Open AccessArticle
Absorption and Photo-Stability of Substituted Dibenzoylmethanes and Chalcones as UVA Filters
Cosmetics 2018, 5(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5020033 -
Abstract
There is still an international need to develop broad-spectrum sunscreen products with an adequate UVB/UVA balance, while the approved filters available in the UVA are scarce. Currently, one of the few UVA filters approved in the United States and Europe is tert-butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane
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There is still an international need to develop broad-spectrum sunscreen products with an adequate UVB/UVA balance, while the approved filters available in the UVA are scarce. Currently, one of the few UVA filters approved in the United States and Europe is tert-butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDM, avobenzone). However, this compound is unstable from aphotochemical point of view and cannot be used in combination with certain sunscreens. In this paper, we investigate the photochemical behavior of a set of dibenzoylmethanes and chalcones. In particular, we carry out their absorption and emission spectra, evaluate their photochemical degradation, and study their generation of free radicals and singlet oxygen photoproduction. Two compounds resultedin having the basic properties of UVA filters (2′-hydroxy-4-methoxychalcone and 2′-hydroxy-4-methoxydibenzoylmethane). Further studies are proposed, such as formulating the compounds into emulsions or other common cosmetic presentations, as well as combining them with broadly-used UVB filters. We have also considered the need to establish its toxicological profile. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Secondary Plant Metabolites for Sun Protective Cosmetics: From Pre-Selection to Product Formulation
Cosmetics 2018, 5(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5020032 -
Abstract
Topical sun protective cosmetics (sunscreens, pre- and post-sun) have been intensively developed and produced to protect human skin against solar irradiation-associated damages/pathologies. Unfortunately, routine cosmetics for sun protection containing synthetic organic and/or physical sunscreens could exert adverse effects towards human organisms and bring
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Topical sun protective cosmetics (sunscreens, pre- and post-sun) have been intensively developed and produced to protect human skin against solar irradiation-associated damages/pathologies. Unfortunately, routine cosmetics for sun protection containing synthetic organic and/or physical sunscreens could exert adverse effects towards human organisms and bring undesirable ecological changes. Terrestrial and marine plant species, being exposed to sun light for hundreds of millions of years, have evolved two pro-survival strategies: effective protection against/adaptation to its deleterious effects and the use of solar energy for photosynthesis/photo-biochemical reactions. Secondary plant metabolites (SPM) are primary sensors of solar energy and mediators of its use (photo-sensitisers) or neutralisation (photo-protectors). A similar double photo-protective/photo-sensitising system is built in within human skin. Modern development of toxicologically/ecologically safe yet effective sun-protective cosmetics attempts to pre-select photo-stable and non-phototoxic SPMs that provide broad UVA + UVB sunscreen, free radical scavenging and direct antioxidant defence, endogenous antioxidant rescue, induction of antioxidant enzymes (indirect antioxidant defence), and normalisation of metabolic and immune responses to UVA + UVB. Proper formulation of sun protective cosmetics should assure targeted delivery of photo-active SPMs to definite skin layers to invigorate the built in photo-chemical skin barrier. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Herbal Cosmetics Knowledge of Arab-Choa and Kotoko Ethnic Groups in the Semi-Arid Areas of Far North Cameroon: Ethnobotanical Assessment and Phytochemical Review
Cosmetics 2018, 5(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5020031 -
Abstract
The plant-based traditional knowledge of many Cameroonian populations concerning beauty and skin care is still poorly documented, yet they are real resources of innovation and economic development. The aim of this study is to document the indigenous knowledge of Choa Arab and Kotoko
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The plant-based traditional knowledge of many Cameroonian populations concerning beauty and skin care is still poorly documented, yet they are real resources of innovation and economic development. The aim of this study is to document the indigenous knowledge of Choa Arab and Kotoko ethnic group in Kousséri (Far North Region of Cameroon) about plants used for cosmetics. Ethnobotanical data collected among key informants revealed a total of 13 plants species belonging to 12 families used by local people. Canarium schweinfurthii Engl and Santalum album L. obtained the highest frequency of citation. Trees are the most abundant life forms, while barks and seeds are the most frequently used parts. More than 40% of recorded plants are used