Dent. J.2016, 4(1), 2; doi:10.3390/dj4010002 - published 25 January 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The aim of this study was determine the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use among dental undergraduates at one UK university in 2015. A cross-sectional survey of all 344 dental undergraduates using an anonymous self-report questionnaire was carried out. The response rate was 77%, of which 29% were male and 71% female. Tobacco smoking was reported by 23.6% of males and 12.2% of females, with only 1.6% of females reporting to smoke ≥10 cigarettes per day. Alcohol consumption was reported by 85.5% of males and 84% of females, and reported levels of alcohol consumption increased since becoming undergraduates. Binge drinking was reported by 35.3% of males and 41% of female students. Only 2.6% of males and 0.5% of females reported to be current regular users of cannabis. The vast majority of respondents claimed to have never used any illicit substance. The only other reported regularly used substances by males was Ecstasy (1.3%) and by females were LSD (0.5%), Ecstasy (1.5%), Cocaine (0.5%), Inhalants (0.5%) and Ketamine (0.5%). These results are encouraging. Fewer students reported smoking than in the general population, levels of binge drinking were considerably lower than previously reported figures, as were the numbers of regular users of cannabis and other illicit substances.
Dent. J.2015, 3(4), 133-156; doi:10.3390/dj3040133 - published 27 November 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Reviews on the clinical performance of vital pulp treatment strategies and capping materials repeatedly showed an insufficient grade of evidence concerning their therapeutic validity. The biological mechanisms underlying the regenerative potential of pulp-dentin complex have attracted much attention during the last two decades, since new pulp treatment modalities have been designed and tested at the preclinical level. It has been recognized that evaluation should be based on the specific ability of therapeutic interventions to signal recruitment and differentiation of odontoblast-like cells forming a matrix in a predentin-like pattern, rather than uncontrolled hard tissue deposition in a scar-like form. The aim of the present article was to critically review data from histological experimental studies on pulp capping, published during the last 7 decades. A comprehensive literature search covering the period from 1949 to 2015 was done using the Medline/Pubmed database. Inclusion of a study was dependent on having sufficient data regarding the type of capping material used and the unit of observation (human permanent tooth in vivo or animal permanent dentition; primary teeth were excluded). The post-operatively deposited matrix was categorized into three types: unspecified, osteotypic, or dentin-like matrix. One hundred fifty-two studies were included in the final evaluation. Data from the present systematic review have shown that only 30.2% of the 152 experimental histological pulp capping studies described the heterogenic nature of the hard tissue bridge formation, including osteotypic and tubular mineralized tissue. Structural characteristics of the new matrix and the associated formative cells were not provided by the remaining 106 studies. Analysis showed that more careful preclinical evaluation with emphasis on the evidence regarding the dentinogenic specificity of pulp therapies is required. It seems that selection of appropriate vital pulp treatment strategies and pulp capping materials would be further facilitated in terms of their therapeutic validity if international consensus could be reached on a select number of mandatory criteria for tissue-specific dentinogenic events.
Dent. J.2015, 3(4), 123-131; doi:10.3390/dj3040123 - published 2 November 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the oral Candida carriage and morphotype differentiation of Candida species in chronic periodontitis patients, with and without diabetes mellitus. This cross sectional study included 30 subjects in the age range of 40–60 years, who were divided into two groups: 15 chronic periodontitis only (CP) patients, and 15 chronic periodontitis patients with diabetes (CPD). Clinical measurements included plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and fasting blood sugar level (FBS). The unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected for fungal analysis. Candida carriage was analyzed by measuring colony forming units (CFU) following the culture of samples. Qualitative morphotype differentiation of Candida species from yeast to hyphal form was analyzed using Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. There was no statistically significant difference between CP and CPD groups for the periodontal parameters. However, a significantly higher Candida species CFU count was found in CPD (0.33 ± 0.23) as compared to CP (0.05 ± 0.04) group. This pilot study suggests that the occurrence of Candida species is higher in the saliva of chronic periodontitis patients with diabetes as compared to patients with chronic periodontitis alone.
Dent. J.2015, 3(4), 111-122; doi:10.3390/dj3040111 - published 10 October 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Micro computed tomography has been combined with dedicated data analysis for the in vitro quantification of sub-surface enamel lesion mineralization. Two artificial white spot lesions, generated on a human molar crown in vitro, were examined. One lesion was treated with a self-assembling peptide intended to trigger nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystals. We non-destructively determined the local X-ray attenuation within the specimens before and after treatment. The three-dimensional data was rigidly registered. Three interpolation methods, i.e., nearest neighbor, tri-linear, and tri-cubic interpolation were evaluated. The mineralization of the affected regions was quantified via joint histogram analysis, i.e., a voxel-by-voxel comparison of the tomography data before and after mineralization. After ten days incubation, the mean mineralization coefficient reached 35.5% for the peptide-treated specimen compared to 11.5% for the control. This pilot study does not give any evidence for the efficacy of peptide treatment nor allows estimating the necessary number of specimens to achieve significance, but shows a sound methodological approach on the basis of the joint histogram analysis.