Open AccessArticle
Action Spectrum on UVA Irradiation for Formation of Persistent Pigmentation in Normal Japanese Individuals
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 55; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4040055 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The minimum exposure required to produce persistent pigmentation (PP) on the skin of normal Japanese subjects was evaluated by means of monochromatic irradiation on the back using a high-intensity monochromator. PP was induced within the range of wavelengths up to 468 nm, with
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The minimum exposure required to produce persistent pigmentation (PP) on the skin of normal Japanese subjects was evaluated by means of monochromatic irradiation on the back using a high-intensity monochromator. PP was induced within the range of wavelengths up to 468 nm, with a peak from 330 to 370 nm, but it was not observed at 482 or 497 nm. When the PP production curve was obtained taking the spectral distribution of sunlight into account, it showed a peak at 340 nm centering in the UVA region and extending into the region up to 396 nm. Thus, it appears that solar UVA participates in PP formation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cosmetic Potential of a Liotropic Liquid Crystal Emulsion Containing Resveratrol
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 54; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4040054 -
Abstract
Resveratrol is a natural substance that has been the target of many researchers over the years since it presents a variety of potential applications in the areas of cosmetics and medicine as a treatment for some diseases. Due to its high antioxidant capacity
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Resveratrol is a natural substance that has been the target of many researchers over the years since it presents a variety of potential applications in the areas of cosmetics and medicine as a treatment for some diseases. Due to its high antioxidant capacity but low bioavailability, we evaluated the antiaging potential of resveratrol as a liotropic liquid crystal emulsion. Initially, we performed in vitro assays to quantify both the organoleptic characteristics and stability of the emulsion. Next, an in vivo trial was performed on the faces of 30 volunteers to determine the cream’s cosmetic potential and to measure porphyrins, skin barrier function, skin pigmentation, expression lines, and porosity. The emulsion maintained its characteristics during the in vitro assays and, in the in vivo trial, it had some effect only on pore size in forehead, without any significant effects on the other parameters. We had 6 dropouts throughout the study, then the final number of volunteers was 24. Most volunteers did not show any changes in skin pigmentation throughout the study. Similarly, there was not any noticeable improvement on any other parameters evaluated. However, volunteers related a high level of satisfaction with the product. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Bioactivity Study of Active Compounds in Wolffia globosa Extract for an Alternative Source of Bioactive Substances
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 53; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4040053 -
Abstract
Wolffia globosa is a small plant found in the lagoons in tropical zones. The aim of our study was to examine the biological compounds found in W. globosa and their activities. The substances in W. globosa were extracted, isolated, and their chemical structures
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Wolffia globosa is a small plant found in the lagoons in tropical zones. The aim of our study was to examine the biological compounds found in W. globosa and their activities. The substances in W. globosa were extracted, isolated, and their chemical structures ascertained by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. The extract was tested for bioactivity, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities. The results showed that the isolated compounds in fraction two were mainly β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The sterols found in the extract were able to inhibit nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, which implied an anti-inflammatory activity. The extract was found to be non-toxic to human dermal fibroblast cells with an IC50 of 106.38 ± 37.0 µg/mL. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Whitening Agents from Reseda luteola L. and Their Chemical Characterization Using Combination of CPC, UPLC-HRMS and NMR
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 51; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4040051 -
Abstract
Skin whitening agents occupy an important part of the dermo-cosmetic market nowadays. They are used to treat various skin pigmentation disorders, or simply to obtain a lighter skin tone. The use of traditional skin bleachers (e.g., hydroquinone, corticoids) is now strictly regulated due
