Dent. J.2016, 4(3), 28; doi:10.3390/dj4030028 - published 19 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Nine out of ten metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) patients will develop osseous metastases. Of these, every second will suffer from skeletal-related events (SRE). SRE are associated with an increased risk for death, which is markedly increased in the presence of pathological fracture. Moreover, health insurance costs nearly double in the presence of SRE. Zoledronic acid and denosumab are both approved drugs for the prevention or delay of SRE in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients with osseous metastases. However, long-term treatment with one of these two drugs is associated with the development of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). Routine inspections of the oral cavity before and during treatment are mandatory in these patients. Regarding imaging techniques, bone scintigraphy seems to be a promising tool to detect early stage MRONJ. Zoledronic acid does not reduce the incidence of SRE in hormone-sensitive PCa. First data shows 3-monthly application of zoledronic acid to be equi-effective to monthly application.
Dent. J.2016, 4(3), 27; doi:10.3390/dj4030027 - published 15 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in behavior exist following dental treatment under hospital-based general anesthesia (HBGA) or office-based general anesthesia (OBGA) in the percentage of patients exhibiting positive behavior and in the mean Frankl scores at recall visits. This retrospective study examined records of a pediatric dental office over a 4 year period. Patients presenting before 48 months of age for an initial exam who were diagnosed with early childhood caries were included in the study. Following an initial exam, patients were treated under HBGA or OBGA. Patients were followed to determine their behavior at 6-, 12- and 18-month recall appointments. Fifty-four patients received treatment under HBGA and 26 were treated under OBGA. OBGA patients were significantly more likely to exhibit positive behavior at the 6- and 12-month recall visits p = 0.038 & p = 0.029). Clinicians should consider future behavior when determining general anesthesia treatment modalities in children with early childhood caries presenting to their office.
Dent. J.2016, 4(3), 26; doi:10.3390/dj4030026 - published 10 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The aim of this study was to explore the attitudes towards postgraduate specialisation of final-year students at one UK dental school and to identify any possible influencing factors. A cross-sectional survey of all 73 final-year students using an anonymous self-report questionnaire was carried out. The response rate was 79%, of which nearly two-thirds were female. Age, ethnicity and parental occupation did not have an effect on the intention to specialise, although student gender did, with more females not wishing to specialise (p = 0.006). Having a ‘talent in the field’ had the largest positive influence on pursuing a specialist career (37.9% of responses), whilst the length of time needed to obtain a specialist qualification was seen as the largest negative influence (41.1% of responses). The two most popular subjects were Restorative Dentistry and Orthodontics with 24.1% and 20.7% of students listing them as their first choices, respectively. Further research could be carried out to determine if the intentions of UK undergraduates to specialise will meet the increasing specialist oral health needs of the population and which could ultimately influence future dental workforce planning.
Dent. J.2016, 4(3), 25; doi:10.3390/dj4030025 - published 9 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: To develop an in vitro model to mimic the effects of meals equivalent to a day’s diet on tooth tissue loss (TTL). To identify how diet effects tooth wear and to test the efficacy of dental products designed to reduce tooth wear in a more realistic environment. A typical Friday diet was devised comprising: Breakfast then brushing, lunch, dinner then brushing. Groups of enamel samples were exposed to one meal, or all three in series, a control group was exposed to water and brushed. The daily cycle was repeated to represent two days’ consumption; TTL was quantified by non-contact profilometry. This pilot study highlighted adaptions that could be made to the model such as human enamel and saliva to further replicate natural eating habits. The sum of the TTL measured after Breakfast, lunch and dinner (bovine enamel specimens exposed to single meals) was less than that exhibited by the group of samples exposed to the series of meals but this difference was not significant (p = 0.09).In the absence and presence of brushing, TTL caused by breakfast and dinner was similar, but significantly greater than that caused by lunch (p < 0.05). While brushing increased TTL, this increase was not significant. It is possible to model a daily diet in vitro, and the data obtained confirms that the combination of food and drink affects the degree of TTL. This supports the further development of an in vitro model that includes alternative foodstuffs. This would aid understanding of the effects different diets have on TTL and could test new products designed to prevent TTL.
Dent. J.2016, 4(3), 24; doi:10.3390/dj4030024 - published 1 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Accidental ingestion or inhalation of foreign bodies has been widely documented, including incidents which occur whilst undertaking dental treatment. Most ingested objects pass through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) spontaneously, but approximately 10%–20% need to be removed endoscopically and 1% require surgery. This case reports a complication arising from the accidental loss of an archwire fragment during maxillary archwire placement. It describes the immediate and subsequent management, including the use of radiographs to track the passage of the fragment through the gastro-intestinal tract. This case stresses the vigilance that dentists must take to prevent inhalation or ingestion of foreign bodies and the consequences of time-delays when management decisions are needed.