Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Surface Treatment Method Using Airborne-Particle Abrasion and Hydrofluoric Acid on the Shear Bond Strength of Resin Cement to Zirconia
Dent. J. 2017, 5(3), 23; doi:10.3390/dj5030023 -
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of two different resin cements (Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray Medical Inc, Okayama, Japan) and Variolink N (Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein)) to 112 zirconia specimens with airborne-particle abrasion and 20%,
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of two different resin cements (Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray Medical Inc, Okayama, Japan) and Variolink N (Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein)) to 112 zirconia specimens with airborne-particle abrasion and 20%, 30%, or 40% hydrofluoric acid (HF) for 1 or 2 h. A total of eight specimens were used to observe the phase transformation after surface treatments. Six specimens were treated only with HF etching and the average surface roughness (Ra) was analyzed. A one-way ANOVA test was applied for SBS and the effect of HF concentration on Ra. An independent t-test was performed for the comparison of Panavia F 2.0 and Variolink N, and the influence of the HF application time on Ra. A higher HF solution increased SBS and Ra. HF etching produced a lower rate of monoclinic phase transformation. Panavia F 2.0 showed a higher SBS than Variolink N. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Sulfur-Containing Primers for Noble Metals on the Bond Strength of Self-Cured Acrylic Resin
Dent. J. 2017, 5(2), 22; doi:10.3390/dj5020022 -
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of sulfur-containing primers for noble metals on the shear bond strength of self-cured acrylic resin after thermal cycling (TC). Four pure metals (Au, Ag, Cu, and Pd) and type IV Au alloy were either untreated, or treated with
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This study investigated the effect of sulfur-containing primers for noble metals on the shear bond strength of self-cured acrylic resin after thermal cycling (TC). Four pure metals (Au, Ag, Cu, and Pd) and type IV Au alloy were either untreated, or treated with one of the five sulfur-containing metal primers (V-Primer, Metaltite, Alloy Primer, Metal Link Primer, and Metal Primer Z). Afterwards, a brass ring was placed on the metal surface and filled with self-cured acrylic resin (n = 10). The bond strengths were measured after 24 h (TC0) and after 2000 thermal cycles at 4–60 °C (TC2000). Three-way ANOVA and Tukey compromise post hoc tests were used to analyze the data (α = 0.05). All of the sulfur-containing primers significantly improved the resin bond strength as compared to that of the non-primed group at TC0 regardless of the metal type (p < 0.05). However, at TC2000, the bond strengths between the resin and the five metals significantly decreased with respect to the values obtained at TC0 regardless of the primer (p < 0.05). The sulfur-containing metal primers, except for Metal Link Primer, were found to be more effective for improving the bond strength between the self-cured acrylic resin and Ag as compared to the other three pure metals (p < 0.05). The bond strengths between the resin and Au and type IV Au alloy at TC2000 were the highest ones when Metal Primer Z was used. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Dental Biofilm and Laboratory Microbial Culture Models for Cariology Research
Dent. J. 2017, 5(2), 21; doi:10.3390/dj5020021 -
Abstract
Dental caries form through a complex interaction over time among dental plaque, fermentable carbohydrate, and host factors (including teeth and saliva). As a key factor, dental plaque or biofilm substantially influence the characteristic of the carious lesions. Laboratory microbial culture models are often
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Dental caries form through a complex interaction over time among dental plaque, fermentable carbohydrate, and host factors (including teeth and saliva). As a key factor, dental plaque or biofilm substantially influence the characteristic of the carious lesions. Laboratory microbial culture models are often used because they provide a controllable and constant environment for cariology research. Moreover, they do not have ethical problems associated with clinical studies. The design of the microbial culture model varies from simple to sophisticated according to the purpose of the investigation. Each model is a compromise between the reality of the oral cavity and the simplification of the model. Researchers, however, can still obtain meaningful and useful results from the models they select. Laboratory microbial culture models can be categorized into a closed system and an open system. Models in the closed system have a finite supply of nutrients, and are also simple and cost-effective. Models in the open system enabled the supply of a fresh culture medium and the removal of metabolites and spent culture liquid simultaneously. They provide better regulation of the biofilm growth rate than the models in the closed system. This review paper gives an overview of the dental plaque biofilm and laboratory microbial culture models used for cariology research. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Review of the Common Models Used in Mechanistic Studies on Demineralization-Remineralization for Cariology Research
Dent. J. 2017, 5(2), 20; doi:10.3390/dj5020020 -
Abstract
