Open AccessArticle
Failure Rate of Pediatric Dental Treatment under General Anesthesia
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030025 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Aim: To assess the failure rates of various pediatric dental treatments performed under general anesthesia (GA) after six months to five years of follow-up. Design: This multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed on patients treated by five pedodontists in two private hospitals located
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Aim: To assess the failure rates of various pediatric dental treatments performed under general anesthesia (GA) after six months to five years of follow-up. Design: This multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed on patients treated by five pedodontists in two private hospitals located in northern Iran during 2010–2013 and comprised 155 patients. The patients were recalled and clinically examined. During the clinical examination of the primary teeth, oral hygiene, dmft index, and failure of previous treatments was evaluated. The data were analyzed using the Chi square and regression analyses with a significance level of 0.05. Results: 114 patients (74 males and 40 females, mean age: 37.17 ± 10.75 months) with 1155 primary teeth treated under GA participated in the follow-up. The overall failure rate was 6.59%. The failure rates of pulpectomy, pulopotomy, fissure sealant, stainless steel crown (SSC), amalgam, and composite fillings were 2.90%, 3.03%, 4.83%, 5.26%, 5.33%, and 9.63%, respectively. Among the confounding factors, only gender had a significant effect on the anterior composite failure rate (p = 0.029) and age had a significant effect on the failure rate of fissure sealant therapy (p = 0.015) and SSC (p = 0.018). Conclusion: The overall rate of treatment failure in pediatric patients, treated under GA, was 6.59%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An In Vitro Study on the Effect of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Fluoride Solutions on Color Improvement of White Spot Lesions
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030024 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The ability of remineralizing agents to improve the color of white spot lesions (WSL) is an important aspect that should be investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 0.05% amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), 0.5% ACP, and 0.05% fluoride
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The ability of remineralizing agents to improve the color of white spot lesions (WSL) is an important aspect that should be investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 0.05% amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), 0.5% ACP, and 0.05% fluoride solutions, as well as artificial saliva on the color improvement of white spot lesions (WSLs). In this in vitro study, 50 human premolar teeth were randomly classified into five groups. At baseline, all the samples were assessed by using a colorimeter (E0). Then, white spot lesions were induced on the surface of the teeth by means of a pH-cycling model, and the colorimeter was used again (E1). Afterwards, samples of the 1st and 2nd groups were kept in 0.05% ACP and 0.5% ACP solutions for 1 min/day, respectively. The 3rd group specimens were placed in 0.05% fluoride solution for 1 min/day. The other two groups were kept in artificial saliva and distilled in water separately. All the samples were assessed by the colorimeter for a third time (E2). We found no significant difference between the groups in ∆E1. There was also no significant difference among 0.05% ACP solution, 0.5% ACP solution, 0.05% fluoride solution, and artificial saliva considering ∆E2. However, a significant difference was noted between the above-mentioned solutions and distilled water in ∆E2. With respect to ∆E3, there were considerable differences between ACP solution and artificial saliva. The same results were obtained for the difference between fluoride solution and artificial saliva. However, no significant difference was found among 0.05% ACP, 0.5% ACP, and 0.05% fluoride solutions in terms of ∆E3. In Conclusion, ACP is as effective as fluoride in the color improvement of WSLs and the recommended treatment for this purpose is daily use of 0.05% ACP, 0.5% ACP or 0.05% fluoride solutions. Full article
Open AccessReview
Flipping the Dental Anatomy Classroom
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030023 -
Abstract
The development of cognitive knowledge, motor skills, and artistic sense in order to restore lost tooth structure is fundamental for dental professionals. The course of dental anatomy is taught in the initial years of dental school, and is a component of the basic
