Open AccessFeature PaperCase Report
Green Nanotechnology Serving the Bioeconomy: Natural Beauty Masks to Save the Environment
Cosmetics 2016, 3(4), 41; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3040041 -
Abstract
According to United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), ensuring a clean and healthy environment will provide multiple benefits to society and economy. Sustainable production, followed by appropriate management of industrial and agricultural waste, will protect and enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services. To achieve this
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According to United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), ensuring a clean and healthy environment will provide multiple benefits to society and economy. Sustainable production, followed by appropriate management of industrial and agricultural waste, will protect and enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services. To achieve this objective, specific policies must be put in place and specific actions performed for making a low-carbon and resource-efficient economy with reduced production of petrol-derived goods. The aim of the study has been to produce effective and safe anti-age beauty masks made of non-woven tissues based on the use of chitin nanofibril (CN) and nanolignin (LG), obtained from crustaceans and plant biomass, respectively. To this purpose, nanoparticles and electrospun fibres have been characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering and SEM, while the safeness and effectiveness of the obtained tissues was verified in vitro on a culture of keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and controlled in vivo by expert dermatologists on 30 volunteer photo-aged women, by subjective and objective bioengineered methods. The in vitro results have shown that the beauty masks have no toxic effects on the viability of keratinocytes and fibroblasts treated by the Dimethyl Tetrazole (MTT) method, and exhibit a decreased expression of cytokines, playing a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses in premature aging and environmental assaults. The reparative and antiaging effectiveness of these innovative beauty masks have been also verified on the release of Metallo Proteinase I (MMP-1) and the increased synthesis of collagen type I, reduced in skin aging. The first preliminary in vivo results, obtained by engineering methods, have confirmed the protective and rejuvenating activity shown by the in vitro study conducted on 30 voluntary women exhibiting signs of photoaging. The raw materials used are of natural origin being also respectful of the environment, according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (EOCD) and EU programmes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cosmetics Utilization Practice in Jigjiga Town, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study
Cosmetics 2016, 3(4), 40; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3040040 -
Abstract
The trend of cosmetics utilization has increased globally; however, the exact amount of usage is not researched well. Lack of population awareness on proper use of cosmetics, particularly in developing countries, causes a prominent health challenge. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess
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The trend of cosmetics utilization has increased globally; however, the exact amount of usage is not researched well. Lack of population awareness on proper use of cosmetics, particularly in developing countries, causes a prominent health challenge. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the cosmetics utilization practices in Jigjiga town, Eastern Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was used to assess factors associated with cosmetics use. Of the 559 participants, 93% used at least one type of cosmetics in the two weeks prior to the survey. The most commonly used products were body creams and lotions (68%), shampoos and conditioners (35%), and deodorants and perfumes (29%). Being single, female, and in the age group of 18–20 years increased the odds of cosmetics utilization. However, being in primary school and being self-employed showed a less likely use of cosmetics. Two hundred forty-seven (44%) of the interviewed household members reported that they use traditional herbal cosmetics. A higher likelihood of traditional herbal cosmetics use was observed in the age group of 18–20 years. This study indicated that the community in Jigjiga town use different types of cosmetics. Education, occupation, marital status, age, and gender were all important factors that determined the use of cosmetics in the study area. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Effective Active Ingredients Obtained through Biotechnology
Cosmetics 2016, 3(4), 39; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3040039 -
Abstract
The history of cosmetics develops in parallel to the history of man, associated with fishing, hunting, and superstition in the beginning, and later with medicine and pharmacy. Over the ages, together with human progress, cosmetics have changed continuously and nowadays the cosmetic market