Mechanistic studies on demineralization-remineralization play a critical role in investigating caries pathogenicity, testing effects of new caries prevention methods, and developing new caries-preventing products. Simulating the cariogenic challenges in the mouth, various demineralization-remineralization models have been used for cariology research. This review aimed
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Mechanistic studies on demineralization-remineralization play a critical role in investigating caries pathogenicity, testing effects of new caries prevention methods, and developing new caries-preventing products. Simulating the cariogenic challenges in the mouth, various demineralization-remineralization models have been used for cariology research. This review aimed to provide an overview of the common mechanistic studies on demineralization-remineralization for cariology research in recent literature. Most mechanistic studies were in vitro studies (n = 294, 84%) among the 350 cariology studies indexed in the Web of Science from 2014 to 2016. Among these in vitro studies, most studies (257/294, 87%) used chemical models that could be classified as simple mineralization models (159/257, 62%) or pH-cycling models (98/257, 38%). In vitro studies consumed less expense and time than in vivo studies. Furthermore, in vitro conditions were easier to control. However, they could hardly imitate the complex structures of oral cavities, the microbiological effect of oral biofilm, and the hydrodynamic instability of saliva. The advantages of chemical models included simplicity of the study, low cost, efficiency (time saving), reproducibility, and stability of experiments. However, the “caries” generated were not biological. Moreover, the chemical models were generally basic and could not mimic a carious lesion in the complex oral environment. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Dental Wear: Attrition, Erosion, and Abrasion—A Palaeo-Odontological Approach
Dent. J. 2017, 5(2), 19; doi:10.3390/dj5020019 -
Abstract
This paper reviews the surface ablation of early hominin teeth by attrition, abrasion, and erosive dental wear. The occurrence of these lesions is explored in a sample of South African fossil australopithecine dentitions revealing excessive wear. Interpretation of the nature of the dietary
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This paper reviews the surface ablation of early hominin teeth by attrition, abrasion, and erosive dental wear. The occurrence of these lesions is explored in a sample of South African fossil australopithecine dentitions revealing excessive wear. Interpretation of the nature of the dietary components causing such wear in the absence of carious erosion provides insight into the ecology of the Plio-pleistocene epoch (1–2 million years ago). Fossil teeth inform much of the living past by their retained evidence after death. Tooth wear is the ultimate forensic dental evidence of lives lived. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Preventive Agents (Mouthwashes/Gels) on the Color Stability of Dental Resin-Based Composite Materials
Dent. J. 2017, 5(2), 18; doi:10.3390/dj5020018 -
Abstract
The color of dental restorative material should be maintained throughout its functional lifetime in an oral environment. However, the frequent use of mouthwash may affect the color stability of these composite restorations. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of
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The color of dental restorative material should be maintained throughout its functional lifetime in an oral environment. However, the frequent use of mouthwash may affect the color stability of these composite restorations. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of using various mouthwashes on the color stability of various dental restorative composite materials. For this purpose, four mouthwashes/gels (Flocare gel (0.4% stannous fluoride), Pascal gel (topical APF fluoride), Pro-Relief mouthwash (sodium fluoride), and Plax Soin mouthwash (sodium fluoride)), and distilled water as a control, were selected. These were divided into five groups: Group 1: Flocare gel; Group 2: Pascal gel; Group 3: Pro-Relief mouthwash; Group 4: Plax Soin mouthwash; and Group 5: distilled water (control). Prepared restorative materials samples were immersed in the groups of mouthwashes/gels and the distilled water (control) for 24, 48, and 72 h. The discoloration that all materials exhibited with all immersion groups was significantly different at each of the three time periods for all groups (p < 0.05). Results from immersion in Flocare gel, Pascal gel, Pro-Relief mouthwash, and Plax Soin mouthwash were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The color change chroma was not significant for Pro-Relief and Plax Soin mouthwash (p > 0.05). Mouthwashes/gels affect color shifting for all composite resin materials, and changes are exaggerated over time. However, discoloration effects are not perceptible to the human eye. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Paediatric Over-the-Counter (OTC) Oral Liquids Can Soften and Erode Enamel
Dent. J. 2017, 5(2), 17; doi:10.3390/dj5020017 -
Abstract
This study investigated the softening and erosive effects of various paediatric over-the-counter (OTC) oral liquids on deciduous teeth. Twenty sectioned and polished deciduous enamel blocks were ground on the buccal surface (2 × 2 mm2) and randomly divided into five groups,
