Open AccessArticle
Development of Novel ECTFE Coated PP Composite Hollow-Fiber Membranes
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 40; doi:10.3390/coatings6030040 -
Abstract
In this work composite hollow-fibers were prepared by dip-coating of commercial polypropylene (PP) with a thin layer of ethylene–chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (ECTFE). The employment of N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent improved the polymer processability favoring dip-coating at lower temperature (135 °C). Scanning electron [...] Read more.
In this work composite hollow-fibers were prepared by dip-coating of commercial polypropylene (PP) with a thin layer of ethylene–chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer (ECTFE). The employment of N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent improved the polymer processability favoring dip-coating at lower temperature (135 °C). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses showed that after dip-coating the PP support maintained its microstructure, whereas a thin coated layer of ECTFE on the external surface of the PP hollow-fiber was clearly distinguishable. Membrane characterization evidenced the effects of the concentration of ECTFE in the dope-solution and the time of dip-coating on the thickness of ECTFE layer and membrane properties (i.e., contact angle and pore size). ECTFE coating decreased the surface roughness reducing, as a consequence, the hydrophobicity of the membrane. Moreover, increasing the ECTFE concentration and dip-coating time enabled the preparation of a thicker layer of ECTFE with low and narrow pore size that negatively affected the water transport. On the basis of the superior chemical resistance of ECTFE, ECTFE/PP composite hollow fibers could be considered as very promising candidates to be employed in membrane processes involving harsh conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Deposition and Characterization of Si-Doped Diamond Films Using Tetraethoxysilane onto a WC-Co Substrate
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 39; doi:10.3390/coatings6030039 -
Abstract
Silicon-doped (Si-doped) diamond films were deposited on a Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrate using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method with a mixture of acetone, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), and hydrogen as the recant source. The as-deposited doped diamond films were characterized [...] Read more.
Silicon-doped (Si-doped) diamond films were deposited on a Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrate using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method with a mixture of acetone, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), and hydrogen as the recant source. The as-deposited doped diamond films were characterized with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Raman spectrum, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, Rockwell C indentation tests were conducted to evaluate the adhesion of the Si-doped diamond films grown on the WC-Co substrate. The results demonstrated that the silicon concentration in the reactant source played an important role in the surface morphology and adhesion of diamond films. The size of diamond grain varied from 3 μm to 500 nm with silicon concentration increasing from 0 to 1.41 atom %. When the silicon concentration rose to 1.81 atom %, the grain size became bigger than that of the lower concentration. The ratio of diamond peak {220}/{111} varied with different silicon concentrations. Raman study features revealed high purity of as-deposited diamond films. The Raman spectra also demonstrated the presence of silicon in the diamond films with Si–Si, Si–C and Si–O bonds. Si-doped diamond films with strong adhesive strength on the WC-Co substrate was beneficial for diamond films applied on cutting tools and wear resistance components. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Coatings Best Paper Award 2016
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 38; doi:10.3390/coatings6030038 -
Abstract Coatings has established the Best Paper Award to recognize its best published articles each year.[...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Feasibility of Coloring Bamboo with the Application of Natural and Extracted Fungal Pigments
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 37; doi:10.3390/coatings6030037 -
Abstract
Fungal pigments, specifically those generated from spalting fungi, are being developed for broader use in the wood and textile industry, and due to their coloration properties, may also be useful as aesthetic bamboo dyes. This paper evaluates the potential use of fungal [...] Read more.
Fungal pigments, specifically those generated from spalting fungi, are being developed for broader use in the wood and textile industry, and due to their coloration properties, may also be useful as aesthetic bamboo dyes. This paper evaluates the potential use of fungal pigments in bamboo (Phyllostachys spp.), and compares the difference between natural spalting and the direct application of extracted fungal pigments of three known spalting fungi: Scytalidium cuboideum, Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, and Chlorociboria aeruginosa. Bamboo was significantly spalted by S. cuboideum under live inoculation, while the other two fungi did not colonize. For the direct application of fungal pigments, bamboo did not develop internal pigmentation with any pigment, but did develop visible surface color for S. cuboideium and C. aeruginosa. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of hyphae in bamboo vessels and parenchyma. An HPLC analysis for simple sugars showed the presence of glucose but no sucrose. Results indicate that the extracted pigments of the aforementioned fungi are ideal for the surface treatment of bamboo, while only direct inoculation of S. cuboideum is appropriate for internal coloration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Temperature Corrosion Studies of a Zirconia Coating: Implications for Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Plants
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 36; doi:10.3390/coatings6030036 -
Abstract
Corrosion of functional parts within waste-to-energy (WTE) plants significantly reduces their efficiency with respect to maintenance costs. Currently, nickel-based alloy claddings, several millimeters thick, are the state of the art as anti-corrosion coating. Another approach is to utilize thermally sprayed multilayer coatings [...] Read more.