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Skin whitening agents occupy an important part of the dermo-cosmetic market nowadays. They are used to treat various skin pigmentation disorders, or simply to obtain a lighter skin tone. The use of traditional skin bleachers (e.g., hydroquinone, corticoids) is now strictly regulated due to their side effects. When considering this and the growing consumers’ interest for more natural ingredients, plant extracts can be seen as safe and natural alternatives. In this perspective, in vitro bioassays were undertaken to assess cosmetic potential of Reseda luteola, and particularly its promising whitening activities. A bioguided purification procedure employing centrifugal partition chromatography, Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS) and NMR was developed to isolate and identify the whitening agents (i.e., luteolin and apigenin) from aerial parts of R. luteola. UPLC-HRMS also enabled the characterization of acetylated luteolin- and apigenin-O-glycosides, which occurrence is reported for the first time in R. luteola. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
New Biological Activities of Lythrum salicaria L.: Effects on Keratinocytes, Reconstructed Epidermis and Reconstructed Skins, Applications in Dermo-Cosmetic Sciences
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 52; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4040052 -
Abstract
The perennial and widespread herb Lythrum salicaria L., also called purple loosestrife, is a plant that is traditionally used in European medicine. Purple loosestrife is known for its ability to treat internal disorders, such as gastrointestinal issues or hemorrhages. Our objective was to
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The perennial and widespread herb Lythrum salicaria L., also called purple loosestrife, is a plant that is traditionally used in European medicine. Purple loosestrife is known for its ability to treat internal disorders, such as gastrointestinal issues or hemorrhages. Our objective was to take another look on this natural source of ellagitannins in terms of biological activities. Exploration of the phytochemical content of an extract of aerial parts of Lythrum salicaria L. was completed before initiating research on its biological effects towards keratinocytes, reconstructed epidermis, and skins. The potential of the natural compounds were evaluated by topical treatment of reconstructed tissues. The extract and one of its major compounds were able to act as pro-differentiating and protecting agents towards skin cells by stimulating the expressions of markers taking part in the structure of epidermis and dermis. Also, the extract showed beneficial effects on the global morphology of the skin. Thus, Lythrum salicaria L. constitutes a new natural source for the development of active ingredients for the dermo-cosmetic field. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Castanea sativa Bur: An Undervalued By-Product but a Promising Cosmetic Ingredient
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 50; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4040050 -
Abstract
Castanea sativa fruit processing generates high amounts of by-products, mostly bur. Currently, the cosmetic industry has a great interest in natural extracts as antioxidant sources. In the present study, C. sativa bur extract was used as the active ingredient, in different amounts, in
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Castanea sativa fruit processing generates high amounts of by-products, mostly bur. Currently, the cosmetic industry has a great interest in natural extracts as antioxidant sources. In the present study, C. sativa bur extract was used as the active ingredient, in different amounts, in topical hydrogels. The formulations were characterized regarding total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively), antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) and technological and microbiological properties. The same parameters were evaluated after 30 days of storage at 4 °C (T30/4 °C) and 20 °C (T30/20 °C). At time 0 (T0), the TPC ranged between 0.79 and 9.65 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g gel, while TFC varied from 0.05 to 1.23 mg of catechin equivalents (CAE)/g gel. Antioxidant activity was high for both assays, with values at T0 ranging between 98.41 and 1013.43 µmol of ferrous sulphate equivalents (FSE)/g gel and varying between 431.96 and 990.84 µg of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g gel for FRAP and DPPH assays, respectively. No formulation exceeded the defined criteria in microbiological counts. All formulations showed similar technological profiles but particular attention should be given to pH. The gel with 50% of extract (F3) was selected as the best one for potential cosmetic applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Large Melanosome Complex Is Increased in Keratinocytes of Solar Lentigo
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 49; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4040049 -
Abstract
Solar lentigo (SL) is characterized by macular lesions exhibiting epidermal hyperplasia combined with hyperpigmentation along with irregular elongation of epidermal rete ridges. This study was conducted to assess the melanosomes in keratinocytes and the activation state of melanocytes in SL lesions on the
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Solar lentigo (SL) is characterized by macular lesions exhibiting epidermal hyperplasia combined with hyperpigmentation along with irregular elongation of epidermal rete ridges. This study was conducted to assess the melanosomes in keratinocytes and the activation state of melanocytes in SL lesions on the backs of healthy Japanese individuals. Large melanosome complexes were increased in keratinocytes, and tyrosinase (TYR) activity, as well as immunohistochemical reactivity, for premelanosome protein 17 (Pmel17) in the SL lesions increased compared to the perilesions of five volunteers with SL. The levels of TYR, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and KIT mRNAs, but not stem cell factor (SCF) mRNA, were significantly increased in the SL lesions compared to the perilesions for all samples. Additionally, keratinocytes became immunoreactive to KIT in the rete ridge hyperplasia and basal layers of the SL lesions. These results suggested that the hyperpigmentation of SL arises primarily from increased melanogenesis of existing melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis, as well as increased large melanosome complexes in keratinocytes, which probably arise via an increase in KIT signaling in the epidermis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