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This study investigated the softening and erosive effects of various paediatric over-the-counter (OTC) oral liquids on deciduous teeth. Twenty sectioned and polished deciduous enamel blocks were ground on the buccal surface (2 × 2 mm2) and randomly divided into five groups, immersed into four commercially-available paediatric OTC oral liquids (two for paracetamol, both sugared; and two for chlorpheniramine, one sugared and one sugar-free), with deionized water as control. The pH of the oral liquids ranged from 2.50 to 5.77. Each block was immersed into the test or control groups for 15 s, rinsed with deionized water, and Vickers micro-hardness (n = 5) was measured. After twenty cycles of immersion and hardness measurements, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) were used to evaluate the surface morphology and chemistry of the tooth blocks, respectively. The pH values of the liquids were also recorded. Rapidly descending trends in the micro-hardness ratios of the four test groups were observed that were statistically different from the control group (p < 0.001). EDS showed an increase of Ca/C ratio after drug immersion, whereas SEM showed an enamel loss in all the test groups. Paediatric OTC oral liquids could significantly soften the enamel and render them more susceptible to caries, such that the formulation of the oral liquids is the major factor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of a Postgraduate Learning Experience on the Confidence of General Dental Practitioners
Dent. J. 2017, 5(2), 16; doi:10.3390/dj5020016 -
Abstract
This study aimed to explore the relationship between participating in a learning experience and the ensuing changes in confidence. A self-selected group of General Dental Practitioners (GDPs) entered a five-year, part-time postgraduate master’s training programme in restorative dentistry. Confidence in communication with patients
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This study aimed to explore the relationship between participating in a learning experience and the ensuing changes in confidence. A self-selected group of General Dental Practitioners (GDPs) entered a five-year, part-time postgraduate master’s training programme in restorative dentistry. Confidence in communication with patients and technical skills were measured at the start of the programme by questionnaire and at the conclusion of the programme by questionnaire and personal interview. A total of 72 clinicians started the programme; 27% (n = 20) completed the master’s degree. Assessment of confidence revealed a spread from 4/10 to 10/10 for communication with patients and clinical skills in restorative dentistry before the programme started. A total of 15% (n = 11) volunteered for interview. Analysis of qualitative data revealed (i) a perceived increase in confidence from all clinicians; (ii) a perceived greater ability to treat patients; (iii) an increase in treatment options being offered to patients; (iv) a perceived increase in treatment uptake by patients; and (v) greater job opportunities. The study showed a positive relationship between the learning experience and the perceived increase in confidence of clinicians. The increase in confidence manifested itself in better communication and clinical skills. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Should Undergraduate Lectures be Compulsory? The Views of Dental and Medical Students from a UK University
Dent. J. 2017, 5(2), 15; doi:10.3390/dj5020015 -
Abstract
Formal lectures have been a traditional part of medical and dental education, but there is debate as to their compulsory status. This study was designed to explore dental and medical students’ views on compulsory lectures and the use of Video-Recorded Lectures (VRL). A
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Formal lectures have been a traditional part of medical and dental education, but there is debate as to their compulsory status. This study was designed to explore dental and medical students’ views on compulsory lectures and the use of Video-Recorded Lectures (VRL). A cross-sectional study of University of Bristol students in Years 2 to 4 was conducted using an online questionnaire. The majority of both dental (76%) and medical (66%) students felt lectures should be non-compulsory. The most common learning resources used by both dental and medical students were live lectures, lecture handouts and VRL. The majority of both dental (84%) and medical (88%) students used VRL. Most students attended lectures all of the time both before and after the introduction of VRL, even though most dental and medical students believe lectures should be non-compulsory. VRL is a popular learning resource. These findings tie-in with General Dental Council and General Medical Council recommendations that encourage self-directed learning. Dental and Medical schools should offer a range of learning resources and make use of current technology, including the use of VRL. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Analysis of Velopharyngeal Movement by Applying Principal Component Analysis to Range Images Produced by a Three-Dimensional Endoscope
Dent. J. 2017, 5(2), 14; doi:10.3390/dj5020014 -
Abstract
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop a new technique for analyzing velopharyngeal movement and to investigate its utility. Materials and Methods: Velopharyngeal motion of 20 normal individuals was analyzed. A three-dimensional (3D) endoscope was inserted into the oral cavity, and
