Abstract: Dislocations exhibit a number of exceptional electronic properties resulting in a significant increase of the drain current of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) if defined numbers of these defects are placed in the channel. Measurements on individual dislocations in Si refer to a supermetallic conductivity. A model of the electronic structure of dislocations is proposed based on experimental measurements and tight binding simulations. It is shown that the high strain level on the dislocation core—exceeding 10% or more—causes locally dramatic changes of the band structure and results in the formation of a quantum well along the dislocation line. This explains experimental findings (two-dimensional electron gas and single-electron transitions). The energy quantization within the quantum well is most important for supermetallic conductivity.
Abstract: The characterization of growth features and defects in various high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) synthetic diamonds has been achieved with optical and X-ray topographic techniques. For the X-ray studies, both characteristic and synchrotron radiation were used. The defects include dislocations, stacking faults, growth banding, growth sector boundaries, and metal inclusions. The directions of the Burgers vectors of many dislocations (edge, screw, and mixed 30°, 60°, and 73.2°), and the fault vectors of stacking faults, were determined as <110> and 1/3 <111> respectively. Some dislocations were generated at metallic inclusions; and some dislocations split with the formation of stacking faults.
Abstract: In recent years, the idea of controlling phonon thermal transport coherently using phononic crystals has been introduced. Here, we extend our previous numerical studies of ballistic low-temperature heat transport in two-dimensional hole-array phononic crystals, and concentrate on the effect of the lattice periodicity. We find that thermal conductance can be either enhanced or reduced by large factors, depending on the the lattice period. Analysis shows that both the density of states and the average group velocity are strongly affected by the periodic structuring. The largest effect for the reduction seen for larger period structures comes from the strong reduction of the group velocities, but a contribution also comes from the reduction of the density of states. For the short period structures, the enhancement is due to the enhanced density of states.
Abstract: The anisotropic microstructure of bone tissue is crucial for appropriate mechanical and biological functions of bone. We recently revealed that the construction of oriented bone matrix is established by osteoblast alignment; there is a quite unique correlation between cell alignment and cell-produced bone matrix orientation governed by the molecular interactions between material surface and cells. Titanium and its alloys are one of the most attractive materials for biomedical applications. We previously succeeded in controlling cellular arrangement using the dislocations of a crystallographic slip system in titanium single crystals with hexagonal close-packing (hcp) crystal lattice. Here, we induced a specific surface topography by deformation twinning and dislocation motion to control cell orientation. Dislocation and deformation twinning were introduced into α-titanium polycrystals in compression, inducing a characteristic surface structure involving nanometer-scale highly concentrated twinning traces. The plastic deformation-induced surface topography strongly influenced osteoblast orientation, causing them to align preferentially along the slip and twinning traces. This surface morphology, exhibiting a characteristic grating structure, controlled the localization of focal adhesions and subsequent elongation of stress fibers in osteoblasts. These results indicate that cellular responses against dislocation and deformation twinning are useful for controlling osteoblast alignment and the resulting bone matrix anisotropy.
Abstract: Nanoconfinement of 2LiBH4-NaAlH4 into a mesoporous carbon aerogel scaffold with a pore size, BET surface area and total pore volume of Dmax = 30 nm, SBET = 689 m2/g and Vtot = 1.21 mL/g, respectively is investigated. Nanoconfinement of 2LiBH4-NaAlH4 facilitates a reduction in the temperature of the hydrogen release by 132 °C, compared to that of bulk 2LiBH4-NaAlH4 and the onset of hydrogen release is below 100 °C. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity is also significantly improved for the nanoconfined sample, maintaining 83% of the initial hydrogen content after three cycles compared to 47% for that of the bulk sample. During nanoconfinement, LiBH4 and NaAlH4 reacts to form LiAlH4 and NaBH4 and the final dehydrogenation products, obtained at 481 °C are LiH, LiAl, AlB2 and Al. After rehydrogenation of the nanoconfined sample at T = 400 °C and p(H2) = 126 bar, amorphous NaBH4 is recovered along with unreacted LiH, AlB2 and Al and suggests that NaBH4 is the main compound that can reversibly release and uptake hydrogen.
Abstract: Crystals of Ba2Zn(BO3)2 were grown by the top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method. The optimum flux system for growing Ba2Zn(BO3)2 crystals was 2BaF2:2.5B2O3. The transmission spectra of a (100)-orientated crystal indicated an absorption edge of 230 nm. Powder second-harmonic generation measurement revealed that Ba2Zn(BO3)2 can achieve type-I phase matching behavior at the fundamental wavelengths of 1064 and 532 nm respectively. The second-harmonic generating efficiency is around 0.85 and 0.58 times that of β-BaB2O4 when radiated with 1064 and 532 nm lasers.