Open AccessArticle
Fouling Release Coatings Based on Polydimethylsiloxane with the Incorporation of Phenylmethylsilicone Oil
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 153; doi:10.3390/coatings8050153 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this study, phenylmethylsilicone oil (PSO) with different viscosity was used for research in fouling release coatings based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The surface properties and mechanical properties of the coatings were investigated, while the leaching behavior of PSO from the coatings was studied.
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In this study, phenylmethylsilicone oil (PSO) with different viscosity was used for research in fouling release coatings based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The surface properties and mechanical properties of the coatings were investigated, while the leaching behavior of PSO from the coatings was studied. Subsequently, the antifouling performance of the coatings was investigated by the benthic diatom adhesion test. The results showed that the coatings with high-viscosity PSO exhibited high levels of hydrophobicity and PSO leaching, while the high PSO content significantly decreased the elastic modulus of the coatings and prolonged the release time of PSO. The antifouling results indicated that the incorporation of PSO into coatings enhanced the antifouling performance of the coating by improving the coating hydrophobicity and decreasing the coating elastic modulus, while the leaching of PSO from the coatings improved the fouling removal rate of the coating. This suggests a double enhancement effect on the antifouling performance of fouling release coatings based on PDMS with PSO incorporated. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Starch-Based Coatings for Preservation of Fruits and Vegetables
Coatings 2018, 8(5), 152; doi:10.3390/coatings8050152 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Considerable research has focused on the control of the physiological activity of fruits and vegetables in postharvest conditions as well as microbial decay. The use of edible coatings (ECs) carrying active compounds (e.g., antimicrobials) represents an alternative preservation technology since they can modify
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Considerable research has focused on the control of the physiological activity of fruits and vegetables in postharvest conditions as well as microbial decay. The use of edible coatings (ECs) carrying active compounds (e.g., antimicrobials) represents an alternative preservation technology since they can modify the internal gas composition by creating a modified atmosphere through the regulation of the gas exchange (oxygen, carbon dioxide, volatiles) while also limiting water transfer. Of the edible polymers able to form coating films, starch exhibits several advantages, such as its ready availability, low cost and good filmogenic capacity, forming colourless and tasteless films with high oxygen barrier capacity. Nevertheless, starch films are highly water sensitive and exhibit limited water vapour barrier properties and mechanical resistance. Different compounds, such as plasticizers, surfactants, lipids or other polymers, have been incorporated to improve the functional properties of starch-based films/coatings. This paper reviews the starch-based ECs used to preserve the main properties of fruits and vegetables in postharvest conditions as well as the different factors affecting the coating efficiency, such as surface properties or incorporation of antifungal compounds. The great variability in the plant products requires specific studies to optimize the formulation of coating forming products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Icing Performance of Hydrophobic Silicone–Acrylate Resin Coatings on Wind Blades
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 151; doi:10.3390/coatings8040151 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The icing of wind blades poses a serious threat to the operation of wind turbines. The application of superhydrophobic coatings on wind blades can serve as a potential anti-icing method. This study presents the findings of simulations of the icing environment of wind
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The icing of wind blades poses a serious threat to the operation of wind turbines. The application of superhydrophobic coatings on wind blades can serve as a potential anti-icing method. This study presents the findings of simulations of the icing environment of wind blades coated with hydrophobic silicone–acrylate resin in an artificial climate chamber. Artificial icing tests were performed on NACA7715 wind blades with four different silicone–acrylate resin coatings and on uncoated wind blades, with test performed at five different wind speeds and three different angles of attack. Results show that wind blade surfaces with higher hydrophobicity yield better anti-icing performance, and that the ice mass of the wind blades decreases with increasing wind speeds and angles of attack. In addition, variations in ice mass, shape, and distribution on different wind blades indicate that increased hydrophobicity can help limit the areas that are subject to freezing. Hydrophobicity can affect the air cavities of the ice deposited on the wind blades, and surfaces with increased hydrophobicity can lead to lower ice mass and less ice adhesion. In brief, surfaces with higher hydrophobicity demonstrate better anti-icing performance and benefit from active de-icing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Annealing on Residual Stress in Ta2O5 Films Deposited by Dual Ion Beam Sputtering
