Open AccessArticle
Nanoclay-Reinforced Glass-Ionomer Cements: In Vitro Wear Evaluation and Comparison by Two Wear-Test Methods
Dent. J. 2017, 5(4), 28; doi:10.3390/dj5040028 -
Abstract
Glass ionomer cement (GIC) represents a major transformation in restorative dentistry. Wear of dental restoratives is a common phenomenon and the determination of the wear resistance of direct-restorative materials is a challenging task. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the wear
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Glass ionomer cement (GIC) represents a major transformation in restorative dentistry. Wear of dental restoratives is a common phenomenon and the determination of the wear resistance of direct-restorative materials is a challenging task. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the wear resistance of novel glass ionomer cement by two wear-test methods and to compare the two wear methods.The wear resistance of a conventional glass ionomer cement (HiFi Advanced Health Care Kent, UK) and cements modified by including various percentages of nanoclays (1, 2 and 4 wt %) was measured by a reciprocating wear test (ball-on-flat) and Oregon Health and Sciences University’s (OHSU) wear simulator. The OHSU wear simulation subjected the cement specimens to three wear mechanisms, namely abrasion, three-body abrasion and attrition using a steatite antagonist. The abrasion wear resulted in material loss from GIC specimen as the steatite antagonist forced through the exposed glass particles when it travelled along the sliding path.The hardness of specimens was measured by the Vickers hardness test. The results of reciprocation wear test showed that HiFi-1 resulted in the lowest wear volume 4.90 (0.60) mm3 (p < 0.05), but there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the wear volume in comparison to HiFi, HiFi-2 and HiFi-4. Similarly, the results of OHSU wear simulator showed that the total wear volume of HiFi-4 1.49 (0.24) was higher than HiFi-1 and HiFi-2. However, no significant difference (p > 0.05) was found in the OHSU total wear volume in GICs after nanoclay incorporation. The Vickers hardness (HV) of the nanoclay-reinforced cements was measured between 62 and 89 HV. Nanoclay addition at a higher concentration (4%) resulted in higher wear volume and wear depth. The total wear volumes were less dependent upon abrasion volume and attrition volume. The total wear depths were strongly influenced by attrition depth and to some extent by abrasion depth. The addition of nanoclay in higher wt % to HiFi did not result in significant improvement in wear resistance and hardness. Nonetheless, wear is a very complex phenomenon because it is sensitive to a wide number of factors that do not necessarily act in the same way when compared using different parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dentin Erosion: Method Validation and Efficacy of Fluoride Protection
Dent. J. 2017, 5(4), 27; doi:10.3390/dj5040027 -
Abstract
The aging population experiences more gingival recession and root exposure which increases the opportunity for dentin erosion. This study tested the use of transverse microradiography (TMR) methods to assess dentin erosion and the interaction between fluoride and citric acid on the amount of
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The aging population experiences more gingival recession and root exposure which increases the opportunity for dentin erosion. This study tested the use of transverse microradiography (TMR) methods to assess dentin erosion and the interaction between fluoride and citric acid on the amount of erosion in the dentin samples. In a 4 × 3 interaction experimental design, four fluoride concentrations (0.00, 25.0, 50.0, and 100.0 mg/L) and three citric acid concentrations (0.0, 0.25, and 1.00%) were combined to form 12 experimental solutions. Forty-eight dentin samples were placed in the experimental solutions for 1 and 4 h and the amount of surface lost was determined by TMR methods. The resolution of the TMR method was 0.9 μm per pixel with a 0.1% and a 5% confidence interval of ±4.2 μm. Dentin erosion increased with the concentration of citric acid and time, the erosion decreased when concentration of fluoride was increased. Effects due to fluoride and citric acid concentrations individually, and their interaction on the amount of erosion observed was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). This study found that TMR methods are appropriate and that 25.0 mg/L was the optimal fluoride concentration to protect dentin from a 1.00% citric acid challenge. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Probiotics: A Promising Role in Dental Health
Dent. J. 2017, 5(4), 26; doi:10.3390/dj5040026 -
Abstract
Probiotics have a role in maintaining oral health through interaction with oral microbiome, thus contributing to healthy microbial equilibrium. The nature and composition of any individual microbiome impacts the general health, being a major contributor to oral health. The emergence of drug resistance
