-based health students. Methods: A survey containing the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) was administered to students enrolled in university-based medical, allied health or nursing degree programs. The HLQ scores and scale scores were compared across student groups. Results: In total, 374 students (24% response rate) with a median age of 25 years (range: 17–61 years), returned completed surveys. Three students who did not identify their degree programs were excluded from the final analysis which included 371 respondents; 242 graduate-entry medical students (65%), 67 allied health students (18%) and 62 nursing students (17%). Overall, the medical students had the highest score for seven of the nine HLQ scales; while the nursing students had the lowest score for all of the nine HLQ scales. Conclusion: These results show that health literacy profiles are different across student groups. In order to provide excellent patient-centred care, and to successfully look after their own health, a high level of health literacy is required by future health professionals. Health literacy training modules, tailored according to the different needs of the student groups, should therefore be included in university-based health professional degree programs. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Educational Justice
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 53; doi:10.3390/educsci7020053 -
Abstract Last year, Education Sciencies initiated a Special Issue on the topic of educational justice throughout the world. Now, the guest-edited issue has been closed [...]
Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Instructional Guidance and Sequencing of Manipulatives and Written Symbols on Second Graders’ Numeration Knowledge
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 52; doi:10.3390/educsci7020052 -
Abstract
Concrete objects used to illustrate mathematical ideas are commonly known as manipulatives. Manipulatives are ubiquitous in North American elementary classrooms in the early years, and although they can be beneficial, they do not guarantee learning. In the present study, the authors examined two
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Concrete objects used to illustrate mathematical ideas are commonly known as manipulatives. Manipulatives are ubiquitous in North American elementary classrooms in the early years, and although they can be beneficial, they do not guarantee learning. In the present study, the authors examined two factors hypothesized to impact second-graders’ learning of place value and regrouping with manipulatives: (a) the sequencing of concrete (base-ten blocks) and abstract (written symbols) representations of the standard addition algorithm; and (b) the level of instructional guidance on the structural relations between the representations. Results from a classroom experiment with second-grade students (N = 87) indicated that place value knowledge increased from pre-test to post-test when the base-ten blocks were presented before the symbols, but only when no instructional guidance was offered. When guidance was given, only students in the symbols-first condition improved their place value knowledge. Students who received instruction increased their understanding of regrouping, irrespective of representational sequence. No effects were found for iterative sequencing of concrete and abstract representations. Practical implications for teaching mathematics with manipulatives are considered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
I Thought This Was a Study on Math Games: Attribute Modification in Children’s Interactions with Mathematics Apps
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 50; doi:10.3390/educsci7020050 -
Abstract
Technology is an increasingly important component of education. Children’s mathematical interactions with technology have become a focus of mathematics education research, but less research has investigated constructs that contribute to these mathematical interactions. Attributes of children and technology play a key role in
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Technology is an increasingly important component of education. Children’s mathematical interactions with technology have become a focus of mathematics education research, but less research has investigated constructs that contribute to these mathematical interactions. Attributes of children and technology play a key role in mathematical interactions and both children and technology can modify attributes during these interactions. Grounded in the Artifact-Centric Activity Theory and linked to recent developments in research on technology in mathematics education, this qualitative study extended an earlier exploratory study to investigate attribute modification. In particular, this study examined patterns of attribute modification evident during fifth grade students’ mathematical interactions with two mathematics virtual manipulative touchscreen tablet apps. Results included three categories related to attribute modification: (1) reactive attribute modification (linear progression or repeated repetition); (2) unperceived attributes and opportunities for proactive modification; and (3) proactive modification (seeking equilibrium, seeking disequilibrium, or seeking equilibrium and disequilibrium). Findings have implications for designers, teachers, and researchers of educational technology. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Conceptualizations of Students with and without Disabilities as Mathematical Problem Solvers in Educational Research: A Critical Review
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 51; doi:10.3390/educsci7020051 -
Abstract
Students with disabilities are often framed as “the problem” and have limited opportunities to engage in standards based mathematics, leading to persistent underachievement. In this paper, we investigate a research divide between mathematics educational research for students with and without disabilities, a divide
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Students with disabilities are often framed as “the problem” and have limited opportunities to engage in standards based mathematics, leading to persistent underachievement. In this paper, we investigate a research divide between mathematics educational research for students with and without disabilities, a divide with significant differences in the theoretical orientations and research methodologies used to understand learners. Based on an analysis of 149 mathematics educational research articles published between 2013 and 2015, we found significant differences between articles focused on learners with and without disabilities. For those with disabilities, mathematical problem solving was understood primarily from behavioral and information processing theoretical perspectives, while for those without disabilities, problem solving was understood primarily through constructivist and sociocultural perspectives. While 86% of research on problem-solving including students with disabilities was quantitative, only 35% of research on students without disabilities was quantitative. Fifty percent of problem-solving research on students without disabilities was qualitative, compared to only 6% of research on students with disabilities. Problem solving, then, is studied in very different ways for learners with and without disabilities. Students without disabilities are studied through close analysis of learning, often individual. Students with disabilities are most often studied quantitatively, in groups, with little analysis of individual thinking. By offering only a limited range of methods and theoretical orientations, this research divide reifies deficit constructions of students with disabilities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Re-Imagining Asian Religious Identity: Towards a Critical Pedagogy of Religion and Race in Australian Schools
