Open AccessArticle
Econometric Information Recovery in Behavioral Networks
Econometrics 2016, 4(3), 38; doi:10.3390/econometrics4030038 -
Abstract
In this paper, we suggest an approach to recovering behavior-related, preference-choice network information from observational data. We model the process as a self-organized behavior based random exponential network-graph system. To address the unknown nature of the sampling model in recovering behavior related [...] Read more.
In this paper, we suggest an approach to recovering behavior-related, preference-choice network information from observational data. We model the process as a self-organized behavior based random exponential network-graph system. To address the unknown nature of the sampling model in recovering behavior related network information, we use the Cressie-Read (CR) family of divergence measures and the corresponding information theoretic entropy basis, for estimation, inference, model evaluation, and prediction. Examples are included to clarify how entropy based information theoretic methods are directly applicable to recovering the behavioral network probabilities in this fundamentally underdetermined ill posed inverse recovery problem. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Generalized Fractional Processes with Long Memory and Time Dependent Volatility Revisited
Econometrics 2016, 4(3), 37; doi:10.3390/econometrics4030037 -
Abstract
In recent years, fractionally-differenced processes have received a great deal of attention due to their flexibility in financial applications with long-memory. This paper revisits the class of generalized fractionally-differenced processes generated by Gegenbauer polynomials and the ARMA structure (GARMA) with both the [...] Read more.
In recent years, fractionally-differenced processes have received a great deal of attention due to their flexibility in financial applications with long-memory. This paper revisits the class of generalized fractionally-differenced processes generated by Gegenbauer polynomials and the ARMA structure (GARMA) with both the long-memory and time-dependent innovation variance. We establish the existence and uniqueness of second-order solutions. We also extend this family with innovations to follow GARCH and stochastic volatility (SV). Under certain regularity conditions, we give asymptotic results for the approximate maximum likelihood estimator for the GARMA-GARCH model. We discuss a Monte Carlo likelihood method for the GARMA-SV model and investigate finite sample properties via Monte Carlo experiments. Finally, we illustrate the usefulness of this approach using monthly inflation rates for France, Japan and the United States. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nonparametric Regression with Common Shocks
Econometrics 2016, 4(3), 36; doi:10.3390/econometrics4030036 -
Abstract
This paper considers a nonparametric regression model for cross-sectional data in the presence of common shocks. Common shocks are allowed to be very general in nature; they do not need to be finite dimensional with a known (small) number of factors. I [...] Read more.
This paper considers a nonparametric regression model for cross-sectional data in the presence of common shocks. Common shocks are allowed to be very general in nature; they do not need to be finite dimensional with a known (small) number of factors. I investigate the properties of the Nadaraya-Watson kernel estimator and determine how general the common shocks can be while still obtaining meaningful kernel estimates. Restrictions on the common shocks are necessary because kernel estimators typically manipulate conditional densities, and conditional densities do not necessarily exist in the present case. By appealing to disintegration theory, I provide sufficient conditions for the existence of such conditional densities and show that the estimator converges in probability to the Kolmogorov conditional expectation given the sigma-field generated by the common shocks. I also establish the rate of convergence and the asymptotic distribution of the kernel estimator. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Special Issues of Econometrics: Celebrated Econometricians
Econometrics 2016, 4(3), 35; doi:10.3390/econometrics4030035 -
Abstract Econometrics is pleased to announce the commissioning of a new series of Special Issues dedicated to celebrated econometricians of our time.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Jump Variation Estimation with Noisy High Frequency Financial Data via Wavelets
Econometrics 2016, 4(3), 34; doi:10.3390/econometrics4030034 -
Abstract
This paper develops a method to improve the estimation of jump variation using high frequency data with the existence of market microstructure noises. Accurate estimation of jump variation is in high demand, as it is an important component of volatility in finance [...] Read more.
This paper develops a method to improve the estimation of jump variation using high frequency data with the existence of market microstructure noises. Accurate estimation of jump variation is in high demand, as it is an important component of volatility in finance for portfolio allocation, derivative pricing and risk management. The method has a two-step procedure with detection and estimation. In Step 1, we detect the jump locations by performing wavelet transformation on the observed noisy price processes. Since wavelet coefficients are significantly larger at the jump locations than the others, we calibrate the wavelet coefficients through a threshold and declare jump points if the absolute wavelet coefficients exceed the threshold. In Step 2 we estimate the jump variation by averaging noisy price processes at each side of a declared jump point and then taking the difference between the two averages of the jump point. Specifically, for each jump location detected in Step 1, we get two averages from the observed noisy price processes, one before the detected jump location and one after it, and then take their difference to estimate the jump variation. Theoretically, we show that the two-step procedure based on average realized volatility processes can achieve a convergence rate close to OP(n4/9), which is better than the convergence rate OP(n1/4) for the procedure based on the original noisy process, where n is the sample size. Numerically, the method based on average realized volatility processes indeed performs better than that based on the price processes. Empirically, we study the distribution of jump variation using Dow Jones Industrial Average stocks and compare the results using the original price process and the average realized volatility processes. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Econometrics Best Paper Award 2016
Econometrics 2016, 4(3), 33; doi:10.3390/econometrics4030033 -
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Open AccessArticle
Measuring the Distance between Sets of ARMA Models
Econometrics 2016, 4(3), 32; doi:10.3390/econometrics4030032 -
Abstract
A distance between pairs of sets of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) processes is proposed. Its main properties are discussed. The paper also shows how the proposed distance finds application in time series analysis. In particular it can be used to evaluate the [...] Read more.