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Probiotics have a role in maintaining oral health through interaction with oral microbiome, thus contributing to healthy microbial equilibrium. The nature and composition of any individual microbiome impacts the general health, being a major contributor to oral health. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of available antimicrobials have restricted their use in an array of prophylactic options. Indeed, some new strategies to prevent oral diseases are based on manipulating oral microbiota, which is provided by probiotics. Currently, no sufficient substantial evidence exists to support the use of probiotics to prevent, treat or manage oral cavity diseases. At present, probiotic use did not cause adverse effects or increased risks of caries or periodontal diseases. This implicates no strong evidence against treatment using probiotics. In this review, we try to explore the use of probiotics in prevention, treatment and management of some oral cavity diseases and the possibilities of developing designer probiotics for the next generation of oral and throat complimentary healthcare. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Weight Status and Dental Problems in Early Childhood: Classification Tree Analysis of a National Cohort
Dent. J. 2017, 5(3), 25; doi:10.3390/dj5030025 -
Abstract
A poor quality diet may be a common risk factor for both obesity and dental problems such as caries. The aim of this paper is to use classification tree analysis (CTA) to identify predictors of dental problems in a nationally representative cohort of
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A poor quality diet may be a common risk factor for both obesity and dental problems such as caries. The aim of this paper is to use classification tree analysis (CTA) to identify predictors of dental problems in a nationally representative cohort of Irish pre-school children. CTA was used to classify variables and describe interactions between multiple variables including socio-demographics, dietary intake, health-related behaviour, body mass index (BMI) and a dental problem. Data were derived from the second (2010/2011) wave of the ‘Growing Up in Ireland’ study (GUI) infant cohort at 3 years, n = 9793. The prevalence of dental problems was 5.0% (n = 493). The CTA model showed a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 58.5% and overall correctly classified 59% of children. Ethnicity was the most significant predictor of dental problems followed by longstanding illness or disability, mother’s BMI and household income. The highest prevalence of dental problems was among children who were obese or underweight with a longstanding illness and an overweight mother. Frequency of intake of some foods showed interactions with the target variable. Results from this research highlight the interconnectedness of weight status, dental problems and general health and reinforce the importance of adopting a common risk factor approach when dealing with prevention of these diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Erosive and Mechanical Tooth Wear in Viking Age Icelanders
Dent. J. 2017, 5(3), 24; doi:10.3390/dj5030024 -
Abstract
(1) Background: The importance of the Icelandic Sagas as a source of information about diet habits in medieval Iceland, and possibly other Nordic countries, is obvious. Extensive tooth wear in archaeological material worldwide has revealed that the main cause of this wear is
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(1) Background: The importance of the Icelandic Sagas as a source of information about diet habits in medieval Iceland, and possibly other Nordic countries, is obvious. Extensive tooth wear in archaeological material worldwide has revealed that the main cause of this wear is believed to have been a coarse diet. Near the volcano Hekla, 66 skeletons dated from before 1104 were excavated, and 49 skulls could be evaluated for tooth wear. The purpose of this study was to determine the main causes of tooth wear in light of diet and beverage consumption described in the Sagas; (2) Materials and methods: Two methods were used to evaluate tooth wear and seven for age estimation; (3) Results: Extensive tooth wear was seen in all of the groups, increasing with age. The first molars had the highest score, with no difference between sexes. These had all the similarities seen in wear from a coarse diet, but also presented with characteristics that are seen in erosion in modern Icelanders, through consuming excessive amounts of soft drinks. According to the Sagas, acidic whey was a daily drink and was used for the preservation of food in Iceland, until fairly recently; (4) Conclusions: It is postulated that the consumption of acidic drinks and food, in addition to a coarse and rough diet, played a significant role in the dental wear seen in ancient Icelanders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Surface Treatment Method Using Airborne-Particle Abrasion and Hydrofluoric Acid on the Shear Bond Strength of Resin Cement to Zirconia
Dent. J. 2017, 5(3), 23; doi:10.3390/dj5030023 -
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of two different resin cements (Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray Medical Inc, Okayama, Japan) and Variolink N (Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein)) to 112 zirconia specimens with airborne-particle abrasion and 20%,