10-Hydroxy-2-Decenoic Acid in Royal Jelly Extract Induced Both Filaggrin and Amino Acid in a Cultured Human Three-Dimensional Epidermis Model
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 48; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4040048 -
Abstract
Royal jelly (RJ) is a natural product which the honeybee secretes as a special diet for a queen bee. It is one of the natural products in which various functionalities, such as antibacterial effects, immunomodulating properties, and estrogen-like action, were reported. We investigated
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Royal jelly (RJ) is a natural product which the honeybee secretes as a special diet for a queen bee. It is one of the natural products in which various functionalities, such as antibacterial effects, immunomodulating properties, and estrogen-like action, were reported. We investigated the effect of the RJ extract on the moisturizing effect by topical application in humans. The stratum corneum moisture was increased significantly after four weeks by using the RJ extract lotion compared to placebo lotion. RJ extract contained a characteristic ingredient, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA) and 10-hydroxydecanoic acid (10HDAA), etc. However, the mechanism of stratum corneum moisture and its contributing ingredient have not yet been elucidated. We have investigated the effects of 10H2DA and 10HDAA on the free amino acids content in the stratum corneum using a cultured human three-dimensional epidermis model. Additionally, the effect of 10H2DA and 10HDAA on the amounts of filaggrin (FLG) and aquaporin 3 (AQP3) were investigated at the mRNA level and by immunohistochemistry using a cultured human epidermis model. It was determined that 10H2DA increases the free amino acids in the stratum corneum of the cultured human epidermis model, and that it increased FLG on both the mRNA and protein levels. On the other hand, these actions are not observed by treatment of 10HDAA. The mRNA and protein level of AQP3 did not increase with 10H2DA or 10HDAA use. It was thought that the increase in the amount of FLG and the increase in the free amino acids of the epidermis and the stratum corneum, respectively, by 10H2DA were participating in the moisturizing function of the stratum corneum by the continuous use of RJ extract lotion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
New Method of Measurement of Epidermal Turnover in Humans
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 47; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4040047 -
Abstract
This report describes a new and simple technique to detect alterations in the rate of turnover in the epidermis without using any toxic chemical, such as a radiolabeled material. The method involves measuring the time course of the decrease of darkening of an
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This report describes a new and simple technique to detect alterations in the rate of turnover in the epidermis without using any toxic chemical, such as a radiolabeled material. The method involves measuring the time course of the decrease of darkening of an ultraviolet A-irradiated site, compared with a non-irradiated control site. The turnover time of the persistent pigmentation on the inner side of the male forearm was 36.2 ± 6.2 days (age: 37.3 ± 11.3 years, mean ± standard deviation, n = 6), which is in reasonable agreement with the epidermal turnover time previously measured by injecting [3H] thymidine into human skin. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Potential Use of Marine Microalgae and Cyanobacteria in Cosmetics and Thalassotherapy
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 46; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4040046 -
Abstract
The use of microalgae and cyanobacteria for nutritional purposes dates back thousands of years; during the last few decades, microalgae culture has improved to become one of the modern biotechnologies. This has allowed high amounts of algal biomass to be obtained for use
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The use of microalgae and cyanobacteria for nutritional purposes dates back thousands of years; during the last few decades, microalgae culture has improved to become one of the modern biotechnologies. This has allowed high amounts of algal biomass to be obtained for use in different applications. Currently, the global production of microalgae and cyanobacteria is predominately aimed at applications with high added value given that algal biomass contains pigments, proteins, essential fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins, and minerals, all of which are of great interest in the preparation of natural products, both as food and in cosmetics. Hence, the bioactive components from microalgae can be incorporated in cosmetic and cosmeceutical formulations, and can help achieve benefits including the maintenance of skin structure and function. Thalassotherapy involves using seawater and all related marine elements, including macroalgae, however, there has been limited use of microalgae. Microalgae and cyanobacteria could be incorporated into health and wellness treatments applied in thalassotherapy centers due to their high concentration of biologically active substances that are of interest in skin care. This paper briefly reviews the current and potential cosmetic and cosmeceutical applications of marine microalgae and cyanobacteria compounds and also recommends its use in thalassotherapy well-being treatments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Targeted Secondary Metabolite Profile Study for Deciphering the Cosmeceutical Potential of Red Marine Macro Alga Jania rubens—An LCMS-Based Approach