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The development of cognitive knowledge, motor skills, and artistic sense in order to restore lost tooth structure is fundamental for dental professionals. The course of dental anatomy is taught in the initial years of dental school, and is a component of the basic core sciences program in the faculties of dentistry. The learning objectives of the dental anatomy course include identifying anatomical and morphological characteristics of human primary and permanent teeth; identifying and reproducing tooth surface details in order to recognize and diagnose anatomical changes; and developing student’s psychomotor skills for restoring teeth with proper form and function. The majority of dental schools rely on traditional methods to teach dental anatomy, using lectures to convey the theoretical component; whereas the practical component uses two-dimensional drawing of teeth, identification of anatomical features in samples of preserved teeth, and carving of teeth. The aim of the present literature review is to summarize different educational strategies proposed or implemented to challenge the traditional approaches of teaching dental anatomy, specifically the flipped classroom educational model. The goal is to promote this approach as a promising strategy to teaching dental anatomy, in order to foster active learning, critical thinking, and engagement among dental students. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Immediate Obturator Reconstruction after Radical Maxillary Resections on Speech and other Functions
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030022 -
Abstract
Objective: Maxillectomy often results in a high level of morbidity with significant psychological and functional implications for patients. The aims of the present study were to assess the effectiveness of the maxillary obturator as a speech rehabilitation aid, to examine the influence of
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Objective: Maxillectomy often results in a high level of morbidity with significant psychological and functional implications for patients. The aims of the present study were to assess the effectiveness of the maxillary obturator as a speech rehabilitation aid, to examine the influence of dentition on speech intelligibility, to restore patients’ regular daily activity as soon as possible, and to maintain patients’ psychological well-being throughout the treatment. Patients and Methods: Forty-one palatomaxillary immediate obturator and definitive reconstruction patient treatments were reviewed at a clinic (Ankara, Turkey). Patients aged between 20 and 73 years with surgically acquired partial maxillary defects were included in this study. All patients were rehabilitated with immediate and definitive obturators. The patients were given immediate surgical obturators which were adjusted to the defect area with a tissue conditioner. By employing this procedure and relining with the tissue conditioner weekly, immediate obturators were used in the interim stage of the treatment. As interim obturators, prostheses were used for two to three months until healing and resorption were found satisfactory, after which the definitive obturators were fabricated. Results: The speech intelligibility test (SIT) was employed for the evaluation of the speech ability. Significant improvements were found in the mean speech intelligibility test score (SITS), from 0.02% in patients without prosthetic obturation to 94.10% in patients with immediate obturation on the second day, 95.60% in patients with immediate obturation on the 20th day, and 95.97% in patients with definitive obturation. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperCase Report
The Rigid-Shield Technique: A New Contour and Clot Stabilizing Method for Ridge Preservation
Dent. J. 2018, 6(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6020021 -
Abstract
Tooth extraction causes vertical and horizontal alveolar bone loss and consequent remodeling. Several methods have been introduced in terms of so-called “ridge preservation” techniques, which mostly resemble guided bone regenerative (GBR) procedures using filler materials and membranes in order to stabilize the respective
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Tooth extraction causes vertical and horizontal alveolar bone loss and consequent remodeling. Several methods have been introduced in terms of so-called “ridge preservation” techniques, which mostly resemble guided bone regenerative (GBR) procedures using filler materials and membranes in order to stabilize the respective sites. This conceptual case report describes a novel approach using a degradable polylactic acid membrane covered with a collagen matrix, which aims to reshape the resorbed alveolar wall and thereby to stabilize the soft tissues during matrix formation and socket mineralization. Clinical re-entry, radiographic (CBCT) and histologic evaluation proved adequate for osteoneogenesis despite an unfavorable initial situation: An implant could be ideally placed, which was circumferentially covered by bone. This minimally invasive method could offer a new method to approach socket preservation without using filler materials and coverage of the socket entrance. However, more controlled research on this topic is needed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bacterial Colonization and Tissue Compatibility of Denture Base Resins
Dent. J. 2018, 6(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6020020 -
Abstract
Currently, there is minimal clinical data regarding biofilm composition on the surface of denture bases and the clinical tissue compatibility. Therefore, the aim of this experimental study was to compare the bacterial colonization and the tissue compatibility of a hypoallergenic polyamide with a
