Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Effect of Plant Mixture Ethanol Extracts Containing Biota orientalis L. Extract on Suppression of Sebum in Cultured Sebocytes and on Stimulation of Growth of Keratinocytes Co-cultured with Hair Papilla Cells
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 29; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030029 -
Abstract
Biota orientalis L. leaf extract (BOLE) is used medically to improve strength and arrest hemorrhage. In China, BOLE has been used in traditional medicine for its antibacterial properties and for hair restoration. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of hair restoration by
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Biota orientalis L. leaf extract (BOLE) is used medically to improve strength and arrest hemorrhage. In China, BOLE has been used in traditional medicine for its antibacterial properties and for hair restoration. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of hair restoration by BOLE from the point of view of the sebum suppressant effect and hair loss prevention. BOLE at 25 or 50 μg/mL final concentrations, a hair growth plant ethanol extract (HGPEE), and a hair growth plant water extract (HGPWE) (the latter two each containing BOLE and other plant compounds), were used to study: (1) the sebum suppressant effect in sebocytes from normal golden hamster ear pinna origin; (2) the effect on the growth of human fetal epidermal keratinocytes; and (3) the effect on gene expression related to hair growth stimulation, with (2) and (3) studied in human fetal epidermal keratinocytes and hair papilla cells. BOLE had a sebum depletion effect in cultured sebocytes; moreover, the amounts of mRNA of the hair growth factors, KGF, VEGF, and G3PDH analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction in human hair papilla cells were increased by HGPEE. The amount of mRNA of Wnt10b in cultured epidermal keratinocytes was increased by the addition of BOLE, and the growth of the cultured epidermal keratinocytes was promoted by HGPEE in a two-layer culture system of hair papilla cells and epidermal keratinocytes. HGPEE had a hair growth promotion/hair restoration effect and a sebum suppression effect. Hair restorers containing HGPEE may be useful for stimulating hair growth and suppressing excess scalp sebum in males and females. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Safety and Efficacy of Dextran-Rosmarinic Acid Conjugates as Innovative Polymeric Antioxidants in Skin Whitening: What Is the Evidence?
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 28; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030028 -
Abstract
Background: Melanins are high molecular weight pigments responsible for the mammalian skin and hair colour and play a key role in skin protection from UV radiation; however, their overproduction and excessive accumulation lead to pigmentation problems including melasma, freckles, uneven colouring, and
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Background: Melanins are high molecular weight pigments responsible for the mammalian skin and hair colour and play a key role in skin protection from UV radiation; however, their overproduction and excessive accumulation lead to pigmentation problems including melasma, freckles, uneven colouring, and age spots. Therefore, the modulation of melanin synthesis represents a critical issue in medicine and cosmetology. In the present study, an innovative polymeric antioxidant to be used as skin whitening agent is developed by the conjugation of dextran with rosmarinic acid. Methods: Dextran-rosmarinic acid conjugates (DEX-RA) were synthesized in a one-pot method starting from Origanum vulgare aqueous leaf extract and dextran. The total polyphenol content and the antioxidant activity were assessed by Folin-Ciocalteau assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and bleaching tests, respectively. The efficacy of DEX-RA was evaluated by inhibition of tyrosinase activity, in vitro diffusion and stability studies and in vivo studies. The biocompatibility of the conjugates was investigated by 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiaoly]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) and EPISKIN™ model. Results: Efficacy and safety studies confirmed the antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities and the biocompatibility of the synthesized conjugates. Conclusion: The polymeric conjugates, comparing to the free antioxidant, show a long-lasting efficacy combined to an enhanced stability resulting in an improved performance of the cosmetic formulations prepared using this innovative whitening agent as a bioactive ingredient. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Functional Stability of Photoprotective Formulations Containing Rutin Succinate
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 27; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030027 -
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate physicochemical and functional stability of two different self-emulsified oil/water (O/W) systems. Each system contained 0.4% w/w rutin succinate, which was associated or not with the photo-unstable chemical (7.5% w/w of 2-ethylhexyl