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 150; doi:10.3390/coatings8040150 -
Abstract
Optical coatings deposited by the dual ion beam sputtering (DIBS) method usually show high compressive stress, which results in severe wavefront deformation of optical elements. Annealing post-treatment has been widely used to control the residual stress of optical coatings. However, the effect of
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Optical coatings deposited by the dual ion beam sputtering (DIBS) method usually show high compressive stress, which results in severe wavefront deformation of optical elements. Annealing post-treatment has been widely used to control the residual stress of optical coatings. However, the effect of annealing on the stress of Ta2O5 films deposited by the IBS method has not been reported in detail. In this study, different thicknesses of Ta2O5 films were deposited by IBS and annealed at different temperatures from 473 to 973 K in air, and the effect of annealing on the stress of Ta2O5 films was investigated. The as-deposited Ta2O5 films deposited by IBS show high compressive stress, which are about 160 MPa. The compressive stress decreases linearly with the increasing temperature, and the wavefront deformation of Ta2O5 films increases linearly with film thickness (within 20 μm) at the same annealing temperature. When the temperature rises to 591 K, Ta2O5 films with zero-stress can be obtained. Ta2O5 films show tensile stress instead of compressive stress with further increasing annealing temperature, and the tensile stress increases with increasing temperature. Meanwhile, with the increasing annealing temperature, the refractive index of Ta2O5 film decreases, indicating the decreasing packing density. The atomic force microscope (AFM) test results show that surface roughness of Ta2O5 films slowly increases with the increasing of annealing temperature. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that the Ta in Ta2O5 films can be further oxidized with increasing annealing temperature, namely, the absorption of Ta2O5 film can be reduced. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the annealing temperature should be below 923 K to maintain the amorphous structure of the Ta2O5 film. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Graphene-Oxide-Modified Coating on the Properties of Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 149; doi:10.3390/coatings8040149 -
Abstract
Graphene oxide (GO) modified with ferrites (GO@Fe3O4) were studied to determine their effect on the interfacial properties of continuous carbon-fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites. The GO@Fe3O4 were introduced by mixing them directly in an acrylic-styrene (AS) sizing emulsion
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Graphene oxide (GO) modified with ferrites (GO@Fe3O4) were studied to determine their effect on the interfacial properties of continuous carbon-fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites. The GO@Fe3O4 were introduced by mixing them directly in an acrylic-styrene (AS) sizing emulsion suitable for the making of continuous carbon-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics and towpregs. A magnetic field was then generated during the online sizing using coils in order to change the morphology of the coating on the fiber. The effect on the obtained sizing quality and final properties of continuous carbon-fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites was then studied. The results showed that the topography of the sized fibers was modified, showing a kind of “drag” effect and more than a 32% increase was obtained for interlaminar shear strength. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
One-Step Fabrication and Localized Electrochemical Characterization of Continuous Al-Alloyed Intermetallic Surface Layer on Magnesium Alloy
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 148; doi:10.3390/coatings8040148 -
Abstract
A continuous intermetallic compound coating was fabricated on AZ91D magnesium alloy via heat treatment at 400 °C in AlCl3-NaCl molten salts for 10 h. The microstructure and composition of the coating were characterized by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray
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A continuous intermetallic compound coating was fabricated on AZ91D magnesium alloy via heat treatment at 400 °C in AlCl3-NaCl molten salts for 10 h. The microstructure and composition of the coating were characterized by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The results showed that the coating has a two-layer structure (the outer Mg2Al3 phase layer and the inner Mg17Al12 phase layer) up to 37 μm thick with compact and planar interfaces between the layers and the substrate. The corrosion property of the coating was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and two localized electrochemical techniques, i.e., localized electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (LEIS) and scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). The charge transfer resistance (Rct) of the Al-alloyed coating was 2119 Ω cm2. The localized impedance and current density maps obtained through LEIS and SVET indicate not only significantly improved corrosion resistance (the impedance modulus increased by one order of magnitude and the current density decreased to approximately 3.8%, compared with the substrate) but also defect-free surface condition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrocolloid-Based Coatings are Effective at Reducing Acrylamide and Oil Content of French Fries