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 49; doi:10.3390/educsci7020049 -
Abstract
This paper is drawn from a research project that investigates the relationship between teachers’ understanding of the religious identity of Asian background students, and recent Australian curriculum initiatives focused on religion and religious identification. Based on responses from an Australia-wide survey, and follow-up
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This paper is drawn from a research project that investigates the relationship between teachers’ understanding of the religious identity of Asian background students, and recent Australian curriculum initiatives focused on religion and religious identification. Based on responses from an Australia-wide survey, and follow-up interviews from teachers and principals in several Australian states, the project examined the ways that Australian teachers understand, respond to and talk about the religious identities of their students, and the implications of these demands for teacher practice and education. This paper is concerned with the findings from the interview phase that for a significant number of teachers, notions of religion were often elided with culture and race, and often subsumed by broader notions of a nominal ‘white’ Australian culture. Research conversations appeared framed by an often Christian perspective and sense of self, as opposed to a putative and Asian religious and cultural other. We argue that a better understanding of the ways that teachers participate in discourses of representations about Asian religious identities negotiated by Australian diasporic communities has direct implications for the refinement of policy and for teacher professional learning. In the light of our findings, we further argue that there is a need for curriculum, teachers and researchers to move beyond an understanding of culture and identity that is based on monolingual, monocultural and Anglocentric perspectives that frame the foreign as the ‘exotic’ other, and define it through references to limited, tokenistic artefacts of culture, which are reinforced by iconic use of language to talk about culture, religion and identity. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Making Mathematics Learning More Engaging for Students in Health Schools through the Use of Apps
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 48; doi:10.3390/educsci7020048 -
Abstract
This paper reports on an aspect of a case study of four 11-to-13-year-old students of a Regional Health School (RHS) in New Zealand, using apps on their own mobile devices as part of their mathematics programs. It considers the issue of engaging students
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This paper reports on an aspect of a case study of four 11-to-13-year-old students of a Regional Health School (RHS) in New Zealand, using apps on their own mobile devices as part of their mathematics programs. It considers the issue of engaging students in mathematical learning when they are recovering from significant health issues. The paper examines the influence of apps on these students’ engagement with mathematical learning through the facilitation of differentiated learning programs. The research design was a case study with semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and observation used to generate the data. A number of themes arose from the data including both the positive and negative influences of apps on student engagement and the influence of apps on facilitating differentiated learning programs. The results indicated that using apps for mathematics had a positive influence on student engagement for most students. The positive student engagement seemed to be partly due to the apps’ ability to support differentiated learning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reconceptualizing Scientific Literacy: The Role of Students’ Epistemological Profiles
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 47; doi:10.3390/educsci7020047 -
Abstract
In this theoretical article we construct an argument for a pedagogical perspective based on the notion of epistemological profiles for scientific literacy for primary and secondary education. Concurrently, we offer a discussion of the implications of this proposal to the preparation of teachers
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In this theoretical article we construct an argument for a pedagogical perspective based on the notion of epistemological profiles for scientific literacy for primary and secondary education. Concurrently, we offer a discussion of the implications of this proposal to the preparation of teachers and the development of their pedagogical skills. Underlining cultural practices in the construction, communication and validation of knowledge—called epistemic practices which are informed by an ideological perspective on science, are implied in the notion of epistemological profiles in the context of science teaching, particularly physics. Using the concept of mass in the context of science education, we discuss how different ideological perspectives on science reflect distinct aspects of reality. Thus, in this paper we propose an ‘order’ and ‘direction’ to scientific literacy and education in science, emphasizing the construction of a clear empirical perspective for primary school and a rationalistic ideological perspective for secondary school. We complement our argument with resources from activity theory and discourse studies, alongside a discussion of issues and challenges. In concluding this paper, we point out that such proposal requires a change in the classroom teaching culture. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Internet-Based Medicine Education Intervention: Fourth Graders’ Perspectives
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 46; doi:10.3390/educsci7020046 -
Abstract
Health education, which also includes medicine education, promotes social sustainability in society. Through the context of Internet-based intervention, this study reports on fourth graders’ (N = 51, aged 10–11 years) perspectives on medicines, their use with common diseases and medicine-related information sources.
