Open AccessCommunication
A Validated HPLC Method for the Determination of Vanillyl Butyl Ether in Cosmetic Preparations
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 9; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4010009 -
Abstract
A specific HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) method has been developed and validated for the determination of vanillyl butyl ether in cosmetic products. The extraction procedure with an isopropanol water 1:1 mixture is described. The method uses a RP-C-18 column with isocratic elution and
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A specific HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) method has been developed and validated for the determination of vanillyl butyl ether in cosmetic products. The extraction procedure with an isopropanol water 1:1 mixture is described. The method uses a RP-C-18 column with isocratic elution and an ultraviolet (UV) detector. The mobile phase consists of a mixture of acetonitrile and buffer (Na2HPO4 20 mM in water) (30:70 v/v) with a variable flow rate. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision (repeatability and reproducibility), specificity and linearity. The procedure described here is simple, selective and reliable for routine quality control analysis and stability tests of commercially available cosmetic products. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Editorial on Special Issue “Cosmetic Safety: Ingredients, Type of Reactions Undesirable Effects, Cosmetovigilance”
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 8; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4010008 -
Open AccessCommentary
Benefits of Anti-Aging Actives in Sunscreens
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 7; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4010007 -
Abstract
Sunscreens are functional, utilitarian, cosmetic products. The criteria of purchase are different from those for skin care and make-up. Companies are trying to add glamour and value to basic sunscreens by incorporating “active” ingredients (other than UV filters) into these formulas and by
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Sunscreens are functional, utilitarian, cosmetic products. The criteria of purchase are different from those for skin care and make-up. Companies are trying to add glamour and value to basic sunscreens by incorporating “active” ingredients (other than UV filters) into these formulas and by communicating about the additional benefits, be they anti-aging, moisturizing, firming, anti-wrinkle, etc. While some of these ideas of additional ingredients make sense as supplementary skin protection, some others do not afford much benefit in view of the infrequent application and short period of usage. The present article reviews some of these ideas and presents a few active ingredients that might be of value in such a context, even if substantiation of such additional claims in sunscreens is often lacking. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Cosmetics in 2016
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 6; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4010006 -
Abstract The editors of Cosmetics would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016. [...]
Full article
Open AccessCase Report
Contact Allergy to Castor Oil, but Not to Castor Wax
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 5; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4010005 -
Abstract
Ricinus communis (castor) seed oil (CAS 8001-79-4), a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of Ricinus communis, is widely used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, and may be a cause of allergic contact dermatitis from these products. We present two patients with allergic
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Ricinus communis (castor) seed oil (CAS 8001-79-4), a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of Ricinus communis, is widely used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, and may be a cause of allergic contact dermatitis from these products. We present two patients with allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics containing castor oil, in whom a correct diagnosis was achieved by patch testing castor oil ‘as is’. PEGylated and/or hydrogenated derivatives (the latter formerly also available from patch test allergen suppliers) and/or cosmetics containing these specific derivatives did not result in contact allergy or allergic contact dermatitis. This observation might be relevant for the manufacturing of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. In the future, further research into the allergenicity of castor oil and its numerous derivatives, and their optimal patch test concentrations, may be desirable. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Oxidative Stress and Ageing: The Influence of Environmental Pollution, Sunlight and Diet on Skin
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 4; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4010004 -
Abstract
Skin ageing is a complex process that is determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which leads to a progressive loss of structure and function. There is extensive evidence indicating that oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species plays an important role in
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Skin ageing is a complex process that is determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which leads to a progressive loss of structure and function. There is extensive evidence indicating that oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the process of human skin ageing. Mitochondria are the major source of cellular oxidative stress and are widely implicated in cutaneous ageing. Extrinsic skin ageing is driven to a large extent by environmental factors and external stressors such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), pollution and lifestyle factors which have been shown to stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species and generate oxidative stress. The oxidative damage from these exogenous sources can impair skin structure and function, leading to the phenotypic features of extrinsic skin ageing. The following review highlights the current evidence surrounding the role of mitochondria and oxidative stress in the ageing process and the influence of environmental factors such as ultraviolet radiation, pollution and diet on skin ageing. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Relative Free Radicals Scavenging and Enzymatic Activities of Hippophae rhamnoides and Cassia fistula Extracts: Importance for Cosmetic, Food and Medicinal Applications