Corrosion of functional parts within waste-to-energy (WTE) plants significantly reduces their efficiency with respect to maintenance costs. Currently, nickel-based alloy claddings, several millimeters thick, are the state of the art as anti-corrosion coating. Another approach is to utilize thermally sprayed multilayer coatings with a zirconia top-coat. Lab-scale experiments under simulated WTE plant conditions and in situ tests within a WTE plant revealed a partially reduced porosity of the zirconia top-coat after the experiments, enabling the coating to act as a barrier against aggressive gases. In a lab-scale experiment sample the pores are filled up with zirconia, while the pores of the in situ samples are filled up with newly formed metal (Cr, Ni, Fe) oxides. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Techniques and Challenges for Characterizing Metal Thin Films with Applications in Photonics
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 35; doi:10.3390/coatings6030035 -
Abstract
The proliferation of laser technologies has profoundly increased the demand for high-quality optical thin films whose physical properties are tunable and well defined. Such films are frequently deposited in thicknesses much shorter than the wavelengths of visible light and consequently present challenges [...] Read more.
The proliferation of laser technologies has profoundly increased the demand for high-quality optical thin films whose physical properties are tunable and well defined. Such films are frequently deposited in thicknesses much shorter than the wavelengths of visible light and consequently present challenges for characterization by traditional microscopy. Metal films in particular exemplify these challenges, due to their broad range of refractive indices, optical absorption and often near-complete reflectivity in the visible spectrum. However, due to their relatively consistent crystalline structure, the bulk optical properties of metal thin films are chiefly dependent on their thickness. This review therefore presents a compendium of viable alternative characterization techniques to highlight their respective utilities, limitations and resolutions, specifically with regard to the characterization of the thickness of metal films. Furthermore, this review explicitly addresses the operating theories, methods and analyses relating to the five most predominantly utilized techniques: X-ray Reflectivity (XRR), Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). This work is intended as an introductory guide to thin film characterization modalities and their applicability for metal and optically-absorptive films, while also identifying AFM and SEM/EDS as being amongst the more reliable of the techniques. Full article
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Open AccessReview
An Overview on Corrosion-Resistant Coating Technologies in Biomass/Waste-to-Energy Plants in Recent Decades
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 34; doi:10.3390/coatings6030034 -
Abstract
Highly efficient electric power generation from biomass/waste fuels becomes an important worldwide issue to prevent global warming. In these plants, severe high-temperature corrosion and erosion-corrosion damage occur in boiler tubes influenced by HCl, SOx gases, and chlorides as contaminants in fuels. [...] Read more.
Highly efficient electric power generation from biomass/waste fuels becomes an important worldwide issue to prevent global warming. In these plants, severe high-temperature corrosion and erosion-corrosion damage occur in boiler tubes influenced by HCl, SOx gases, and chlorides as contaminants in fuels. Coating technologies become important as a countermeasure for such damage, because of the easy maintenance, cost performance, and ease of application on various materials. In severe corrosive conditions of boilers, formation of dense, homogenous, and tough coating layers, as well as protective oxide layers of corrosion-resistant materials, are important. In the last 30 years, materials and coating processes applied in shop and on site have progressed based on many field observations and the consideration of deterioration mechanisms in order to maintain long lifetimes in the plants. Furthermore, new innovative coatings are now being developed by using advanced precise control, nanotechnologies, etc. This paper introduces recent trends of advanced coating developments and applications, such as weld-overlay, cladding, thermal spray coating, and slurry coating for biomass/waste boilers. Furthermore, the evaluation results of deterioration mechanisms and lifetime of coatings, and the future issue for innovative coatings, are presented. Full article
Open AccessReview
Surface-Engineered Fire Protective Coatings for Fabrics through Sol-Gel and Layer-by-Layer Methods: An Overview
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 33; doi:10.3390/coatings6030033 -
Abstract
Fabric flammability is a surface-confined phenomenon: in fact, the fabric surface represents the most critical region, through which the mass and heat transfers, responsible for fueling the flame, are controlled and exchanged with the surroundings. More specifically, the heat the fabric surface [...] Read more.
