Dent. J.2016, 4(3), 22; doi:10.3390/dj4030022 (registering DOI) - published 24 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This case report describes a 33-year-old female currently undergoing breast cancer treatment following the AC-T-T (doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel (Taxol) and trastuzumab (Herceptin)) treatment regimen. Her chief complaint at the time of the emergency visit at the dental office was that she had an episode of profuse spontaneous bleeding located at the palatal gingiva in the maxilla between the left central and lateral incisor. To our knowledge, this is a novel finding related to the medications she is utilizing and should be further investigated.
Dent. J.2016, 4(2), 21; doi:10.3390/dj4020021 - published 13 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Research has shown that tooth loss results in morphological changes in alveolar ridge that may influence the subsequent implant placement. Immediate implant placement was introduced as a possible means to limit bone resorption and reduce the number of surgical procedures following tooth extraction. Histological and clinical evidence from human clinical studies showing efficacy of immediate implants has come to light over the last decade or so. However, immediate implant placement is a challenging surgical procedure and requires proper case selection and surgical technique. Furthermore, there appears to be a lack of clinical guidelines for immediate implant placement case selection. Therefore, the aim of this mini-review is to analyze critical evidence from human studies in order to establish clinical guidelines which may help clinicians in case selection when considering immediate implant placement protocol.
Dent. J.2016, 4(2), 20; doi:10.3390/dj4020020 - published 8 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Early childhood caries (ECC) has negative psychosocial effects on children, with chronic pain, changed eating habits, disrupted sleep and altered growth very common, and it disrupts the day-to-day lives of their families. The treatment of young children with ECC places a considerable burden on health systems, with a considerable amount having to be provided under general anaesthesia (GA), which is resource-intensive. Justifying its use requires evidence of the efficacy of treatment in improving the lives of affected children and their families. This paper discusses the available evidence and then makes some suggestions for a research agenda.
Dent. J.2016, 4(2), 19; doi:10.3390/dj4020019 - published 6 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The year 2006 will be remembered monumentally in science, particularly in the stem cell biology field, for the first instance of generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from mouse embryonic/adult fibroblasts being reported by Takahashi and Yamanaka. A year later, human iPSCs (hiPSCs) were generated from adult human skin fibroblasts by using quartet of genes, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. This revolutionary technology won Yamanaka Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 2012. Like human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), iPSCs are pluripotent and have the capability for self-renewal. Moreover, complications of immune rejection for therapeutic applications would be greatly eliminated by generating iPSCs from individual patients. This has enabled their use for drug screening/discovery and disease modelling in vitro; and for immunotherapy and regenerative cellular therapies in vivo, paving paths for new therapeutics. Although this breakthrough technology has a huge potential, generation of these unusual cells is still slow, ineffectual, fraught with pitfalls, and unsafe for human use. In this review, I describe how iPSCs are being triumphantly used to lay foundation for a fully functional discipline of regenerative dentistry and medicine, alongside discussing the challenges of translating therapies into clinics. I also discuss their future implications in regenerative dentistry field.
Dent. J.2016, 4(2), 18; doi:10.3390/dj4020018 - published 2 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Various treatment approaches for restoring missing teeth are being utilized nowadays by using artificial dental crowns/bridges or the use of dental implants. All aforementioned restorative modalities are considered to be the conventional way of treating such cases. Although these artificial therapies are commonly used for tooth loss rehabilitation, they are still less conservative, show less biocompatibility and fail to restore the natural biological and physiological function. Adding to that, they are considered to be costly due to the risk of failure and they also require regular maintenance. Regenerative dentistry is currently considered a novel therapeutic concept with high potential for a complete recovery of the natural function and esthetics of teeth. Biological-cell based dental therapies would involve replacement of teeth by using stem cells that will ultimately grow a bioengineered tooth, thereby restoring both the biological and physiological functions of the natural tooth, and are considered to be the ultimate goal in regenerative dentistry. In this review, various stem cell-based therapeutic approaches for tooth organ bioengineering will be discussed.
Dent. J.2016, 4(2), 17; doi:10.3390/dj4020017 - published 31 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: To date there is no consensus on the role of diabetes in the development of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MR-ONJ). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of diabetes and pathological glucose metabolism in patients with MR-ONJ compared to the general population. All maxillofacial surgery inpatients in one year at our department were investigated regarding diagnosis, anamnesis, medication, and blood glucose readings. 1374 records were analyzed. 35 patients with MR-ONJ were identified. Diabetics accounted for 14.3%. No significant difference in the prevalence of known diabetes was found, except for pathological glucose metabolism in patients with MR-ONJ (p < 0.001). Diabetes does not necessarily promote the onset of MR-ONJ. Therefore, diabetes should not be considered as a standalone risk factor. On the contrary, hyperglycemia as a possible indicator for poorly managed or yet undetected diabetes is associated with MR-ONJ.