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The aim of this study was to evaluate physicochemical and functional stability of two different self-emulsified oil/water (O/W) systems. Each system contained 0.4% w/w rutin succinate, which was associated or not with the photo-unstable chemical (7.5% w/w of 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate and 3.0% w/w of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone) or physical filters (3.0% w/w titanium dioxide). A Normal Stability Test was carried out with the formulations containing rutin succinate (S) associated either with sunscreens (MS) or not (M) for 90 days. The formulation systems were assessed for organoleptic, functional, physicochemical and rheological behavior parameters. The MS formulation was found to be homogenous and had no significant alterations of pH, hysteresis area, antiradical activity or Sun Protection Factor values. Such stability was mainly observed when the formulation was incorporated into base cream A. The ability of chemical filters to resist degradation caused by UV radiation in the presence of rutin succinate preventing lipid peroxidation by entrapment of initiator radicals is a mechanism that might explain the results. The combination of rutin succinate to chemical filters improved formulation functionality, as it led to a more stable formulation which maintained the effectiveness of the added sunscreens. Consumer acceptance could be improved, considering that film formation and rheological spreadability characteristics of the tested formulation are better than those of traditional formulations. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Cosmeceuticals Properties of Sea Cucumbers: Prospects and Trends
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 26; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030026 -
Abstract
Cosmeceutical, a new term in the cosmetic industry, refers to cosmetic products that contain active ingredients and have medicinal benefits. Cosmeceuticals have attracted increased attention because of their beneficial effects on human health. Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, marine invertebrates, are
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Cosmeceutical, a new term in the cosmetic industry, refers to cosmetic products that contain active ingredients and have medicinal benefits. Cosmeceuticals have attracted increased attention because of their beneficial effects on human health. Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, marine invertebrates, are rich in bioactive compounds, including saponin, chondroitin sulphate, collagen, amino acids, and phenols. These bioactive compounds have diverse functional roles as a secondary metabolite and these properties can be applied to the developments of novel cosmeceuticals. This review provides an overview the application of sea cucumber derivatives for cosmeceuticals. Further, prospects and trends of sea cucumber in cosmeceuticals industry were also discussed. The proper development of sea cucumber bioactive compounds will be helpful in cosmeceutical product development and industry. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Revisiting Amazonian Plants for Skin Care and Disease
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 25; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030025 -
Abstract
This review concerns five species of trees and palm trees that occur as dominant plants in different rainforest areas of the Amazon region. Due to their abundance, these species can be exploited as sustainable sources of botanical materials and include Carapa guianensis Aubl.,
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This review concerns five species of trees and palm trees that occur as dominant plants in different rainforest areas of the Amazon region. Due to their abundance, these species can be exploited as sustainable sources of botanical materials and include Carapa guianensis Aubl., family Meliaceae; Eperua falcata Aubl., family Fabaceae; Quassia amara L., family Simaroubaceae; and Attalea speciosa Mart. and Oenocarpus bataua Mart., family Arecaceae. For each species, the general features, major constituents, overall medicinal properties, detailed dermatological and skin care applications, and possible harmful effects have been considered. The major products include seed oils from A. speciosa and C. guianensis, fruit oil from O. bataua, and active compounds such as limonoids from C. guianensis, flavonoids from E. falcata, and quassinoids from Q. amara. The dermatologic and cosmetic applications of these plants are growing rapidly but are still widely based on empiric knowledge. Applications include skin rehydration and soothing; anti-inflammatory, antiage, and antiparasite effects; hair care; burn and wound healing; and the amelioration of rosacea and psoriasis conditions. Despite a limited knowledge about their constituents and properties, these species appear as promising sources of bioactive compounds for skin care and health applications. An improvement of knowledge about their properties will provide added value to the exploitation of these forest resources. Full article
Open AccessReview
Safety and Efficacy of Nail Products
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 24; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030024 -
Abstract
Over the past several decades, the commercialization of nail cosmetics has increased. From nail polishes to artificial nails, different methods of nail beautification have become popularized. However, the impact of these products remains largely unknown. Governments have passed legislation in attempts to regulate