for skin care. The cosmetic allegations of recorded plants include: dermatology, anti-cancers, antioxidant agent, perfume, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, wounds healing activity, skin lightening, dental caries, astringent and hair care. They all contain various phytochemicals that are of interest in cosmetics. Despite the strong relationship between the Choa Arab and Kotoko people and herbal cosmetic ingredients, these plants are still less investigated for their cosmetic application. The authors urge for the development of sustainable supply chain for plants with potentials as cosmetics, involving local communities in the planning, implementation and monitoring process, following principles of Nagoya protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
A Critical View of Different Botanical, Molecular, and Chemical Techniques Used in Authentication of Plant Materials for Cosmetic Applications
Cosmetics 2018, 5(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5020030 -
Abstract
A number of approaches can be implemented to ensure plant-based material authentication for cosmetic applications. Doing this requires knowledge and data dealing with botany, molecular biology, and analytical chemistry, the main techniques of which are described here. A comprehensive and critical view of
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A number of approaches can be implemented to ensure plant-based material authentication for cosmetic applications. Doing this requires knowledge and data dealing with botany, molecular biology, and analytical chemistry, the main techniques of which are described here. A comprehensive and critical view of the methods is provided with comments as well as examples of their application domains. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Skin Regenerative and Anti-Cancer Actions of Copper Peptides
Cosmetics 2018, 5(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5020029 -
Abstract
Topical remedies capable of protecting skin from damage and supporting its regeneration can improve skin’s health as well as its appearance. Small copper peptides have an excellent safety record and are widely used in cosmetic products. The most studied copper peptide is GHK-Cu
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Topical remedies capable of protecting skin from damage and supporting its regeneration can improve skin’s health as well as its appearance. Small copper peptides have an excellent safety record and are widely used in cosmetic products. The most studied copper peptide is GHK-Cu (glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine), a small copper-binding peptide, naturally present in human plasma. Since its discovery in 1973, in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that GHK-Cu possesses a wealth of health-positive actions including improving wound contraction and epithelization, and increasing the production of growth factors and activity of antioxidant enzymes. Recently, gene expression profiling shed new light on diverse biological actions of GHK-Cu. The present paper discusses evidence of GHK-Cu and other small copper peptides possessing potent anti-cancer properties. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Quantitative Analysis Using the Phototrichogram Technique of an Italian Population Suffering from Androgenic Alopecia
Cosmetics 2018, 5(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5020028 -
Abstract
In this study, the values of some scalp basal parameters, collected during several clinical studies involving a total of 254 subjects with androgenic alopecia, were analyzed. Subjects’ values were grouped by age and gender, and the differences between groups were examined. The density
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In this study, the values of some scalp basal parameters, collected during several clinical studies involving a total of 254 subjects with androgenic alopecia, were analyzed. Subjects’ values were grouped by age and gender, and the differences between groups were examined. The density values (n° of hair/cm2) and the percentages of anagen and telogen hair were considered. Furthermore, the variations recorded at the end of cosmetic treatments (ranging from 12 to 16 weeks) aiming to reduce excessive hair loss were analyzed. The basal values regarding the percentage of hair in the anagen phase evidenced a linear decrease with increasing age, with a corresponding increase of the percentage of hair in the telogen phase. As far as the hair density differences between males and females are concerned, females had a mean value significantly higher than males. Moreover, at the end of the intended anti-hair loss treatments, females were more susceptible to improvements of their hair density values. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Lipids in the Medulla of Japanese Hair and Their Function
Cosmetics 2018, 5(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5020027 -
Abstract
The hair is composed of the cuticle (the outermost surface), cortex (its major part), and medulla (in the hair center). The lipid content of the medulla of Caucasian hair is relatively higher than that of African-American hair. However, the types of lipids therein