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The history of cosmetics develops in parallel to the history of man, associated with fishing, hunting, and superstition in the beginning, and later with medicine and pharmacy. Over the ages, together with human progress, cosmetics have changed continuously and nowadays the cosmetic market is global and highly competitive, where terms such as quality, efficacy and safety are essential. Consumers’ demands are extremely sophisticated, and thus scientific research and product development have become vital to meet them. Moreover, consumers are aware about environmental and sustainability issues, and thus not harming the environment represents a key consideration when developing a new cosmetic ingredient. The latest tendencies of cosmetics are based on advanced research into how to interfere with skin cell aging: research includes the use of biotechnology-derived ingredients and the analysis of their effects on the biology of the cells, in terms of gene regulation, protein expression and enzymatic activity measures. In this review, we will provide some examples of cosmetic active ingredients developed through biotechnological systems, whose activity on the skin has been scientifically proved through in vitro and clinical studies. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Polyamide Microparticles Containing Vitamin C by Interfacial Polymerization: An Approach by Design of Experimentation
Cosmetics 2016, 3(4), 38; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3040038 -
Abstract
Vitamin C is widely use in cosmetics and pharmaceutics products for its active properties. However ascorbic acid shows unfavourable chemical instability such as oxidation leading to formulation problems. Therefore, carriers, such as micro- and nanoparticles, have been widely investigated as delivery systems for
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Vitamin C is widely use in cosmetics and pharmaceutics products for its active properties. However ascorbic acid shows unfavourable chemical instability such as oxidation leading to formulation problems. Therefore, carriers, such as micro- and nanoparticles, have been widely investigated as delivery systems for vitamin C to improve its beneficial effects in skin treatment. However, none of the previous studies have been able to produce microparticles with a high encapsulation entrapment of vitamin C. The aim of the present study is to use an experimental design to optimize the synthesis of polyamide microparticles for the delivery of ascorbic acid. The effect of four formulation parameters on microparticles properties (size and morphology, encapsulation efficiency and yield, release kinetics) were investigated using a surface response design. Finally, we were able to obtain stable microparticles containing more than 65% of vitamin C. This result confirms the effectiveness of using design of experiments for the optimisation of microparticle formulation and supports the proposal of using them as candidate for the delivery of vitamin C in skin treatment. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Lipid Self-Assemblies and Nanostructured Emulsions for Cosmetic Formulations
Cosmetics 2016, 3(4), 37; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3040037 -
Abstract
A majority of cosmetic products that we encounter on daily basis contain lipid constituents in solubilized or insolubilized forms. Due to their amphiphilic nature, the lipid molecules spontaneously self-assemble into a remarkable range of nanostructures when mixed with water. This review illustrates the
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A majority of cosmetic products that we encounter on daily basis contain lipid constituents in solubilized or insolubilized forms. Due to their amphiphilic nature, the lipid molecules spontaneously self-assemble into a remarkable range of nanostructures when mixed with water. This review illustrates the formation and finely tunable properties of self-assembled lipid nanostructures and their hierarchically organized derivatives, as well as their relevance to the development of cosmetic formulations. These lipid systems can be modulated into various physical forms suitable for topical administration including fluids, gels, creams, pastes and dehydrated films. Moreover, they are capable of encapsulating hydrophilic, hydrophobic as well as amphiphilic active ingredients owing to their special morphological characters. Nano-hybrid materials with more elegant properties can be designed by combining nanostructured lipid systems with other nanomaterials including a hydrogelator, silica nanoparticles, clays and carbon nanomaterials. The smart materials reviewed here may well be the future of innovative cosmetic applications. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Skin Whitening Cosmetics: Feedback and Challenges in the Development of Natural Skin Lighteners
Cosmetics 2016, 3(4), 36; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3040036 -
Abstract
With the public’s growing interest in skin whitening, lightening ingredients only used under dermatological supervision until recently, are more and more frequently incorporated into cosmetic formulas. The active agents that lighten skin tone are either natural or synthetic substances, and may act at
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With the public’s growing interest in skin whitening, lightening ingredients only used under dermatological supervision until recently, are more and more frequently incorporated into cosmetic formulas. The active agents that lighten skin tone are either natural or synthetic substances, and may act at various levels of melanogenesis. They are used to treat various skin pigmentation disorders or simply to obtain a lighter skin tone as whiter skin may be synonymous of wealth, health, youth, and/or beauty in different cultures. However, recent studies demonstrated the adverse effects of some of these ingredients, leading to their interdiction or restricted use under the European Directive and several other international regulations. After an overview of skin whitening practices and the associated risks, this article provides insight into the mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and the biological assays available to attest the lightening activity of individual ingredients. The legislation dealing with the use of skin lighteners is then discussed. As traditional depigmenting agents such as hydroquinone and corticosteroids are of safety concern, the potential of natural extracts has been investigated more and more; finally, a synthesis of three years of research in our laboratory for such plant extracts will be given. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Topical Retinol Restores Type I Collagen Production in Photoaged Forearm Skin within Four Weeks