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Over the past several decades, the commercialization of nail cosmetics has increased. From nail polishes to artificial nails, different methods of nail beautification have become popularized. However, the impact of these products remains largely unknown. Governments have passed legislation in attempts to regulate nail cosmetics, but these regulations may not be adequate and are difficult to enforce. Knowledge of the safety and efficacy of nail products remains limited due to the relative dearth of literature published on the topic. This review serves to summarize and interpret the data available regarding common nail products and their safety and efficacy. Nail products such as nail polish, nail polish removers, and artificial nails have shown to have some adverse effects through case reports and studies. Harmful substances such as toluenesulfonamide-formaldehyde resin and methacrylates have been identified in commercial nail products, leading to several adverse effects, but in particular, allergic contact dermatitis. Exposure to substances such as acetonitrile found in removers may have more toxic and caustic effects, especially if ingested. In addition, for nail technicians there are negative effects linked with occupational exposure. Compounds used in nail products may become aerosolized and lead to asthma, eye and throat irritation, and even neurocognitive changes. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Genotoxic and DNA Photo-Protective Activity of Bryothamnion triquetrum and Halimeda incrassata Seaweeds Extracts
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 23; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030023 -
Abstract
The ultraviolet (UV) component of sunlight is high on the earth surface, especially at low latitudes, raising the risk of skin diseases, including cancer. The use of natural compounds is a strategy to protect people against UV damage. Seaweeds are becoming increasingly influential
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The ultraviolet (UV) component of sunlight is high on the earth surface, especially at low latitudes, raising the risk of skin diseases, including cancer. The use of natural compounds is a strategy to protect people against UV damage. Seaweeds are becoming increasingly influential in the food industry, and are also used in the pharmacy and cosmetic industries, due to several bioactive demonstrated properties. This work analyzed the genotoxic and photoprotective effects of the aqueous extracts of two seaweed species: Bryothamniontriquetrum and Halimeda incrassata. A cell-free plasmid DNA assay was employed, allowing detection of DNA breaks. The plasmids were exposed to increasing concentrations of aqueous extracts. DNA break was produced at concentrations of 2.0 and 4.0 mg/mL in both seaweed extracts and, consequently, a genotoxic effect is postulated. This effect arises with higher exposure times. Additionally, different combinations of plasmid DNA, restriction enzymes (Eco RI, Bam HI, and Pvu II) and extracts were assayed. The extracts did not produce an interference effect in the reconnaissance of the specific restriction target sequences of each enzyme. Photoprotective activity of the extracts was evaluated in UVC-irradiated plasmids. None of the extracts displayed DNA protective effects in this assay. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Kojic Acid Derivative in Bioreactors and the Analysis of Its Depigmenting and Antioxidant Activities
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 22; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030022 -
Abstract
In this study, 7-O-kojic acid monopalmitate (7-O-KAP) was synthesized using palmitic acid and kojic acid where the yield and biological activities were analyzed. The highest yield of 7-O-KAP (43%) can be obtained at molar ratio of 1:1,
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In this study, 7-O-kojic acid monopalmitate (7-O-KAP) was synthesized using palmitic acid and kojic acid where the yield and biological activities were analyzed. The highest yield of 7-O-KAP (43%) can be obtained at molar ratio of 1:1, enzyme loading of 5% (w/v), temperature of 70 °C, using immobilized lipase N435 in solvent-free system. Stirred tank reactor (STR) provides better mixing of the substrates and biocatalyst with better yield of 7-O-KAP, compared to fluidized tank reactor (FTR) and packed bed reactor (PBR). The 7-O-KAP exhibited pseudoplastic behavior with flow behavior index (n) being less than 1. The 7-O-KAP showed better depigmenting activity with the reduction of melanin content in Danio rerio embryo to 18.70%, significantly lower than the positive control, kojic acid (60.39%) at highest concentration tested (250 μg/mL). Intracellular tyrosinase in Danio rerio embryo was also reduced when treated with 7-O-KAP (12.53%), compared to kojic acid (37.36%) at concentration of 250 μg/mL. In FRAP assay, 7-O-KAP had antioxidant activity of 8156 AAE/mL, which was higher than kojic acid (6794 AAE/mL) at concentration of 2 mg/mL. The 7-O-KAP also reduced peroxidation activity to 12.21%, which was better compared to kojic acid (31.68%) at 2 mg/mL. Moreover, it was found that lipid peroxidation activity of 7-O-KAP (12.21%) was comparable to BHT (11.56%) at 2 mg/mL. Based on this study, 7-O-KAP could be an alternative compound for whitening agent and antioxidant compared to kojic acid and BHT, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate Inclusion into Υ-Cyclodextrin and Mesoporous SBA-15: Preparation, Characterization and In Vitro Release Study
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 21; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030021 -