Fabric flammability is a surface-confined phenomenon: in fact, the fabric surface represents the most critical region, through which the mass and heat transfers, responsible for fueling the flame, are controlled and exchanged with the surroundings. More specifically, the heat the fabric surface is exposed to is transferred to the bulk, from which volatile products of thermal degradation diffuse toward the surface and the gas phase, hence feeding the flame. As a consequence, the chemical and physical characteristics of the fabric surface considerably affect the ignition and combustion processes, as the surface influences the flux of combustible volatile products toward the gas phase. In this context, it is possible to significantly modify (and improve) the fire performance of textile materials by “simply” tailoring their surface: currently, one of the most effective approaches exploits the deposition of tailored coatings able to slow down the heat and mass transfer phenomena occurring during the fire stages. This paper reviews the current state of the art related to the design of inorganic, hybrid, or organic flame-retardant coatings suitable for the fire protection of different fabric substrates (particularly referring to cotton, polyester, and their blends). More specifically, the use of sol-gel and layer-by-layer (LbL) methods is thoroughly discussed; then, some recent examples of flame retardant coatings are presented, showing their potential advances and their current limitations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Graphite–Cement Paste: A New Coating of Reinforced Concrete Structural Elements for the Application of Electrochemical Anti-Corrosion Treatments
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 32; doi:10.3390/coatings6030032 -
Abstract
This paper reviews research carried out towards the development of a novel conductive coating for reinforced concrete structures in order to enable the application of electrochemical anti-corrosion treatments. The coating is composed of a hardened paste containing graphite powder and cement. The [...] Read more.
This paper reviews research carried out towards the development of a novel conductive coating for reinforced concrete structures in order to enable the application of electrochemical anti-corrosion treatments. The coating is composed of a hardened paste containing graphite powder and cement. The applied techniques were electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE), cathodic protection (CP), and cathodic prevention, as well as combined treatments such as ECE-CP. This research has demonstrated their efficiency when using the new conductive coating as an anode system. The influence of the shape of the structural elements on the performance of the electrochemical treatments was also studied. Several characteristics of the coating have been determined, such as conductivity, durability, adhesion to the concrete surfaces, and ease of application. The results demonstrate the adequacy of using this coating as the anode for anti-corrosion treatments on reinforced concrete structural elements of different shapes, for the purpose of extending service life. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Non-Cyanide Electrodeposited Ag–PTFE Composite Coating Using Direct or Pulsed Current Deposition
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 31; doi:10.3390/coatings6030031 -
Abstract
The effects of FC-4 cationic surfactant on electrodeposited Ag–PTFE composite coating using direct or pulsed currents were studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDS), optical microscope, and a linear tribometer. FC-4:PTFE in various ratios were added to a non-cyanide [...] Read more.
The effects of FC-4 cationic surfactant on electrodeposited Ag–PTFE composite coating using direct or pulsed currents were studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDS), optical microscope, and a linear tribometer. FC-4:PTFE in various ratios were added to a non-cyanide succinimide silver complex bath. Direct or pulsed current method was used at a constant current density to enable comparison between both methods. A high incorporation rate of PTFE was successfully achieved, with pulsed current being highly useful in increasing the amount of PTFE in the composite coating. The study of coating wear under sliding showed that a large majority of the electrodeposited coatings still managed to adhere to the substrate, even after 10 wear cycles of sliding tests. Performance improvements were achieved on all the samples with a coefficient of friction (CoF) between 0.06 and 0.12. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Surface Photovoltage Study of Surface Defects on Co-Doped TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 30; doi:10.3390/coatings6030030 -
Abstract
Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying electronic defects on semiconductor surfaces, at interfaces, and in bulk for a wide range of materials. Undoped and Cobalt-doped TiO2 (CTO) thin films were deposited on Crystalline Silicon (c-Si) and Flourine [...] Read more.
Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying electronic defects on semiconductor surfaces, at interfaces, and in bulk for a wide range of materials. Undoped and Cobalt-doped TiO2 (CTO) thin films were deposited on Crystalline Silicon (c-Si) and Flourine doped Tin oxide (SnO2:F) substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis at a substrate temperature of 400 °C. The concentration of the Co dopant in the films was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ranged between 0 and 4.51 at %. The amplitude of the SPV signals increased proportionately with the amount of Co in the films, which was a result of the enhancement of the slow processes of charge separation and recombination. Photogenerated holes were trapped at the surface, slowing down the time response and relaxation of the samples. The surface states were effectively passivated by a thin In2S3 over-layer sprayed on top of the TiO2 and CTO films. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
A Novel Technique for the Deposition of Bismuth Tungstate onto Titania Nanoparticulates for Enhancing the Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 29; doi:10.3390/coatings6030029 -
Abstract
A novel powder handling technique was used to allow the deposition of bismuth tungstate coatings onto commercial titanium dioxide photocatalytic nanoparticles. The coatings were deposited by reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering in an argon/oxygen atmosphere. The use of an oscillating bowl with [...] Read more.
A novel powder handling technique was used to allow the deposition of bismuth tungstate coatings onto commercial titanium dioxide photocatalytic nanoparticles. The coatings were deposited by reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering in an argon/oxygen atmosphere. The use of an oscillating bowl with rotary particle propagation, positioned beneath two closed-field planar magnetrons, provided uniform coverage of the titania particle surfaces. The bismuth/tungsten atomic ratio of the coatings was controlled by varying the power applied to each target. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation were assessed using an acetone degradation test. It was found that deposition of bismuth tungstate onto titania nanoparticles resulted in significant increases in visible light photocatalytic activity, compared to uncoated titania. Of the coatings studied, the highest photocatalytic activity was measured for the sample with a Bi/W atomic ratio of 2/1. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Activated Plastic Films on Inactivation of Foodborne Pathogens
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 28; doi:10.3390/coatings6030028 -
Abstract
In the present study, low density polyethylene films were activated by co-extrusion with zinc oxide, zinc acetate or potassium sorbate. Films were also surface-activated with tyrosol singly or in combination with lactic acid or p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Activated films were tested on Listeria[...] Read more.
In the present study, low density polyethylene films were activated by co-extrusion with zinc oxide, zinc acetate or potassium sorbate. Films were also surface-activated with tyrosol singly or in combination with lactic acid or p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Activated films were tested on Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The combinations showing greatest inhibition zones and broadest inhibitory spectrum were the films activated with tyrosol plus p-hydroxybenzoic acid. A small delay in growth of Listeria innocua was observed on seabream packed in ZnO-activated films during refrigerated storage for 7 days. When films activated with 2.5% tyrosol or with 1.5% tyrosol plus 0.5 p-hydroxybenzoic acid were used for vacuum packaging of smoked salmon and smoked tuna challenged with cocktails of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes strains, the combination of tyrosol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid improved inactivation of both pathogens during chill storage compared to films singly activated with tyrosol. The best results were obtained in smoked salmon, since no viable pathogens were detected after 7 days of chill storage for the activated film. Results from the study highlight the potential of plastic films surface-activated with tyrosol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in the control of foodborne pathogens in smoked seafood. Full article
Open AccessReview
Preparation and Grafting Functionalization of Self-Assembled Chitin Nanofiber Film
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 27; doi:10.3390/coatings6030027 -
Abstract
Chitin is a representative biomass resource comparable to cellulose. Although considerable efforts have been devoted to extend novel applications to chitin, lack of solubility in water and common organic solvents causes difficulties in improving its processability and functionality. Ionic liquids have paid [...] Read more.