Cosmetics 2016, 3(4), 35; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3040035 -
Abstract
Production of type I collagen (COL1), the major structural protein of the skin, declines during aging, leading to skin thinning and becoming fragile, which increases the risk of bruising and wound healing disorders in the elderly. Topical treatments that can restore COL1 synthesis
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Production of type I collagen (COL1), the major structural protein of the skin, declines during aging, leading to skin thinning and becoming fragile, which increases the risk of bruising and wound healing disorders in the elderly. Topical treatments that can restore COL1 synthesis and ultimately COL1 content in aged skin hold promise to improve skin health. Much effort has been spent on developing agents that can safely and effectively enhance COL1 synthesis in aged skin. However, how fast and to what extent COL1 production in aged skin can be enhanced by a topical treatment remains unclear. Herein, we investigated a four-week topical retinol (ROL) treatment. A one-day occlusion of ROL (0.4%) or vehicle was applied on photoaged forearms of elderly (>65 years old) subjects once a week for four weeks. Vehicle was also applied on forearms of young (23–33 years) subjects in the same manner. Skin samples were obtained one week after the last treatment and analyzed for COL1 synthesis. We found that the ROL treatment increased the level of COL1 mRNA (2.3-fold) and proCOL1 protein (1.8-fold) in photoaged forearms to levels similar to that of young forearms within four weeks. Our study proves the concept that reduced COL1 production in aged skin can be readily restored. In addition, our study provides an evidence-based foundation for developing COL1-enhancing topical agents, and establishes a reliable and practical efficacy test for evaluating such agents. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Essential of Hair Care Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2016, 3(4), 34; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3040034 -
Abstract
Nowadays, hair care and style play a very important role in people’s physical aspect and self-perception. Hair cosmetics can be distinguished into two main categories: cosmetics with temporary effect on the hair, for example shampoos, conditioners, sprays, and temporary colors; and cosmetics with
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Nowadays, hair care and style play a very important role in people’s physical aspect and self-perception. Hair cosmetics can be distinguished into two main categories: cosmetics with temporary effect on the hair, for example shampoos, conditioners, sprays, and temporary colors; and cosmetics with permanent effect on the hair, such as permanent waves, relaxers, bleaches and permanent colors. These cosmetic procedures may induce hair abnormalities. We provide an overview on the most important characteristics of these procedures, analyzing components and effects on the hair. Finally, we evaluated new camouflage techniques and tattoo scalp. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Fairer Face, a Fairer Tomorrow? A Review of Skin Lighteners
Cosmetics 2016, 3(3), 33; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3030033 -
Abstract
From light-skinned deities depicted in ancient religious tableaux, pearl-swallowing practices in China, turmeric ceremonies in India to clay application in Africa, history has been coloured by our questionable aversion to the darker shades. Complexion has assumed psychological, economic and political currency with continued
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From light-skinned deities depicted in ancient religious tableaux, pearl-swallowing practices in China, turmeric ceremonies in India to clay application in Africa, history has been coloured by our questionable aversion to the darker shades. Complexion has assumed psychological, economic and political currency with continued growth in the desire for skin lighteners sweeping the boundaries of country, race, cultural and socioeconomic status. This review explores our early associations with the symbolism of colour through religion, the ideals of complexion across cultures and time, the motivations behind the use of skin lightening practices, and the use of colour within political and economic agendas. Skin-lightening agents with regard to content, adverse effect profile and regulation are discussed and safe skin care practices in assisting with an individual’s adoption of a more tolerable spectrum of shades are alluded to. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Packaging Evaluation Approach to Improve Cosmetic Product Safety
Cosmetics 2016, 3(3), 32; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3030032 -
Abstract
In the Regulation 1223/2009, evaluation of packaging has become mandatory to assure cosmetic product safety. In fact, the safety assessment of a cosmetic product can be successfully carried out only if the hazard deriving from the use of the designed packaging for the