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 45; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4040045 -
Abstract
This study aims to unveil the cosmeceutical traits of Jania rubens by highlighting its mineral composition, antioxidant potential, and presence of bioactive molecules using non-targeted metabolite profiling. This study showed that among minerals, (macro), Ca (14790.33 + 1.46 mg/100 g dry weight (DW))
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This study aims to unveil the cosmeceutical traits of Jania rubens by highlighting its mineral composition, antioxidant potential, and presence of bioactive molecules using non-targeted metabolite profiling. This study showed that among minerals, (macro), Ca (14790.33 + 1.46 mg/100 g dry weight (DW)) and in (micro) Fe (84.93 + 0.89 mg/100 g DW) was the highest. A total of 23 putative metabolites in the +ESI (Electrospray Ionization) mode of LCMS-TOF (Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry-Time of Flight) were detected. Two anthocyanins—malonylshisonin and 4′′′-demalonylsalvianin (m/z 825.19; anti-aging, antioxidant, anticancer properties) were detected. Two flavonoids, viz, medicocarpin and agecorynin C, 4′-O-methylglucoliquiritigenin—a flavonoid-7-O-glycoside, and 5,6,7,8,3′,4′,5′-heptamethoxyflavone, a polymethoxygenated flavone (m/z 415.15), were detected. Maclurin 3-C-(2″,3″,6″-trigalloylglucoside) (m/z 863.15) (antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer traits) and theaflavonin (m/z 919.18), belonging to the class of theaflavins (whitening and anti-wrinkle agent), were obtained. Pharmacologically active metabolites like berberrubin (m/z 305.1; antitumor activity), icaceine (m/z 358.24; anticonvulsant properties), agnuside (m/z 449.15; constituent for treatment of premenstrual syndrome), γ-coniceine (m/z 108.12; formulations to treat breast cancer), eremopetasitenin B2, and eremosulphoxinolide A (m/z 447.18; therapeutic effect of allergy and asthma) were observed. 6-O-Methylarmillaridin (m/z 445.18) (antimicrobial and antifungal) and simmondsin 2-ferulate, (m/z 534.21) (insecticidal, antifungal and antifeedant) were detected. Aromatic lignans, viz, 8-Acetoxy-4′-methoxypinoresinol, sesartemin, and cubebinone (m/z 413.16), in addition to an aromatic terpene glycoside, tsangane L3 glucoside (m/z 357.23), were detected. Zizybeoside I, benzyl gentiobioside, and trichocarposide were also detected. The determination of antioxidant potential was performed through assays such as like DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), FRAP (Ferric Ion Reducing Antioxidant Power), ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), and total antioxidants. Therefore, this study progresses the probability for the inclusion of J. rubens as an ingredient in modern day cosmetic formulations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Invasive Assessment of Skin Barrier Properties: Investigating Emerging Tools for In Vitroand In VivoApplications
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 44; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4040044 -
Abstract
There is increasing interest in the development of non-invasive tools for studying the properties of skin, due to the potential for non-destructive sampling, reduced ethical concerns and the potential comparability of results in vivoand in vitro. The present research focuses on
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There is increasing interest in the development of non-invasive tools for studying the properties of skin, due to the potential for non-destructive sampling, reduced ethical concerns and the potential comparability of results in vivoand in vitro. The present research focuses on the use of a range of non-invasive approaches for studying skin and skin barrier properties in human skin and human skin equivalents (HSE). Analytical methods used include pH measurements, electrical sensing of the epidermis and detection of volatile metabolic skin products. Standard probe based measurements of pH and the tissue dielectric constant (TDC) are used. Two other more novel approaches that utilise wearable platforms are also demonstrated here that can assess the electrical properties of skin and to profile skin volatile species. The potential utility of these wearable tools that permit repeatability of testing and comparability of results is considered through application of our recently reported impedance-based tattoo sensors and volatile samplers on both human participants and HSEs. The HSE exhibited a higher pH (6.5) and TDC (56) than human skin (pH 4.9–5.6, TDC 29–36), and the tattoo sensor revealed a lower impedance signal for HSEs, suggesting the model could maintain homeostasis, but in a different manner to human skin, which demonstrated a more highly resistive barrier. Characterisation of volatiles showed a variety of compound classes emanating from skin, with 16 and 27 compounds identified in HSEs and participants respectively. The continuing development of these tools offers potential for improved quality and relevance of data, and potential for detection of changes that are undetectable in traditional palpable and visual assessments, permitting early detection of irritant reactions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Degradation of Tyrosinase by Melanosomal pH Change and a New Mechanism of Whitening with Propylparaben