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Currently, there is minimal clinical data regarding biofilm composition on the surface of denture bases and the clinical tissue compatibility. Therefore, the aim of this experimental study was to compare the bacterial colonization and the tissue compatibility of a hypoallergenic polyamide with a frequently used PMMA resin tested intraorally in a randomized split-mouth design. Test specimens made of polyamide (n = 10) and PMMA (n = 10) were attached over a molar band appliance in oral cavity of 10 subjects. A cytological smear test was done from palatal mucosa at baseline and after four weeks. The monolayers were inspected for micronuclei. After four weeks in situ, the appliance was removed. The test specimens were immediately cultivated on non-selective and selective nutrient media. All growing colonies were identified using VITEK-MS. The anonymized results were analyzed descriptively. A total of 110 different bacterial species could be isolated, including putative pathogens. An average of 17.8 different bacterial species grew on the PMMA specimens, and 17.3 on the polyamide specimens. The highest number of different bacterial species was n = 24, found on a PMMA specimen. On the two specimens, a similar bacterial distribution was observed. Micronuclei, as a marker for genotoxic potential of dental materials, were not detected. This study indicates that the composition of bacterial biofilm developed on these resins after four weeks is not influenced by the type of resin itself. The two materials showed no cytological differences. This investigation suggests that polyamide and PMMA are suitable for clinical use as denture base material. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of NonSurgical Periodontal Therapy on Plasma Levels of IL-17 in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with Well Controlled Type-II Diabetes Mellitus—A Clinical Study
Dent. J. 2018, 6(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6020019 -
Abstract
For years the pathogenesis of periodontitis was under an immunological Th1/Th2 paradigm. Th1 cells are considered to afford protection against the intracellular pathogens. These cells produce the interferons (IFN) that are involved in macrophage activation, which, in turn, plays an important role in
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For years the pathogenesis of periodontitis was under an immunological Th1/Th2 paradigm. Th1 cells are considered to afford protection against the intracellular pathogens. These cells produce the interferons (IFN) that are involved in macrophage activation, which, in turn, plays an important role in phagocytosis, complement fixation, and opsonization. Th2 cells are thought to have evolved as a form of protection against parasitic helminthes. Th17 subset of CD4Not Necessary+ T cells was identified in the year 2005, which added greater complexity to Th function and are pro inflammatory in nature. Interleukins (ILs) have the ability to alter immunological changes and they also possess the ability to regulate lymphocyte differentiation and haemopoietic stem cells, cell proliferation, and motility, which are classified as pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory. There are numerous studies that reported IL-17 levels associated with chronic periodontitis (CP) development. Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered a risk factor for the development of periodontal diseases because the incidence, progression, and severity of periodontal diseases are more common with Type II DM than without DM. This study was aimed at evaluating whether non-surgical periodontal therapy had any effect on plasma concentrations of Interleukin-17 in systemically healthy chronic periodontitis patients and in chronic periodontitis patients with well controlled Type II Diabetes mellitus. Patients were divided into the two groups including the chronic periodontitis group (20 subjects) and the chronic periodontitis with well-controlled Type II Diabetes mellitus group (20 subjects). The Gingival Index and Plaque Index as well as the clinical Attachment Level (CAL) were taken from all the patients of two groups after evaluating fasting blood sugar, post prandial blood sugar, and the Glycated Hemoglobin Level (HbA1c). Then 5 mL blood samples were collected from each patient and plasma was separated and the IL-17 level is evaluated using the ELISA method. Then, as part of phase I periodontal therapy, scaling and root planning was performed. Patients were recalled after one month and clinical and biochemical parameters were reevaluated. Non-surgical periodontal therapy resulted in a reduction of plasma levels of IL-17 in chronic periodontitis patients with and without well controlled Type II Diabetes mellitus. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Pit and Fissure Sealants—A Comprehensive Review
Dent. J. 2018, 6(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6020018 -
Abstract
Even in the 21st century, dental caries is considered a global burden, severely upsetting the health and quality of life of those affected. Apart from the usage of fluoride and regular oral hygiene, one of the most important prophylactic approaches against the occurrence
