Computers2016, 5(3), 13; doi:10.3390/computers5030013 (registering DOI) - published 24 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A differentiation between all types of melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions (MnM–SK) is a challenging task for both computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and dermatologists due to the complex structure of patterns. The dermatologists are widely using pattern analysis as a first step with clinical attributes to recognize all categories of pigmented skin lesions (PSLs). To increase the diagnostic accuracy of CAD systems, a new pattern classification algorithm is proposed to predict skin lesions patterns by integrating the majority voting (MV–SVM) scheme with multi-class support vector machine (SVM). The optimal color and texture features are also extracted from each region-of-interest (ROI) dermoscopy image and then these normalized features are fed into an MV–SVM classifier to recognize seven classes. The overall system is evaluated using a dataset of 350 dermoscopy images (50 ROIs per class). On average, the sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 84%, 93% of accuracy and area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) of 0.94 are achieved by the proposed MnM–SK system compared to state-of-the-art methods. The obtained result indicates that the MnM–SK system is successful for obtaining the high level of diagnostic accuracy. Thus, it can be used as an alternative pattern classification system to differentiate among all types of pigmented skin lesions (PSLs).
Abstract: This research is focusing on the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering process, a physical vapor deposition technique which is widely used in thin film production. This process requires the optimized combination of deposition parameters in order to obtain the desirable thin film. The conventional method in the optimization of the deposition parameters had been reported to be costly and time consuming due to its trial and error nature. Thus, gravitational search algorithm (GSA) technique had been proposed to solve this nano-process parameters optimization problem. In this research, the optimized parameter combination was expected to produce the desirable electrical and optical properties of the thin film. The performance of GSA in this research was compared with that of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Artificial Immune System (AIS) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). Based on the overall results, the GSA optimized parameter combination had generated the best electrical and an acceptable optical properties of thin film compared to the others. This computational experiment is expected to overcome the problem of having to conduct repetitive laboratory experiments in obtaining the most optimized parameter combination. Based on this initial experiment, the adaptation of GSA into this problem could offer a more efficient and productive way of depositing quality thin film in the fabrication process.
Abstract: The consumer demand for retrieving and delivering visual content through consumer electronic devices has increased rapidly in recent years. The quality of video in packet networks is susceptible to certain traffic characteristics: average bandwidth availability, loss, delay and delay variation (jitter). This paper presents a scheduling algorithm that modifies the stream of scalable video to combat jitter. The algorithm provides unequal look-ahead by safeguarding the base layer (without the need for overhead) of the scalable video. The results of the experiments show that our scheduling algorithm reduces the number of frames with a violated deadline and significantly improves the continuity of the video stream without compromising the average Y Peek Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR).
Abstract: Face spoofing is considered to be one of the prominent threats to face recognition systems. However, in order to improve the security measures of such biometric systems against deliberate spoof attacks, liveness detection has received significant recent attention from researchers. For this purpose, analysis of facial skin texture properties becomes more popular because of its limited resource requirement and lower processing cost. The traditional method of skin analysis for liveness detection was to use Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and its variants. LBP descriptors are effective, but they may exhibit certain limitations in near uniform patterns. Thus, in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of Local Ternary Pattern (LTP) as an alternative to LBP. In addition, we adopted Dynamic Local Ternary Pattern (DLTP), which eliminates the manual threshold setting in LTP by using Weber’s law. The proposed method was tested rigorously on four facial spoof databases: three are public domain databases and the other is the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) face spoof database, which was compiled through this study. The results obtained from the proposed DLTP texture descriptor attained optimum accuracy and clearly outperformed the reported LBP and LTP texture descriptors.
Abstract: Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) network access is subject to error bursts, which, for interactive video, can introduce unacceptable latencies if video packets need to be re-sent. If the video packets are protected against errors with Forward Error Correction (FEC), calculation of the application-layer channel codes themselves may also introduce additional latency. This paper proposes Low-Density Generator Matrix (LDGM) codes rather than other popular codes because they are more suitable for interactive video streaming, not only for their computational simplicity but also for their licensing advantage. The paper demonstrates that a reduction of up to 4 dB in video distortion is achievable with LDGM Application Layer (AL) FEC. In addition, an extension to the LDGM scheme is demonstrated, which works by rearranging the columns of the parity check matrix so as to make it even more resilient to burst errors. Telemedicine and video conferencing are typical target applications.
Abstract: In wireless communication, network coding is one of the intelligent approaches to process the packets before transmitting for efficient information exchange. The goal of this work is to enhance throughput by using the intelligent technique, which may give comparatively better optimization. This paper introduces a biologically-inspired coding approach called Artificial Bee Colony Network Coding (ABC-NC), a modification in the COPE framework. The existing COPE and its variant are probabilistic approaches, which may not give good results in all of the real-time scenarios. Therefore, it needs some intelligent technique to find better packet combinations at intermediate nodes before forwarding to optimize the energy and maximize the throughput in wireless networks. This paper proposes ABC-NC over the existing COPE framework for the wireless environment.