Abstract
Ascorbic acid or vitamin C is a strong antioxidant widely used in cosmetic and food fields. This vitamin is very unstable and rapidly undergoes degradation. In order to solve this problem and to obtain a stable ascorbic acid, Nikkol Group has developed ascorbyltetraisopalmitate
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Ascorbic acid or vitamin C is a strong antioxidant widely used in cosmetic and food fields. This vitamin is very unstable and rapidly undergoes degradation. In order to solve this problem and to obtain a stable ascorbic acid, Nikkol Group has developed ascorbyltetraisopalmitate (VC-IP). This raw material is an oil phase, already well-known and employed in the cosmetic market. The objective of this study is to obtain VC-IP in micro-powder form, in order to produce a new raw material that is easily dispersible in oil and water phases and useful for make-up and color cosmetic applications. Various types of drug carriers were studied and considered in order to support VC-IP and obtain the conversion in powder. Υ-cyclodextrin and mesoporous silica SBA-15 were chosen as the best candidates. A white powder of supported VC-IP was obtained with each carrier (VC-IP@cyclodextrin, VC-IP@SBA-15). The systems underwent physicochemical characterization and in vitro release tests were carried out. Based on the conducted study, it can be concluded that by supporting VC-IP on Υ-cyclodextrin and SBA-15, it is feasible to obtain a new raw material in powder form. The two carriers possess different release profiles, adding the possibility to finely tune the release of the active component in smart formulations. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Toxic Evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus Chemical Fractions in E. coli
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 20; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020020 -
Abstract
Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf is consumed as a popular decoction owing to its nice flavor and hypotensor property. Its aqueous extract radioprotector and antimutagenic properties have been experimentally demonstrated. In addition, its DNA protective activity against UV light has been proved in plasmid
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Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf is consumed as a popular decoction owing to its nice flavor and hypotensor property. Its aqueous extract radioprotector and antimutagenic properties have been experimentally demonstrated. In addition, its DNA protective activity against UV light has been proved in plasmid DNA and bacterial models. The fractioning process is important in order to identify phytocompounds responsible for this activity. In this work, the toxicity of three fractions obtained from Cymbopogon citratus (essential oils, butanolic and aqueous fractions) were tested using the SOS Chromotest in Escherichia coli. Cymbopogon citratus chemical fractions possess cytotoxic properties in E. coli in the following order butanolic > aqueous > essentials oils. Genotoxic properties were detected in any of the fractions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sensory Evaluation and Oxidative Stability of a Suncream Formulated with Thermal Spring Waters from Ourense (NW Spain) and Sargassum muticum Extracts
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 19; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020019 -
Abstract
The purpose of this work was to evaluate four thermal spring waters from Ourense and a Sargassum muticum extract as cosmetic ingredients for the preparation of a suncream. The thermal spring waters were tested for their suitability as an aqueous phase main component,
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The purpose of this work was to evaluate four thermal spring waters from Ourense and a Sargassum muticum extract as cosmetic ingredients for the preparation of a suncream. The thermal spring waters were tested for their suitability as an aqueous phase main component, and the algal extract was added as an antioxidant instead of using synthetic preservatives in the cosmetic formula. The emulsion was tested for lipid oxidation during a period of 9 months and for consumer acceptance by performing a sensory test on controls and blanks. Further, color parameters were considered, and a pH determination was performed. The S. muticum extract protected from primary and secondary oxidation as efficiently as Fucus sp. or α-tocopherol extracts. In addition, the sensorial test revealed that consumers preferred suncreams prepared with the S. muticum extract and with thermal spring water from O Tinteiro and A Chavasqueira. The pH of the suncreams varied with the selection of the ingredients, and no oscillations in colorimetric values were visually observed. Our results indicate that the algal extract and the thermal spring waters from Ourense are potential cosmetic ingredients, since they showed effectiveness as antioxidant ingredients, and the suncreams were well accepted by consumers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Skin-Aging Activity of a Standardized Extract from Panax ginseng Leaves In Vitro and In Human Volunteer
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 18; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020018 -
Abstract
Ginseng leaves contain high saponin composition and content, but are used less often than the root part. To develop a use for the leaves that exploits their properties, we studied ginseng leaves as the raw material of anti-aging cosmetics. This study highlights an