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Even in the 21st century, dental caries is considered a global burden, severely upsetting the health and quality of life of those affected. Apart from the usage of fluoride and regular oral hygiene, one of the most important prophylactic approaches against the occurrence of caries is the sealing of pits and fissures. However, the rapid progress of new materials and applications for sealing pits and fissures also raises new questions about their correct application. Recent literature on pit and fissure sealing, caries prevention, as well as caries risk assessment for both children and adults was reviewed. This report provides a general overview of pit and fissure sealing, the materials used for sealing occlusal surfaces, as well as indications and possible side effects. The conclusions are that sealing pit and fissures of primary and permanent teeth is an effective method for preventing and arresting caries. However, regular checkups must be conducted to avoid advanced tooth decay attributable to leakages in the sealing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Household Income and Children’s Unmet Dental Care Need; Blacks’ Diminished Return
Dent. J. 2018, 6(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6020017 -
Abstract
Background: Minorities’ Diminished Return theory is defined as the relative disadvantage of minority populations compared to Whites regarding health gains that follow socioeconomic status (SES). To test whether Minorities’ Diminished Return theory holds for unmet dental care needs (DCN), we investigated Black-White differences
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Background: Minorities’ Diminished Return theory is defined as the relative disadvantage of minority populations compared to Whites regarding health gains that follow socioeconomic status (SES). To test whether Minorities’ Diminished Return theory holds for unmet dental care needs (DCN), we investigated Black-White differences in the effects of family income on unmet DCN among children. Methods: Data from the National Survey of Children’s Health were used. Participants were either White or Black children age 1 to 18. Family income-to-needs ratio was the independent variable. Unmet DCN was the dependent variable. Covariates included age, gender, and parental educational attainment. Race was the focal moderator. We ran logistic regression for data analysis. Results: Higher income-to-needs ratio was associated with lower risk of unmet DCN in the pooled sample. We found an interaction between race and family income-to-needs ratio on unmet DCN, suggesting a stronger protective effect for Whites than Blacks. Conclusion: Minorities’ Diminished Return also holds for the effects of family income-to-needs ratio on unmet DCN. The relative disadvantage of Blacks compared to Whites in gaining oral health from their SES may reflect structural racism that systemically hinders Black families. There is a need for additional research on specific societal barriers that bound Blacks’ oral health gain from their SES resources such as income. Policies and programs should also help Black families to leverage their SES resources. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Female Facial Attractiveness Assessed from Three-Dimensional Contour Lines by University Students
Dent. J. 2018, 6(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6020016 -
Abstract
Background: Three-dimensional (3D) images could provide more accurate evaluation for facial attractiveness than two-dimensional (2D) images. The 3D facial image could be simplified into gray scale 3D contour lines. Whether female facial attractiveness could be perceived in these simplified 3D facial contour lines
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Background: Three-dimensional (3D) images could provide more accurate evaluation for facial attractiveness than two-dimensional (2D) images. The 3D facial image could be simplified into gray scale 3D contour lines. Whether female facial attractiveness could be perceived in these simplified 3D facial contour lines should be determined. Methods: A series of 100 2D photographs (one frontal and two lateral views) and 3D contour lines extracted from 3D facial images of females were projected onto a screen. Each image presentation lasted 5 s, and the evaluators marked their impression of each image’s facial attractiveness on a five-point Likert scale within 3 s of its presentation. The evaluation of the 3D contour lines was performed twice, 2 weeks apart. The evaluators were university students. Results: High consistency (r = 0.92) was found for the first and second evaluation of 3D facial contour lines for female facial attractiveness. The judgments of unattractive face were more consistent than the judgments of attractive face. Male students tended to give lower scores than female students in the evaluation of female facial attractiveness. Conclusions: Female facial attractiveness could be evaluated by 3D facial contour lines. 3D facial contour lines should be one of the key factors of facial attractiveness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Oral and Dental Health Status among Adolescents with Limited Access to Dental Care Services in Jeddah
Dent. J. 2018, 6(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6020015 -
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries and periodontal diseases among 14–19-year-old schoolchildren with limited access to dental care services. A cross sectional study design was conducted during field visits to seven governmental schools