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 147; doi:10.3390/coatings8040147 -
Abstract
French fries are popular products worldwide. However, this product is a sufferable source of high acrylamide due to high temperature and low moisture. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grass pea flour (GPF), transglutaminase (TGase)-treated (GPF +
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French fries are popular products worldwide. However, this product is a sufferable source of high acrylamide due to high temperature and low moisture. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grass pea flour (GPF), transglutaminase (TGase)-treated (GPF + TGase), chitosan (CH), and pectin (PEC) hydrocolloid coating solutions on the formation of acrylamide, water retention as well as on oil content. In addition, the Daily Intake (DI) and Margin of Exposure (MOE) were calculated to estimate variations in risk assessment by applying coating solutions before frying. Our results showed that the highest acrylamide content was detected in the control sample, reaching a value of 2089 µg kg−1. Hydrocolloid coating solutions were demonstrated to be an effective way to reduce acrylamide formation, with the percentage of acrylamide reduction equal to 48% for PEC, >38% for CH, ≥37% for GPF + TGase, and >31% for GPF, respectively. We hypothesized that the coatings were able to increase the water retention and, thus reduce the Maillard reaction, which is responsible for acrylamide formation. In fact, the MOE value for coated French fries was increase, resulting in being closer to the safety level to avoid carcinogenic risk. Moreover, our coatings were effective in reducing oil uptake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Target Voltage Hysteresis Behavior and Control Point in the Preparation of Aluminum Oxide Thin Films by Medium Frequency Reactive Magnetron Sputtering
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 146; doi:10.3390/coatings8040146 -
Abstract
Aluminum oxide thin films were prepared by medium frequency reactive magnetron sputtering. The target voltage hysteresis behavior under different argon partial pressure and target power conditions were studied. The results indicate that the target voltage hysteresis loop of aluminum oxide thin film preparation
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Aluminum oxide thin films were prepared by medium frequency reactive magnetron sputtering. The target voltage hysteresis behavior under different argon partial pressure and target power conditions were studied. The results indicate that the target voltage hysteresis loop of aluminum oxide thin film preparation has typical behavior of that for reactive sputtering deposition of compound films. The target voltage feedback control approach was applied to circumvent the hysteresis problem. The microstructure and chemical composition of the aluminum oxide thin films prepared at different target voltage control points were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the prepared aluminum oxide thin films, which are compact and mostly amorphous, can be obtained with target voltage control point in the range of 25~35%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Laser Microtexturing on the Wetting Behavior of Ti6Al4V Alloy
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 145; doi:10.3390/coatings8040145 -
Abstract
Surface modification procedures by laser techniques allow the generation of specific topographies and microstructures that enable the adaptation of the external layers of materials for specific applications. In laser texturing processes, it is possible to maintain control over the microgeometry and dimensions of
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Surface modification procedures by laser techniques allow the generation of specific topographies and microstructures that enable the adaptation of the external layers of materials for specific applications. In laser texturing processes, it is possible to maintain control over the microgeometry and dimensions of the surface pattern through varying the processing parameters. One of the main areas of interest in the field of surface modification treatments is the ability to generate topographies that are associated with specific surface finishes, in terms of roughness, that can improve the manufactured part’s functional capabilities. In this aspect, several types of phenomena have been detected, such as the friction and sliding wear behavior or wetting capacity, which maintain a high dependence on surface roughness. In this research, surface texturing treatments have been developed by laser techniques through using the scanning speed of the beam (Vs) as a control parameter in order to generate samples that have topographies with different natures. Through assessments of surface finish using specialized techniques, the dimensional and geometrical features of the texturized tracks have been characterized, analyzing their influence on the wetting behavior of the irradiated layer. In this way, more defined texturing grooves has been developed by increasing the Vs, which also improves the hydrophobic characteristics of the treated surface. However, due to the lack of uniformity in the solidification process of the irradiated area, some deviations from the expected trends and singular points can be observed. Using the contact angle method to evaluate the wetting behavior of the applied treatments found increases in the contact angle values for high texturing speeds, finding a maximum value of 65.59° for Vs = 200 mm/s. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Self-healing Superhydrophobic Surfaces from Water-Soluble Polymer Suspensions Free of Inorganic Particles through Polymer Thermal Reconstruction