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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop a new technique for analyzing velopharyngeal movement and to investigate its utility. Materials and Methods: Velopharyngeal motion of 20 normal individuals was analyzed. A three-dimensional (3D) endoscope was inserted into the oral cavity, and the movement of the soft palate was measured using an exclusive fixation device. Range images of the soft palate were produced during phonation of the Japanese vowel /a/, and virtual grids were then overlaid on these images. Principal component analyses were applied to the 3D coordinates of the intersections of the virtual grids. The centers of gravity of the virtual grids were calculated, and the magnitude of the shift of the grid intersections during phonation was calculated. Results: The first and the second principal component scores were responsible for the upper posterior direction and the upper direction, respectively. The average magnitude of the shift of the center of gravity was 4.75 mm in males and 4.33 mm in females. Conclusions: Quantitative analysis of velopharyngeal movement was achieved by a method of applying principal component analysis (PCA) to the range images obtained from a 3D endoscope. There was no sex difference in velopharyngeal movement. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ) in Osteoporosis Patients: Report of Delayed Diagnosis of a Multisite Case and Commentary about Risks Coming from a Restricted ONJ Definition
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 13; doi:10.3390/dj5010013 -
Abstract
Osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) in osteoporosis patients has been defined as rare, but the number of reported cases is increasing. We report a case of delayed ONJ diagnosis in a patient, who was being treated with alendronate, developing bone alterations both in
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Osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) in osteoporosis patients has been defined as rare, but the number of reported cases is increasing. We report a case of delayed ONJ diagnosis in a patient, who was being treated with alendronate, developing bone alterations both in maxilla and in mandible. Underestimation of ONJ incidence and missed or delayed ONJ diagnosis in osteoporosis patients might derive from lack of awareness of health providers as well as from an ONJ definition that is too restricted. The more recent definition of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) released in 2014 by the American Association of Oral Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) accept fistula, besides bone exposure, as a major sign of disease, but it seems to be insufficient since it excludes all cases of ONJ disease without bone exposure. A new MRONJ definition is needed to avoid missing or delayed diagnosis. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Human Gingival Crevicular Fluids (GCF) Proteomics: An Overview
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 12; doi:10.3390/dj5010012 -
Abstract
Like other fluids of the human body, a gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) contains proteins, a diverse population of cells, desquamated epithelial cells, and bacteria from adjacent plaque. Proteomic tools have revolutionized the characterization of proteins and peptides and the detection of early disease
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Like other fluids of the human body, a gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) contains proteins, a diverse population of cells, desquamated epithelial cells, and bacteria from adjacent plaque. Proteomic tools have revolutionized the characterization of proteins and peptides and the detection of early disease changes in the human body. Gingival crevicular fluids (GCFs) are a very specific oral cavity fluid that represents periodontal health. Due to their non-invasive sampling, they have attracted proteome research and are used as diagnostic fluids for periodontal diseases and drug analysis. The aim of this review is to explore the proteomic science of gingival crevicular fluids (GCFs), their physiology, and their role in disease detection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Association between Postgraduate Studies, Gender and Qualifying Dental School for Graduates Qualifying from UK Dental Schools between 2000 and 2009
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 11; doi:10.3390/dj5010011 -
Abstract
Various factors will influence a dental graduate’s decision to undertake postgraduate education and training, including encouragement from family, partners and staff at individual dental schools, although there is currently little information available regarding the number and distribution (by dental school) of recent dental
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Various factors will influence a dental graduate’s decision to undertake postgraduate education and training, including encouragement from family, partners and staff at individual dental schools, although there is currently little information available regarding the number and distribution (by dental school) of recent dental graduates undertaking postgraduate studies. The aim of this study was to analyse data on postgraduate qualifications achieved by dentists who graduated from UK dental schools between 2000 and 2009 and relate this to graduate gender. Data were collected from the General Dental Council (GDC) in an anonymous electronic format, analysed and ordered by year of graduation, dental school, gender and type of postgraduate qualification. Nearly one-quarter (24%) of the dentists that graduated between 2000 and 2004 completed postgraduate studies, with more females (26%) than males (23%) obtaining further postgraduate qualifications. Overall, Bristol produced the largest proportion of graduates completing postgraduate study (39%) and of these the largest proportion of female graduates (45%). Glasgow produced the largest proportion of male graduates completing postgraduate study (37%). Membership of the Faculty of Dental Surgery (MFDS), one of the Royal Colleges, was the most popular postgraduate qualification obtained followed by Membership of the Faculty of General Dental Practitioners UK (MFGDP). This study provides insight into postgraduate studies undertaken by UK dental graduates. An increasing proportion of females are gaining Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) qualifications and therefore the number of female dental graduates obtaining postgraduate qualifications is likely to increase further. This also suggests the male domination of the dental profession is likely to decrease. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Unexpected Hazards with Dental High Speed Drill
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 10; doi:10.3390/dj5010010 -
Abstract
An expected accident can happen at any time during a routine practice in the dental office due to the types of instruments used. One of the instruments used in routine dental practice is a high speed drill and a bur. If Personal Protective
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An expected accident can happen at any time during a routine practice in the dental office due to the types of instruments used. One of the instruments used in routine dental practice is a high speed drill and a bur. If Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is not practiced at any time in the dental office, very serious injuries could easily happen to the clinician, staff or to the patient. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modified Glass Ionomer Cement with “Remove on Demand” Properties: An In Vitro Study
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 9; doi:10.3390/dj5010009 -
Abstract
Objectives: To investigate the influence of different temperatures on the compressive strength of glass ionomer cement (GIC) modified by the addition of silica-coated wax capsules; Material and Methods: Commercially-available GIC was modified by adding 10% silica-coated wax capsules. Test blocks were fabricated from
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Objectives: To investigate the influence of different temperatures on the compressive strength of glass ionomer cement (GIC) modified by the addition of silica-coated wax capsules; Material and Methods: Commercially-available GIC was modified by adding 10% silica-coated wax capsules. Test blocks were fabricated from pure cement (control) and modified cement (test), and stored in distilled water (37 °C/23 h). The compressive strength was determined using a universal testing machine under different temperatures (37 °C, 50 °C, and 60 °C). The maximum load to failure was recorded for each group. Fractured surfaces of selected test blocks were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); Results: For the control group, the average compressive strength was 96.8 ± 11.8, 94.3 ± 5.7 and 72.5 ± 5.7 MPa for the temperatures 37 °C, 50 °C and 60 °C respectively. The test group reported compressive strength of 64.8 ± 5.4, 47.1 ± 5.4 and 33.4 ± 3.6 MPa at 37 °C, 50 °C and 60 °C, respectively. This represented a decrease of 28% in compressive strength with the increase in temperature from 37 °C to 50 °C and 45% from the 37 °C to the 60 °C group; Conclusion: GIC modified with 10% silica-coated wax capsules and temperature application show a distinct effect on the compressive strength of GIC. Considerable compressive strength reduction was detected if the temperature was above the melting temperature of the wax core. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Oral Health, Nutritional Choices, and Dental Fear and Anxiety
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 8; doi:10.3390/dj5010008 -
Abstract
Oral health is an integral part of overall health. Poor oral health can lead to an increased risk of chronic diseases including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some types of cancer. The etiology of these diseases could be linked to the individual’s inability
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Oral health is an integral part of overall health. Poor oral health can lead to an increased risk of chronic diseases including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some types of cancer. The etiology of these diseases could be linked to the individual’s inability to eat a healthy diet when their dentition is compromised. While periodontal or implant surgery may be necessary to reconstruct tissue around natural teeth or replace missing teeth, respectively, some individuals avoid such interventions because of their associated fear and anxiety. Thus, while the relationship between poor oral health, compromised nutritional choices and fear and anxiety regarding periodontal procedures is not entirely new, this review provides an up-to-date summary of literature addressing aspects of this complex relationship. This review also identifies potential strategies for clinicians to help their patients overcome their fear and anxiety associated with dental treatment, and allow them to seek the care they need. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Dentistry Journal in 2016
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 6; doi:10.3390/dj5010006 -
Abstract
The editors of Dentistry Journal would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Evaluation of the Accuracy of the Subtraction Method Used for Determining Platelet Counts in Advanced Platelet-Rich Fibrin and Concentrated Growth Factor Preparations
