Open AccessArticle
Defining Clinical Response Criteria and Early Response Criteria for Precision Oncology: Current State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives
Diagnostics 2017, 7(1), 10; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7010010 -
Abstract
In this era of precision oncology, there has been an exponential growth in the armamentarium of genomically targeted therapies and immunotherapies. Evaluating early responses to precision therapy is essential for “go” versus “no go” decisions for these molecularly targeted drugs and agents that
[...] Read more.
In this era of precision oncology, there has been an exponential growth in the armamentarium of genomically targeted therapies and immunotherapies. Evaluating early responses to precision therapy is essential for “go” versus “no go” decisions for these molecularly targeted drugs and agents that arm the immune system. Many different response assessment criteria exist for use in solid tumors and lymphomas. We reviewed the literature using the Medline/PubMed database for keywords “response assessment” and various known response assessment criteria published up to 2016. In this article we review the commonly used response assessment criteria. We present a decision tree to facilitate selection of appropriate criteria. We also suggest methods for standardization of various response assessment criteria. The relevant response assessment criteria were further studied for rational of development, key features, proposed use and acceptance by various entities. We also discuss early response evaluation and provide specific case studies of early response to targeted therapy. With high-throughput, advanced computing programs and digital data-mining it is now possible to acquire vast amount of high quality imaging data opening up a new field of “omics in radiology”—radiomics that complements genomics for personalized medicine. Radiomics is rapidly evolving and is still in the research arena. This cutting-edge technology is poised to move soon to the mainstream clinical arena. Novel agents with new mechanisms of action require advanced molecular imaging as imaging biomarkers. There is an urgent need for development of standardized early response assessment criteria for evaluation of response to precision therapy. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Multivariate Feature Selection of Image Descriptors Data for Breast Cancer with Computer-Assisted Diagnosis
Diagnostics 2017, 7(1), 9; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7010009 -
Abstract
Breast cancer is an important global health problem, and the most common type of cancer among women. Late diagnosis significantly decreases the survival rate of the patient; however, using mammography for early detection has been demonstrated to be a very important tool increasing
[...] Read more.
Breast cancer is an important global health problem, and the most common type of cancer among women. Late diagnosis significantly decreases the survival rate of the patient; however, using mammography for early detection has been demonstrated to be a very important tool increasing the survival rate. The purpose of this paper is to obtain a multivariate model to classify benign and malignant tumor lesions using a computer-assisted diagnosis with a genetic algorithm in training and test datasets from mammography image features. A multivariate search was conducted to obtain predictive models with different approaches, in order to compare and validate results. The multivariate models were constructed using: Random Forest, Nearest centroid, and K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) strategies as cost function in a genetic algorithm applied to the features in the BCDR public databases. Results suggest that the two texture descriptor features obtained in the multivariate model have a similar or better prediction capability to classify the data outcome compared with the multivariate model composed of all the features, according to their fitness value. This model can help to reduce the workload of radiologists and present a second opinion in the classification of tumor lesions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Exploring the Case for a Global Alliance for Medical Diagnostics Initiative
Diagnostics 2017, 7(1), 8; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7010008 -
Abstract
In recent years, the private and public sectors have increased investments in medical diagnostics for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite these investments, numerous barriers prevent the adoption of existing diagnostics and discourage the development and introduction of new diagnostics in LMICs. In
[...] Read more.
In recent years, the private and public sectors have increased investments in medical diagnostics for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite these investments, numerous barriers prevent the adoption of existing diagnostics and discourage the development and introduction of new diagnostics in LMICs. In the late 1990s, the global vaccine community had similar challenges, as vaccine coverage rates stagnated and the introduction of new vaccines was viewed as a distraction to delivering existing vaccines. To address these challenges, the international community came together and formed the Global Alliance for Vaccines Initiative (GAVI). Sixteen years after the formation of GAVI, we see evidence of a healthier global vaccine landscape. We discuss how GAVI’s four guiding principles (product, health systems strengthening, financing and market shaping) might apply to the advancement of medical diagnostics in LMICs. We present arguments for the international community and existing organizations to establish a Global Alliance for Medical Diagnostics Initiative (GAMDI). Full article
Figures

Open AccessReview
Salivary Diagnostics—Point-of-Care diagnostics of MMP-8 in dentistry and medicine
Diagnostics 2017, 7(1), 7; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7010007 -
Abstract
Human saliva is an easily accessible biological fluid and contains a variety of disease-related biomarkers, which makes it a potential diagnostic medium. The clinical use of salivary/oral fluid biomarkers to identify oral and systemic conditions requires the development of non-invasive screening and diagnostic
[...] Read more.
