Dent. J.2014, 2(4), 118-133; doi:10.3390/dj2040118 - published 20 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This study aimed to assess whether birth weight is associated with dental caries during the teenage period. In this register-based cohort study, all children of 13 years of age (n = 18,142) who resided in the county of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2000, were included. The cohort was followed until individuals were 19 years of age. Information regarding dental caries was collected from the Public Health Care Administration in Stockholm. Data concerning prenatal and perinatal factors and parental socio-demographic determinants were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register and National Registers at Statistics Sweden. The final logistic regression model showed that birth weight ≥4000 g, adjusted for potential confounders, was significantly associated with caries increment (DMFT ≥ 1 (D = decayed, M = missing, F = filled, T = teeth)) between 13 and 19 age (OR, 1.22; 95% CI = 1.09–1.36). The relatively enhanced risk OR was further increased from 1.22 to 1.43 in subjects with birth weight ≥4600 g. On the contrary, subjects with birth weight <2500 g exhibited a significantly lower risk (OR, 0.67; 95% CI = 0.50–0.89) for exhibiting caries experience (DMFT ≥ 4) at 19 years of age. In conclusion, high birth weight can be regarded as a predictor for dental caries, and especially, birth weight ≥4500 g is a risk factor for caries increment during adolescence.
Dent. J.2014, 2(4), 106-117; doi:10.3390/dj2040106 - published 20 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The objective of this prospective clinical case series was to confirm the 5-year clinical and radiographic performance of titanium implants occlusally loaded after 12 weeks. Periapical X-rays for quantitative bone level assessment were taken immediately post-surgery, after loading, 6 and 12 months, and 5 years after loading. Pocket depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured. One-hundred and fourteen implants were inserted in 71 consecutive patients; 111 (97%) implants/69 (97%) patients were followed for 5 years. One implant was lost before loading (acute infection of unknown origin). Another patient developed peri-implantitis in the healing phase, and underwent successful surgical revision. Mesial median bone level at 6 and 12 months, and 5 years was 1.2 (SD ± 0.7), 1.3 (SD ± 0.7) and 1.1 (SD ± 0.6) mm; distal values were: 1.1 (SD ± 0.7), 1.4 (SD ± 0.7) and 1.2 (SD ± 0.6) mm; below implant shoulder. Stable CAL (1.2–1.6 mm) and PD (2.0–3.0 mm) were found. After 5 years no implant was lost. Three crowns and one abutment screw were defective and replaced. Implant survival (1 failure/114) as well as minimal peri-implant bone loss confirmed the favorable outcome of the used implant line. Five years post-loading, crestal bone stabilized slightly below the machined/rough border.
Dent. J.2014, 2(4), 98-105; doi:10.3390/dj2040098 - published 5 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This study examined edentulism (total absence of natural dentition) trends among adults’ users of public oral health care in Victoria, Australia and factors associated with these trends. The sample comprised 13,578 dental clients of public oral health care services, collected between July 2008 and June 2009, from which data were complete. The group of edentulous clients represented 6.8% of all clients. Older participants were more likely to be edentulous (OR = 3.95; 95% CI 3.53–4.43). By language spoken at home, those who spoke English were more likely to be edentulous than those who spoke other languages (OR = 1.29; 95% CI 1.02–1.63). Aboriginal clients were more likely to be edentulous than non-Aboriginal clients (OR = 2.21; 95% CI 1.15–4.27). By region of residence, clients living in rural locations were more likely to be edentulous than those living in urban regions (OR = 1.53; 95% CI 1.32–1.78). The full model explained 16.8% of the variance in being edentulous. Findings in edentulism were lower than what was reported by the National Survey of Adult Oral Health. However, despite this trend, significant variations existed across urban and rural locations. Innovative public health programs and services are essential to prevent inequalities in oral health diseases and conditions for rural populations.
Dent. J.2014, 2(3), 85-97; doi:10.3390/dj2030085 - published 21 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This study screened the available evidence for the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, a natural herbal resin bee product, against a selection of three bacterial species of relevance to oral diseases. For this purpose, papers dealing with laboratory studies assessing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) or the agar diffusion method to analyze the antimicrobial properties of propolis on three oral pathogens (S. mutans, P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum) and a yeast (C. albicans) are reviewed. Overall, a positive antimicrobial effect could be shown. However, when compared to the commonly used control substances (e.g., specific antibiotics, antiseptics and antifungals), propolis appeared less effective, depending on the bacterial strain, and required higher concentrations than the control substances, in order to show a measurable effect. Nevertheless, propolis as a natural herbal resin bee product can be considered as a natural antiseptic agent within the range of other herbal products, like sanguinarine. Therefore, it may be a valuable compound of non-synthetic, natural origin for patients seeking complementary agents and alternatives for “hard” chemicals.
Dent. J.2014, 2(3), 78-84; doi:10.3390/dj2030078 - published 21 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The aims of this study were to verify the occurrence of dental injuries in 343 amateur Turkish soccer players in İzmir and the level of knowledge of the teams’ soccer players about mouthguards. The soccer players were interviewed to determine the occurrence of dental trauma during soccer and mouthguard usage level. The data were analyzed with descriptive analysis to determine absolute and relative frequencies of answers for each one of the questions. Only 35 (10.2%) soccer players reported the occurrence of some type of dental injury during soccer practice. Regarding emergency conducts, approximately 84 players (24.48%) answered that replantation could be obtained after teeth avulsion, 23 players (27.38%) answered that successful replantation could be obtained within 2 hours immediately after injury, and 60.71% were not able to answer this question. Regarding mouthguard use, 61.8% of soccer players did not know about mouthguards. It was possible to conclude that dental injuries are common during amateur soccer practice and that there is a lack of information in the soccer players related to the emergency conducts and prevention of dental trauma.
Dent. J.2014, 2(2), 65-77; doi:10.3390/dj2020065 - published 28 May 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether dental hygienist students through peer-learning can increase their ability to conduct motivational interviewing (MI) compared with students who follow the regular curriculum. The aim was also to get an insight into the process of learning of MI. Materials and Methods: Ten dental hygienist students were randomly selected to either the intervention group (IG) or the control group (CG). Students in the IG performed two MI sessions, which were discussed in a peer group and with a tutor. Thereafter the students performed the third MI sessions, which was evaluated by “Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Code, Version 3.1”. The CG consisted of five students who followed the regular curriculum in the education and they conducted one MI session. A questionnaire was used to study how students reflected before and after these MI sessions. The analysis was performed by using descriptive statistics and for the comparison between groups the Mann-Whitney test was used. Results: The students in the IG used significantly more, simple and complex reflections (p < 0.05) compared to the CG. The IG gave also significantly less information during the counseling, and thereby asked more open-ended questions than the CG (p < 0.05). Both groups planned their MI sessions carefully by preparing questions before they met the patients. Conclusion: Dental hygienist students in the present study increased their skills in motivational interviewing by peer-learning from other students and from a tutor, compared to a control group.