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The hair is composed of the cuticle (the outermost surface), cortex (its major part), and medulla (in the hair center). The lipid content of the medulla of Caucasian hair is relatively higher than that of African-American hair. However, the types of lipids therein remain unidentified. The aim of the current study was to analyze the constituent lipids of the medulla of Japanese hair, and to identify their function. A lipid peroxidase fluorescent reagent was used to investigate region-specific differences in the lipid content of the medulla (the tip, middle, and root portions). Since the medulla is important for the hair’s glossiness, we also investigated the relationship between the lipid content and hair glossiness. The lipid content of hair, based on the absence or presence of lipid species in the medulla, was investigated using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Micro-attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometry (micro-ATR FTIR) was used to analyze the similarities between the standard and medulla lipids, focusing on the methylene/methyl stretching vibration region. The data indicated that the medulla contained unsaturated lipids, the content of which decreased from the root to the tip of the hair. Hair glossiness was reduced with the decreasing lipid content, suggesting that unsaturated lipids of the medulla play a role in glossiness. The TLC analysis revealed differences in the type and amount of hair lipids in the medulla. While squalene and oleic acid spots were detected in hair with a continuously maintained medulla, these compounds were not detected in hair in which the medulla was not maintained. The medulla constituents similar to oleic acid and squalene were also identified by the micro-ATR FTIR spectrum analysis and the previous report. The findings indicate that the medulla is composed of at least squalene and oleic acid. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Rice Water: A Traditional Ingredient with Anti-Aging Efficacy
Cosmetics 2018, 5(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5020026 -
Abstract
The skin healing benefits of rice have been known for centuries. Rice (Oryza sativa) water is a food processing waste that can potentially be incorporated into cosmetic formulations. However, no scientific evidence supports their role in skincare products. The aim of
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The skin healing benefits of rice have been known for centuries. Rice (Oryza sativa) water is a food processing waste that can potentially be incorporated into cosmetic formulations. However, no scientific evidence supports their role in skincare products. The aim of this project is to design and develop a topical gel formulation containing rice water and to evaluate its biological properties, namely, the anti-aging and antioxidant rice water properties. Rice water was evaluated in terms of physico-chemical composition and in terms of in vitro biological antioxidant activity and elastase inhibitory effect. Rice water was incorporated into a hydrogel and the developed formulation was subjected to pharmacotechnical tests such as pH and viscosity. Biological and sensory effects were evaluated on a panel of 12 volunteers for 28 days. The safety evaluation study was performed on rice water gel, using the Human Repeat Insult Patch test protocol. Rice water presented in vitro biological antioxidant activity and elastase inhibitory effect. The gel formulation containing 96% rice water was biocompatible with the human skin and presented suitable cosmetic properties. Rice water should be thus considered as an anti-aging ingredient to be used as raw material for skincare applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Stability Evaluation of Liquid Crystal-Based Formulations Containing Glycolic Plant Extracts and Nano-Actives
Cosmetics 2018, 5(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5020025 -
Abstract
Emulsions are of great use in cosmetic formulations due to their stability. The aim of this work was to develop and assess organoleptic, physicochemical, and microscopic properties of four auto-emulsifiable oil-in-water formulations. Such formulations were developed containing 4.0% cetearyl alcohol, dicetyl phosphate, and
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Emulsions are of great use in cosmetic formulations due to their stability. The aim of this work was to develop and assess organoleptic, physicochemical, and microscopic properties of four auto-emulsifiable oil-in-water formulations. Such formulations were developed containing 4.0% cetearyl alcohol, dicetyl phosphate, and ceteth-10 phosphate (Formulation A), nano-actives obtained from safflower, coconut, and clove oils (Formulation B); a mixture of glycolic extracts from Centella asiatica leaves, Aesculus hippocastanum seeds, and Hamamelis virginiana leaves (Formulation C); association between the nano-actives and glycolic extracts described above (Formulation D). The formulations were trialed for 90 days under the normal stability test. The developed formulations were considered all stable and homogeneous, with liquid crystals possibly being formed. Organoleptic parameters and pH of Formulations A and B remained unchanged, but the color of Formulations C and D changed due to the natural color of the glycolic extracts used. It can be concluded that the formation of liquid crystals increased the stability of the formulations, and future tests should be carried out in order to assess the rheological properties and hydration potential of the developed formulations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanism of Cuticle Hole Development in Human Hair Due to UV-Radiation Exposure
