Abstract: This paper presents a technique for designing linear and quadratic interpolators for function approximation using truncated multipliers and squarers. Initial coefficient values are found using a Chebyshev-series approximation and then adjusted through exhaustive simulation to minimize the maximum absolute error of the interpolator output. This technique is suitable for any function and any precision up to 24 bits (IEEE single precision). Designs for linear and quadratic interpolators that implement the 1/x, 1/ √ x, log2(1+2x), log2(x) and 2x functions are presented and analyzed as examples. Results show that a proposed 24-bit interpolator computing 1/x with a design specification of ±1 unit in the last place of the product (ulp) error uses 16.4% less area and 15.3% less power than a comparable standard interpolator with the same error specification. Sixteen-bit linear interpolators for other functions are shown to use up to 17.3% less area and 12.1% less power, and 16-bit quadratic interpolators are shown to use up to 25.8% less area and 24.7% less power.
Abstract: In the internet, a worm is usually propagated in a random multi-hop contact manner. However, the attacker will not likely select this random multi-hop propagation approach in a mobile sensor network. This is because multi-hop worm route paths to random vulnerable targets can be often breached due to node mobility, leading to failure of fast worm spread under this strategy. Therefore, an appropriate propagation strategy is needed for mobile sensor worms. To meet this need, we discuss a hop-by-hop worm propagation model in mobile sensor networks. In a hop-by-hop worm propagation model, benign nodes are infected by worm in neighbor-to-neighbor spread manner. Since worm infection occurs in hop-by-hop contact, it is not substantially affected by a route breach incurred by node mobility. We also propose the carryover epidemic model to deal with the worm infection quota deficiency that might occur when employing an epidemic model in a mobile sensor network. We analyze worm infection capability under the carryover epidemic model. Moreover, we simulate hop-by-hop worm propagation with carryover epidemic model by using an ns-2 simulator. The simulation results demonstrate that infection quota carryovers are seldom observed where a node’s maximum speed is no less than 20 m/s.
Abstract: Automatic identification of garment design class might play an important role in the garments and fashion industry. To achieve this, essential initial works are found in the literature. For example, construction of a garment database, automatic segmentation of garments from real life images, categorizing them into the type of garments such as shirts, jackets, tops, skirts, etc. It is now essential to find a system such that it will be possible to identify the particular design (printed, striped or single color) of garment product for an automated system to recommend the garment trends. In this paper, we have focused on this specific issue and thus propose two new descriptors namely Completed CENTRIST (cCENTRIST) and Ternary CENTRIST (tCENTRIST). To test these descriptors, we used two different publically available databases. The experimental results of these databases demonstrate that both cCENTRIST and tCENTRIST achieve nearly about 3% more accuracy than the existing state-of-the art methods.
Abstract: Surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of the biceps muscle was recorded from 13 subjects. Data was recorded while subjects performed dynamic contraction until fatigue and the signals were segmented into two parts (Non-Fatigue and Fatigue). An evolutionary algorithm was used to determine the elbow angles that best separate (using Davies-Bouldin Index, DBI) both Non-Fatigue and Fatigue segments of the sEMG signal. Establishing the optimal elbow angle for feature extraction used in the evolutionary process was based on 70% of the conducted sEMG trials. After completing 26 independent evolution runs, the best run containing the optimal elbow angles for separation (Non-Fatigue and Fatigue) was selected and then tested on the remaining 30% of the data to measure the classification performance. Testing the performance of the optimal angle was undertaken on nine features extracted from each of the two classes (Non-Fatigue and Fatigue) to quantify the performance. Results showed that the optimal elbow angles can be used for fatigue classification, showing 87.90% highest correct classification for one of the features and on average of all eight features (including worst performing features) giving 78.45%.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate pre-service teachers’ technological, pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) in Turkey. By using the “Survey of Pre-service Teachers’ Knowledge of Teaching and Technology” developed by Schmidt et al. (2009), the study sought to determine if significant differences could be found in pre-service teachers’ perceptions of TPACK when examined by gender, age, educational program, year of study, kind of instruction (day or night education) and field experience. Regression analysis was also used to examine if technology knowledge (TK), pedagogical knowledge (PK) and content knowledge (CK) significantly contributed to pre-service teachers’ TPACK development. Participants of this study were 491 elementary pre-service teachers who attended the summer semester at Pamukkale University. The analysis of the collected data found a significant difference in pre-service teachers’ perceptions of the TPACK when examined across gender, program, year of study and field experience, but no significant differences were found regarding age and kind of instruction. Finally, our regression model showed that CK and PK contributed significantly to pre-service teachers’ TPACK development, but TK was not a significant predictor.
Abstract: Since wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been designed to be deployed in an unsecured, public environment, secured communication is really vital for their wide-spread use. Among all of the communication protocols developed for WSN, the Security Protocols for Sensor Networks (SPINS) is exceptional, as it has been designed with security as a goal. SPINS is composed of two building blocks: Secure Network Encryption Protocol (SNEP) and the “micro” version of the Timed Efficient Streaming Loss-tolerant Authentication (TESLA), named μTESLA. From the inception of SPINS, a number of efforts have been made to validate its security properties. In this paper, we have validated the security properties of SNEP by using an automated security protocol validation tool, named AVISPA. Using the protocol specification language, HLPSL, we model two combined scenarios—node to node key agreement and counter exchange protocols—followed by data transmission. Next, we validate the security properties of these combined protocols, using different AVISPA back-ends. AVISPA reports the models we have developed free from attacks. However, by analyzing the key distribution sub-protocol, we find one threat of a potential DoS attack that we have demonstrated by modeling in AVISPA. Finally, we propose a modification, and AVISPA reports this modified version free from the potential DoS attack.