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The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries and periodontal diseases among 14–19-year-old schoolchildren with limited access to dental care services. A cross sectional study design was conducted during field visits to seven governmental schools in Al-Khomrah district, South Jeddah, over the period from September 2015 to May 2016. Clinical examinations and administered questionnaires were carried out in mobile dental clinics. The dentists carried out oral examinations using the dental caries index (DMFT), the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), and the community periodontal index for treatment needs (CPITN). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 20. A total of 734 schoolchildren were examined. The prevalence of decayed teeth was 79.7% and was significantly higher among boys (88.9%) than girls (69.0%). About 11% of students had missing teeth, with a significantly higher figure among females than males (15.9% versus 7.3%); 19.8% of students had filled teeth. Moreover, a DMFT of seven or more was significantly more prevalent among males (43.3%) than females (26.8%), while the percentage of females with sound teeth was significantly higher than for males (20.4% and 9.6% respectively). The CPITN revealed 0, 1 and 2 scores among 14.6%, 78.2%, and 41.6% respectively. Males had a significantly higher percentage of healthy periodontal condition (23.8%) than females (3.8%). Dental caries prevalence was moderate to high, calculus and gingival bleeding were widespread among schoolchildren, and were more prevalent among students with low socioeconomic status. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Endodontic Microbiology—A Special Issue of Dentistry Journal
Dent. J. 2018, 6(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6020014 -
Abstract
Understanding microbiology, specifically biofilm biology is an essential component of creating targeted therapeutic modalities that are effective and efficient.[...] Full article
Open AccessCase Report
Treating Mucocele in Pediatric Patients Using a Diode Laser: Three Case Reports
Dent. J. 2018, 6(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6020013 -
Abstract
A mucocele is the most common minor salivary gland disease and among the most common biopsied oral lesions in pediatric patients. Clinically, a mucocele appears as a round well-circumscribed painless swelling ranging from deep blue to mucosa alike in color. Mucoceles rarely resolve
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A mucocele is the most common minor salivary gland disease and among the most common biopsied oral lesions in pediatric patients. Clinically, a mucocele appears as a round well-circumscribed painless swelling ranging from deep blue to mucosa alike in color. Mucoceles rarely resolve on their own and surgical removal under local anesthesia is required in most cases. Different treatment options are described in the literature, including cryosurgery, intra-lesion injection of corticosteroid, micro-marsupialization and conventional surgical removal using a scalpel, and laser ablation. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to report three cases of mucocele removal in pediatric patients using a diode laser with a one-month follow-up. Mucoceles were removed by a pediatric dentist using a diode laser with a wavelength of 930 nm in continuous mode and a power setting of 1.8 Watts. In all cases, no bleeding occurred during or after the procedure and there was no need for suturing. On clinical examination during the one-month follow-up, in all three cases there was minimal or no scarring, minimal post-operative discomfort or pain, and no recurrence. Diode lasers provide an effective, rapid, simple, bloodless and well accepted procedure for treating mucocele in pediatric patients. Minimal post-operative discomfort and scarring was reported by all the three patients. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Use of Tooth Particles as a Biomaterial in Post-Extraction Sockets. Experimental Study in Dogs
Dent. J. 2018, 6(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6020012 -
Abstract
Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate new bone formation derived from freshly crushed extracted teeth, grafted immediately in post-extraction sites in an animal model, compared with sites without graft filling, evaluated at 30 and 90 days. Material and Methods
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Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate new bone formation derived from freshly crushed extracted teeth, grafted immediately in post-extraction sites in an animal model, compared with sites without graft filling, evaluated at 30 and 90 days. Material and Methods: The bilateral premolars P2, P3, P4 and the first mandibular molar were extracted atraumatically from six Beagle dogs. The clean, dry teeth were ground immediately using the Smart Dentin Grinder. The tooth particles obtained were subsequently sieved through a special sorting filter into two compartments; the upper container isolating particles over 1200 μm, the lower container isolated particles over 300 μm. The crushed teeth were grafted into the post-extraction sockets at P3, P4 and M1 (test group) (larger and smaller post-extraction alveoli), while P2 sites were left unfilled and acted as a control group. Tissue healing and bone formation were evaluated by histological and histomorphometric analysis after 30 and 90 days. Results: At 30 days, test site bone formation was greater in the test group than the control group (p < 0.05); less immature bone was observed in the test group (25.71%) than the control group (55.98%). At 90 days, significant differences in bone formation were found with more in the test group than the control group. No significant differences were found in new bone formation when comparing the small and large alveoli post-extraction sites. Conclusions: Tooth particles extracted from dog’s teeth, grafted immediately after extractions can be considered a suitable biomaterial for socket preservation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Oral Health; Diminished Return among Hispanic Whites