Cosmetics 2018, 5(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5020024 -
Abstract
Hair is easily damaged by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, bleaching agents or permanent wave treatments, and as damage progresses, hair loses its gloss, develops split ends and breaks. However, the causes of hair damage due to UV radiation have not yet been clarified. We
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Hair is easily damaged by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, bleaching agents or permanent wave treatments, and as damage progresses, hair loses its gloss, develops split ends and breaks. However, the causes of hair damage due to UV radiation have not yet been clarified. We discovered that in one mechanism facilitating damage to wet hair by UV radiation, the unsaturated fatty acids in wet hair produce hydroxy radicals upon exposure to UV radiation, and these radicals produce cuticle holes between the cuticle layers. In wet hair exposed to UV radiation, cuticle holes were produced only between the cuticle layers, whereas when human hair was immersed in a solution containing hydroxy radicals produced by Fenton’s reaction, a random production of cuticle holes was noted. It is thought that hydroxy radicals are produced only between the cuticle layers by exposure to UV radiation, and cuticle holes are formed only in this region because one of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, with a bis-allyl hydrogen, is found between the cuticle layers. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Chemical Stability Analysis of Hair Cleansing Conditioners under High-Heat Conditions Experienced during Hair Styling Processes
Cosmetics 2018, 5(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5010023 -
Abstract
Chemical stability is a key component of ensuring that a cosmetic product is safe for consumer use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical stability of commercially available hair cleansing conditioners subjected to high heat stresses from the styling processes
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Chemical stability is a key component of ensuring that a cosmetic product is safe for consumer use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical stability of commercially available hair cleansing conditioners subjected to high heat stresses from the styling processes of blow drying or straightening. Two hair cleansing conditioners were subjected to temperatures of 60 °C and 185 °C to simulate the use of a blow dryer or flatiron hair straightener, respectively and analyzed via Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-UV (HPLC) and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to capture a chemical profile of the samples. The resulting spectra from matched heated and unheated samples were compared to identify any changes in chemical composition. Overall, no differences in the spectra were observed between the heated and unheated samples at both temperatures evaluated. Specifically, no new peaks were observed during analysis, indicating that no degradation products were formed. In addition, all chemicals identified during GC-MS analysis were known listed ingredients of the products. In summary, no measurable changes in chemical composition were observed in the hair cleansing conditioner samples under high-heat stress conditions. The presented analytical methods can serve as an initial screening tool to evaluate the chemical stability of a cosmetic product under conditions of anticipated use. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Labeling of Cosmetic Products
Cosmetics 2018, 5(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5010022 -
Abstract
The labeling of cosmetic products provides a set of obligations, as reported in the Regulation 1223/2009, which came into force in Europe in July 2013. The indications reported on the label are intended to enable the clear identification of the functionality and proper
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The labeling of cosmetic products provides a set of obligations, as reported in the Regulation 1223/2009, which came into force in Europe in July 2013. The indications reported on the label are intended to enable the clear identification of the functionality and proper use of cosmetics, ensure the protection of the consumer from the commercial aspects and, above all, from the safety point of view. Moreover, it should allow quick tracing of the product details and all info of toxicological relevance. However, the misuse of this tool often leads, on one side, to confusion among cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and biocides. On the other side, it gives rise to fanciful interpretations by a huge number of web users, who pretend to be able to judge the quality of a cosmetic product just by reading the ingredients list. This article points out the concrete purpose of cosmetic labels, in order to shed light on the use of certain categories of ‘controversial’ ingredients and on the real quality concepts of cosmetic products. Indeed, when properly interpreted, cosmetic labels represent a good tool for the professional investigation of adverse reactions to cosmetics. Full article