Human saliva is an easily accessible biological fluid and contains a variety of disease-related biomarkers, which makes it a potential diagnostic medium. The clinical use of salivary/oral fluid biomarkers to identify oral and systemic conditions requires the development of non-invasive screening and diagnostic technologies, and is among the main goals of oral fluid researchers. The analysis of the disease-specific oral and systemic biomarkers in saliva and oral fluids (i.e., mouth-rinse, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and peri-implantitis sulcular fluid (PISF)) is demanding. Several factors influence their expression and release; these factors include the intracellular location, the molecular size and the flow characteristics of the biological fluid. The type of saliva/oral fluid utilized for the diagnostics affects the analysis. High sensitivity together with sophisticated methods and techniques are essential to get a useful outcome. We describe here a recently developed mouth-rinse that is practical, convenient and inexpensive, as well as PISF chair-side/point of care (PoC) lateral-flow active matrix metalloproteinase (aMMP-8) immunoassays to detect, predict and monitor the course and treatment of periodontitis and peri-implantitis. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
A Promising Future for Prostate Cancer Diagnostics
Diagnostics 2017, 7(1), 6; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7010006 -
Abstract
It has been estimated that globally there is a death attributable to prostate cancer every four minutes. As life expectancy in all world regions increases, so too incidence of this disease of the ageing male will increase. For many men diagnosis occurs after
[...] Read more.
It has been estimated that globally there is a death attributable to prostate cancer every four minutes. As life expectancy in all world regions increases, so too incidence of this disease of the ageing male will increase. For many men diagnosis occurs after presentation with symptoms of altered urinary dynamics. Unfortunately, these changes, whilst also associated with benign disease, are evident quite late in the aetiology of prostate cancer. Early detection provides for better management and prognosis. This Special Issue provides an up to date view of the advances made towards early diagnosis and prognosis. It provides reviews of advanced imaging techniques (e.g., multiparametric MRI and protocols), and of biomaterials and molecular biomarkers currently being explored (e.g., microRNAs, proteomics) and the technologies that are revolutionizing this field. It describes the multi-disciplinary approaches that are essential to inexpensive, deliverable and accurate platforms for prostate cancer diagnostics. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Air Embolism: Diagnosis, Clinical Management and Outcomes
Diagnostics 2017, 7(1), 5; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7010005 -
Abstract
Air embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of surgical procedures. Rapid recognition and intervention is critical for reducing morbidity and mortality. We retrospectively characterized our experience with air embolism during medical procedures at a tertiary medical center. Electronic medical records were
[...] Read more.
Air embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of surgical procedures. Rapid recognition and intervention is critical for reducing morbidity and mortality. We retrospectively characterized our experience with air embolism during medical procedures at a tertiary medical center. Electronic medical records were searched for all cases of air embolism over a 25-year period; relevant medical and imaging records were reviewed. Sixty-seven air embolism cases were identified; the mean age was 59 years (range, 3–89 years). Ninety-four percent occurred in-hospital, of which 77.8% were during an operation/invasive procedure. Vascular access-related procedures (33%) were the most commonly associated with air embolism. Clinical signs and symptoms were related to the location the air embolus; 36 cases to the right heart/pulmonary artery, 21 to the cerebrum, and 10 were attributed to patent foramen ovale (PFO). Twenty-one percent of patients underwent hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), 7.5% aspiration of the air, and 63% had no sequelae. Mortality rate was 21%; 69% died within 48 hours. Thirteen patients had immediate cardiac arrest where mortality rate was 53.8%, compared to 13.5% (p = 0.0035) in those without. Air emboli were mainly iatrogenic, primarily associated with endovascular procedures. High clinical suspicion and early treatment are critical for survival. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Diagnostics in 2016
Diagnostics 2017, 7(1), 4; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7010004 -
Abstract The editors of Diagnostics would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Implementation of Point-of-Care Diagnostics in Rural Primary Healthcare Clinics in South Africa: Perspectives of Key Stakeholders
Diagnostics 2017, 7(1), 3; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7010003 -
Abstract
Introduction: Key stakeholders’ involvement is crucial to the sustainability of quality point-of-care (POC) diagnostics services in low-and-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to explore key stakeholder perceptions on the implementation of POC diagnostics in rural primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in
[...] Read more.