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Ginseng leaves contain high saponin composition and content, but are used less often than the root part. To develop a use for the leaves that exploits their properties, we studied ginseng leaves as the raw material of anti-aging cosmetics. This study highlights an assessment of the cellular factivity and clinical efficacy of ginseng leaf extract, providing necessary information relevant to the development of new cosmetic products. Panax ginseng leaf purified extracts (PGLE) were shown to have high contents of Rb3 and Rb2. Rb3, the major chemical components of PGLE, promoted collagen synthesis though the activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in human skin fibroblast cells. In addition, the possibility of PGLE as an anti-skin-aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow’s feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in the region of interest (RI) treated with PGLE lotion over an eight-week period. Based on these results, we suggest the possibility that PGLE, having high levels of Rb3, be considered as an attractive, wrinkle-reducing candidate for topical application. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thermosensitive Hydrogel Mask Significantly Improves Skin Moisture and Skin Tone; Bilateral Clinical Trial
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 17; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020017 -
Abstract
Objective: A temperature-sensitive state-changing hydrogel mask was used in this study. Once it comes into contact with the skin and reaches the body temperature, it uniformly and quickly releases the active compounds, which possess moisturizing, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. Methods: An open
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Objective: A temperature-sensitive state-changing hydrogel mask was used in this study. Once it comes into contact with the skin and reaches the body temperature, it uniformly and quickly releases the active compounds, which possess moisturizing, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. Methods: An open label clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the test product on skin hydration, skin tone and skin ageing. Subjects applied the product to one side of their face and underwent Corneometer® and Chromameter measurements, Visual assessment of facial skin ageing and facial photography. All assessments and Self-Perception Questionnaires (SPQ) were performed at baseline, after the first application of the test product and after four applications. Results: After a single treatment we observed an increase in skin moisturisation, an improvement of skin tone/luminosity and a reduction in signs of ageing, all statistically significant. After four applications a further improvement in all measured parameters was recorded. These results were confirmed by the subjects’ own perceptions, as reported in the SPQ both after one and four applications. Conclusion: The hydrogel mask tested in this study is very effective in improving skin hydration, skin radiance and luminosity, in encouraging an even skin tone and in reducing skin pigmentation. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Topical Peptide Treatments with Effective Anti-Aging Results
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 16; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020016 -
Abstract
In the last two decades, many new peptides have been developed, and new knowledge on how peptides improve the skin has been uncovered. The spectrum of peptides in the field of cosmetics is continuously growing. This review summarizes some of the effective data
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In the last two decades, many new peptides have been developed, and new knowledge on how peptides improve the skin has been uncovered. The spectrum of peptides in the field of cosmetics is continuously growing. This review summarizes some of the effective data on cosmeceutical peptides that work against intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Some peptides have been proven in their efficacy through clinical skin trials. Well-known and documented peptides like copper tripeptide are still under research to obtain more details on their effectiveness, and for the development of new treatments. Palmitoyl pentapeptide-4 and Carnosine are other well-researched cosmeceuticals. Additionally, there are many more peptides that are used in cosmetics. However, study results for some are sparse, or have not been published in scientific journals. This article summarizes topical peptides with proven efficacy in controlled in vivo studies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The New Sunscreens among Formulation Strategy, Stability Issues, Changing Norms, Safety and Efficacy Evaluations
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 15; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020015 -
Abstract
The sun-and-skin interactions have controversial sides. Besides important beneficial effects, we need to take into consideration also some serious harmful results. In particular, these are connected to the portion of the solar spectrum traditionally identified as ultraviolet type A and B. The topical