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 43; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4040043 -
Abstract
Many active cosmetic ingredients formulated as medicated whitening products (quasi-drugs) achieve their effect through inhibition of tyrosinase activity, but no products can achieve this effect through degradation of intramelanosomal tyrosinase. Melanin is synthesized by tyrosinase, which is localized to the membrane of melanosomes
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Many active cosmetic ingredients formulated as medicated whitening products (quasi-drugs) achieve their effect through inhibition of tyrosinase activity, but no products can achieve this effect through degradation of intramelanosomal tyrosinase. Melanin is synthesized by tyrosinase, which is localized to the membrane of melanosomes in melanocytes. It has been reported that the optimal pH of tyrosinase activity is nearly neutral and decreases under acidic conditions. The environment in melanosomes that tyrosinase acts on has attracted attention from researchers. We found that tyrosinase was degraded by acidification of melanosomes, thereby decreasing its activity. We found that both inhibitors of aspartic protease and cysteine protease decreased the degradation of tyrosinase. It is thought that aspartic protease and cysteine protease are participating in the degradation of tyrosinase in acid melanosome. Melanosomal pH is regulated by Na+/H+ exchangers and V-ATPase. We investigated the mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of melanin production of propylparaben using B16 melanoma cells. The expression level of mRNA of tyrosinase and related proteins (Trp-1 and Dct) was not affected by propylparaben; however, the protein levels in melanosomes decreased. We investigated the mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of propylparaben on melanin production using B16 melanoma cells. The effects of propylparaben on the mRNA expression of Na+/H+ exchangers and Na+/Ca2+ exchangers, as well as the melanosome pH levels were examined. Propylparaben decreased gene expression in both exchangers. It was confirmed that propylparaben decreased melanosomal pH by staining using an intracellular pH indicator. The results suggest that propylparaben down-regulated melanin production through acidification of melanosomes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficiency of Nisin as Preservative in Cosmetics and Topical Products
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 41; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4040041 -
Abstract
Nisin is a bacteriocin synthesized by certain species of Lactococcus lactis, that has been recently employed as a preservative in the food industry. Taking into account its potential as a natural preservative, its applicability in cosmetics and topical products was probed, aiming
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Nisin is a bacteriocin synthesized by certain species of Lactococcus lactis, that has been recently employed as a preservative in the food industry. Taking into account its potential as a natural preservative, its applicability in cosmetics and topical products was probed, aiming to replace or reduce the use of synthetic preservatives currently used in these products. In vitro susceptibility tests were performed using the plate diffusion method and the “Challenge Test”. The action of nisin was tested when applied alone and in synergy with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid tetrasodium salt (EDTA) and similar synthetic preservatives, Abiol® (INCI-Imidazolidinyl urea) and Microcare PM2 (Phenoxyethanol, Ethylparaben, Methylparaben). The results of this study demonstrate that nisin is effective in inhibiting gram-positive microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus sp. However, for other tested microorganisms, only the combination of nisin, EDTA and synthetic preservatives, respectively at 125 ppm/0.1/0.35%, showed antimicrobial activity in compliance with criterion A from ISO 11930. With this study, it is concluded that nisin can be a viable alternative when associated with other preservatives, reducing the use of higher doses of chemical/synthetic preservatives that are often associated with sensitivity and allergic reactions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Instrumental Evaluation of the Depigmenting Efficacy of an Oral Supplementation Containing Peptides and Chrysanthemum Extract for the Treatment of Melasma
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 42; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4040042 -
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of an oral supplement (CP) containing collagen peptide, soy peptide, and chrysanthemum extract in Chinese female adult volunteers with melasma. The approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee of the third affiliated hospital, Sun-Yat