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 3; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4010003 -
Abstract
Hippophae rhamnoides L. and Cassia fistula L. extracts have great potential as food, medicinal, or cosmetic ingredients. The aim of our study was to assess their relative antioxidant activities and key enzymatic activities. Thereby, H. rhamnoides’ fruit and C. fistula’s pod extracts were
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Hippophae rhamnoides L. and Cassia fistula L. extracts have great potential as food, medicinal, or cosmetic ingredients. The aim of our study was to assess their relative antioxidant activities and key enzymatic activities. Thereby, H. rhamnoides’ fruit and C. fistula’s pod extracts were evaluated by spectrophotometry, based on their respective total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) ferric-reducing power, capacity in nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals scavenging, as well as on their β-glucuronidase, α-glucosidase and α-tyrosinase inhibition activities. H. rhamnoides and C. fistula extracts exhibited similarly high TPC levels, hydroxyl ion [OH] quenching activity, and α-glucosidase and α-tyrosinase IC50 values (p > 0.05). However, their respective DPPH radical, nitric oxide radical [NO], and superoxide anion [O2−•] scavenging activities, as well as their IC50 values for β-glucuronidase, significantly differed (p ≤ 0.05), with results showcasing the highest values in C. fistula extracts. In sum, our in vitro data explicitly suggest that the pod extracts of C. fistula exert better antioxidant and enzymatic properties than those exhibited by the fruit extract of H. rhamnoides. They also implicitly encourage performing multiple in vitro assays in order to thoroughly select a plant extract destined to a given medicinal, dietetic, or esthetic application. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
Cosmetics Europe Guidelines on the Management of Undesirable Effects and Reporting of Serious Undesirable Effects from Cosmetics in the European Union
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 1; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4010001 -
Abstract
The European Union (EU) Cosmetics Regulation (EC) No. 1223/2009 requires companies to collect and assess reports of adverse health effects from the cosmetic products (undesirable effects) they market. Furthermore, undesirable effects that are considered as serious need to be reported to the national
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The European Union (EU) Cosmetics Regulation (EC) No. 1223/2009 requires companies to collect and assess reports of adverse health effects from the cosmetic products (undesirable effects) they market. Furthermore, undesirable effects that are considered as serious need to be reported to the national competent authorities. Cosmetics Europe, representing the European cosmetics industry, has developed these guidelines to promote a consistent practical approach for the management of undesirable effects and the notification of serious undesirable effects. Following these guidelines allows companies concerned to demonstrate due diligence and compliance with the legal requirements. Full article
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Open AccessReview
In Vitro Methodologies to Evaluate the Effects of Hair Care Products on Hair Fiber
Cosmetics 2017, 4(1), 2; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4010002 -
Abstract
Consumers use different hair care products to change the physical appearance of their hair, such as shampoos, conditioners, hair dye and hair straighteners. They expect cosmetics products to be available in the market to meet their needs in a broad and effective manner.
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Consumers use different hair care products to change the physical appearance of their hair, such as shampoos, conditioners, hair dye and hair straighteners. They expect cosmetics products to be available in the market to meet their needs in a broad and effective manner. Evaluating efficacy of hair care products in vitro involves the use of highly accurate equipment. This review aims to discuss in vitro methodologies used to evaluate the effects of hair care products on hair fiber, which can be assessed by various methods, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Protein Loss, Electrophoresis, color and brightness, thermal analysis and measuring mechanical resistance to combing and elasticity. The methodology used to test hair fibers must be selected according to the property being evaluated, such as sensory characteristics, determination of brightness, resistance to rupture, elasticity and integrity of hair strain and cortex, among others. If equipment is appropriate and accurate, reproducibility and ease of employment of the analytical methodology will be possible. Normally, the data set must be discussed in order to obtain conclusive answers to the test. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Stability of Sun Creams Formulated with Thermal Spring Waters from Ourense, Northwest Spain
Cosmetics 2016, 3(4), 42; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3040042 -
Abstract
Sun protection creams were formulated with a commercial rosemary extract and with thermal waters from different springs in the Northwest Spain. A six month stability study was carried out and microbiological and chemical stability, as well as sensorial characteristics, were evaluated. In all
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Sun protection creams were formulated with a commercial rosemary extract and with thermal waters from different springs in the Northwest Spain. A six month stability study was carried out and microbiological and chemical stability, as well as sensorial characteristics, were evaluated. In all creams, the mesophilic count always remained low (under 10 cfu/mL) and most of them showed greater antioxidant stability than the control cream formulated with distilled water. Color was stable during storage in almost all creams. Sensory analysis showed a quite similar valoration of the creams regardless the sex of the panelists, and small differences were found between consumers aged 30–40 and >40. Formulations elaborated from Outariz and A Chavasqueira thermal waters were preferred to those prepared with distilled water as a control. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperCase Report