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Health education, which also includes medicine education, promotes social sustainability in society. Through the context of Internet-based intervention, this study reports on fourth graders’ (N = 51, aged 10–11 years) perspectives on medicines, their use with common diseases and medicine-related information sources. The study was qualitative by nature. Data was collected in spring 2010, by audio recording students’ group discussions during the study process and group interviews. After intervention, students were well aware of the proper use of medicines and how to find information both on medicines and health issues. The main challenge was finding websites that provide reliable and confidential information. The results of this study raise awareness of a concrete pedagogical approach to health education. The pedagogical approach conducted in the intervention could, to some extent, be transferred to any school setting. This study underlies the promotion of Internet-based health literacy and criteria, for evaluating online health information in the primary school context. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Examining Pinterest as a Curriculum Resource for Negative Integers: An Initial Investigation
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 45; doi:10.3390/educsci7020045 -
Abstract
This paper reports an investigation of mathematical resources available on the social media site Pinterest. Pinterest is an online bulletin board where users create visual bookmarks called pins in order to share digital content (e.g., webpages, images, videos). Although recent surveys have shown
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This paper reports an investigation of mathematical resources available on the social media site Pinterest. Pinterest is an online bulletin board where users create visual bookmarks called pins in order to share digital content (e.g., webpages, images, videos). Although recent surveys have shown that Pinterest is a popular reference for teachers, understanding of the mathematical resources available on the site is lacking. To take initial steps in investigating the curriculum resources provided by Pinterest, we used keyword searches to gather a database of pins related to the topic of negative integers. A content analysis was conducted on the pins with a focus on several characteristics including mathematical operations, mathematical models, use of real-world context, and whether mathematical errors were present in source material. Results show a dominance of addition and subtraction over other operations, use of mathematical models in half of pins, infrequent use of real-world context, and mathematical errors in roughly one-third of pins. We provide a breakdown of these results and discuss implications of the findings for mathematics teacher education and professional development. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Epistemology and Education
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 44; doi:10.3390/educsci7020044 -
Abstract
While philosophy of education is often considered an applied discipline, it has made contributions across the philosophical spectrum. For example, there has been a significant body of work on aesthetics and education. There have been occasional incursions into debates about ontology and even,
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While philosophy of education is often considered an applied discipline, it has made contributions across the philosophical spectrum. For example, there has been a significant body of work on aesthetics and education. There have been occasional incursions into debates about ontology and even, albeit rarely, metaphysics. However, the majority of work has always been concerned with epistemology (questions of knowing) and ethics (questions of right action). Traditionally, much of this work, particularly in epistemology, has had a highly individualistic tendency. The assumption of the knowing mind as key characteristic of the rational autonomous agent is at the heart of the liberal educational tradition and takes root in Descartes’ cogito: even if I doubt who I am, there is an ‘I’ that doubts, and this ‘I’ is the fundamental characteristic of the autonomous rational agent, the fully human being. Full article
Open AccessArticle
From Linear Industrial Structures to Living Systems: A Design Shift in Education for Sustainability
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 43; doi:10.3390/educsci7020043 -
Abstract
If sustainability is to be an integral part of rethinking education organization, it is necessary to redesign mental models that shape present curricular structures. Assumptions underlying the design of most schools and curricula are based on linear industrial models, which raises an essential
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If sustainability is to be an integral part of rethinking education organization, it is necessary to redesign mental models that shape present curricular structures. Assumptions underlying the design of most schools and curricula are based on linear industrial models, which raises an essential question: How can we use opposite concepts of systems dynamics and living structures to create a shift in our present thinking about curriculum and learning for sustainability? From this, we can begin a dramatic design shift toward innovative curriculum to prepare future students and teachers. This article begins with a critique of modern industrial education, then moves into an overview of sustainability concepts and structure through systems thinking. The article then presents the research of an original sustainability curriculum that structures assessment to measure systems thinking. From the results, the article then explores a conceptual design framework for a 21st century curriculum that bio-mimics living systems and organic molecular structure, based on systems thinking and mechanistic principles. By placing assessment on competency relationships and not solely assignment completion, this new framework encourages students and educators to develop emerging 21st century skills in the age of digital technology and communication. This essay and framework, which emerged from the author’s dissertation research and findings, offers a new conceptual tool to the field of sustainability education while challenging educators to adopt living systems into their own instructional designs. Full article