Chitin is a representative biomass resource comparable to cellulose. Although considerable efforts have been devoted to extend novel applications to chitin, lack of solubility in water and common organic solvents causes difficulties in improving its processability and functionality. Ionic liquids have paid much attention as solvents for polysaccharides. However, little has been reported regarding the dissolution of chitin with ionic liquids. The author found that an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (AMIMBr), dissolved chitin in concentrations up to ~4.8 wt % and the higher contents of chitin with AMIMBr gave ion gels. When the ion gel was soaked in methanol for the regeneration of chitin, followed by sonication, a chitin nanofiber dispersion was obtained. Filtration of the dispersion was subsequently carried out to give a chitin nanofiber film. A chitin nanofiber/poly(vinyl alcohol) composite film was also obtained by co-regeneration approach. Chitin nanofiber-graft-synthetic polymer composite films were successfully prepared by surface-initiated graft polymerization technique. For example, the preparation of chitin nanofiber-graft-biodegradable polyester composite film was achieved by surface-initiated graft polymerization from the chitin nanofiber film. The similar procedure also gave chitin nanofiber-graft-polypeptide composite film. The surface-initiated graft atom transfer radical polymerization was conducted from a chitin macroinitiator film derived from the chitin nanofiber film. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Wear Behaviour of Nanostructured Polymer-Based Safety Films on Soda-Lime Glass
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 26; doi:10.3390/coatings6030026 -
Abstract
The wear behaviour of bare and polymer-coated soda-lime glass specimens sliding against 440C stainless steel counterfaces was investigated with the aid of a pin-on-disk apparatus. The selected polymeric coatings were commercially supplied safety films, which are nowadays extensively applied on glass in [...] Read more.
The wear behaviour of bare and polymer-coated soda-lime glass specimens sliding against 440C stainless steel counterfaces was investigated with the aid of a pin-on-disk apparatus. The selected polymeric coatings were commercially supplied safety films, which are nowadays extensively applied on glass in the automotive and construction industry. One of their main failures is the degradation of their properties due to wear. In this work, the frictional behaviour of these coatings on glass were evaluated and compared to those of bare soda-lime glass. Correlations have been also made between the worn surfaces and weight loss in order to investigate the effect of wear conditions (speed, load) on the wear behaviour of these tribosystems. In addition, during the dry wear of soda-lime glass sliding against stainless steel counterfaces, the dominant wear mechanisms were found to be localized adhesion and abrasion, whereas, in the case of the multilayered polymeric coatings localized adhesion, deformation and tearing were observed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Mechanical Color Reading of Wood-Staining Fungal Pigment Textile Dyes: An Alternative Method for Determining Colorfastness
Coatings 2016, 6(3), 25; doi:10.3390/coatings6030025 -
Abstract
Colorfastness to washing and crocking (color loss due to rubbing) are essential qualities for any dye/fabric combination that will be used for garments or upholstery. In this study, colorfastness to washing and crocking of fabrics dyed with wood-staining fungal pigments was compared [...] Read more.
Colorfastness to washing and crocking (color loss due to rubbing) are essential qualities for any dye/fabric combination that will be used for garments or upholstery. In this study, colorfastness to washing and crocking of fabrics dyed with wood-staining fungal pigments was compared to colorfastness of commercial dyes using an alternative mechanical testing method. Overall, wood-staining fungal pigments out performed commercial dyes for colorfastness to washing and wet and dry crocking. Xylindein was the most colorfast dye. Draconin red yielded inconsistent results, and the yellow pigment required a mordant to achieve any colorfastness. This study showed that the mechanical color reading method, along with statistical analysis, provided an objective, repeatable gauge of colorfastness, although visual inspection is also needed for practical purposes. Full article
Open AccessReview
Evolution of the Automotive Body Coating Process—A Review
Coatings 2016, 6(2), 24; doi:10.3390/coatings6020024 -
Abstract
Automotive coatings and the processes used to coat automobile surfaces exemplify the avant-garde of technologies that are capable of producing durable surfaces, exceeding customers’ expectations of appearance, maximizing efficiency, and meeting environmental regulations. These accomplishments are rooted in 100 years of experience, [...] Read more.