Open AccessReview
Bioactive Peptides: Applications and Relevance for Cosmeceuticals
Cosmetics 2018, 5(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5010021 -
Abstract
Peptides found in skin can act by different mechanisms of action, being able to function as epidermal or nervous growth factors or even as neurotransmitters. Due to the vast functionality of these compounds, there is growing research on bioactive peptides aimed at investigating
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Peptides found in skin can act by different mechanisms of action, being able to function as epidermal or nervous growth factors or even as neurotransmitters. Due to the vast functionality of these compounds, there is growing research on bioactive peptides aimed at investigating their uses in products developed for stimulating collagen and elastin synthesis and improving skin healing. Thus, a literature search on applications of the most common bioactive peptides used in cosmeceuticals was carried out. There is a lack of proper reviews concerning this topic in scientific literature. Nine peptides with specific actions on body and facial dysfunctions were described. It could be noted while searching scientific literature that studies aimed at investigating peptides which prevent aging of the skin are overrepresented. This makes searching for peptides designed for treating other skin dysfunctions more difficult. The use of biomimetic peptides in cosmetic formulations aimed at attenuating or preventing different types of skin dysfunctions is a topic where information is still lackluster. Even though research on these compounds is relatively common, there is still a need for more studies concerning their practical uses so their mechanisms of action can be fully elucidated, as they tend to be quite complex. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Cosmeceutical Properties of Two Cultivars of Red Raspberry Grown under Different Conditions
Cosmetics 2018, 5(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5010020 -
Abstract
Plant selection, input, and field management are proven strategies that produce high yields of crops bearing selected desirable characteristics for the nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industry. This study reports on the effect of substrate and light on selected quantitative and qualitative bioactive properties of
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Plant selection, input, and field management are proven strategies that produce high yields of crops bearing selected desirable characteristics for the nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industry. This study reports on the effect of substrate and light on selected quantitative and qualitative bioactive properties of two cultivars of Rubus idaeus L (‘Ruvi’ and ‘Cayuga’). Our results demonstrated that the quantitative and qualitative fruit characteristics (yield, fruit dimensions, titratable acidity, and total soluble solids contents), plant growth, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and total antioxidant capacity, are significantly affected by genotype, light intensity, and substrate type. Fruits from ‘Ruvi’ plants cultivated under low light conditions, on soil/peat substrate exhibited high levels of antioxidant capacity, phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and high inhibitory potency towards the skin-regulating enzymes tyrosinase and elastase. Extract derived from these fruits was formulated into a topical skin care cream. This cream exhibited excellent compatibility and stability characteristics. Our research concluded that quantity and quality of Rubus idaeus L. fruits could be efficiently managed through conventional agronomic practices. Our project determined the optimal agronomic management practices to produce desirable characteristics and maximize bioactive content that determine the nutraceutical and cosmeceutical quality of the red raspberry. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Cosmetic Functional Ingredients from Botanical Sources for Anti-Pollution Skincare Products
Cosmetics 2018, 5(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5010019 -
Abstract
Air pollution is a rising problem in many metropolitan areas around the world. Airborne contaminants are predominantly derived from anthropogenic activities, and include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, ozone and particulate matter (PM; a mixture of solid and liquid