A distance between pairs of sets of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) processes is proposed. Its main properties are discussed. The paper also shows how the proposed distance finds application in time series analysis. In particular it can be used to evaluate the distance between portfolios of ARMA models or the distance between vector autoregressive (VAR) models. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Market Microstructure Effects on Firm Default Risk Evaluation
Econometrics 2016, 4(3), 31; doi:10.3390/econometrics4030031 -
Abstract
Default probability is a fundamental variable determining the credit worthiness of a firm and equity volatility estimation plays a key role in its evaluation. Assuming a structural credit risk modeling approach, we study the impact of choosing different non parametric equity volatility [...] Read more.
Default probability is a fundamental variable determining the credit worthiness of a firm and equity volatility estimation plays a key role in its evaluation. Assuming a structural credit risk modeling approach, we study the impact of choosing different non parametric equity volatility estimators on default probability evaluation, when market microstructure noise is considered. A general stochastic volatility framework with jumps for the underlying asset dynamics is defined inside a Merton-like structural model. To estimate the volatility risk component of a firm we use high-frequency equity data: market microstructure noise is introduced as a direct effect of observing noisy high-frequency equity prices. A Monte Carlo simulation analysis is conducted to (i) test the performance of alternative non-parametric equity volatility estimators in their capability of filtering out the microstructure noise and backing out the true unobservable asset volatility; (ii) study the effects of different non-parametric estimation techniques on default probability evaluation. The impact of the non-parametric volatility estimators on risk evaluation is not negligible: a sensitivity analysis defined for alternative values of the leverage parameter and average jumps size reveals that the characteristics of the dataset are crucial to determine which is the proper estimator to consider from a credit risk perspective. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Estimation of Gini Index within Pre-Specified Error Bound
Econometrics 2016, 4(3), 30; doi:10.3390/econometrics4030030 -
Abstract
Gini index is a widely used measure of economic inequality. This article develops a theory and methodology for constructing a confidence interval for Gini index with a specified confidence coefficient and a specified width without assuming any specific distribution of the data. [...] Read more.
Gini index is a widely used measure of economic inequality. This article develops a theory and methodology for constructing a confidence interval for Gini index with a specified confidence coefficient and a specified width without assuming any specific distribution of the data. Fixed sample size methods cannot simultaneously achieve both specified confidence coefficient and fixed width. We develop a purely sequential procedure for interval estimation of Gini index with a specified confidence coefficient and a specified margin of error. Optimality properties of the proposed method, namely first order asymptotic efficiency and asymptotic consistency properties are proved under mild moment assumptions of the distribution of the data. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluating Eigenvector Spatial Filter Corrections for Omitted Georeferenced Variables
Econometrics 2016, 4(2), 29; doi:10.3390/econometrics4020029 -
Abstract
The Ramsey regression equation specification error test (RESET) furnishes a diagnostic for omitted variables in a linear regression model specification (i.e., the null hypothesis is no omitted variables). Integer powers of fitted values from a regression analysis are introduced as [...] Read more.
The Ramsey regression equation specification error test (RESET) furnishes a diagnostic for omitted variables in a linear regression model specification (i.e., the null hypothesis is no omitted variables). Integer powers of fitted values from a regression analysis are introduced as additional covariates in a second regression analysis. The former regression model can be considered restricted, whereas the latter model can be considered unrestricted; this first model is nested within this second model. A RESET significance test is conducted with an F-test using the error sums of squares and the degrees of freedom for the two models. For georeferenced data, eigenvectors can be extracted from a modified spatial weights matrix, and included in a linear regression model specification to account for the presence of nonzero spatial autocorrelation. The intuition underlying this methodology is that these synthetic variates function as surrogates for omitted variables. Accordingly, a restricted regression model without eigenvectors should indicate an omitted variables problem, whereas an unrestricted regression model with eigenvectors should result in a failure to reject the RESET null hypothesis. This paper furnishes eleven empirical examples, covering a wide range of spatial attribute data types, that illustrate the effectiveness of eigenvector spatial filtering in addressing the omitted variables problem for georeferenced data as measured by the RESET. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Testing Symmetry of Unknown Densities via Smoothing with the Generalized Gamma Kernels
Econometrics 2016, 4(2), 28; doi:10.3390/econometrics4020028 -
Abstract
This paper improves a kernel-smoothed test of symmetry through combining it with a new class of asymmetric kernels called the generalized gamma kernels. It is demonstrated that the improved test statistic has a normal limit under the null of symmetry and is [...] Read more.