Introduction: Key stakeholders’ involvement is crucial to the sustainability of quality point-of-care (POC) diagnostics services in low-and-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to explore key stakeholder perceptions on the implementation of POC diagnostics in rural primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in South Africa. Method: We conducted a qualitative study encompassing in-depth interviews with multiple key stakeholders of POC diagnostic services for rural and resource-limited PHC clinics. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim prior to thematic content analysis. Thematic content analysis was conducted using themes guided by the World Health Organisation (WHO) quality-ASSURED (Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User friendly, Rapid and to enable treatment at first visit and Robust, Equipment free and Delivered to those who need it) criteria for POC diagnostic services in resource-limited settings. Results: 11 key stakeholders participated in the study. All stakeholders perceived the main advantage of POC diagnostics as enabling access to healthcare for rural patients. Stakeholders perceived the current POC diagnostic services to have an ability to meet patients’ needs, but recommended further improvement of the following areas: research on cost-effectiveness; improved quality management systems; development of affordable POC diagnostic and clinic-based monitoring and evaluation. Conclusions: Key stakeholders of POC diagnostics in rural PHC clinics in South Africa highlighted the need to assess affordability and ensure quality assurance of current services before adopting new POC diagnostics and scaling up current POC diagnostics. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Diagnostics Strategies with Electrochemical Affinity Biosensors Using Carbon Nanomaterials as Electrode Modifiers
Diagnostics 2017, 7(1), 2; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7010002 -
Abstract
Early diagnosis is often the key to successful patient treatment and survival. The identification of various disease signaling biomarkers which reliably reflect normal and disease states in humans in biological fluids explain the burgeoning research field in developing new methodologies able to determine
[...] Read more.
Early diagnosis is often the key to successful patient treatment and survival. The identification of various disease signaling biomarkers which reliably reflect normal and disease states in humans in biological fluids explain the burgeoning research field in developing new methodologies able to determine the target biomarkers in complex biological samples with the required sensitivity and selectivity and in a simple and rapid way. The unique advantages offered by electrochemical sensors together with the availability of high affinity and specific bioreceptors and their great capabilities in terms of sensitivity and stability imparted by nanostructuring the electrode surface with different carbon nanomaterials have led to the development of new electrochemical biosensing strategies that have flourished as interesting alternatives to conventional methodologies for clinical diagnostics. This paper briefly reviews the advantages of using carbon nanostructures and their hybrid nanocomposites as electrode modifiers to construct efficient electrochemical sensing platforms for diagnosis. The review provides an updated overview of some selected examples involving attractive amplification and biosensing approaches which have been applied to the determination of relevant genetic and protein diagnostics biomarkers. Full article
Figures

Open AccessReview
Fatty Acids in Membranes as Homeostatic, Metabolic and Nutritional Biomarkers: Recent Advancements in Analytics and Diagnostics
Diagnostics 2017, 7(1), 1; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7010001 -
Abstract
Fatty acids, as structural components of membranes and inflammation/anti-inflammatory mediators, have well-known protective and regulatory effects. They are studied as biomarkers of pathological conditions, as well as saturated and unsaturated hydrophobic moieties in membrane phospholipids that contribute to homeostasis and physiological functions. Lifestyle,
[...] Read more.
Fatty acids, as structural components of membranes and inflammation/anti-inflammatory mediators, have well-known protective and regulatory effects. They are studied as biomarkers of pathological conditions, as well as saturated and unsaturated hydrophobic moieties in membrane phospholipids that contribute to homeostasis and physiological functions. Lifestyle, nutrition, metabolism and stress—with an excess of radical and oxidative processes—cause fatty acid changes that are examined in the human body using blood lipids. Fatty acid-based membrane lipidomics represents a powerful diagnostic tool for assessing the quantity and quality of fatty acid constituents and also for the follow-up of the membrane fatty acid remodeling that is associated with different physiological and pathological conditions. This review focuses on fatty acid biomarkers with two examples of recent lipidomic research and health applications: (i) monounsaturated fatty acids and the analytical challenge offered by hexadecenoic fatty acids (C16:1); and (ii) the cohort of 10 fatty acids in phospholipids of red blood cell membranes and its connections to metabolic and nutritional status in healthy and diseased subjects. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Oral Biofluid Biomarker Research: Current Status and Emerging Frontiers
Diagnostics 2016, 6(4), 45; doi:10.3390/diagnostics6040045 -
Abstract
Salivary diagnostics is a rapidly advancing field that offers clinicians and patients the potential of rapid, noninvasive diagnostics with excellent accuracy. In order for the complete realization of the potential of saliva, however, extensive profiling of constituents must be conducted and diagnostic biomarkers
[...] Read more.