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of two different resin cements (Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray Medical Inc, Okayama, Japan) and Variolink N (Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein)) to 112 zirconia specimens with airborne-particle abrasion and 20%, 30%, or 40% hydrofluoric acid (HF) for 1 or 2 h. A total of eight specimens were used to observe the phase transformation after surface treatments. Six specimens were treated only with HF etching and the average surface roughness (Ra) was analyzed. A one-way ANOVA test was applied for SBS and the effect of HF concentration on Ra. An independent t-test was performed for the comparison of Panavia F 2.0 and Variolink N, and the influence of the HF application time on Ra. A higher HF solution increased SBS and Ra. HF etching produced a lower rate of monoclinic phase transformation. Panavia F 2.0 showed a higher SBS than Variolink N. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Sulfur-Containing Primers for Noble Metals on the Bond Strength of Self-Cured Acrylic Resin
Dent. J. 2017, 5(2), 22; doi:10.3390/dj5020022 -
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of sulfur-containing primers for noble metals on the shear bond strength of self-cured acrylic resin after thermal cycling (TC). Four pure metals (Au, Ag, Cu, and Pd) and type IV Au alloy were either untreated, or treated with
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This study investigated the effect of sulfur-containing primers for noble metals on the shear bond strength of self-cured acrylic resin after thermal cycling (TC). Four pure metals (Au, Ag, Cu, and Pd) and type IV Au alloy were either untreated, or treated with one of the five sulfur-containing metal primers (V-Primer, Metaltite, Alloy Primer, Metal Link Primer, and Metal Primer Z). Afterwards, a brass ring was placed on the metal surface and filled with self-cured acrylic resin (n = 10). The bond strengths were measured after 24 h (TC0) and after 2000 thermal cycles at 4–60 °C (TC2000). Three-way ANOVA and Tukey compromise post hoc tests were used to analyze the data (α = 0.05). All of the sulfur-containing primers significantly improved the resin bond strength as compared to that of the non-primed group at TC0 regardless of the metal type (p < 0.05). However, at TC2000, the bond strengths between the resin and the five metals significantly decreased with respect to the values obtained at TC0 regardless of the primer (p < 0.05). The sulfur-containing metal primers, except for Metal Link Primer, were found to be more effective for improving the bond strength between the self-cured acrylic resin and Ag as compared to the other three pure metals (p < 0.05). The bond strengths between the resin and Au and type IV Au alloy at TC2000 were the highest ones when Metal Primer Z was used. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Dental Biofilm and Laboratory Microbial Culture Models for Cariology Research
Dent. J. 2017, 5(2), 21; doi:10.3390/dj5020021 -
Abstract
Dental caries form through a complex interaction over time among dental plaque, fermentable carbohydrate, and host factors (including teeth and saliva). As a key factor, dental plaque or biofilm substantially influence the characteristic of the carious lesions. Laboratory microbial culture models are often
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Dental caries form through a complex interaction over time among dental plaque, fermentable carbohydrate, and host factors (including teeth and saliva). As a key factor, dental plaque or biofilm substantially influence the characteristic of the carious lesions. Laboratory microbial culture models are often used because they provide a controllable and constant environment for cariology research. Moreover, they do not have ethical problems associated with clinical studies. The design of the microbial culture model varies from simple to sophisticated according to the purpose of the investigation. Each model is a compromise between the reality of the oral cavity and the simplification of the model. Researchers, however, can still obtain meaningful and useful results from the models they select. Laboratory microbial culture models can be categorized into a closed system and an open system. Models in the closed system have a finite supply of nutrients, and are also simple and cost-effective. Models in the open system enabled the supply of a fresh culture medium and the removal of metabolites and spent culture liquid simultaneously. They provide better regulation of the biofilm growth rate than the models in the closed system. This review paper gives an overview of the dental plaque biofilm and laboratory microbial culture models used for cariology research. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Review of the Common Models Used in Mechanistic Studies on Demineralization-Remineralization for Cariology Research
Dent. J. 2017, 5(2), 20; doi:10.3390/dj5020020 -
Abstract