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In the Regulation 1223/2009, evaluation of packaging has become mandatory to assure cosmetic product safety. In fact, the safety assessment of a cosmetic product can be successfully carried out only if the hazard deriving from the use of the designed packaging for the specific product is correctly evaluated. Despite the law requirement, there is too little information about the chemical-physical characteristics of finished packaging and the possible interactions between formulation and packaging; furthermore, different from food packaging, the cosmetic packaging is not regulated and, to date, appropriate guidelines are still missing. The aim of this work was to propose a practical approach to investigate commercial polymeric containers used in cosmetic field, especially through mechanical properties’ evaluation, from a safety point of view. First of all, it is essential to obtain complete information about raw materials. Subsequently, using an appropriate full factorial experimental design, it is possible to investigate the variables, like polymeric density, treatment, or type of formulation involved in changes to packaging properties or in formulation-packaging interaction. The variation of these properties can greatly affect cosmetic safety. In particular, mechanical properties can be used as an indicator of pack performances and safety. As an example, containers made of two types of polyethylene with different density, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE), are investigated. Regarding the substances potentially extractable from the packaging, in this work the headspace solid-phase microextraction method (HSSPME) was used because this technique was reported in the literature as suitable to detect extractables from the polymeric material here employed. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue “Cosmetic Contact Allergens”
Cosmetics 2016, 3(3), 31; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3030031 -
Abstract
In Europe, a cosmetic is defined as any substance or preparation intended to be placed in contact with the various external parts of the human body (epidermis, hair system, nails, lips and external genital organs) or with the teeth and the mucous membranes
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In Europe, a cosmetic is defined as any substance or preparation intended to be placed in contact with the various external parts of the human body (epidermis, hair system, nails, lips and external genital organs) or with the teeth and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity with a view exclusively or mainly to cleaning them, perfuming them, changing their appearance and/or correcting body odours and/or protecting them or keeping them in good condition.[...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Endeavors in the Area of Hair Care—Chemical Aspects of Hair Care Processes and Products
Cosmetics 2016, 3(3), 30; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3030030 -
Abstract
The paper focuses on historical review of explorations and progress in the field of hair care. The descriptive theme of the survey is accompanied by references to specific investigations of the structure and physico-chemical properties of hair that are essential for evolving of
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The paper focuses on historical review of explorations and progress in the field of hair care. The descriptive theme of the survey is accompanied by references to specific investigations of the structure and physico-chemical properties of hair that are essential for evolving of novel processes and products. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Contact Allergy to Preservatives—Is the European Commission a Commendable Risk Manager?
Cosmetics 2016, 3(3), 29; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3030029 -
Abstract
Although preservatives are necessary to prevent deterioration by microbial growth in cosmetic products, daily skin contact with preserved cosmetic products may cause a preservative contact allergy. Only preservatives with sufficient pre-market risk assessment, presumably being safe for the consumer from a public health
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Although preservatives are necessary to prevent deterioration by microbial growth in cosmetic products, daily skin contact with preserved cosmetic products may cause a preservative contact allergy. Only preservatives with sufficient pre-market risk assessment, presumably being safe for the consumer from a public health point of view, are permitted for use in cosmetic products in the European Union. Notwithstanding the efforts by the European Commission (EC) to avoid epidemics of contact allergy, the former epidemic of contact allergy to methyldibromo glutaronitrile and the unprecedented epidemic of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone show the procrastination of the European Union risk management process for cosmetic ingredients. Timely risk management is of the utmost importance to avoid rapidly increasing numbers of contact allergy to turn into full-blown epidemics. It is therefore proposed that in order to avoid future epidemics of contact allergy to preservatives, the allowed preservatives in cosmetic products should be entered onto Annex V on a time-limited basis only, and they must be re-evaluated in order to stay on Annex V. Full article
Open AccessReview
Oxidative Stress and Human Skin Connective Tissue Aging
Cosmetics 2016, 3(3), 28; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3030028 -
Abstract
