Crystals2014, 4(4), 490-497; doi:10.3390/cryst4040490 (registering DOI) - published 28 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The title compound, fac-triammin-aquo-oxalato-cobalt(III)-nitrate monohydrate, fac-[Co(NH3)3(C2O4)(H2O)]NO3·H2O (2), was prepared according to an original synthetic protocol published exactly 100 years ago by Alfred Werner by dissolving the indigo-blue non-electrolyte complex mer-triammin-chloro-oxalato-cobalt(III), mer-[Co(NH3)3(C2O4)Cl] (1), in boiling half-concentrated nitric acid. Contrary to the literature, it did not crystallize directly from the reaction mixture, but crystallization could be induced by saturating the solution with NaClO4. The structure of 2 has monoclinic (P21/n) symmetry. The crystal structure displays an extensive array of N–H···O and O–H···O hydrogen bonding.
Crystals2014, 4(4), 466-489; doi:10.3390/cryst4040466 - published 26 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Various types of coiled carbon filaments have been synthesized using chemical vapor deposition and other methods. These carbon filaments exhibit unique electrical and mechanical properties due to their versatile shapes and structures. To form coiled shapes, different types of catalyst compositions and reactive gases have been explored. Generally, coiled carbon filaments are classified by coil diameter and shape (e.g., microcoil and nanocoil). In this review, coiled carbon filaments are classified into three growth mechanism categories: (1) bidirectional double helical growth; (2) bidirectional twisted growth; and (3) tip single helical or twisted growth. Next, their synthesis methods and hypothetical growth mechanisms are discussed. Then, their electrical and mechanical properties are listed. Finally, potential applications and uses of coiled carbon filament are mentioned.
Crystals2014, 4(4), 450-465; doi:10.3390/cryst4040450 - published 20 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Separating functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) from functionalized amorphous carbon is challenging, due to their polydispersity and similar physicochemical properties. We describe a single-step, dialytic separation method that takes advantage of the ability of heavily functionalized SWCNTs to bundle in a polar environment while maintaining their solubility. Experiments on functionalized SWCNTs were compared with functionalized, C60 fullerenes (buckyballs) to probe the general applicability of the method and further characterize the bundling process. This approach may simultaneously be used to purify a functionalization reaction mixture of unreacted small molecules and of residual solvents, such as dimethylformamide.
Crystals2014, 4(4), 439-449; doi:10.3390/cryst4040439 - published 19 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The crystal structures of three salts of anionic 5-aminotetrazole are described. The tetramethylammonium salt (P ) forms hydrogen-bonded ribbons of anions which accept weak C–H···N contacts from the cations. The cystamine salt (C2/c) shows wave-shaped ribbons of anions linked by hydrogen bonds to screw-shaped dications. The tetramethylguanidine salt (P21/c) exhibits layers of anions hydrogen-bonded to the cations.
Crystals2014, 4(4), 427-438; doi:10.3390/cryst4040427 - published 14 October 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We survey our recent results on the observation and studies of the effects accompanying the dynamical Bragg diffraction in one-dimensional photonic crystals (PhC). Contrary to the kinematic Bragg diffraction, the dynamical one considers a continuous interaction between the waves travelling within a spatially-periodic structure and is the most pronounced in the so called Laue geometry, leading to a number of exciting phenomena. In the described experiments, we study the PhC based on porous silicon or porous quartz, made by the electrochemical etching of crystalline silicon with the consequent thermal annealing. Importantly, these PhC are approximately hundreds of microns thick and contain a few hundreds of periods, so that the experiments in the Laue diffraction scheme are available. We discuss the effect of the temporal splitting of femtosecond laser pulses and show that the effect is quite sensitive to the polarization and the phase of a femtosecond laser pulse. We also show the experimental realization of the Pendular effect in porous quartz PhC and demonstrate the experimental conditions for the total spatial switching of the output radiation between the transmitted and diffracted directions. All described effects are of high interest for the control over the light propagation based on PhC structures.
Crystals2014, 4(3), 417-426; doi:10.3390/cryst4030417 - published 17 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We revisit the standard Nicolson–Ross–Weir method of effective permittivity and permeability restoration of photonic structures for the case of subwavelength metal-dielectric multilayers. We show that the direct application of the standard method yields a false zero-epsilon point and an associated spurious permeability resonance. We show how this artifact can be worked around by the use of the cycle shift operator to the periodic multilayer in question.