Mechanistic studies on demineralization-remineralization play a critical role in investigating caries pathogenicity, testing effects of new caries prevention methods, and developing new caries-preventing products. Simulating the cariogenic challenges in the mouth, various demineralization-remineralization models have been used for cariology research. This review aimed
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Mechanistic studies on demineralization-remineralization play a critical role in investigating caries pathogenicity, testing effects of new caries prevention methods, and developing new caries-preventing products. Simulating the cariogenic challenges in the mouth, various demineralization-remineralization models have been used for cariology research. This review aimed to provide an overview of the common mechanistic studies on demineralization-remineralization for cariology research in recent literature. Most mechanistic studies were in vitro studies (n = 294, 84%) among the 350 cariology studies indexed in the Web of Science from 2014 to 2016. Among these in vitro studies, most studies (257/294, 87%) used chemical models that could be classified as simple mineralization models (159/257, 62%) or pH-cycling models (98/257, 38%). In vitro studies consumed less expense and time than in vivo studies. Furthermore, in vitro conditions were easier to control. However, they could hardly imitate the complex structures of oral cavities, the microbiological effect of oral biofilm, and the hydrodynamic instability of saliva. The advantages of chemical models included simplicity of the study, low cost, efficiency (time saving), reproducibility, and stability of experiments. However, the “caries” generated were not biological. Moreover, the chemical models were generally basic and could not mimic a carious lesion in the complex oral environment. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Dental Wear: Attrition, Erosion, and Abrasion—A Palaeo-Odontological Approach
Dent. J. 2017, 5(2), 19; doi:10.3390/dj5020019 -
Abstract
This paper reviews the surface ablation of early hominin teeth by attrition, abrasion, and erosive dental wear. The occurrence of these lesions is explored in a sample of South African fossil australopithecine dentitions revealing excessive wear. Interpretation of the nature of the dietary
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This paper reviews the surface ablation of early hominin teeth by attrition, abrasion, and erosive dental wear. The occurrence of these lesions is explored in a sample of South African fossil australopithecine dentitions revealing excessive wear. Interpretation of the nature of the dietary components causing such wear in the absence of carious erosion provides insight into the ecology of the Plio-pleistocene epoch (1–2 million years ago). Fossil teeth inform much of the living past by their retained evidence after death. Tooth wear is the ultimate forensic dental evidence of lives lived. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Preventive Agents (Mouthwashes/Gels) on the Color Stability of Dental Resin-Based Composite Materials
Dent. J. 2017, 5(2), 18; doi:10.3390/dj5020018 -
Abstract
The color of dental restorative material should be maintained throughout its functional lifetime in an oral environment. However, the frequent use of mouthwash may affect the color stability of these composite restorations. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of
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The color of dental restorative material should be maintained throughout its functional lifetime in an oral environment. However, the frequent use of mouthwash may affect the color stability of these composite restorations. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of using various mouthwashes on the color stability of various dental restorative composite materials. For this purpose, four mouthwashes/gels (Flocare gel (0.4% stannous fluoride), Pascal gel (topical APF fluoride), Pro-Relief mouthwash (sodium fluoride), and Plax Soin mouthwash (sodium fluoride)), and distilled water as a control, were selected. These were divided into five groups: Group 1: Flocare gel; Group 2: Pascal gel; Group 3: Pro-Relief mouthwash; Group 4: Plax Soin mouthwash; and Group 5: distilled water (control). Prepared restorative materials samples were immersed in the groups of mouthwashes/gels and the distilled water (control) for 24, 48, and 72 h. The discoloration that all materials exhibited with all immersion groups was significantly different at each of the three time periods for all groups (p < 0.05). Results from immersion in Flocare gel, Pascal gel, Pro-Relief mouthwash, and Plax Soin mouthwash were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The color change chroma was not significant for Pro-Relief and Plax Soin mouthwash (p > 0.05). Mouthwashes/gels affect color shifting for all composite resin materials, and changes are exaggerated over time. However, discoloration effects are not perceptible to the human eye. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Paediatric Over-the-Counter (OTC) Oral Liquids Can Soften and Erode Enamel
Dent. J. 2017, 5(2), 17; doi:10.3390/dj5020017 -