This paper improves a kernel-smoothed test of symmetry through combining it with a new class of asymmetric kernels called the generalized gamma kernels. It is demonstrated that the improved test statistic has a normal limit under the null of symmetry and is consistent under the alternative. A test-oriented smoothing parameter selection method is also proposed to implement the test. Monte Carlo simulations indicate superior finite-sample performance of the test statistic. It is worth emphasizing that the performance is grounded on the first-order normal limit and a small number of observations, despite a nonparametric convergence rate and a sample-splitting procedure of the test. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Removing Specification Errors from the Usual Formulation of Binary Choice Models
Econometrics 2016, 4(2), 26; doi:10.3390/econometrics4020026 -
Abstract
We develop a procedure for removing four major specification errors from the usual formulation of binary choice models. The model that results from this procedure is different from the conventional probit and logit models. This difference arises as a direct consequence of [...] Read more.
We develop a procedure for removing four major specification errors from the usual formulation of binary choice models. The model that results from this procedure is different from the conventional probit and logit models. This difference arises as a direct consequence of our relaxation of the usual assumption that omitted regressors constituting the error term of a latent linear regression model do not introduce omitted regressor biases into the coefficients of the included regressors. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Continuous and Jump Betas: Implications for Portfolio Diversification
Econometrics 2016, 4(2), 27; doi:10.3390/econometrics4020027 -
Abstract
Using high-frequency data, we decompose the time-varying beta for stocks into beta for continuous systematic risk and beta for discontinuous systematic risk. Estimated discontinuous betas for S&P500 constituents between 2003 and 2011 generally exceed the corresponding continuous betas. We demonstrate how continuous [...] Read more.
Using high-frequency data, we decompose the time-varying beta for stocks into beta for continuous systematic risk and beta for discontinuous systematic risk. Estimated discontinuous betas for S&P500 constituents between 2003 and 2011 generally exceed the corresponding continuous betas. We demonstrate how continuous and discontinuous betas decrease with portfolio diversification. Using an equiweighted broad market index, we assess the speed of convergence of continuous and discontinuous betas in portfolios of stocks as the number of holdings increase. We show that discontinuous risk dissipates faster with fewer stocks in a portfolio compared to its continuous counterpart. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Stable-GARCH Models for Financial Returns: Fast Estimation and Tests for Stability
Econometrics 2016, 4(2), 25; doi:10.3390/econometrics4020025 -
Abstract
A fast method for estimating the parameters of a stable-APARCH not requiring likelihood or iteration is proposed. Several powerful tests for the (asymmetric) stable Paretian distribution with tail index 1<α<2 are used for assessing the appropriateness of the [...] Read more.
A fast method for estimating the parameters of a stable-APARCH not requiring likelihood or iteration is proposed. Several powerful tests for the (asymmetric) stable Paretian distribution with tail index 1<α<2 are used for assessing the appropriateness of the stable assumption as the innovations process in stable-GARCH-type models for daily stock returns. Overall, there is strong evidence against the stable as the correct innovations assumption for all stocks and time periods, though for many stocks and windows of data, the stable hypothesis is not rejected. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Bayesian Bandwidth Selection for a Nonparametric Regression Model with Mixed Types of Regressors
Econometrics 2016, 4(2), 24; doi:10.3390/econometrics4020024 -
Abstract
This paper develops a sampling algorithm for bandwidth estimation in a nonparametric regression model with continuous and discrete regressors under an unknown error density. The error density is approximated by the kernel density estimator of the unobserved errors, while the regression function [...] Read more.
This paper develops a sampling algorithm for bandwidth estimation in a nonparametric regression model with continuous and discrete regressors under an unknown error density. The error density is approximated by the kernel density estimator of the unobserved errors, while the regression function is estimated using the Nadaraya-Watson estimator admitting continuous and discrete regressors. We derive an approximate likelihood and posterior for bandwidth parameters, followed by a sampling algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed approach typically leads to better accuracy of the resulting estimates than cross-validation, particularly for smaller sample sizes. This bandwidth estimation approach is applied to nonparametric regression model of the Australian All Ordinaries returns and the kernel density estimation of gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates among the organisation for economic co-operation and development (OECD) and non-OECD countries. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Building a Structural Model: Parameterization and Structurality
Econometrics 2016, 4(2), 23; doi:10.3390/econometrics4020023 -
Abstract
A specific concept of structural model is used as a background for discussing the structurality of its parameterization. Conditions for a structural model to be also causal are examined. Difficulties and pitfalls arising from the parameterization are analyzed. In particular, pitfalls when [...] Read more.