Salivary diagnostics is a rapidly advancing field that offers clinicians and patients the potential of rapid, noninvasive diagnostics with excellent accuracy. In order for the complete realization of the potential of saliva, however, extensive profiling of constituents must be conducted and diagnostic biomarkers must be thoroughly validated. This article briefly overviews the process of conducting a study of salivary biomarkers in a patient cohort and highlights the studies that have been conducted on different classes of molecules in the saliva. Emerging frontiers in salivary diagnostics research that may significantly advance the field will also be highlighted. Full article
Figures

Open AccessReview
First- and Second-Line Targeted Systemic Therapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma—An Update on Patient Selection and Response Evaluation
Diagnostics 2016, 6(4), 44; doi:10.3390/diagnostics6040044 -
Abstract
Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with vascular invasion and/or extrahepatic spread and preserved liver function, according to stage C of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification, has a dismal prognosis. The multi-targeted tyrosine-kinase receptor inhibitor (TKI) sorafenib is the only proven active substance
[...] Read more.
Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with vascular invasion and/or extrahepatic spread and preserved liver function, according to stage C of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification, has a dismal prognosis. The multi-targeted tyrosine-kinase receptor inhibitor (TKI) sorafenib is the only proven active substance in systemic HCC therapy for first-line treatment. In this review, we summarize current aspects in patient selection and management of side effects, and provide an update on response evaluation during first-line sorafenib therapy. Since second-line treatment options have been improved with the successful completion of the RESORCE trial, demonstrating a survival benefit for second-line treatment with the TKI regorafenib, response monitoring during first-line therapy will be critical to deliver optimal systemic therapy in HCC. To this regard, specific side effects, in particular worsening of arterial hypertension and diarrhea, might suggest treatment response during first-line sorafenib therapy; however, clear predictive clinical markers, as well as laboratory test or serum markers, are not established. Assessment of radiologic response according to the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) is helpful to identify patients who do not benefit from sorafenib treatment. Full article
Open AccessReview
Gold Nanoparticles for Diagnostics: Advances towards Points of Care
Diagnostics 2016, 6(4), 43; doi:10.3390/diagnostics6040043 -
Abstract
The remarkable physicochemical properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have prompted developments in the exploration of biomolecular interactions with AuNP-containing systems, in particular for biomedical applications in diagnostics. These systems show great promise in improving sensitivity, ease of operation and portability. Despite this endeavor,
[...] Read more.
The remarkable physicochemical properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have prompted developments in the exploration of biomolecular interactions with AuNP-containing systems, in particular for biomedical applications in diagnostics. These systems show great promise in improving sensitivity, ease of operation and portability. Despite this endeavor, most platforms have yet to reach maturity and make their way into clinics or points of care (POC). Here, we present an overview of emerging and available molecular diagnostics using AuNPs for biomedical sensing that are currently being translated to the clinical setting. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Targeted Molecular Imaging in Adrenal Disease—An Emerging Role for Metomidate PET-CT
Diagnostics 2016, 6(4), 42; doi:10.3390/diagnostics6040042 -
Abstract
Adrenal lesions present a significant diagnostic burden for both radiologists and endocrinologists, especially with the increasing number of adrenal ‘incidentalomas’ detected on modern computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A key objective is the reliable distinction of benign disease from either
[...] Read more.