Abstract
This study investigated the softening and erosive effects of various paediatric over-the-counter (OTC) oral liquids on deciduous teeth. Twenty sectioned and polished deciduous enamel blocks were ground on the buccal surface (2 × 2 mm2) and randomly divided into five groups,
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This study investigated the softening and erosive effects of various paediatric over-the-counter (OTC) oral liquids on deciduous teeth. Twenty sectioned and polished deciduous enamel blocks were ground on the buccal surface (2 × 2 mm2) and randomly divided into five groups, immersed into four commercially-available paediatric OTC oral liquids (two for paracetamol, both sugared; and two for chlorpheniramine, one sugared and one sugar-free), with deionized water as control. The pH of the oral liquids ranged from 2.50 to 5.77. Each block was immersed into the test or control groups for 15 s, rinsed with deionized water, and Vickers micro-hardness (n = 5) was measured. After twenty cycles of immersion and hardness measurements, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) were used to evaluate the surface morphology and chemistry of the tooth blocks, respectively. The pH values of the liquids were also recorded. Rapidly descending trends in the micro-hardness ratios of the four test groups were observed that were statistically different from the control group (p < 0.001). EDS showed an increase of Ca/C ratio after drug immersion, whereas SEM showed an enamel loss in all the test groups. Paediatric OTC oral liquids could significantly soften the enamel and render them more susceptible to caries, such that the formulation of the oral liquids is the major factor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of a Postgraduate Learning Experience on the Confidence of General Dental Practitioners
Dent. J. 2017, 5(2), 16; doi:10.3390/dj5020016 -
Abstract
This study aimed to explore the relationship between participating in a learning experience and the ensuing changes in confidence. A self-selected group of General Dental Practitioners (GDPs) entered a five-year, part-time postgraduate master’s training programme in restorative dentistry. Confidence in communication with patients
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This study aimed to explore the relationship between participating in a learning experience and the ensuing changes in confidence. A self-selected group of General Dental Practitioners (GDPs) entered a five-year, part-time postgraduate master’s training programme in restorative dentistry. Confidence in communication with patients and technical skills were measured at the start of the programme by questionnaire and at the conclusion of the programme by questionnaire and personal interview. A total of 72 clinicians started the programme; 27% (n = 20) completed the master’s degree. Assessment of confidence revealed a spread from 4/10 to 10/10 for communication with patients and clinical skills in restorative dentistry before the programme started. A total of 15% (n = 11) volunteered for interview. Analysis of qualitative data revealed (i) a perceived increase in confidence from all clinicians; (ii) a perceived greater ability to treat patients; (iii) an increase in treatment options being offered to patients; (iv) a perceived increase in treatment uptake by patients; and (v) greater job opportunities. The study showed a positive relationship between the learning experience and the perceived increase in confidence of clinicians. The increase in confidence manifested itself in better communication and clinical skills. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Should Undergraduate Lectures be Compulsory? The Views of Dental and Medical Students from a UK University
Dent. J. 2017, 5(2), 15; doi:10.3390/dj5020015 -
Abstract
Formal lectures have been a traditional part of medical and dental education, but there is debate as to their compulsory status. This study was designed to explore dental and medical students’ views on compulsory lectures and the use of Video-Recorded Lectures (VRL). A
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Formal lectures have been a traditional part of medical and dental education, but there is debate as to their compulsory status. This study was designed to explore dental and medical students’ views on compulsory lectures and the use of Video-Recorded Lectures (VRL). A cross-sectional study of University of Bristol students in Years 2 to 4 was conducted using an online questionnaire. The majority of both dental (76%) and medical (66%) students felt lectures should be non-compulsory. The most common learning resources used by both dental and medical students were live lectures, lecture handouts and VRL. The majority of both dental (84%) and medical (88%) students used VRL. Most students attended lectures all of the time both before and after the introduction of VRL, even though most dental and medical students believe lectures should be non-compulsory. VRL is a popular learning resource. These findings tie-in with General Dental Council and General Medical Council recommendations that encourage self-directed learning. Dental and Medical schools should offer a range of learning resources and make use of current technology, including the use of VRL. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Analysis of Velopharyngeal Movement by Applying Principal Component Analysis to Range Images Produced by a Three-Dimensional Endoscope