A specific concept of structural model is used as a background for discussing the structurality of its parameterization. Conditions for a structural model to be also causal are examined. Difficulties and pitfalls arising from the parameterization are analyzed. In particular, pitfalls when considering alternative parameterizations of a same model are shown to have lead to ungrounded conclusions in the literature. Discussions of observationally equivalent models related to different economic mechanisms are used to make clear the connection between an economically meaningful parameterization and an economically meaningful decomposition of a complex model. The design of economic policy is used for drawing some practical implications of the proposed analysis. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Distribution of Budget Shares for Food: An Application of Quantile Regression to Food Security 1
Econometrics 2016, 4(2), 22; doi:10.3390/econometrics4020022 -
Abstract
This study examines, using quantile regression, the linkage between food security and efforts to enhance smallholder coffee producer incomes in Rwanda. Even though in Rwanda smallholder coffee producer incomes have increased, inhabitants these areas still experience stunting and wasting. This study examines [...] Read more.
This study examines, using quantile regression, the linkage between food security and efforts to enhance smallholder coffee producer incomes in Rwanda. Even though in Rwanda smallholder coffee producer incomes have increased, inhabitants these areas still experience stunting and wasting. This study examines whether the distribution of the income elasticity for food is the same for coffee and noncoffee growing provinces. We find that that the share of expenditures on food is statistically different in coffee growing and noncoffee growing provinces. Thus, the increase in expenditure on food is smaller for coffee growing provinces than noncoffee growing provinces. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Unit Root Tests: The Role of the Univariate Models Implied by Multivariate Time Series
Econometrics 2016, 4(2), 21; doi:10.3390/econometrics4020021 -
Abstract
In cointegration analysis, it is customary to test the hypothesis of unit roots separately for each single time series. In this note, we point out that this procedure may imply large size distortion of the unit root tests if the DGP is [...] Read more.
In cointegration analysis, it is customary to test the hypothesis of unit roots separately for each single time series. In this note, we point out that this procedure may imply large size distortion of the unit root tests if the DGP is a VAR. It is well-known that univariate models implied by a VAR data generating process necessarily have a finite order MA component. This feature may explain why an MA component has often been found in univariate ARIMA models for economic time series. Thereby, it has important implications for unit root tests in univariate settings given the well-known size distortion of popular unit root test in the presence of a large negative coefficient in the MA component. In a small simulation experiment, considering several popular unit root tests and the ADF sieve bootstrap unit tests, we find that, besides the well known size distortion effect, there can be substantial differences in size distortion according to which univariate time series is tested for the presence of a unit root. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Recovering the Most Entropic Copulas from Preliminary Knowledge of Dependence
Econometrics 2016, 4(2), 20; doi:10.3390/econometrics4020020 -
Abstract
This paper provides a new approach to recover relative entropy measures of contemporaneous dependence from limited information by constructing the most entropic copula (MEC) and its canonical form, namely the most entropic canonical copula (MECC). The MECC can effectively be obtained by [...] Read more.
This paper provides a new approach to recover relative entropy measures of contemporaneous dependence from limited information by constructing the most entropic copula (MEC) and its canonical form, namely the most entropic canonical copula (MECC). The MECC can effectively be obtained by maximizing Shannon entropy to yield a proper copula such that known dependence structures of data (e.g., measures of association) are matched to their empirical counterparts. In fact the problem of maximizing the entropy of copulas is the dual to the problem of minimizing the Kullback-Leibler cross entropy (KLCE) of joint probability densities when the marginal probability densities are fixed. Our simulation study shows that the proposed MEC estimator can potentially outperform many other copula estimators in finite samples. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Method for Measuring Treatment Effects on the Treated without Randomization
Econometrics 2016, 4(2), 19; doi:10.3390/econometrics4020019 -
Abstract
This paper contributes to the literature on the estimation of causal effects by providing an analytical formula for individual specific treatment effects and an empirical methodology that allows us to estimate these effects. We derive the formula from a general model with [...] Read more.
This paper contributes to the literature on the estimation of causal effects by providing an analytical formula for individual specific treatment effects and an empirical methodology that allows us to estimate these effects. We derive the formula from a general model with minimal restrictions, unknown functional form and true unobserved variables such that it is a credible model of the underlying real world relationship. Subsequently, we manipulate the model in order to put it in an estimable form. In contrast to other empirical methodologies, which derive average treatment effects, we derive an analytical formula that provides estimates of the treatment effects on each treated individual. We also provide an empirical example that illustrates our methodology. Full article