Everyone desires healthy and beautiful-looking skin. However, as we age, our skin becomes old due to physiological changes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important pathogenic factor involved in human aging. Human skin is exposed to ROS generated from both extrinsic sources such
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Everyone desires healthy and beautiful-looking skin. However, as we age, our skin becomes old due to physiological changes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important pathogenic factor involved in human aging. Human skin is exposed to ROS generated from both extrinsic sources such as as ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun, and intrinsic sources such as endogenous oxidative metabolism. ROS-mediated oxidative stress damages the collagen-rich extracellular matrix (ECM), the hallmark of skin connective tissue aging. Damage to dermal collagenous ECM weakens the skin’s structural integrity and creates an aberrant tissue microenvironment that promotes age-related skin disorders, such as impaired wound healing and skin cancer development. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of ROS/oxidative stress and skin connective tissue aging. Full article
Open AccessReview
Human Hair and the Impact of Cosmetic Procedures: A Review on Cleansing and Shape-Modulating Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2016, 3(3), 26; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3030026 -
Abstract
Hair can be strategically divided into two distinct parts: the hair follicle, deeply buried in the skin, and the visible hair fiber. The study of the hair follicle is mainly addressed by biological sciences while the hair fiber is mainly studied from a
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Hair can be strategically divided into two distinct parts: the hair follicle, deeply buried in the skin, and the visible hair fiber. The study of the hair follicle is mainly addressed by biological sciences while the hair fiber is mainly studied from a physicochemical perspective by cosmetic sciences. This paper reviews the key topics in hair follicle biology and hair fiber biochemistry, in particular the ones associated with the genetically determined cosmetic attributes: hair texture and shape. The traditional and widespread hair care procedures that transiently or permanently affect these hair fiber features are then described in detail. When hair is often exposed to some particularly aggressive cosmetic treatments, hair fibers become damaged. The future of hair cosmetics, which are continuously evolving based on ongoing research, will be the development of more efficient and safer procedures according to consumers’ needs and concerns. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Overview of Skin Whitening Agents: Drugs and Cosmetic Products
Cosmetics 2016, 3(3), 27; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3030027 -
Abstract
Depigmentation and skin lightening products, which have been in use for ages in Asian countries where skin whiteness is a major esthetic criterion, are now also highly valued by Western populations, who expose themselves excessively to the sun and develop skin spots as
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Depigmentation and skin lightening products, which have been in use for ages in Asian countries where skin whiteness is a major esthetic criterion, are now also highly valued by Western populations, who expose themselves excessively to the sun and develop skin spots as a consequence. After discussing the various possible mechanisms of depigmentation, the different molecules that can be used as well as the status of the products containing them will now be presented. Hydroquinone and derivatives thereof, retinoids, alpha- and beta-hydroxy acids, ascorbic acid, divalent ion chelators, kojic acid, azelaic acid, as well as diverse herbal extracts are described in terms of their efficacy and safety. Since a genuine effect (without toxic effects) is difficult to obtain, prevention by using sunscreen products is always preferable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experiences and Statistical Evaluation of Serious Undesirable Effects of Cosmetic Products in the EU
Cosmetics 2016, 3(3), 25; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3030025 -
Abstract
The Council of Europe created an outline for a vigilant system of undesirable effects of cosmetic products in 2006. In 2013, some of those aspects were included in the European Cosmetics Regulation (EC) 1223/2009. Since then, serious undesirable effects (SUEs), which are the
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The Council of Europe created an outline for a vigilant system of undesirable effects of cosmetic products in 2006. In 2013, some of those aspects were included in the European Cosmetics Regulation (EC) 1223/2009. Since then, serious undesirable effects (SUEs), which are the tip of the iceberg of all undesirable effects of cosmetic products, have to be reported to competent authorities. Neglecting the first phase of establishing the system, we have about two years of experience regarding the notification of SUEs. This notification system is based on a huge amount of cases that allow us to identify occurring problems at an early stage through a signal of increased reported cases for a certain product. It has already been shown that the system is able to identify products that have the potential to cause health risks even if they seem to comply with the legal requirements and the safeguard clause was applied. Until May 2016, 680 cases of SUEs were shared in the EU. The statistics of SUEs indicate that hair dyes and skin care products are the product types that cause the most SUEs. Almost 80% of all SUEs occurred in the head area, especially the skin of the face was affected. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Facial Skin Lifting and Brightening Following Sleep on Copper Oxide Containing Pillowcases