Automotive coatings and the processes used to coat automobile surfaces exemplify the avant-garde of technologies that are capable of producing durable surfaces, exceeding customers’ expectations of appearance, maximizing efficiency, and meeting environmental regulations. These accomplishments are rooted in 100 years of experience, trial-and-error approaches, technique and technology advancements, and theoretical assessments. Because of advancements directed at understanding the how, why, when, and where of automobile coatings, the progress in controlling droplets and their deposition attributes, and the development of new technologies and paint chemistries, a comprehensive and up-to-date review of automobile coatings and coating technologies was considered to be of value to industrial practitioners and researchers. Overall, the critical performance factors driving the development and use of advanced automotive coatings and coating technologies are (a) aesthetic characteristics; (b) corrosion protection; (c) mass production; (d) cost and environmental requirements; and (e) appearance and durability. Although the relative importance of each of these factors is debatable, the perfection of any one at the expense of another would be unacceptable. Hence, new developments in automotive coatings are described and discussed in the following review, and then related to improvements in production technologies and paints. Modern automotive coating procedures are also discussed in detail. Finally, an extrapolation into the future of automotive coating is offered with a view of the developments and technologies needed for an increasingly efficient and more sustainable coatings industry. Full article
Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Bastarrachea, L.J., et al. Active Packaging Coatings. Coatings 2015, 5, 771–791
Coatings 2016, 6(2), 23; doi:10.3390/coatings6020023 -
Abstract The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [1]:[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Thermal Protection of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Composites by Ceramic Particles
Coatings 2016, 6(2), 22; doi:10.3390/coatings6020022 -
Abstract
The thermal barrier efficiency of two types of ceramic particle, glass flakes and aluminum titanate, dispersed on the surface of carbon-fiber epoxy composites, has been evaluated using a cone calorimeter at 35 and 50 kW/m2, in addition to temperature gradients [...] Read more.
The thermal barrier efficiency of two types of ceramic particle, glass flakes and aluminum titanate, dispersed on the surface of carbon-fiber epoxy composites, has been evaluated using a cone calorimeter at 35 and 50 kW/m2, in addition to temperature gradients through the samples’ thicknesses, measured by inserting thermocouples on the exposed and back surfaces during the cone tests. Two techniques of dispersing ceramic particles on the surface have been employed, one where particles were dispersed on semi-cured laminate and the other where their dispersion in a phenolic resin was applied on the laminate surface, using the same method as used previously for glass fiber composites. The morphology and durability of the coatings to water absorption, peeling, impact and flexural tension were also studied and compared with those previously reported for glass-fiber epoxy composites. With both methods, uniform coatings could be achieved, which were durable to peeling or water absorption with a minimal adverse effect on the mechanical properties of composites. While all these properties were comparable to those previously observed for glass fiber composites, the ceramic particles have seen to be more effective on this less flammable, carbon fiber composite substrate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Acoustical Durability of Thin Noise Reducing Asphalt Layers
Coatings 2016, 6(2), 21; doi:10.3390/coatings6020021 -
Abstract
Within the context of the European Noise Directive, traffic noise action plans have been established. One of those actions is to deepen the knowledge about low noise roads, as they are considered the most cost-efficient measure for traffic noise abatement. Therefore, ten [...] Read more.
Within the context of the European Noise Directive, traffic noise action plans have been established. One of those actions is to deepen the knowledge about low noise roads, as they are considered the most cost-efficient measure for traffic noise abatement. Therefore, ten test sections were installed in May 2012 in Belgium, with the objective of integrating Thin noise-reducing Asphalt Layers (TAL) in the Flemish road surface policy in a later stage. Eight test sections are paved with TAL with a thickness of a maximum of 30 mm and a maximum content of accessible voids of 18%. The other two sections consist of a Double-layer Porous Asphalt Concrete (DPAC) and a Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA-10 as a reference section). The acoustical quality of the asphalt surfaces has been monitored in time using Statistical Pass-By (SPB) and Close-ProXimity (CPX) measurements up to 34 months after construction. Texture measurements performed with a laser profilometer are linked to the noise measurement results. Very promising initial noise reductions were found, up to 6 dB(A), but higher than expected acoustic deterioration rates and the presence of raveling led to noise reductions of a max. of 1 dB(A) after almost three years. It is shown that the construction process itself has a large influence on the acoustical quality over time. Full article