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Air pollution is a rising problem in many metropolitan areas around the world. Airborne contaminants are predominantly derived from anthropogenic activities, and include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, ozone and particulate matter (PM; a mixture of solid and liquid particles of variable size and composition, able to absorb and delivery a large number of pollutants). The exposure to these air pollutants is associated to detrimental effects on human skin, such as premature aging, pigment spot formation, skin rashes and eczema, and can worsen some skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis. A cosmetic approach to this problem involves the topical application of skincare products containing functional ingredients able to counteract pollution-induced skin damage. Considering that the demand for natural actives is growing in all segments of global cosmetic market, the aim of this review is to describe some commercial cosmetic ingredients obtained from botanical sources able to reduce the impact of air pollutants on human skin with different mechanisms, providing a scientific rationale for their use. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
PGC-1α-Derived Peptide Influences Energy in Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts
Cosmetics 2018, 5(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5010018 -
Abstract
Mitochondrial energy metabolism declines during aging. PGC-1α is a transcription coactivator that plays a key role in the regulation of energetic metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in the cells. The aim of this study was to compare the PPARGC1A gene expression level in normal
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Mitochondrial energy metabolism declines during aging. PGC-1α is a transcription coactivator that plays a key role in the regulation of energetic metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in the cells. The aim of this study was to compare the PPARGC1A gene expression level in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) derived from young and old donors. A PGC-1α-derived peptide was then synthetized and its ability to affect the PPARGC1A gene expression and mitochondrial function was tested. We assessed changes in PPARGC1A gene expression using quantitative RT-PCR. The effect of the PGC-1α-derived peptide on energy production was determined using an ATP bioluminescent assay kit. We also studied changes in mitochondrial membrane potential using JC-1 fluorescent dye and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using DCFH-DA dye in NHDF cells after UVA/B irradiation alone and in combination with a peptide treatment. The PPARGC1A gene expression decreased in an aged human dermal fibroblast. The PGC-1α-derived peptide was synthetized and increased the PPARGC1A gene expression and ATP levels in cells. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential in UVA/B irradiated cells treated with the tested PGC-1α-derived peptide was increased compared to irradiated controls. Moreover, the ROS levels in UVA/B irradiated cells treated with the PGC-1α-derived peptide decreased. On the basis of our results, PGC-1α emerges as an interesting target to combat decreasing energetic metabolism in aging skin cells. Indeed, the PGC-1α-derived peptide increasing the PPARGC1A gene expression improved the mitochondrial function and increased energy production in the cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pollution Damage and Protection of Asian Hair
Cosmetics 2018, 5(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5010017 -
Abstract
Cigarette smoke was used to simulate a polluted environment and an experiment was performed to reveal how virgin and bleached hair are damaged by a polluted environment. The dry/wet combability, surface contact angle, tryptophan content, and cuticle morphology of the smoke exposed hair
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Cigarette smoke was used to simulate a polluted environment and an experiment was performed to reveal how virgin and bleached hair are damaged by a polluted environment. The dry/wet combability, surface contact angle, tryptophan content, and cuticle morphology of the smoke exposed hair were evaluated, and compared to unexposed virgin hair. The results showed that pollution exposure can cause significant chemical damage to hair. In particular, virgin hair exposure to pollution can cause damage to the hair cuticles (higher wet/dry combing), protein degradation, and a more hydrophilic hair surface. The experiment also demonstrated that the styling polymer, polyimide-1 (isobutylene/dimethyl amino propyl maleimide/ethoxylated maleimide/maleic acid copolymer), can provide effective protection against such hair damage. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Equol’s Anti-Aging Effects Protect against Environmental Assaults by Increasing Skin Antioxidant Defense and ECM Proteins While Decreasing Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
Cosmetics 2018, 5(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5010016 -
Abstract
Environmental pollutants represent a major problem worldwide that cannot be passively avoided. It is known that skin sensitivities can result from environmental assaults, such as toxins and pollutants in air and water. Additionally, dermal assaults from wind and exposure to seasonal cold temperatures
[...] Read more.