Dent. J. 2018, 6(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6020011 -
Abstract
Background. An extensive body of knowledge has documented weaker health effects of socio-economic status (SES) for Blacks compared to Whites, a phenomenon also known as Blacks’ diminished return. It is, however, unknown whether the same diminished return also holds for other ethnic minorities
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Background. An extensive body of knowledge has documented weaker health effects of socio-economic status (SES) for Blacks compared to Whites, a phenomenon also known as Blacks’ diminished return. It is, however, unknown whether the same diminished return also holds for other ethnic minorities such as Hispanics or not. Aim. Using a nationally representative sample, the current study aimed to compare Non-Hispanic and Hispanic Whites for the effects of SES on self-rated oral health. Methods. For the current cross-sectional study, we used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001–2003. With a nationally representative sampling, CPES included 11,207 adults who were either non-Hispanic Whites (n = 7587) or Hispanic Whites (n = 3620. The dependent variable was self-rated oral health, treated as dichotomous measure. Independent variables were education, income, employment, and marital status. Ethnicity was the focal moderator. Age and gender were covariates. Logistic regressions were used for data analysis. Results. Education, income, employment, and marital status were associated with oral health in the pooled sample. Although education, income, employment, and marital status were associated with oral health in non-Hispanic Whites, none of these associations were found for Hispanic Whites. Conclusion. In a similar pattern to Blacks’ diminished return, differential gain of SES indicators exists between Hispanic and non-Hispanic Whites, with a disadvantage for Hispanic Whites. Diminished return of SES should be regarded as a systemically neglected contributing mechanism behind ethnic oral health disparities in the United States. Replication of Blacks’ diminished return for Hispanics suggests that these processes are not specific to ethnic minority groups, and non-White groups gain less because they are not enjoying the privilege and advantage of Whites. Full article
Open AccessReview
Oral Dysbiotic Communities and Their Implications in Systemic Diseases
Dent. J. 2018, 6(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6020010 -
Abstract
The human body supports the growth of a wide array of microbial communities in various niches such as the oral cavity, gastro-intestinal and urogenital tracts, and on the surface of the skin. These host associated microbial communities include yet-un-cultivable bacteria and are influenced
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The human body supports the growth of a wide array of microbial communities in various niches such as the oral cavity, gastro-intestinal and urogenital tracts, and on the surface of the skin. These host associated microbial communities include yet-un-cultivable bacteria and are influenced by various factors. Together, these communities of bacteria are referred to as the human microbiome. Human oral microbiome consists of both symbionts and pathobionts. Deviation from symbiosis among the bacterial community leads to “dysbiosis”, a state of community disturbance. Dysbiosis occurs due to many confounding factors that predispose a shift in the composition and relative abundance of microbial communities. Dysbiotic communities have been a major cause for many microbiome related systemic infections. Such dysbiosis is directed by certain important pathogens called the “keystone pathogens”, which can modulate community microbiome variations. One such persistent infection is oral infection, mainly periodontitis, where a wide array of causal organisms have been implied to systemic infections such as cardio vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer’s disease. The keystone pathogens co-occur with many yet-cultivable bacteria and their interactions lead to dysbiosis. This has been the focus of recent research. While immune evasion is one of the major modes that leads to dysbiosis, new processes and new virulence factors of bacteria have been shown to be involved in this important process that determines a disease or health state. This review focuses on such dysbiotic communities, their interactions, and their virulence factors that predispose the host to other systemic implications. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
The Strange Case of Peri-Implantology
Dent. J. 2018, 6(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6020009 -
Open AccessArticle
Laboratory Investigation Comparing Plaque Removal Efficacy of Two Novel-Design Toothbrushes with Different Brushing Techniques
Dent. J. 2018, 6(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6020008 -
Abstract
Manufacturers of manual toothbrushes have improved novel brush head designs aimed at achieving good plaque removal even with inadequate brushing technique. This study tested the plaque removal efficacy of two novel designs compared with a flat trimmed toothbrush with different brushing techniques. Two