Cosmetics 2016, 3(3), 24; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3030024 -
Abstract
Copper plays a key role in many of the physiological processes that occur in the skin. Previously it was found that sleeping on pillowcases impregnated with microscopic copper oxide particles results in reduction of wrinkles and fine lines. In the current study, it
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Copper plays a key role in many of the physiological processes that occur in the skin. Previously it was found that sleeping on pillowcases impregnated with microscopic copper oxide particles results in reduction of wrinkles and fine lines. In the current study, it was examined if sleeping on copper oxide impregnated pillowcases results also in skin lifting and skin brightness. A four week, double blind, randomized study was performed, during which 45 women, aged 37–54, slept on copper oxide containing pillowcases (test group, n = 23) or on control pillowcases without copper oxide (control group, n = 22). Facial and eye skin surface was measured using an F-ray 3D measurement system and surface analysis was conducted using Image-pro® plus. Skin brightness was measured using a tristimulus colorimeter. Sleeping on the test pillowcases resulted in statistically significant skin lifting on the cheek area (p = 0.039) and eye area (p = 0.001) after four weeks of use as compared to baseline. The mean skin brightness in those sleeping on the test pillowcases increased after two (p = 0.024) and four weeks (p = 0.008). No statistically significant changes occurred during the study in the study participants using the control pillowcases. Statistically significant differences between both groups were recorded at two and four weeks for skin brightness and skin lifting, respectively. In conclusion, sleeping on copper oxide containing pillowcases results in facial skin lifting and brightness of the skin. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Sensitization and Clinically Relevant Allergy to Hair Dyes and Clothes from Black Henna Tattoos: Do People Know the Risk? An Uncommon Serious Case and a Review of the Literature
Cosmetics 2016, 3(3), 23; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3030023 -
Abstract
Henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) tattooing has been used in Egypt and India since ancient times. Today this temporary body art is becoming increasingly popular among young people. Various chemicals are added to henna to darken and enhance the definition of tattoos, especially
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Henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) tattooing has been used in Egypt and India since ancient times. Today this temporary body art is becoming increasingly popular among young people. Various chemicals are added to henna to darken and enhance the definition of tattoos, especially para-phenylenediamine (PPD), which is a strong sensitizer known to cause cross sensitive reactions to azoic dyes and other para-amino compounds. We present the case of an 18-year-old girl who became clinically sensitive to textile dyes after having showed a serious reaction both to her first hair dying when she was 16 years old and following the application of a temporary henna tattoo when she was a kid. The evidence from our literature review showed 33 cases of manifest sensitization to hair dye and only one of observable contact allergy to both hair and textile dyes from henna tattoos. The sensitization of children may have long-life lasting consequences, because of cross-reaction to dyes and other chemicals contained in hair colourants, clothes and drugs. Since tattoos are very popular and globalization has increased the circulation of unauthorized products we point out the need for informative campaigns about the risk of sensitization caused by temporary tattoos. Full article
Open AccessReview
Mushroom Cosmetics: The Present and Future
Cosmetics 2016, 3(3), 22; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3030022 -
Abstract
Mushrooms have been valued as a traditional source of natural bioactive compounds for centuries and have recently been exploited for potential components in the cosmetics industry. Numerous mushrooms and their ingredients have been known to be beneficial to the skin and hair. The
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Mushrooms have been valued as a traditional source of natural bioactive compounds for centuries and have recently been exploited for potential components in the cosmetics industry. Numerous mushrooms and their ingredients have been known to be beneficial to the skin and hair. The representative ingredients are as follows: phenolics, polyphenolics, terpenoids, selenium, polysaccharides, vitamins, and volatile organic compounds. These compounds show excellent antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-wrinkle, skin whitening, and moisturizing effects, which make them ideal candidates for cosmetics products. This review provides some perspectives of mushrooms (and/or extracts) and their ingredients presently used, or patented to be used, in both cosmeceuticals for topical administration and nutricosmetics for oral administration. With the small percentage of mushrooms presently identified and utilized, more mushroom species will be discovered, verified, and cultivated in the future, boosting the development of relevant industry. Combining with progress in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and systems pharmacology, mushrooms can find their way into cosmetics with multiple approaches. Full article