Abstract: Face spoofing is considered to be one of the prominent threats to face recognition systems. However, in order to improve the security measures of such biometric systems against deliberate spoof attacks, liveness detection has received significant recent attention from researchers. For this purpose, analysis of facial skin texture properties becomes more popular because of its limited resource requirement and lower processing cost. The traditional method of skin analysis for liveness detection was to use Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and its variants. LBP descriptors are effective, but they may exhibit certain limitations in near uniform patterns. Thus, in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of Local Ternary Pattern (LTP) as an alternative to LBP. In addition, we adopted Dynamic Local Ternary Pattern (DLTP), which eliminates the manual threshold setting in LTP by using Weber’s law. The proposed method was tested rigorously on four facial spoof databases: three are public domain databases and the other is the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) face spoof database, which was compiled through this study. The results obtained from the proposed DLTP texture descriptor attained optimum accuracy and clearly outperformed the reported LBP and LTP texture descriptors.
Abstract: Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) network access is subject to error bursts, which, for interactive video, can introduce unacceptable latencies if video packets need to be re-sent. If the video packets are protected against errors with Forward Error Correction (FEC), calculation of the application-layer channel codes themselves may also introduce additional latency. This paper proposes Low-Density Generator Matrix (LDGM) codes rather than other popular codes because they are more suitable for interactive video streaming, not only for their computational simplicity but also for their licensing advantage. The paper demonstrates that a reduction of up to 4 dB in video distortion is achievable with LDGM Application Layer (AL) FEC. In addition, an extension to the LDGM scheme is demonstrated, which works by rearranging the columns of the parity check matrix so as to make it even more resilient to burst errors. Telemedicine and video conferencing are typical target applications.
Abstract: In wireless communication, network coding is one of the intelligent approaches to process the packets before transmitting for efficient information exchange. The goal of this work is to enhance throughput by using the intelligent technique, which may give comparatively better optimization. This paper introduces a biologically-inspired coding approach called Artificial Bee Colony Network Coding (ABC-NC), a modification in the COPE framework. The existing COPE and its variant are probabilistic approaches, which may not give good results in all of the real-time scenarios. Therefore, it needs some intelligent technique to find better packet combinations at intermediate nodes before forwarding to optimize the energy and maximize the throughput in wireless networks. This paper proposes ABC-NC over the existing COPE framework for the wireless environment.
Abstract: In this paper, we investigate how Cognitive Radio as a means of communication can be utilized to serve a smart grid deployment end to end, from a home area network to power generation. We show how Cognitive Radio can be mapped to integrate the possible different communication networks within a smart grid large scale deployment. In addition, various applications in smart grid are defined and discussed showing how Cognitive Radio can be used to fulfill their communication requirements. Moreover, information security issues pertained to the use of Cognitive Radio in a smart grid environment at different levels and layers are discussed and mitigation techniques are suggested. Finally, the well-known Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) is integrated with the Cognitive Radio part of a smart grid communication network to protect against unauthorized access to customer’s data and to the network at large.
Abstract: The efficient use of electrical energy is a topic that has attracted attention for its environmental consequences. On the other hand, induction motors represent the main component in most industries. They consume the highest energy percentages in industrial facilities. This energy consumption depends on the operation conditions of the induction motor imposed by its internal parameters. Since the internal parameters of an induction motor are not directly measurable, an identification process must be conducted to obtain them. In the identification process, the parameter estimation is transformed into a multidimensional optimization problem where the internal parameters of the induction motor are considered as decision variables. Under this approach, the complexity of the optimization problem tends to produce multimodal error surfaces for which their cost functions are significantly difficult to minimize. Several algorithms based on evolutionary computation principles have been successfully applied to identify the optimal parameters of induction motors. However, most of them maintain an important limitation: They frequently obtain sub-optimal solutions as a result of an improper equilibrium between exploitation and exploration in their search strategies. This paper presents an algorithm for the optimal parameter identification of induction motors. To determine the parameters, the proposed method uses a recent evolutionary method called the gravitational search algorithm (GSA). Different from most of the existent evolutionary algorithms, the GSA presents a better performance in multimodal problems, avoiding critical flaws such as the premature convergence to sub-optimal solutions. Numerical simulations have been conducted on several models to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Abstract: Brain–computer interfacing (BCI) is a promising technique for regaining communication and control in severely paralyzed people. Many BCI implementations are based on the recognition of task-specific event-related potentials (ERP) such as P300 responses. However, because of the high signal-to-noise ratio in noninvasive brain recordings, reliable detection of single trial ERPs is challenging. Furthermore, the relevant signal is often heterogeneously distributed over several channels. In this paper, we introduce a new approach for recognizing a sequence of attended events from multi-channel brain recordings. The framework utilizes spatial filtering to reduce both noise and signal space considerably. We introduce different models that can be used to construct the spatial filter and evaluate the approach using magnetoencephalography (MEG) data involving P300 responses, recorded during a BCI experiment. Compared to the accuracy achieved in the BCI experiment performed without spatial filtering, the recognition rate increased significantly to up to 95.3% on average (SD: 5.3%). In combination with the data-driven spatial filter construction we introduce here, our framework represents a powerful method to reliably recognize a sequence of brain potentials from high-density electrophysiological data, which could greatly improve the control of BCIs.