Dent. J. 2017, 5(2), 14; doi:10.3390/dj5020014 -
Abstract
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop a new technique for analyzing velopharyngeal movement and to investigate its utility. Materials and Methods: Velopharyngeal motion of 20 normal individuals was analyzed. A three-dimensional (3D) endoscope was inserted into the oral cavity, and
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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop a new technique for analyzing velopharyngeal movement and to investigate its utility. Materials and Methods: Velopharyngeal motion of 20 normal individuals was analyzed. A three-dimensional (3D) endoscope was inserted into the oral cavity, and the movement of the soft palate was measured using an exclusive fixation device. Range images of the soft palate were produced during phonation of the Japanese vowel /a/, and virtual grids were then overlaid on these images. Principal component analyses were applied to the 3D coordinates of the intersections of the virtual grids. The centers of gravity of the virtual grids were calculated, and the magnitude of the shift of the grid intersections during phonation was calculated. Results: The first and the second principal component scores were responsible for the upper posterior direction and the upper direction, respectively. The average magnitude of the shift of the center of gravity was 4.75 mm in males and 4.33 mm in females. Conclusions: Quantitative analysis of velopharyngeal movement was achieved by a method of applying principal component analysis (PCA) to the range images obtained from a 3D endoscope. There was no sex difference in velopharyngeal movement. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ) in Osteoporosis Patients: Report of Delayed Diagnosis of a Multisite Case and Commentary about Risks Coming from a Restricted ONJ Definition
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 13; doi:10.3390/dj5010013 -
Abstract
Osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) in osteoporosis patients has been defined as rare, but the number of reported cases is increasing. We report a case of delayed ONJ diagnosis in a patient, who was being treated with alendronate, developing bone alterations both in
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Osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) in osteoporosis patients has been defined as rare, but the number of reported cases is increasing. We report a case of delayed ONJ diagnosis in a patient, who was being treated with alendronate, developing bone alterations both in maxilla and in mandible. Underestimation of ONJ incidence and missed or delayed ONJ diagnosis in osteoporosis patients might derive from lack of awareness of health providers as well as from an ONJ definition that is too restricted. The more recent definition of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) released in 2014 by the American Association of Oral Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) accept fistula, besides bone exposure, as a major sign of disease, but it seems to be insufficient since it excludes all cases of ONJ disease without bone exposure. A new MRONJ definition is needed to avoid missing or delayed diagnosis. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Human Gingival Crevicular Fluids (GCF) Proteomics: An Overview
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 12; doi:10.3390/dj5010012 -
Abstract
Like other fluids of the human body, a gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) contains proteins, a diverse population of cells, desquamated epithelial cells, and bacteria from adjacent plaque. Proteomic tools have revolutionized the characterization of proteins and peptides and the detection of early disease
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Like other fluids of the human body, a gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) contains proteins, a diverse population of cells, desquamated epithelial cells, and bacteria from adjacent plaque. Proteomic tools have revolutionized the characterization of proteins and peptides and the detection of early disease changes in the human body. Gingival crevicular fluids (GCFs) are a very specific oral cavity fluid that represents periodontal health. Due to their non-invasive sampling, they have attracted proteome research and are used as diagnostic fluids for periodontal diseases and drug analysis. The aim of this review is to explore the proteomic science of gingival crevicular fluids (GCFs), their physiology, and their role in disease detection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Association between Postgraduate Studies, Gender and Qualifying Dental School for Graduates Qualifying from UK Dental Schools between 2000 and 2009
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 11; doi:10.3390/dj5010011 -