Adrenal lesions present a significant diagnostic burden for both radiologists and endocrinologists, especially with the increasing number of adrenal ‘incidentalomas’ detected on modern computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A key objective is the reliable distinction of benign disease from either primary adrenal malignancy (e.g., adrenocortical carcinoma or malignant forms of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PPGL)) or metastases (e.g., bronchial, renal). Benign lesions may still be associated with adverse sequelae through autonomous hormone hypersecretion (e.g., primary aldosteronism, Cushing’s syndrome, phaeochromocytoma). Here, identifying a causative lesion, or lateralising the disease to a single adrenal gland, is key to effective management, as unilateral adrenalectomy may offer the potential for curing conditions that are typically associated with significant excess morbidity and mortality. This review considers the evolving role of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in addressing the limitations of traditional cross-sectional imaging and adjunctive techniques, such as venous sampling, in the management of adrenal disorders. We review the development of targeted molecular imaging to the adrenocortical enzymes CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 with different radiolabeled metomidate compounds. Particular consideration is given to iodo-metomidate PET tracers for the diagnosis and management of adrenocortical carcinoma, and the increasingly recognized utility of 11C-metomidate PET-CT in primary aldosteronism. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle
Gingival Crevicular Fluid as a Novel Potential Source of Biomarkers Distinguishes Pubertal from Post-Pubertal Subjects
Diagnostics 2016, 6(4), 41; doi:10.3390/diagnostics6040041 -
Abstract
Detection of pubertal growth peak is vital in orthodontic treatment timing and planning. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) contains abundant proteins from different sources and has been proven to be an ideal source of biomarkers. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) is an
[...] Read more.
Detection of pubertal growth peak is vital in orthodontic treatment timing and planning. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) contains abundant proteins from different sources and has been proven to be an ideal source of biomarkers. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) is an advanced technique that can detect low-molecular-weight peptides with high sensitivity and resolution. The aim of this research was to identify novel candidate biomarkers in GCF to help the diagnosis of pubertal growth peak by MALDI-TOF/MS. Results showed that the peak intensities of six peptides were significantly different between two groups: 1660.2 Da, 1783.0 Da, 2912.5 Da, 4178.6 Da, 5064.9 Da, and 6108.9 Da and are considered to be potential candidate biomarkers to identify pubertal growth peak. Further studies are needed to identify sequence information of these candidate biomarkers. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Endogenous Intoxication and Saliva Lipid Peroxidation in Patients with Lung Cancer
Diagnostics 2016, 6(4), 39; doi:10.3390/diagnostics6040039 -
Abstract
This research was aimed at a search for regularities in changes to parameters of endogenous intoxication and saliva lipid peroxidation in patients with lung cancer, non-malignant lung diseases, and apparently healthy people. All patients went through saliva sampling at an amount of 1
[...] Read more.
This research was aimed at a search for regularities in changes to parameters of endogenous intoxication and saliva lipid peroxidation in patients with lung cancer, non-malignant lung diseases, and apparently healthy people. All patients went through saliva sampling at an amount of 1 mL. A concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured according to a reaction with thiobarbituric acid, and a level of middle molecules (MM) was measured with UV spectroscopy at 254 and 280 nm, while the content of lipid peroxidation products was measured according to a degree of heptane extract light absorption at wavelengths of 220, 232, 278, and 400 nm. It has been revealed that in the context of lung cancer, the level of diene conjugates decreases, increasing the level of triene conjugates, Schiff’s bases, and MM. As a tumor grows, there is a decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation primary products and an increase in endotoxemia phenomena. The process is more apparent when going from local to locally advanced disease states. The nature of the MDA change is nonlinearly associated with tumor progression. The findings might be used to optimize traditional aids of diagnostics, in disease state forecasting, in treatment monitoring, etc. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Exercise on Salivary Viscosity
Diagnostics 2016, 6(4), 40; doi:10.3390/diagnostics6040040 -
Abstract
A common experience after exercise is the presence of a thick and sticky saliva layer on the oral surfaces, which causes a feeling of a dry mouth. Since the salivary mucin MUC5B is responsible for the visco-elastic behavior of saliva, in the present
[...] Read more.
A common experience after exercise is the presence of a thick and sticky saliva layer on the oral surfaces, which causes a feeling of a dry mouth. Since the salivary mucin MUC5B is responsible for the visco-elastic behavior of saliva, in the present study we explored the effect of exercise on both the salivary viscosity and the secretion of MUC5B in saliva. Twenty healthy dental students performed an aerobic exercise by cycling for 15 min on cycle-ergometers at a heart rate of 130–140 beats per minute. Saliva was collected at three time points: before exercise, immediately after exercise and after 30 min recovery. Salivary flow rate, viscosity, amylase activity, total protein, carbohydrate and MUC5B concentration were determined. Salivary flow rate, protein and amylase did not change significantly. Immediately after exercise, the salivary viscosity and carbohydrate concentration were significantly higher than at baseline and after 30 min recovery. Immediately after exercise, the MUC5B concentration was significantly higher than after 30 min recovery. It is concluded that the presence of thick saliva after exercise is at least partially due to an increased secretion of MUC5B. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Limits of Cell Adhesion under Shear Stress within Physiological Conditions and beyond on a Chip
Diagnostics 2016, 6(4), 38; doi:10.3390/diagnostics6040038 -
Abstract
Cell adhesion processes are of ubiquitous importance for biomedical applications such as optimization of implant materials. Here, not only physiological conditions such as temperature or pH, but also topographical structures play crucial roles, as inflammatory reactions after surgery can diminish osseointegration. In this
[...] Read more.