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Manufacturers of manual toothbrushes have improved novel brush head designs aimed at achieving good plaque removal even with inadequate brushing technique. This study tested the plaque removal efficacy of two novel designs compared with a flat trimmed toothbrush with different brushing techniques. Two novel-design toothbrushes (Colgate® 360° Surround and Oral-B® Pro-Health™ Clinical Pro-Flex) were tested. The control toothbrush was Butler® GUM 311. Artificial plaque was applied on artificial teeth. Brushing with the modified Bass and horizontal scrub technique was then performed independently. After brushing, the remaining plaque index and Proximal Marginal Index (PMI) were evaluated. With the same brushing technique, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean of the whole mouth plaque scores or PMI among the three different toothbrush designs with neither brushing techniques (p > 0.05). When a comparison was made between the mean PMI of the two brushing techniques in each toothbrush design, Colgate® showed no statistically significant difference with either brushing technique (p > 0.05), but Butler® and Oral-B® showed statistically significantly less PMI with modified Bass technique than with horizontal scrub technique (p < 0.05). No difference in the whole mouth plaque removal efficacy was found among the three different toothbrush designs with either brushing technique. Full article
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Open AccessProject Report
The Use of Picture Cards to Elicit Postgraduate Dental Student Feedback
Dent. J. 2018, 6(2), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6020007 -
Abstract
The aim of this study was to elicit information about the use of picture cards to stimulate student feedback following a postgraduate dental course. Twenty-nine general dental practitioners (GDPs) volunteered for the study. Following an explanation of how this style of feedback worked,
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The aim of this study was to elicit information about the use of picture cards to stimulate student feedback following a postgraduate dental course. Twenty-nine general dental practitioners (GDPs) volunteered for the study. Following an explanation of how this style of feedback worked, students were asked to choose a picture card from those available and use that image to stimulate their feedback. An independent interviewer introduced the topic and gathered comments in the form of qualitative data, generated by pre-formed questions. 93% (n = 26) questionnaires were completed and returned. 77% (n = 20) GDPs reported enjoying giving their feedback by ‘picture card’ technique; 83% (n = 20) reported this form of feedback stimulated their thoughts. Qualitative data were analysed thematically. Some GDPs felt the picture cards helped them formulate their feedback, others felt being able to give feedback to a third party they did not know was beneficial and giving feedback as a group was helpful. This novel approach of using picture cards to stimulate feedback was well received by these GDPs. A mixed result as to the value of this style of feedback was evident. A group feedback session facilitated by a stranger was considered to be a valuable approach to take. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Violet-Blue Light on Streptococcus mutans-Induced Enamel Demineralization
Dent. J. 2018, 6(2), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6020006 -
Abstract
Background: This in vitro study determined the effectiveness of violet-blue light (405 nm) on inhibiting Streptococcus mutans-induced enamel demineralization. Materials and Methods: S. mutans UA159 biofilm was grown on human enamel specimens for 13 h in 5% CO2 at 37 °C
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Background: This in vitro study determined the effectiveness of violet-blue light (405 nm) on inhibiting Streptococcus mutans-induced enamel demineralization. Materials and Methods: S. mutans UA159 biofilm was grown on human enamel specimens for 13 h in 5% CO2 at 37 °C with/without 1% sucrose. Wet biofilm was treated twice daily with violet-blue light for five minutes over five days. A six-hour reincubation was included daily between treatments excluding the final day. Biofilms were harvested and colony forming units (CFU) were quantitated. Lesion depth (L) and mineral loss (∆Z) were quantified using transverse microradiography (TMR). Quantitative light-induced fluorescence Biluminator (QLF-D) was used to determine mean fluorescence loss. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare differences in means. Results: The results demonstrated a significant reduction in CFUs between treated and non-treated groups grown with/without 1% sucrose. ∆Z was significantly reduced for specimens exposed to biofilms grown without sucrose with violet-blue light. There was only a trend on reduction of ∆Z with sucrose and with L on both groups. There were no differences in fluorescence-derived parameters between the groups. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the study, the results indicate that violet-blue light can serve as an adjunct prophylactic treatment for reducing S. mutans biofilm formation and enamel mineral loss. Full article
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