Abstract
Various factors will influence a dental graduate’s decision to undertake postgraduate education and training, including encouragement from family, partners and staff at individual dental schools, although there is currently little information available regarding the number and distribution (by dental school) of recent dental
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Various factors will influence a dental graduate’s decision to undertake postgraduate education and training, including encouragement from family, partners and staff at individual dental schools, although there is currently little information available regarding the number and distribution (by dental school) of recent dental graduates undertaking postgraduate studies. The aim of this study was to analyse data on postgraduate qualifications achieved by dentists who graduated from UK dental schools between 2000 and 2009 and relate this to graduate gender. Data were collected from the General Dental Council (GDC) in an anonymous electronic format, analysed and ordered by year of graduation, dental school, gender and type of postgraduate qualification. Nearly one-quarter (24%) of the dentists that graduated between 2000 and 2004 completed postgraduate studies, with more females (26%) than males (23%) obtaining further postgraduate qualifications. Overall, Bristol produced the largest proportion of graduates completing postgraduate study (39%) and of these the largest proportion of female graduates (45%). Glasgow produced the largest proportion of male graduates completing postgraduate study (37%). Membership of the Faculty of Dental Surgery (MFDS), one of the Royal Colleges, was the most popular postgraduate qualification obtained followed by Membership of the Faculty of General Dental Practitioners UK (MFGDP). This study provides insight into postgraduate studies undertaken by UK dental graduates. An increasing proportion of females are gaining Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) qualifications and therefore the number of female dental graduates obtaining postgraduate qualifications is likely to increase further. This also suggests the male domination of the dental profession is likely to decrease. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Unexpected Hazards with Dental High Speed Drill
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 10; doi:10.3390/dj5010010 -
Abstract
An expected accident can happen at any time during a routine practice in the dental office due to the types of instruments used. One of the instruments used in routine dental practice is a high speed drill and a bur. If Personal Protective
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An expected accident can happen at any time during a routine practice in the dental office due to the types of instruments used. One of the instruments used in routine dental practice is a high speed drill and a bur. If Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is not practiced at any time in the dental office, very serious injuries could easily happen to the clinician, staff or to the patient. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modified Glass Ionomer Cement with “Remove on Demand” Properties: An In Vitro Study
Dent. J. 2017, 5(1), 9; doi:10.3390/dj5010009 -
Abstract
Objectives: To investigate the influence of different temperatures on the compressive strength of glass ionomer cement (GIC) modified by the addition of silica-coated wax capsules; Material and Methods: Commercially-available GIC was modified by adding 10% silica-coated wax capsules. Test blocks were fabricated from
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Objectives: To investigate the influence of different temperatures on the compressive strength of glass ionomer cement (GIC) modified by the addition of silica-coated wax capsules; Material and Methods: Commercially-available GIC was modified by adding 10% silica-coated wax capsules. Test blocks were fabricated from pure cement (control) and modified cement (test), and stored in distilled water (37 °C/23 h). The compressive strength was determined using a universal testing machine under different temperatures (37 °C, 50 °C, and 60 °C). The maximum load to failure was recorded for each group. Fractured surfaces of selected test blocks were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); Results: For the control group, the average compressive strength was 96.8 ± 11.8, 94.3 ± 5.7 and 72.5 ± 5.7 MPa for the temperatures 37 °C, 50 °C and 60 °C respectively. The test group reported compressive strength of 64.8 ± 5.4, 47.1 ± 5.4 and 33.4 ± 3.6 MPa at 37 °C, 50 °C and 60 °C, respectively. This represented a decrease of 28% in compressive strength with the increase in temperature from 37 °C to 50 °C and 45% from the 37 °C to the 60 °C group; Conclusion: GIC modified with 10% silica-coated wax capsules and temperature application show a distinct effect on the compressive strength of GIC. Considerable compressive strength reduction was detected if the temperature was above the melting temperature of the wax core. Full article
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