Cell adhesion processes are of ubiquitous importance for biomedical applications such as optimization of implant materials. Here, not only physiological conditions such as temperature or pH, but also topographical structures play crucial roles, as inflammatory reactions after surgery can diminish osseointegration. In this study, we systematically investigate cell adhesion under static, dynamic and physiologically relevant conditions employing a lab-on-a-chip system. We screen adhesion of the bone osteosarcoma cell line SaOs-2 on a titanium implant material for pH and temperature values in the physiological range and beyond, to explore the limits of cell adhesion, e.g., for feverish and acidic conditions. A detailed study of different surface roughness Rq gives insight into the correlation between the cells’ abilities to adhere and withstand shear flow and the topography of the substrates, finding a local optimum at Rq = 22 nm. We use shear stress induced by acoustic streaming to determine a measure for the ability of cell adhesion under an external force for various conditions. We find an optimum of cell adhesion for T = 37 °C and pH = 7.4 with decreasing cell adhesion outside the physiological range, especially for high T and low pH. We find constant detachment rates in the physiological regime, but this behavior tends to collapse at the limits of 41 °C and pH 4. Full article
Figures

Open AccessReview
Fluid Biomarkers of Traumatic Brain Injury and Intended Context of Use
Diagnostics 2016, 6(4), 37; doi:10.3390/diagnostics6040037 -
Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability around the world. The lack of validated biomarkers for TBI is a major impediment to developing effective therapies and improving clinical practice, as well as stimulating much work in
[...] Read more.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability around the world. The lack of validated biomarkers for TBI is a major impediment to developing effective therapies and improving clinical practice, as well as stimulating much work in this area. In this review, we focus on different settings of TBI management where blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers could be utilized for predicting clinically-relevant consequences and guiding management decisions. Requirements that the biomarker must fulfill differ based on the intended context of use (CoU). Specifically, we focus on fluid biomarkers in order to: (1) identify patients who may require acute neuroimaging (cranial computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); (2) select patients at risk for secondary brain injury processes; (3) aid in counseling patients about their symptoms at discharge; (4) identify patients at risk for developing postconcussive syndrome (PCS), posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) or chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE); (5) predict outcomes with respect to poor or good recovery; (6) inform counseling as to return to work (RTW) or to play. Despite significant advances already made from biomarker-based studies of TBI, there is an immediate need for further large-scale studies focused on identifying and innovating sensitive and reliable TBI biomarkers. These studies should be designed with the intended CoU in mind. Full article
Open AccessReview
The Role of PET/CT Molecular Imaging in the Diagnosis of Recurrence and Surveillance of Patients Treated for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Diagnostics 2016, 6(4), 36; doi:10.3390/diagnostics6040036 -
Abstract
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide and its prognosis remains poor. Molecular imaging with 18F-FDG PET/CT can metabolically characterize the nature of lesions as benign or malignant, allowing a better staging at the diagnosis of
[...] Read more.
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide and its prognosis remains poor. Molecular imaging with 18F-FDG PET/CT can metabolically characterize the nature of lesions as benign or malignant, allowing a better staging at the diagnosis of this kind of patient. This advantage can also be applied in the re-staging due to the suspicion of recurrent disease. Many patients have a recurrence of the disease, including surgically treated patients. In the current context, with new personalized oncological treatments, the surveillance for recurrence and its accurate diagnosis are crucial to improve their survival. In this paper, we revise the current knowledge about the clinical and molecular factors related to the recurrent disease. In the context of new, promising, available personalized treatments, the role of molecular imaging with PET/CT and 18F-FDG and non-18F-FDG radiotracers in the follow-up of NSCLC-treated patients is especially attractive and interesting. Full article
Figures

Figure 1