Environmental pollutants represent a major problem worldwide that cannot be passively avoided. It is known that skin sensitivities can result from environmental assaults, such as toxins and pollutants in air and water. Additionally, dermal assaults from wind and exposure to seasonal cold temperatures are known. All of these environmental assaults are associated with oxidative stress and the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which damage DNA, lipids, proteins and mitochondrial function. Additionally, the influence of diet on dermal health and, especially, antioxidant defense in skin function are well established. In this regard, environmental pollution worldwide has generated a high demand for anti-pollution personal care products to protect the skin against the daily exposure of airborne toxins and various other assaults. Major cosmetic companies have anti-pollution personal care products but, in general, the products are formulated with commonly used active ingredients that have been retooled with market strategies to address current environmental pollution treatments. Equol is a new botanical active ingredient compound for skin applications. It has a polyphenolic chemical structure found in plant and food products, and is also classified as an isoflavonoid. Moreover, equol appears to address the need for an active ingredient in personal care products to protect against pollution assaults by increasing antioxidant defense, while inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation. Separate sections covering equol’s enhanced (a) delivery mechanism into human skin; (b) antioxidant effects via Nrf2 activation; (c) effects on extracellular matrix proteins like collagen and elastin and; (d) protection against oxidative stress and inflammation are presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Natural Anti-Age Ingredient Based on Quercus pubescens Willd. Leaves Extract—A Case Study
Cosmetics 2018, 5(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5010015 -
Abstract
Consumers pay more and more attention not just to the safety and health aspects of ingredients entering their cosmetics’ formulations, but also to their potency, origin, processing, ethical value and environmental footprint. Sustainability of the supply chain, preservation of biodiversity, as well as
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Consumers pay more and more attention not just to the safety and health aspects of ingredients entering their cosmetics’ formulations, but also to their potency, origin, processing, ethical value and environmental footprint. Sustainability of the supply chain, preservation of biodiversity, as well as greener extraction techniques are hence very popular with consumers. Consumers are primarily concerned by the efficacy of the cosmetic products they use and continuously scrutinize product labels, so marketing arguments need to be based on rigorous testing and reliable results to support claims (anti-age, anti-pollution, etc.) displayed on the product’s packaging. As a result, the increasing demand for natural ingredients with assessed bioactivities has profoundly modified the strategies adopted by cosmetic professionals to innovate in terms of actives. Sourcing and developing new natural cosmetic actives is a long-term procedure that is thoroughly described in the present paper, via the example of the design of both liquid and solid ingredients based on Quercus pubescens Willd. leaves extract, for which anti-age properties were assessed by a combination of in vitro assays. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Ultraviolet Radiation Wavelengths Causing Hardening and Reduced Elasticity of Collagen Gels In Vitro
Cosmetics 2018, 5(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics5010014 -
Abstract
Regular exposure of facial skin to sunlight promotes wrinkle formation; ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes the skin to harden and lose its elasticity. To study UV damage to the skin in vitro, a short-term in vitro photoaging model is required. Hence, the UV transmittance
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Regular exposure of facial skin to sunlight promotes wrinkle formation; ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes the skin to harden and lose its elasticity. To study UV damage to the skin in vitro, a short-term in vitro photoaging model is required. Hence, the UV transmittance of excised human skin was measured. Changes in elasticity in the cheeks of humans of different ages were investigated. Moreover, changes in the hardness and elasticity of collagen gels following UV exposure were investigated. UV rays penetrated the upper layer of the dermis and UVA (330 nm) rays penetrated approximately 1.6 times farther than UVB (310 nm) rays. A correlation between age and lower cheek elasticity was observed. Upon exposure to UV rays, collagen gels hardened and their elasticity decreased; UVA rays exhibited a stronger effect than UVB rays. Wavelengths of 300–340 nm caused hardening and reduced elasticity of collagen gels; 330-nm radiation showed the most pronounced effect. These effects were not observed upon exposure to UV wavelengths over 350 nm. Investigating the UV-hardening mechanism of collagen showed increased tyrosine crosslinks (dityrosines) in the in vitro model of photodamage to collagen, suggesting that dityrosine formation contributes to hardening and reduced elasticity of collagen in photoaged skin. Full article
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