Green Nanotechnology Serving the Bioeconomy: Natural Beauty Masks to Save the Environment
Cosmetics 2016, 3(4), 41; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3040041 -
Abstract
According to United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), ensuring a clean and healthy environment will provide multiple benefits to society and economy. Sustainable production, followed by appropriate management of industrial and agricultural waste, will protect and enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services. To achieve this
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According to United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), ensuring a clean and healthy environment will provide multiple benefits to society and economy. Sustainable production, followed by appropriate management of industrial and agricultural waste, will protect and enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services. To achieve this objective, specific policies must be put in place and specific actions performed for making a low-carbon and resource-efficient economy with reduced production of petrol-derived goods. The aim of the study has been to produce effective and safe anti-age beauty masks made of non-woven tissues based on the use of chitin nanofibril (CN) and nanolignin (LG), obtained from crustaceans and plant biomass, respectively. To this purpose, nanoparticles and electrospun fibres have been characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering and SEM, while the safeness and effectiveness of the obtained tissues was verified in vitro on a culture of keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and controlled in vivo by expert dermatologists on 30 volunteer photo-aged women, by subjective and objective bioengineered methods. The in vitro results have shown that the beauty masks have no toxic effects on the viability of keratinocytes and fibroblasts treated by the Dimethyl Tetrazole (MTT) method, and exhibit a decreased expression of cytokines, playing a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses in premature aging and environmental assaults. The reparative and antiaging effectiveness of these innovative beauty masks have been also verified on the release of Metallo Proteinase I (MMP-1) and the increased synthesis of collagen type I, reduced in skin aging. The first preliminary in vivo results, obtained by engineering methods, have confirmed the protective and rejuvenating activity shown by the in vitro study conducted on 30 voluntary women exhibiting signs of photoaging. The raw materials used are of natural origin being also respectful of the environment, according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (EOCD) and EU programmes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cosmetics Utilization Practice in Jigjiga Town, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study
Cosmetics 2016, 3(4), 40; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3040040 -
Abstract
The trend of cosmetics utilization has increased globally; however, the exact amount of usage is not researched well. Lack of population awareness on proper use of cosmetics, particularly in developing countries, causes a prominent health challenge. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess
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The trend of cosmetics utilization has increased globally; however, the exact amount of usage is not researched well. Lack of population awareness on proper use of cosmetics, particularly in developing countries, causes a prominent health challenge. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the cosmetics utilization practices in Jigjiga town, Eastern Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was used to assess factors associated with cosmetics use. Of the 559 participants, 93% used at least one type of cosmetics in the two weeks prior to the survey. The most commonly used products were body creams and lotions (68%), shampoos and conditioners (35%), and deodorants and perfumes (29%). Being single, female, and in the age group of 18–20 years increased the odds of cosmetics utilization. However, being in primary school and being self-employed showed a less likely use of cosmetics. Two hundred forty-seven (44%) of the interviewed household members reported that they use traditional herbal cosmetics. A higher likelihood of traditional herbal cosmetics use was observed in the age group of 18–20 years. This study indicated that the community in Jigjiga town use different types of cosmetics. Education, occupation, marital status, age, and gender were all important factors that determined the use of cosmetics in the study area. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Effective Active Ingredients Obtained through Biotechnology
Cosmetics 2016, 3(4), 39; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3040039 -
Abstract
The history of cosmetics develops in parallel to the history of man, associated with fishing, hunting, and superstition in the beginning, and later with medicine and pharmacy. Over the ages, together with human progress, cosmetics have changed continuously and nowadays the cosmetic market
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The history of cosmetics develops in parallel to the history of man, associated with fishing, hunting, and superstition in the beginning, and later with medicine and pharmacy. Over the ages, together with human progress, cosmetics have changed continuously and nowadays the cosmetic market is global and highly competitive, where terms such as quality, efficacy and safety are essential. Consumers’ demands are extremely sophisticated, and thus scientific research and product development have become vital to meet them. Moreover, consumers are aware about environmental and sustainability issues, and thus not harming the environment represents a key consideration when developing a new cosmetic ingredient. The latest tendencies of cosmetics are based on advanced research into how to interfere with skin cell aging: research includes the use of biotechnology-derived ingredients and the analysis of their effects on the biology of the cells, in terms of gene regulation, protein expression and enzymatic activity measures. In this review, we will provide some examples of cosmetic active ingredients developed through biotechnological systems, whose activity on the skin has been scientifically proved through in vitro and clinical studies. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Polyamide Microparticles Containing Vitamin C by Interfacial Polymerization: An Approach by Design of Experimentation