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The sun-and-skin interactions have controversial sides. Besides important beneficial effects, we need to take into consideration also some serious harmful results. In particular, these are connected to the portion of the solar spectrum traditionally identified as ultraviolet type A and B. The topical application of sunscreens (and the avoidance of extreme exposure to sun rays) is worldwide recognized as the best strategy to avoid sunburn and oedema. Moreover, such strategy can efficiently prevent the onset of skin cancer. Therefore, the first aim of sunscreen products is to efficiently minimize all damage of sun exposure, while, at the same time, keeping good skin tolerability, avoiding safety problems and developing pleasant sensorial properties. Sunscreens, i.e., substances able to reflect and/or absorb, at a partial or complete extent, UV radiation are the key actors in skin protection. They are used to implement the level of primary photoprotection against UV rays. This means that when they absorb the radiation energy, their molecules pass to an excited state and successively re-emit energy in other forms (vibrational, rotational, infrared radiation) to come back to the ground state. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Meta Analysis of Skin Microbiome: New Link between Skin Microbiota Diversity and Skin Health with Proposal to Use This as a Future Mechanism to Determine Whether Cosmetic Products Damage the Skin
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 14; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020014 -
Abstract
There is a skin allergy epidemic in the western world, and the rate of deterioration has increased significantly in the past 5–10 years. It is probable that there are many environmental contributing factors, yet some studies have linked it primarily to the rise
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There is a skin allergy epidemic in the western world, and the rate of deterioration has increased significantly in the past 5–10 years. It is probable that there are many environmental contributing factors, yet some studies have linked it primarily to the rise in the use of synthetic chemical ingredients in modern cosmetics. Our challenge, therefore, was to find a mechanism to determine the effect these substances have on skin health, and whether they really are a primary cause of long term damage to the skin. The first problem is the lack of any definitive way to measure skin health. Motivated by the overwhelming evidence for a link between deficient gut flora and ill health, we decided to look at whether our skin microbiota could similarly be used as an indicator of skin health. Our research illustrates how microbiota diversity alone can predict whether skin is healthy or not, after we revealed a complete lack of conclusive findings linking the presence or abundance of particular species of microbe to skin problems. This phenomenon is replicated throughout nature, where high biodiversity always leads to healthy ecosystems. ‘Caveman’ skin, untouched by modern civilisation, was far different to “western” skin and displayed unprecedented levels of bacterial diversity. The less exposed communities were to western practices, the higher the skin diversity, which is clear evidence of an environmental factor in the developed world damaging skin. For the first time we propose benchmark values of diversity against which we can measure skin to determine how healthy it is. This gives us the ability to be able to predict which people are more likely to be prone to skin ailments, and start to test whether cosmetic ingredients and products are a main cause of the skin allergy epidemic. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of Phoenix dactylifera L. (Date Palm) Creams on Healthy Skin
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 13; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020013 -
Abstract
The date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae) is used in most of the countries of the world and is an essential part of the diet, especially in many Arabian countries. Phoenix dactylifera L. fruits are a rich source of sugars (glucose
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The date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae) is used in most of the countries of the world and is an essential part of the diet, especially in many Arabian countries. Phoenix dactylifera L. fruits are a rich source of sugars (glucose and fructose), vitamins (A, C, and B complex), fibers, minerals, and phenolic compounds having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study is designed to explore the Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit for skin care. A single-blinded, placebo control trial was conducted, including 11 healthy female volunteers after their informed consent. The efficacy of the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract (4%) was evaluated in cream form after one, two, three, four, six, and eight weeks of treatment compared with the baseline. Prior to the study, the composition of the extract was analyzed to understand the underlying mechanisms by which the extract affects skin. Treating facial skin with the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract significantly improved all parameters investigated, such as skin elasticity, pigmentation, redness, brightness, and hydration and led to the improvement of the facial skin. There were no adverse reactions noted during the course of the patch test, demonstrating that the extract could be safe to apply on the skin. The Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit extract serves as a skin care ingredient that significantly improves characteristics important for perception of skin ageing and health. The efficacy of the treatment is possibly due to a combination of numerous active substances found in the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of Four Facial Foundation Lotions with Reference to Its Antioxidant Richness and Bio-Safety