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Open AccessEssay
The Logic of Democracy and Education
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 42; doi:10.3390/educsci7020042 -
Abstract
To the best of my knowledge; no one has ever exploited the relationship between Democracy and Education and Dewey’s logical theory as presented in these other works. Doing so not only lends textual evidence to the important relationship between Dewey’s logical theory and
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To the best of my knowledge; no one has ever exploited the relationship between Democracy and Education and Dewey’s logical theory as presented in these other works. Doing so not only lends textual evidence to the important relationship between Dewey’s logical theory and Democracy and Education; it reinforces Dewey’s claim that Democracy and Education best represents his philosophy in general. Democracy and Education evinces arguments regarding logical theory that Dewey hadn’t yet made in his published works on logical theory. These arguments concern the role and scope of scientific method in the context of the practice of teaching and the social psychology of learning. Attention to scientific method and to the habits and dispositions of the student-as-learner will be my focus. I argue that these arguments find their way into Dewey’s later logical theory; represented in Logic: the Theory of Inquiry (1938) under the rubrics of ‘the existential matrix of inquiry’ and ‘social inquiry.’ In particular; the accounts of habit; adaptation; and interaction in Chapter 2 of Dewey’s Logic; together with the account of social problems and their resolution in a genuine determination as discussed in Chapter 24; are indebted to Chapters 11–14 of Democracy and Education. And for this reason alone; Democracy and Education should be considered among the most important of Dewey’s influences regarding the development of his logical theory. Full article
Open AccessReview
The Use of Learning Map Systems to Support the Formative Assessment in Mathematics
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 41; doi:10.3390/educsci7010041 -
Abstract
Despite much theoretical support, meta-analysis of the efficacy of formative assessment does not provided empirical evidence commensurate with expectations. This theoretical study suggests that teachers need a better organizing structure to allow a formative assessment process to live up to its promise. We
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Despite much theoretical support, meta-analysis of the efficacy of formative assessment does not provided empirical evidence commensurate with expectations. This theoretical study suggests that teachers need a better organizing structure to allow a formative assessment process to live up to its promise. We propose that the use of learning map systems can provide that structure, and we describe aspects of using learning map systems to support mathematics instruction in two projects: the Dynamic Learning Maps® alternate assessment (DLM) and the Use of Learning Maps as an Organizing Structure for Formative Assessment (also referred to as Enhanced Learning Maps, or ELM). Full article
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Open AccessReview
Techno-Mathematical Discourse: A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing Classroom Discussions
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 40; doi:10.3390/educsci7010040 -
Abstract
Extensive research has been published on the nature of classroom mathematical discourse and on the impact of technology tools, such as virtual manipulatives (VM), on students’ learning, while less research has focused on how technology tools facilitate that mathematical discourse. This paper presents
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Extensive research has been published on the nature of classroom mathematical discourse and on the impact of technology tools, such as virtual manipulatives (VM), on students’ learning, while less research has focused on how technology tools facilitate that mathematical discourse. This paper presents an emerging construct, the Techno-Mathematical Discourse (TMD) framework, as a means for analyzing and interpreting aspects of learning when students use technological representations to mediate mathematical discussions. The framework focuses on three main components: classroom discourse, technology tools, and mathematical tasks. This paper examines each of these components, and then illustrates the framework using examples of students’ exchanges while interacting with virtual manipulatives. The TMD Framework has applications relevant to teachers, teacher educators, and researchers concerning how technology tools contribute to discourse in mathematics classrooms. The TMD framework addresses a critical issue in mathematics education, in that classroom teachers and researchers need to understand how technology facilitates classroom interactions and how to best leverage technology tools to enhance students’ learning of mathematics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Beyond Interpersonal Competence: Teaching and Learning Professional Skills in Sustainability
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 39; doi:10.3390/educsci7010039 -
Abstract
Successful careers in sustainability are determined by positive real-world change towards sustainability. This success depends heavily on professional skills in effective and compassionate communication, collaborative teamwork, or impactful stakeholder engagement, among others. These professional skills extend beyond content knowledge and methodical expertise. Current