Cosmetics 2016, 3(4), 38; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3040038 -
Abstract
Vitamin C is widely use in cosmetics and pharmaceutics products for its active properties. However ascorbic acid shows unfavourable chemical instability such as oxidation leading to formulation problems. Therefore, carriers, such as micro- and nanoparticles, have been widely investigated as delivery systems for
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Vitamin C is widely use in cosmetics and pharmaceutics products for its active properties. However ascorbic acid shows unfavourable chemical instability such as oxidation leading to formulation problems. Therefore, carriers, such as micro- and nanoparticles, have been widely investigated as delivery systems for vitamin C to improve its beneficial effects in skin treatment. However, none of the previous studies have been able to produce microparticles with a high encapsulation entrapment of vitamin C. The aim of the present study is to use an experimental design to optimize the synthesis of polyamide microparticles for the delivery of ascorbic acid. The effect of four formulation parameters on microparticles properties (size and morphology, encapsulation efficiency and yield, release kinetics) were investigated using a surface response design. Finally, we were able to obtain stable microparticles containing more than 65% of vitamin C. This result confirms the effectiveness of using design of experiments for the optimisation of microparticle formulation and supports the proposal of using them as candidate for the delivery of vitamin C in skin treatment. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Lipid Self-Assemblies and Nanostructured Emulsions for Cosmetic Formulations
Cosmetics 2016, 3(4), 37; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3040037 -
Abstract
A majority of cosmetic products that we encounter on daily basis contain lipid constituents in solubilized or insolubilized forms. Due to their amphiphilic nature, the lipid molecules spontaneously self-assemble into a remarkable range of nanostructures when mixed with water. This review illustrates the
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A majority of cosmetic products that we encounter on daily basis contain lipid constituents in solubilized or insolubilized forms. Due to their amphiphilic nature, the lipid molecules spontaneously self-assemble into a remarkable range of nanostructures when mixed with water. This review illustrates the formation and finely tunable properties of self-assembled lipid nanostructures and their hierarchically organized derivatives, as well as their relevance to the development of cosmetic formulations. These lipid systems can be modulated into various physical forms suitable for topical administration including fluids, gels, creams, pastes and dehydrated films. Moreover, they are capable of encapsulating hydrophilic, hydrophobic as well as amphiphilic active ingredients owing to their special morphological characters. Nano-hybrid materials with more elegant properties can be designed by combining nanostructured lipid systems with other nanomaterials including a hydrogelator, silica nanoparticles, clays and carbon nanomaterials. The smart materials reviewed here may well be the future of innovative cosmetic applications. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Skin Whitening Cosmetics: Feedback and Challenges in the Development of Natural Skin Lighteners
Cosmetics 2016, 3(4), 36; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3040036 -
Abstract
With the public’s growing interest in skin whitening, lightening ingredients only used under dermatological supervision until recently, are more and more frequently incorporated into cosmetic formulas. The active agents that lighten skin tone are either natural or synthetic substances, and may act at
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With the public’s growing interest in skin whitening, lightening ingredients only used under dermatological supervision until recently, are more and more frequently incorporated into cosmetic formulas. The active agents that lighten skin tone are either natural or synthetic substances, and may act at various levels of melanogenesis. They are used to treat various skin pigmentation disorders or simply to obtain a lighter skin tone as whiter skin may be synonymous of wealth, health, youth, and/or beauty in different cultures. However, recent studies demonstrated the adverse effects of some of these ingredients, leading to their interdiction or restricted use under the European Directive and several other international regulations. After an overview of skin whitening practices and the associated risks, this article provides insight into the mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and the biological assays available to attest the lightening activity of individual ingredients. The legislation dealing with the use of skin lighteners is then discussed. As traditional depigmenting agents such as hydroquinone and corticosteroids are of safety concern, the potential of natural extracts has been investigated more and more; finally, a synthesis of three years of research in our laboratory for such plant extracts will be given. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Topical Retinol Restores Type I Collagen Production in Photoaged Forearm Skin within Four Weeks
Cosmetics 2016, 3(4), 35; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3040035 -
Abstract
Production of type I collagen (COL1), the major structural protein of the skin, declines during aging, leading to skin thinning and becoming fragile, which increases the risk of bruising and wound healing disorders in the elderly. Topical treatments that can restore COL1 synthesis
