Abstract: Most common prostaglandin analogs, bimatoprost, latanoprost and travoprost, are licensed for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension, but their non approved use as eyelash enhancers is becoming popular, especially in patients with eyelashes hypotrichosis. A fast and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the measurement of bimatoprost, latanoprost and travoprost in cosmetic serums freely web-sold to increase eyelash length, thickness and darkness. The analytes and the internal standard (reserpine) were separated by reversed phase chromatography with 5 mM ammonium acetate with 0.02% formic acid (mobile phase A) and 5 mM ammonium acetate in acetonitrile/water (95/5; v/v) with 0.02% formic acid (mobile phase B) by gradient elution and detected with tandem mass spectrometry operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Linearity between 1 and 500 μg/g shows good correlation coefficients (r2 = 0.99) for all substances. Analytical recovery of analytes under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy always better than 11%. This method was successfully applied to analyze cosmetic serums freely sold on the Internet websites.
Abstract: We investigated the Rapid Alert System (RAPEX) database from January 2008 until week 26 of 2014 to give information to consumers about microbiologically contaminated cosmetics and over-preserved cosmetic products. Chemical risk was the leading cause of the recalls (87.47%). Sixty-two cosmetic products (11.76%) were recalled because they were contaminated with pathogenic or potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most frequently found microorganism. Other microorganisms found were: Mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Enterococcus spp., Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecium, Enterobacter gergoviae, Rhizobium radiobacter, Burkholderia cepacia, Serratia marcescens, Achromabacter xylosoxidans, Klebsiella oxytoca, Bacillus firmus, Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas putida, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Citrobacter freundii. Nine cosmetic products were recalled because they contained methylisothiazolinone (0.025%–0.36%), benzalkonium chloride (1%), triclosan (0.4%) in concentrations higher than the limits allowed by European Regulation 1223/2009. Fifteen products were recalled for the presence of methyldibromo glutaronitrile, a preservative banned for use in cosmetics. Thirty-two hair treatment products were recalled because they contained high concentrations of formaldehyde (0.3%–25%).
Abstract: The skin, being the largest organ of the body, functions as a barrier between our body and the environment. It is consistently exposed to various exogenous and endogenous stressors (e.g., air pollutants, ionizing and non-ionizing irradiation, toxins, mitochondrial metabolism, enzyme activity, inflammatory process, etc.) producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and physical damage (e.g., wounds, sunburns) also resulting in reactive oxygen species production. Although skin is equipped with an array of defense mechanisms to counteract reactive oxygen species, augmented exposure and continued reactive oxygen species might result in excessive oxidative stress leading to many skin disorders including inflammatory diseases, pigmenting disorders and some types of cutaneous malignancy. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an emerging regulator of cellular resistance and of defensive enzymes such as the phase II enzymes. Induction of the Keap1–Nrf2 pathway may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of a large number of skin disorders by stimulating an endogenous defense mechanism. However, prolonged and enhanced activation of this pathway is detrimental and, thus, limits the therapeutic potential of Keap1–Nrf2 modulators. Here, we review the consequences of oxidative stress to the skin, and the defense mechanisms that skin is equipped with. We describe the challenges of maintaining skin redox balance and its impact on skin status and function. Finally, we suggest a novel strategy for maintenance of skin redox homeostasis by modulating the Keap1–Nrf2 pathway using nanotechnology-based delivery systems.
Abstract: Wearing clothes and using sun protection products are effective ways of preventing non-melanocytic skin cancer. Sun protection products are classified as cosmetics in Europe. The number of filters authorized by Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 amended by Regulation (EU) No 344/2013 stands at a total of 27 (26 organic filters and one inorganic filter-titanium dioxide). After the development of methods for determining the efficacy of sun protection products (both in vivo and in vitro), a certain number of authors took an interest in the parameters involved in the efficacy of this category of products. The nature of the filter, the concentration used and the influence of certain ingredients in the formula are all criteria to be taken into account. Concerning titanium dioxide, considerable progress has been made in order to increase its efficacy and to facilitate its implementation. The reduction of the size of the particles used has allowed the products to be more transparent (the pale clown’s mask of days passed is just a bad memory) and above all, to be more effective. The study of a large number of commercial forms of titanium dioxide enables to conclude that nanoparticular titanium dioxide is far superior to pigmentary titanium dioxide. An emulsion composed of 25% pigmentary titanium dioxide only enables Sun Protection Factor (SPF) 5 to be obtained. The same emulsion but with 25% coated nanoparticular titanium dioxide (Tayca MT-100TV) enables a Sun Protection Factor of around 40 to be reached. The reduction of the size of the filtering particles thus proves to be indispensable for the development of highly protective sun protection products.
Abstract: Many people feel frequent prickling or itching sensations on their scalp. The scalp is an atypical area of the skin since it is normally covered with thick hair and has many sebaceous glands and sweat glands. The scalp often has skin problems that can affect its sensitivity and functions. However, not much is known about stratum corneum function and the neural sensitivity of the scalp. Here we evaluated stratum corneum function and the neural sensitivity of the scalp of 47 normal male individuals in various skin conditions and compared the results to that to the forehead. The neural sensitivity was evaluated by measuring the electrical current perception threshold (CPT). The cutaneous barrier function and stratum corneum moisture-retention ability (MRA) of the scalp were significantly lower than on the forehead, even if there were some scalp problems. Depending on the increase in severity of scalp skin problems, both these skin functional properties and the CPT decreased significantly. However, regardless of its lower functional properties, scalp skin was not significantly lower than that of the forehead. Although the scalp has a low stratum corneum function compared with the forehead and has easily induced skin problems, the scalp skin has less sensitive sensory nerves, resulting in experiencing a worsening of scalp symptoms more easily.