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Successful careers in sustainability are determined by positive real-world change towards sustainability. This success depends heavily on professional skills in effective and compassionate communication, collaborative teamwork, or impactful stakeholder engagement, among others. These professional skills extend beyond content knowledge and methodical expertise. Current sustainability programs do not sufficiently facilitate students’ acquisition of such skills. This article presents a brief summary of professional skills, synthesized from the literature, and why they are relevant for sustainability professionals. Second, it presents how these skills have been taught in an undergraduate course in sustainability at Arizona State University, USA. Third, it critically discusses the effectiveness and challenges of that exemplary course. Finally, the article concludes with outlining the lessons learned that should be incorporated into future course offerings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Universities and Epistemology: From a Dissolution of Knowledge to the Emergence of a New Thinking
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 38; doi:10.3390/educsci7010038 -
Abstract
This paper examines the relation between epistemology and higher education. We shall start by briefly examining three classical texts on the understanding of knowledge at universities, as well as noting some others, and go on to sketch a version of our own. Our
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This paper examines the relation between epistemology and higher education. We shall start by briefly examining three classical texts on the understanding of knowledge at universities, as well as noting some others, and go on to sketch a version of our own. Our argument is as follows: the world is such that the relationship between the university and knowledge remains fundamental but that it needs to be reconceptualised. In particular, the 21st century is seeing the emergence of digital reason, which could be said to be a form of non-reason. It may appear, therefore, that we are witnessing the dissolution or severing of the relationship between the university, on the one hand, and knowledge and truth on the other hand. To the contrary, we argue for what we term an ecological perspective on knowledge, with the concept of ecology being treated in the most generous way, partly as a way of rethinking the university into the future. The idea of knowledge as a defining concept of the university still has mileage in it. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Variations of Reasoning in Equal Sharing of Children Who Experience Low Achievement in Mathematics: Competence in Context
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 37; doi:10.3390/educsci7010037 -
Abstract
For children with persistent mathematics difficulties, research and practice espouses that an altered kind of mathematics instruction is necessary due to sustained performance differences. Yet, a critical issue in mathematics education rests in the question of why research locates the problem within these
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For children with persistent mathematics difficulties, research and practice espouses that an altered kind of mathematics instruction is necessary due to sustained performance differences. Yet, a critical issue in mathematics education rests in the question of why research locates the problem within these children. In this paper, we challenge a longstanding assumption about the type of mathematics children with low achievement in mathematics “need” along with how these children are positioned in terms of mathematical thinking and reasoning. Our aim in this work is to identify ways of reasoning evident in the partitioning activity of 43 fifth-grade children as they solved equal sharing situations independent of instruction over ten sessions. Results reveal three themes of reasoning that show a resemblance between these children’s reasoning and existing frameworks of reasoning in equal sharing problems found in prior research among children who did not show low achievement in mathematics. We discuss the results in terms of the problem of a continued conceptualization of low achieving students’ need for specific kinds of teaching and learning experiences and/or detached instructional experiences in school. We advocate for an increase in research that examines how teachers can support participation of these children in mathematics classrooms such that children might develop powerful mathematics conceptions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Performance Education Fails in Sustainability? —A Reflection on Finnish Primary Teacher Education
Educ. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 32; doi:10.3390/educsci7010032 -
Abstract
Sustainability is internationally often emphasized as an essential aim of higher education, but more as a principle than on the practical level. This is also obvious in the academic education of primary teachers in Finland. Therefore, it is a great challenge for Finnish
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Sustainability is internationally often emphasized as an essential aim of higher education, but more as a principle than on the practical level. This is also obvious in the academic education of primary teachers in Finland. Therefore, it is a great challenge for Finnish teachers to include sustainability in their teaching and everyday life in schools. The aim of this article is to critically analyze why the implementation of sustainability in teacher education is so intricate and to discuss possible solutions with Finland—a country highly valued for its education—as an example. The article reports outcomes from educational policy documents and research on educational, philosophical, scientific and social aspects of sustainability, including evaluation of how sustainability has been implemented in schools and at universities, especially among teacher educators. In addition, the article builds on analyses of comprehensive university strategies and primary school teacher education programs. We found these reasons for the ignoring of sustainability in the Finnish teacher education: sustainability is in conflict with overall trends in society and politics, teacher education takes place at universities and is based on separate academic disciplines. Sustainability is also intricate because it is strongly connected to ecological literacy and it is value dependent. Universities need to overcome these obstacles and become forerunners in the sustainability process. Full article