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Production of type I collagen (COL1), the major structural protein of the skin, declines during aging, leading to skin thinning and becoming fragile, which increases the risk of bruising and wound healing disorders in the elderly. Topical treatments that can restore COL1 synthesis and ultimately COL1 content in aged skin hold promise to improve skin health. Much effort has been spent on developing agents that can safely and effectively enhance COL1 synthesis in aged skin. However, how fast and to what extent COL1 production in aged skin can be enhanced by a topical treatment remains unclear. Herein, we investigated a four-week topical retinol (ROL) treatment. A one-day occlusion of ROL (0.4%) or vehicle was applied on photoaged forearms of elderly (>65 years old) subjects once a week for four weeks. Vehicle was also applied on forearms of young (23–33 years) subjects in the same manner. Skin samples were obtained one week after the last treatment and analyzed for COL1 synthesis. We found that the ROL treatment increased the level of COL1 mRNA (2.3-fold) and proCOL1 protein (1.8-fold) in photoaged forearms to levels similar to that of young forearms within four weeks. Our study proves the concept that reduced COL1 production in aged skin can be readily restored. In addition, our study provides an evidence-based foundation for developing COL1-enhancing topical agents, and establishes a reliable and practical efficacy test for evaluating such agents. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Essential of Hair Care Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2016, 3(4), 34; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3040034 -
Abstract
Nowadays, hair care and style play a very important role in people’s physical aspect and self-perception. Hair cosmetics can be distinguished into two main categories: cosmetics with temporary effect on the hair, for example shampoos, conditioners, sprays, and temporary colors; and cosmetics with
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Nowadays, hair care and style play a very important role in people’s physical aspect and self-perception. Hair cosmetics can be distinguished into two main categories: cosmetics with temporary effect on the hair, for example shampoos, conditioners, sprays, and temporary colors; and cosmetics with permanent effect on the hair, such as permanent waves, relaxers, bleaches and permanent colors. These cosmetic procedures may induce hair abnormalities. We provide an overview on the most important characteristics of these procedures, analyzing components and effects on the hair. Finally, we evaluated new camouflage techniques and tattoo scalp. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Fairer Face, a Fairer Tomorrow? A Review of Skin Lighteners
Cosmetics 2016, 3(3), 33; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3030033 -
Abstract
From light-skinned deities depicted in ancient religious tableaux, pearl-swallowing practices in China, turmeric ceremonies in India to clay application in Africa, history has been coloured by our questionable aversion to the darker shades. Complexion has assumed psychological, economic and political currency with continued
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From light-skinned deities depicted in ancient religious tableaux, pearl-swallowing practices in China, turmeric ceremonies in India to clay application in Africa, history has been coloured by our questionable aversion to the darker shades. Complexion has assumed psychological, economic and political currency with continued growth in the desire for skin lighteners sweeping the boundaries of country, race, cultural and socioeconomic status. This review explores our early associations with the symbolism of colour through religion, the ideals of complexion across cultures and time, the motivations behind the use of skin lightening practices, and the use of colour within political and economic agendas. Skin-lightening agents with regard to content, adverse effect profile and regulation are discussed and safe skin care practices in assisting with an individual’s adoption of a more tolerable spectrum of shades are alluded to. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Packaging Evaluation Approach to Improve Cosmetic Product Safety
Cosmetics 2016, 3(3), 32; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3030032 -
Abstract
In the Regulation 1223/2009, evaluation of packaging has become mandatory to assure cosmetic product safety. In fact, the safety assessment of a cosmetic product can be successfully carried out only if the hazard deriving from the use of the designed packaging for the
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In the Regulation 1223/2009, evaluation of packaging has become mandatory to assure cosmetic product safety. In fact, the safety assessment of a cosmetic product can be successfully carried out only if the hazard deriving from the use of the designed packaging for the specific product is correctly evaluated. Despite the law requirement, there is too little information about the chemical-physical characteristics of finished packaging and the possible interactions between formulation and packaging; furthermore, different from food packaging, the cosmetic packaging is not regulated and, to date, appropriate guidelines are still missing. The aim of this work was to propose a practical approach to investigate commercial polymeric containers used in cosmetic field, especially through mechanical properties’ evaluation, from a safety point of view. First of all, it is essential to obtain complete information about raw materials. Subsequently, using an appropriate full factorial experimental design, it is possible to investigate the variables, like polymeric density, treatment, or type of formulation involved in changes to packaging properties or in formulation-packaging interaction. The variation of these properties can greatly affect cosmetic safety. In particular, mechanical properties can be used as an indicator of pack performances and safety. As an example, containers made of two types of polyethylene with different density, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE), are investigated. Regarding the substances potentially extractable from the packaging, in this work the headspace solid-phase microextraction method (HSSPME) was used because this technique was reported in the literature as suitable to detect extractables from the polymeric material here employed. Full article
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