Abstract: Mediterranean-style diets caused a significant decline in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in early landmark studies. The effect of a traditional Mediterranean diet on lipoprotein oxidation showed that there was a significant reduction in oxidative stress in the intervention group (Mediterranean diet + Virgin Olive Oil) compared to the low-fat diet group. Conversely, the increase in oxidative stress causing inflammation is a unifying hypothesis for predisposing people to atherosclerosis, carcinogenesis, and osteoporosis. The impact of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents on cancer and cardiovascular disease, and the interventive mechanisms for the inhibition of proliferation, inflammation, invasion, metastasis, and activation of apoptosis were explored. Following the Great Oxygen Event some 2.3 billion years ago, organisms have needed antioxidants to survive. Natural products in food preservatives are preferable to synthetic compounds due to their lower volatility and stability and generally higher antioxidant potential. Free radicals, reactive oxygen species, antioxidants, pro-oxidants and inflammation are described with examples of free radical damage based on the hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide radicals. Flavonoid antioxidants with 2- or 3-phenylchroman structures such as quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, apigenin, and luteolin, constituents of fruits, vegetables, tea, and wine, which may reduce coronary disease and cancer, are described. The protective effect of flavonoids on the DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals through chelation is an important mechanism, though the converse may be possible, e.g., quercetin. The antioxidant properties of carotenoids, which are dietary natural pigments, have been studied in relation to breast cancer risk and an inverse association was found with plasma concentrations: higher levels mean lower risk. The manipulation of primary and secondary human metabolomes derived especially from existing or transformed gut microbiota was explored as a possible alternative to single-agent dietary interventions for cancer and cardiovascular disease. Sustained oxidative stress leading to inflammation and thence to possibly to cancer and cardiovascular disease is described for spices and herbs, using curcumin as an example of an intervention, based on activation of transcription factors which suggest that oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and cancer are closely linked.
Abstract: The mobile genetic element s2m has been described in several families of single-stranded RNA viruses. The function remains elusive, but an increasing number of s2m-containing sequences are being deposited in publicly available databases. Currently, more than 700 coronavirus sequences containing s2m can be found in GenBank, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus genome. This is an updated review of the pattern of s2m in coronaviruses, the possible functional implications and the evolutionary history.
Abstract: Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are known respiratory pathogens associated with a range of respiratory outcomes. In the past 14 years, the onset of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have thrust HCoVs into spotlight of the research community due to their high pathogenicity in humans. The study of HCoV-host interactions has contributed extensively to our understanding of HCoV pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss some of the recent findings of host cell factors that might be exploited by HCoVs to facilitate their own replication cycle. We also discuss various cellular processes, such as apoptosis, innate immunity, ER stress response, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway that may be modulated by HCoVs.
Abstract: Background: Singlet oxygen (1O2) oxidizes targets through the production of secondary reactive oxygen species (SOS). Cancers induce oxidative stress changing with progression, the resulting antioxidant status differing from one patient to the other. The aim of this study was to determine the oxidative status of patients with resectable Non-Small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and the potential influence of antioxidants, compared to sera from healthy donors. Materials and Methods: Serum samples from 10 women and 28 men, 19 adenocarcinomas (ADK), 15 patients N1 or M1 were submitted to a photoreaction producing 1O2. Then, samples were supplemented with vitamins (Vit C, Vit E), or glutathione (GSH). Results: Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and metastatic SCCs induced a lower SOS rate. While Vit C increased SOS in controls as in patients with metastases, Vit E or the combination of Vit E and C strongly reduced SOS. GSH alone lightly decreased SOS in controls but had no effect in patients either alone or combined with Vit C. Conclusion: In “early” lung cancers, SOS are comparable or lower than for healthy persons. The role of Vitamins varies with gender, cancer type, and metastases. This suggests that an eventual supplementation should be performed on a per-patient basis to evidence any effect.
Abstract: Obesity and diabetes is generally accompanied by a chronic state of oxidative stress, disequilibrium in the redox balance, implicated in the development and progression of complications such as micro- and macro-angiopathies. Disorders in the inner layer of blood vessels, the endothelium, play an early and critical role in the development of these complications. Blunted endothelium-dependent relaxation and/or contractions are quietly associated to oxidative stress. Thus, preserving endothelial function and oxidative stress seems to be an optimization strategy in the prevention of vascular complications associated with diabetes. Diet is a major lifestyle factor that can greatly influence the incidence and the progression of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications. The notion that foods not only provide basic nutrition but can also prevent diseases and ensure good health and longevity is now attained greater prominence. Some dietary and lifestyle modifications associated to antioxidative supply could be an effective prophylactic means to fight against oxidative stress in diabesity and complications. A significant benefit of phytochemicals (polyphenols in wine, grape, teas), vitamins (ascorbate, tocopherol), minerals (selenium, magnesium), and fruits and vegetables in foods is thought to be capable of scavenging free radicals, lowering the incidence of chronic diseases. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative stress in diabetes and complications, highlight the endothelial dysfunction, and examine the impact of antioxidant foods, plants, fruits, and vegetables, currently used medication with antioxidant properties, in relation to the development and progression of diabetes and cardiovascular complications.
Abstract: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is an imprinted genetic disorder conferred by loss of paternal gene expression from chromosome 15q11.2-q13. Individuals with PWS have impairments in ventilatory control and are predisposed toward sleep disordered breathing due to a combination of characteristic craniofacial features, obesity, hypotonia, and hypothalamic dysfunction. Children with PWS progress from failure to thrive during infancy to hyperphagia and morbid obesity during later childhood and onward. Similarly, the phenotype of sleep disordered breathing in PWS patients also evolves over time from predominantly central sleep apnea in infants to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in older children. Behavioral difficulties are common and may make establishing effective therapy with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) more challenging when OSA persists after adenotonsillectomy. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is also common in patients with PWS and may continue after OSA is effectively treated. We describe here the characteristic ventilatory control deficits, sleep disordered breathing, and excessive daytime sleepiness seen in individuals with PWS. We review respiratory issues that may contribute to sudden death events in PWS patients during sleep and wakefulness. We also discuss therapeutic options for treating sleep disordered breathing including adenotonsillectomy, weight loss, and CPAP. Lastly, we discuss the benefits and safety considerations related to growth hormone therapy.