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The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of an oral supplement (CP) containing collagen peptide, soy peptide, and chrysanthemum extract in Chinese female adult volunteers with melasma. The approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee of the third affiliated hospital, Sun-Yat Sen University, was obtained before the study. A signed consent was obtained from each volunteer prior to study to enable the volunteer to appreciate the aim of the study and the consequences of her consent. Sixty-two female volunteers aged 30–60 years were included in the study, and were randomized into a treatment group or a placebo group. The skin tone of the pigmented spots was evaluated using Chromameter, and pigment density was evaluated using Mexameter before and after the treatment. Significant changes in skin tone parameters of L value and ITA° (individual typology angle) were detected in the lesion area after the treatment (P < 0.01). When compared with placebo group, the treatment group achieved significant improvement in the brightness of the pigmented spots at the 45 and 60-day time points. A significant decrease in the level of melanin was observed in the treatment group when compared with the placebo group (p < 0.01). All data demonstrated through non-invasive in vivo instrumental measurement that daily oral intake of CP had clinical efficacy of reducing melasma severity. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Sea Buckthorn Oil—A Valuable Source for Cosmeceuticals
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 40; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4040040 -
Abstract
Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., Elaeagnaceae.) is a thorny shrub that has small, yellow to dark orange, soft, juicy berries. Due to hydrophilic and lipophilic ingredients, berries have been used as food and medicine. Sea buckthorn (SB) oil derived from berries
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Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., Elaeagnaceae.) is a thorny shrub that has small, yellow to dark orange, soft, juicy berries. Due to hydrophilic and lipophilic ingredients, berries have been used as food and medicine. Sea buckthorn (SB) oil derived from berries is a source of valuable ingredients for cosmeceuticals. The unique combination of SB oil ingredients, in qualitative and quantitative aspects, provides multiple benefits of SB oil for internal and external use. Externally, SB oil can be applied in both healthy and damaged skin (burns or skin damage of different etiology), as it has good wound healing properties. Due to the well-balanced content of fatty acids, carotenoids, and vitamins, SB oil may be incorporated in cosmeceuticals for dry, flaky, burned, irritated, or rapidly ageing skin. There have been more than 100 ingredients identified in SB oil, some of which are rare in the plant kingdom (e.g., the ratio of palmitoleic to γ-linolenic acid). This review discusses facts related to the origin and properties of SB oil that make it suitable for cosmeceutical formulation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cosmetic Potential of Marine Fish Skin Collagen
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 39; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4040039 -
Abstract
Many cosmetic formulations have collagen as a major component because of its significant benefits as a natural humectant and moisturizer. This industry is constantly looking for innovative, sustainable, and truly efficacious products, so marine collagen based formulations are arising as promising alternatives. A
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Many cosmetic formulations have collagen as a major component because of its significant benefits as a natural humectant and moisturizer. This industry is constantly looking for innovative, sustainable, and truly efficacious products, so marine collagen based formulations are arising as promising alternatives. A solid description and characterization of this protein is fundamental to guarantee the highest quality of each batch. In the present study, we present an extensive characterization of marine-derived collagen extracted from salmon and codfish skins, targeting its inclusion as component in cosmetic formulations. Chemical and physical characterizations were performed using several techniques such as sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy rheology, circular dichroism, X-ray diffraction, humidity uptake, and a biological assessment of the extracts regarding their irritant potential. The results showed an isolation of type I collagen with high purity but with some structural and chemical differences between sources. Collagen demonstrated a good capacity to retain water, thus being suitable for dermal applications as a moisturizer. A topical exposure of collagen in a human reconstructed dermis, as well as the analysis of molecular markers for irritation and inflammation, exhibited no irritant potential. Thus, the isolation of collagen from fish skins for inclusion in dermocosmetic applications may constitute a sustainable and low-cost platform for the biotechnological valorization of fish by-products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Amino Carbonylation of Epidermal Basement Membrane Inhibits Epidermal Cell Function and Is Suppressed by Methylparaben
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 38; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4040038 -