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 7; doi:10.3390/dj5010007 -
Abstract
Platelet concentrates should be quality-assured of purity and identity prior to clinical use. Unlike for the liquid form of platelet-rich plasma, platelet counts cannot be directly determined in solid fibrin clots and are instead calculated by subtracting the counts in other liquid or
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Platelet concentrates should be quality-assured of purity and identity prior to clinical use. Unlike for the liquid form of platelet-rich plasma, platelet counts cannot be directly determined in solid fibrin clots and are instead calculated by subtracting the counts in other liquid or semi-clotted fractions from those in whole blood samples. Having long suspected the validity of this method, we herein examined the possible loss of platelets in the preparation process. Blood samples collected from healthy male donors were immediately centrifuged for advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) and concentrated growth factors (CGF) according to recommended centrifugal protocols. Blood cells in liquid and semi-clotted fractions were directly counted. Platelets aggregated on clot surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy. A higher centrifugal force increased the numbers of platelets and platelet aggregates in the liquid red blood cell fraction and the semi-clotted red thrombus in the presence and absence of the anticoagulant, respectively. Nevertheless, the calculated platelet counts in A-PRF/CGF preparations were much higher than expected, rendering the currently accepted subtraction method inaccurate for determining platelet counts in fibrin clots. To ensure the quality of solid types of platelet concentrates chairside in a timely manner, a simple and accurate platelet-counting method should be developed immediately. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Quality of Coronal Filling with the Outcome of Endodontic Treatment: A Follow-up Study
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 5; doi:10.3390/dj5010005 -
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the quality of the coronal restoration and the root filling on the success of endodontic treatment. Patients treated at Kuwait University Dental Clinics (KUDC) from 2003 to 2014 were contacted by telephone
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The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the quality of the coronal restoration and the root filling on the success of endodontic treatment. Patients treated at Kuwait University Dental Clinics (KUDC) from 2003 to 2014 were contacted by telephone calls. Demographic data and clinical records of patients, including age, gender, the tooth number, and medical history were recorded. Each patient received clinical examination for all teeth, including assessment of the coronal filling (type, quality), root- and/or coronal fracture, and the periodontal condition around the tooth (e.g., probing depth, gingival recession); percussion and mobility tests. A periapical radiograph of the endodontic treated tooth was taken to determine the health of the periapical tissues using the periapical index. The quality of the root filling was assessed by length and density of the root filling. The mean follow-up period was 4.8 years. The overall success rate of endodontic treatment was 86%; teeth without any initial periapical lesion had a success of 93%, whereas those with such lesion had a success rate of 80%. Periapical healing was not significantly associated with either the length of root filling (p = 0.40) or the density of root filling (p = 0.099), but was statistically significantly associated with the presence of coronal filling defects (p = 0.001). This study demonstrated that inadequate coronal filling but not the quality of root filling was associated with a higher prevalence of periapical lesions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Prioritizing the Risk Factors of Severe Early Childhood Caries
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 4; doi:10.3390/dj5010004 -
Abstract
Severe early childhood caries remains the most common chronic disease affecting children. The multifactorial etiology of caries has established a controversy about which risk factors were more significant to its development. Therefore, our study aimed through meticulous statistical analysis to arrange the “well
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Severe early childhood caries remains the most common chronic disease affecting children. The multifactorial etiology of caries has established a controversy about which risk factors were more significant to its development. Therefore, our study aimed through meticulous statistical analysis to arrange the “well agreed upon” common risk factors in order of significance, to aid the clinician in tailoring an adequate preventive program. The study prioritized or reshuffled the risk factors contributing to severe early childhood caries and placed them in the order of their significance as follows: snacking of sugary food several times a day, increased number of siblings to three or more, night feeding, child self-employed brushing, mother’s caries experience, two siblings, on demand feeding, once/day sugary food, sharing utensils, one sibling, male gender, father’s education, late first dental visit, brushing time, mother’s education, no dental visit, decreased brushing frequency, and no night brushing. Full article
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