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 12; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020012 -
Abstract
The market these days is a hub of a variety of commercially available cosmetic products, and foundation makeup to be precise, containing various types of important bioactive compounds both from natural and synthetic sources. The current study explores the usage of foundation lotions
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The market these days is a hub of a variety of commercially available cosmetic products, and foundation makeup to be precise, containing various types of important bioactive compounds both from natural and synthetic sources. The current study explores the usage of foundation lotions among undergraduate female students of an engineering college in West Bengal, India, and its antioxidant potential such as free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation, and reducing power. Red Blood Corpuscles hemolysis assay was also tested for evaluating it safety measures. Results confirmed the presence of antioxidant-related bioactive components and hence the antioxidant property in each brand tested, albeit in varying degrees. Free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation, and reducing power were also exhibited by all samples tested. Hemolytic activity was not significantly noted among the foundations, though each exhibited different results. Lotion with the least bioactive components exhibited high hemolytic activity. The findings of this study reveal the secret behind the usefulness of foundation lotions on the basis of antioxidant contents and free radical scavenging activity. The results of this study confirmed that it is very unlikely that all the essential qualities of a good cosmetic product will be present all at once. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Cosmetic Ingredients as Emerging Pollutants of Environmental and Health Concern. A Mini-Review
Cosmetics 2017, 4(2), 11; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020011 -
Abstract
Cosmetic and personal care products are used in huge quantities throughout the world; as a result of their regular use, they are continuously released into the environment in very large amounts. Many of these products are biologically active and are characterized by persistence
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Cosmetic and personal care products are used in huge quantities throughout the world; as a result of their regular use, they are continuously released into the environment in very large amounts. Many of these products are biologically active and are characterized by persistence and bioaccumulation potential, posing a threat to ecosystem and human health. On the basis of the most recent scientific literature available on this subject, this paper provides an overview of some cosmetic ingredients that are considered environmental emerging pollutants of particular concern such as UV filters, some preservatives (parabens, triclosan), and microplastics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sunburn Protection by Sunscreen Sprays at Beach
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 10; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4010010 -
Abstract
Background: The efficacy of sunscreen is evaluated by SPF values, which are quantitatively determined in laboratories on the backs of human subjects according to a standardized procedure. However, SPF cannot be directly translated to sunburn protection under real-life situations because actual efficacy depends
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Background: The efficacy of sunscreen is evaluated by SPF values, which are quantitatively determined in laboratories on the backs of human subjects according to a standardized procedure. However, SPF cannot be directly translated to sunburn protection under real-life situations because actual efficacy depends on various factors related to human behaviors and environmental conditions. This study clinically evaluated the efficacy of two sunscreen sprays (SPF 30 and SPF 70) under natural sunlight exposure on healthy subjects at the beach. Methods: Twenty subjects were divided into two cells for the two sunscreen sprays (SPF 70 and SPF 30) in a single-center, actual usage test. The primary endpoint of the study was sunburn protection on the dorsal arms and the secondary endpoint was protection on the face and neck. Subjects stayed at the beach for 4 h after application of the sunscreens with normal beach activities. Subjects’ behavior at the beach, the amounts of sunscreen applied and reapplied, and environmental conditions were all recorded. Results: There was no significant sunburn for a majority of the subjects in either cell. However, neither sunscreen completely blocked the sunburn, especially the face/neck area. We found that the SPF 70 sunscreen was more effective than the SPF 30 sunscreen. Conclusion: Modern sunscreen sprays, applied liberally, are effective in providing sunburn protection for the body in a beach setting. Full article
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