Abstract: This review elucidates the technologies in the field of exhaled breath analysis. Exhaled breath gas analysis offers an inexpensive, noninvasive and rapid method for detecting a large number of compounds under various conditions for health and disease states. There are various techniques to analyze some exhaled breath gases, including spectrometry, gas chromatography and spectroscopy. This review places emphasis on some of the critical biomarkers present in exhaled human breath, and its related effects. Additionally, various medical monitoring techniques used for breath analysis have been discussed. It also includes the current scenario of breath analysis with nanotechnology-oriented techniques
Abstract: In aquatic organisms, such as fish, blood is continually exposed to aquatic contaminants. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) proteins are ubiquitous detoxification membrane pumps, which recognize various xenobiotics. Moreover, their expression is induced by a large class of drugs and pollutants. We have highlighted the co-expression of a mini P-gp of 75 kDa and a P-gp of 140 kDa in the primary culture of brown trout erythrocytes and in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from three rivers in the Auvergne region of France. In vitro experiments showed that benzo[a]pyrene, a highly toxic pollutant model, induced the co-expression of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes in a dose-dependent manner and relay type response. Similarly, in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from rivers contaminated by a mixture of PAH and other multi-residues of pesticides, mini-P-gp and P-gp were able to modulate their expression, according to the nature of the pollutants. The differential and complementary responses of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes suggest the existence in blood cells of a real protective network against xenobiotics/drugs. This property could be exploited to develop a blood biomarker of river pollution.
Abstract: We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of serum D-dimer levels in pregnant women with adnexal torsion (AT). The pregnant women with ovarian cysts who suffered from pelvic pain were divided into two groups; the first group consisted of the cases with surgically proven as AT (n = 17) and the second group consisted of the cases whose pain were resolved in the course of follow-up period without required surgery (n = 34). The clinical characteristics and serum D-dimer levels were compared between the groups. Patients with AT had a higher rate of elevated serum white blood cell (WBC) count (57% vs. 16%, p = 0.04) and serum D-dimer levels (77% vs. 21%, p< 0.01) on admission in the study group than in the control group. Elevated D-dimer and cyst diameter larger than 5 cm yielded highest sensitivity (82% for each); whereas the presence of nausea and vomiting and elevated CRP had the highest specificity (85% and 88%, respectively). This is the first study that evaluates the serum D-dimer levels in humans in the diagnosis of AT, and our findings supported the use of D-dimer for the early diagnosis of AT in pregnant women.
Abstract: An electrochemical immunosensor modified with the streptavidin/biotin system on screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) for the detection of the dengue NS1 antigen was developed in this study. Monoclonal anti-NS1 capture antibody was immobilized on streptavidin-modified SPCEs to increase the sensitivity of the assay. Subsequently, a direct sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format was developed and optimized. An anti-NS1 detection antibody conjugated with horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) and 3,3,5,5'-tetramethybezidine dihydrochloride (TMB/H2O2) was used as an enzyme mediator. Electrochemical detection was conducted using the chronoamperometric technique, and electrochemical responses were generated at −200 mV reduction potential. The calibration curve of the immunosensor showed a linear response between 0.5 µg/mL and 2 µg/mL and a detection limit of 0.03 µg/mL. Incorporation of a streptavidin/biotin system resulted in a well-oriented antibody immobilization of the capture antibody and consequently enhanced the sensitivity of the assay. In conclusion, this immunosensor is a promising technology for the rapid and convenient detection of acute dengue infection in real serum samples.
Abstract: Parkinson’ disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease worldwide. To date, there is no disease-modifying agent, and current medical treatment only provides symptomatic benefits. Early diagnosis of PD would be useful in clinical practice to identify patients for clinical trials, test potential drugs and neuroprotective agents and track their therapeutic effect. Considerable progress has been made in the discovery and validation of diagnostic biomarkers for PD. In particular, blood-based biomarkers have shown promise in identifying PD patients in samples from independent clinical trials. Evaluation of these biomarkers in de novo patients and individuals at risk for PD remains a top priority. Here, we review the current advances and challenges toward the clinical translation of these biomarkers into a blood-based test for PD.
Abstract: Quantitative and qualitative characterization of fluorinated molecules represents an important task. Fluorine-based medicinal chemistry is a fast-growing research area due to the positive impact of fluorine in drug discovery, and clinical and molecular imaging (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography). Common detection methods include fluorinated-based labelling using radioactive isotopes or fluorescent dyes. Nevertheless, these molecular imaging methods can be harmful for health due to the potential instability of fluorochromes and cytoxicity of radioisotopes. Therefore, these methods often require expensive precautionary measures. In this context, we have developed, validated and patented carbon-fluorine spectroscopy (CFS™), recently renamed Spectro-Fluor™ technology, which among a non-competitive family of in-house made devices called PLIRFA™ (Pulsed Laser Isochronic Raman and Fluorescence Apparatus™), allows reliable detection of Carbon-Fluorine (C-F) bonds. C-F bonds are known to be stable and safe labels once incorporated to any type of molecules, cells, compounds or (nano-) materials. In this pioneered research study, we used Spectro-Fluor™ to assess biomarkers. As a proof-of-principle experiment, we have established a three-step protocol intended to rapid protein detection, which simply consisted of: (i) incorporating a sufficient concentration of an aromatic amino-acid (fluorinated versus non-fluorinated) into cultured cells; (ii) simultaneously isolating the fluorinated protein of interest and the non-fluorinated form of the protein (control) by immune-precipitation; (iii) comparatively analyzing the respective spectrum obtained for the two protein forms by Spectro-Fluor™. Thereby, we were able to differentiate, from colon cancer cells HCT-116, the fluorinated and non-fluorinated forms of p21, a key transcriptional factor and downstream target of p53, the so-called “guardian of the genome”. Taken together, our data again demonstrates the beneficial alternative use of Spectro-Fluor™, which once combined with an innovative methodology permits one to quickly, reliably, safely and cost-effectively detect physiological or pathological proteins in cells.