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 144; doi:10.3390/coatings8040144 -
Abstract
Self-healing superhydrophobic surfaces have been fabricated by casting and drying water-soluble amphiphilic polymer suspensions at room temperature through thermal reconstruction. When compared with previous methods, this approach exploits modified natural hierarchical microstructures from wood instead of artificially constructing them for superhydrophobic morphology, which
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Self-healing superhydrophobic surfaces have been fabricated by casting and drying water-soluble amphiphilic polymer suspensions at room temperature through thermal reconstruction. When compared with previous methods, this approach exploits modified natural hierarchical microstructures from wood instead of artificially constructing them for superhydrophobic morphology, which involves neither organic solvent nor inorganic particles nor complex procedures. The obtained superhydrophobic surface has acceptable resistance to abrasion. The surface can recover superhydrophobicity spontaneously at room temperature upon damage, which can be accelerated at a higher temperature. After depleting healing agents, the polymer suspension can be sprayed or cast onto wood surfaces to replenish healing agents and to restore self-healing ability. The superhydrophobic surface greatly increases the mold inhibition and water resistance of wood, which would prolong the service life of wood based materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Thermal Degradation of DLC Film Using a Novel Raman Spectroscopy Technique
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 143; doi:10.3390/coatings8040143 -
Abstract
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are extensively used in various industries due to their superior protective and lubrication properties. However, DLC films including sp2 and sp3 carbon bonding are metastable materials, which can be thermally degraded (or graphitized) at elevated temperature. In
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Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are extensively used in various industries due to their superior protective and lubrication properties. However, DLC films including sp2 and sp3 carbon bonding are metastable materials, which can be thermally degraded (or graphitized) at elevated temperature. In this study, a novel Raman spectroscopy technique was developed to evaluate the in-situ thermal stability of DLC films. When a laser beam is applied onto a DLC film, the surface temperature can increase depending on the laser power, laser duration time, and surface reflectivity. Based on this laser heating concept, the Raman spectrum data of DLC films (i.e., G peak position and width) were obtained at the controlled Raman laser power, which enabled to determine the critical temperature to initiate the thermal degradation of DLC films. Two different designs of DLC film (i.e., types A and B with different initial sp2-to-sp3 ratio) were prepared and their thermal stability was evaluated using the proposed Raman spectroscopy technique. From the systematic data analysis and comparison, it could be observed that the type-A DLC film showed the significant change of Raman parameters (i.e., G peak position and width) at lower laser power value (=lower temperature) than the type-B DLC film, which indicated that the type-B DLC film had better thermal stability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficiently Extracted Cellulose Nanocrystals and Starch Nanoparticles and Techno-Functional Properties of Films Made Thereof
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 142; doi:10.3390/coatings8040142 -
Abstract
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and starch nanoparticles (SNP) have remarkable physical and mechanical characteristics. These properties particularly facilitate their application as high-performance components of bio-based packaging films as alternatives to fossil-based counterparts. This study demonstrates a time-efficient and resource-saving extraction process of CNC and
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Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and starch nanoparticles (SNP) have remarkable physical and mechanical characteristics. These properties particularly facilitate their application as high-performance components of bio-based packaging films as alternatives to fossil-based counterparts. This study demonstrates a time-efficient and resource-saving extraction process of CNC and SNP by sulfuric acid hydrolysis and neutralization. The yields of the hydrolyzed products were 41.4% (CNC) and 32.2% (SNP) after hydrolysis times of 3 h and 120 h, respectively. The nanoparticle dispersions were wet-coated onto poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and paper substrates and were incorporated into starch films. No purification or functionalization of the nanoparticles was performed prior to their application. Techno-functional properties such as the permeability of oxygen and water vapor were determined. The oxygen permeability of 5–9 cm3 (STP) 100 µm m−2 d−1 bar−1 at 50% relative humidity and 23 °C on PLA makes the coatings suitable as oxygen barriers. The method used for the extraction of CNC and SNP contributes to the economic production of these nanomaterials. Further improvements, e.g., lower ion concentration and narrower particle size distribution, to achieve reproducible techno-functional properties are tangible. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Self-Assembled Composite Langmuir Films via Fluorine-Containing Bola-Type Derivative with Metal Ions