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of amino carbonylation (Maillard reaction) on the function of the epidermal basement membrane (BM) by analyzing epidermal cell proliferation and keratinization and stratum corneum barrier function using a three-dimensional human epidermal BM model treated with glyceraldehyde. Intracellular ATP
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This study investigated the effect of amino carbonylation (Maillard reaction) on the function of the epidermal basement membrane (BM) by analyzing epidermal cell proliferation and keratinization and stratum corneum barrier function using a three-dimensional human epidermal BM model treated with glyceraldehyde. Intracellular ATP levels were lower in cells cultured on amino-carbonylated epidermal BM as compared to those in normal epidermal BM (control). Moreover, trans-epidermal water loss was increased by culturing on amino-carbonylated BM relative to the control; this was accompanied by downregulation of filaggrin, transglutaminase-1, and serine palmitoyltransferase 2 mRNA levels. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester (methylparaben) abrogated the decrease in ATP production and filaggrin expression in human keratinocytes induced by amino-carbonylated collagen. Thus, amino carbonylation of the epidermal BM inhibits moisture retention, keratinization, and ceramide synthesis and disrupts the barrier function of the stratum corneum. These findings suggest that methylparaben can be an effective additive to cosmetics for improving epidermal function that is compromised by amino carbonylation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Skin Hydration and Age-related Symptoms by Oral Administration of Wheat Glucosylceramides and Digalactosyl Diglycerides: A Human Clinical Study
Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 37; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4040037 -
Abstract
Ceramides are known to play a key role in the skin’s barrier function. An age-dependent decrease in ceramides content correlates with cutaneous clinical signs of dryness, loss of elasticity, and increased roughness. The present placebo-controlled clinical study aims to evaluate if an oral
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Ceramides are known to play a key role in the skin’s barrier function. An age-dependent decrease in ceramides content correlates with cutaneous clinical signs of dryness, loss of elasticity, and increased roughness. The present placebo-controlled clinical study aims to evaluate if an oral supplementation with glucosylceramides (GluCers) contained in a wheat polar lipids complex (WPLC) was able to improve such skin conditions. Sixty volunteers presenting dry and wrinkled skin were supplemented during 60 days with either a placebo or a WPLC extract in oil or powder form (1.7 mg GluCers and 11.5 mg of digalactosyldiglycerides (DGDG)). Skin parameters were evaluated at baseline and after 15, 30, and 60 days of supplementation. Oral intake of WPLC significantly increased skin hydration (p < 0.001), elasticity, and smoothness (p < 0.001), and decreased trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) (p < 0.001), roughness (p < 0.001), and wrinkledness (p < 0.001) in both WPLC groups compared to placebo. In both WPLC treated groups, all parameters were significantly improved in a time-dependent manner compared to baseline. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the positive effect of oral supplementation with GluCers on skin parameters and could reasonably reinforce the observations made on mice that orally-supplied sphingolipids can reach the skin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Sebostatic Activity of Juniperus communis Fruit Oil and Pelargonium graveolens Oil Compared to Niacinamide
Cosmetics 2017, 4(3), 36; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4030036 -
Abstract
As a facial skin condition, oily skin causes cosmetic problems, such as large pores, shiny appearance, and the feeling of greasiness and heaviness. Furthermore, extensive sebum production leads to common skin disorders such as acne vulgaris or seborrheic dermatitis. This study investigated the
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As a facial skin condition, oily skin causes cosmetic problems, such as large pores, shiny appearance, and the feeling of greasiness and heaviness. Furthermore, extensive sebum production leads to common skin disorders such as acne vulgaris or seborrheic dermatitis. This study investigated the efficacy of sebum control tonics containing Juniperus communis fruit oil, Pelargonium graveolens oil, or niacinamide. The effects of Juniperus communis fruit oil, Pelargonium graveolens oil, and niacinamide on sebum excretion rates were investigated using Sebumeter®. Sebum measurements (Sebumeter® SM 815, Courage & Khazaka®, Köln, Germany) were made on the skin surface in three places by applying the sebumeter probe to the forehead after 10, 60, and 120 min from application of the tonic. The results indicated that the application of the tonic maintained a lower sebum secretion 10 min and 60 min after the application of the cosmetic, compared to those before it. However, a visible sebum-reducing efficacy after 2 h was reported only for tonic containing 0.25% Pelargonium graveolens oil and for the tonic with the addition of 3% niacinamide. After 2 h, the values of sebum measurements were 44 ± 5.13 a.u. and 58 ± 9.07 a.u., respectively. Our results show that the tonic with the addition of 0.25% Pelargonium graveolens oil is the most effective in reducing sebum production. Full article
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