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 141; doi:10.3390/coatings8040141 -
Abstract
The design and preparation of functional bolaamphiphile-based composite films are of key importance for application in a wide variety of fields. This study demonstrates a new approach to constructing composite films by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method using a fluorine-containing bola-type diacid derivative with
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The design and preparation of functional bolaamphiphile-based composite films are of key importance for application in a wide variety of fields. This study demonstrates a new approach to constructing composite films by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method using a fluorine-containing bola-type diacid derivative with different metal ions. The bola-type molecule we used could be spread on water surfaces and metal ion subphases to fabricate various nanostructured ultrathin films. The obtained data demonstrated that the employed metal ions, including Ag(I), Cu(II), and Eu(III) ions in subphase solutions, can regulate the organized molecular stacking and form interfacial nanostructures deposited in LB films. It was found that the interfacial coordinating interactions can easily occur between carboxyl groups in a molecular skeleton with metal ions in the formed composite films. The formation of composite films was confirmed by changes in the surface pressure-area isotherms, morphologies, and spectra of the transferred LB films. While various research works have achieved the regulation of functions and nanostructures of sophisticated bola-type compounds, we here demonstrate a simple routine to modulate the nanostructures and organized packing of bola-type compounds composite films by changing the metal ions in subphase solutions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure Evolution of a Magnesium Phosphate Protective Layer on Concrete Structures in a Sulfate Environment
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 140; doi:10.3390/coatings8040140 -
Abstract
This study investigates the resistance of an uncoated magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) protective layer to sulfate attacks through changes in its compressive strength and appearance. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microanalyses are conducted on the MPC layer concrete both before
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This study investigates the resistance of an uncoated magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) protective layer to sulfate attacks through changes in its compressive strength and appearance. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microanalyses are conducted on the MPC layer concrete both before and after etching, where changes in the microstructure of the magnesium phosphate protective layer are analyzed during the corrosion process. In addition, this study also explores the intrinsic mechanisms of the MPC protective layer in terms of the resistance of concrete to sulfate. The results showed that the erosion resistance of the concrete to sulfate can be dramatically improved by the MPC protective layer. The structure and composition of the MPC protective layer are different in the sulfate erosion environment compared with those exposed to other environments: the protective layer is more closely bonded to the concrete and has a more compact structure. Therefore, the MPC protective layer is verified to have a significant protective effect on concrete against sulfate corrosion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Reaction Conditions on the Surface Modification of Cellulose Nanofibrils with Aminopropyl Triethoxysilane
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 139; doi:10.3390/coatings8040139 -
Abstract
Nine different surface modifications of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (ATS) by using three different solvent systems (water, ethanol, and a mixture of both) were investigated. The effect of reaction conditions, such as silane to cellulose ratio and solvent type were evaluated
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Nine different surface modifications of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (ATS) by using three different solvent systems (water, ethanol, and a mixture of both) were investigated. The effect of reaction conditions, such as silane to cellulose ratio and solvent type were evaluated to determine their contribution to the extent of the silane modification. Nanofibril properties were evaluated by infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, surface free energy, thermogravimetry, 13C and 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance, and electronic microscopy. The influence of the solvent in the solvolysis of the silane was reflected in the presence or absence of ethoxy groups in the silane. On the other hand, whereas the surface modification was increased directly proportionally to silane ratio on the reaction, the aggregation of nanofibrils was also increased, which can play a negative role in certain applications. The increment of silane modification also had substantial repercussions on the crystallinity of the nanofibrils by the addition of amorphous components to the crystalline unit; moreover, silane surface modifications enhanced the hydrophobic character of the nanofibrils. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Lanthanum-Silica Sol-Gel Coatings for Protecting Metallic Materials in Museums: Approaches to Copper, Bronze, Lead and Steel
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 138; doi:10.3390/coatings8040138 -
Abstract
Museum objects made from metals face the challenge of delaying corrosion in exhibition rooms, showcases and holdings. This study examined some innovative solutions used to protect such items based on sol-gel coatings doped with lanthanum. These coatings were prepared from sols based on
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Museum objects made from metals face the challenge of delaying corrosion in exhibition rooms, showcases and holdings. This study examined some innovative solutions used to protect such items based on sol-gel coatings doped with lanthanum. These coatings were prepared from sols based on TEOS as a precursor. Lanthanum acetate/nitrate was added as a doping agent and corrosion inhibitor. The coatings were deposited upon slabs of copper, bronze, lead and steel, since they are among the most common metals present in museums items. The coatings application was accomplished by immersion-extraction, and the remaining sols were gelled and characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry. To evaluate the behaviour and resistance of the coatings, tests of accelerated aging were carried out in climatic and Kesternich chambers, as well as under an atmosphere saturated with organic acids and under UV irradiation. The simulated conditions tested were undertaken to approach real conditions inside a conventional museum showcase. The microstructure of the coatings before and after accelerated aging tests was observed through optical and field emission scanning electron microscopies. The results indicated that these coatings can be a useful preventive, conservation avenue to protect copper, bronze and lead items exhibited in museums. Full article
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Open AccessReview
2D Materials-Coated Plasmonic Structures for SERS Applications
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 137; doi:10.3390/coatings8040137 -
Abstract
Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride, are new kinds of materials that can serve as substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). When combined with traditional metallic plasmonic structures, the hybrid 2D materials/metal SERS platform brings extra benefits, including
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Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride, are new kinds of materials that can serve as substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). When combined with traditional metallic plasmonic structures, the hybrid 2D materials/metal SERS platform brings extra benefits, including higher SERS enhancement factors, oxidation protection of the metal surface, and protection of molecules from photo-induced damages. This review paper gives an overview of recent progress in the 2D materials-coated plasmonic structure in SERS application, focusing on the fabrication of the hybrid 2D materials/metal SERS platform and its applications for Raman enhancement. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Sharply Reduced Biofilm Formation from Cobetia marina and in Black Sea Water on Modified Siloxane Coatings
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 136; doi:10.3390/coatings8040136 -
Abstract
Siloxane fouling release coatings are currently the only viable non-toxic commercial alternative to toxic biocide antifouling paints. However, they only partially inhibit biofouling since biofilms remain a major issue. With the aim to improve the bacterial resistance of siloxane coatings modified with non-ionic
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Siloxane fouling release coatings are currently the only viable non-toxic commercial alternative to toxic biocide antifouling paints. However, they only partially inhibit biofouling since biofilms remain a major issue. With the aim to improve the bacterial resistance of siloxane coatings modified with non-ionic surfactant (NIS), antioxidant (AO) or both NIS/AO, the ability of PEG-silane co-cross-linker was investigated to reduce Cobetia marina adhesion and multispecies biofilm formation from natural seawater. Surface physical-chemical and physical-mechanical parameters relevant to bio-adhesion were estimated before the testing of the biofilm formation. Slightly reduced biofilm from C. marina and sharply reduced multispecies biofilm, formed in natural sea water, were found on the PEG-silane co-cross-linked coatings without modifying additives. However, both C. marina growth and biofilm formation from natural sea water were sharply reduced on the PEG-silane co-cross-linked coatings containing NIS or AO, even more, no C. marina adhesion was seen on the coating containing NIS and AO simultaneously. Possible explanations of the observed effects are presented in this article. It was concluded that the PEG-silane co-cross-linker, toghether with NIS and AO, can be used as an efficient tool to additionally reduce the bioadhesion of Gram-negative marine bacteria and multispecies biofilm formation on siloxane antifouling coatings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical and Biological Activity Analysis of Low-Density Polyethylene Substrate Modified by Multi-Layer Coatings Based on DLC Structures, Obtained Using RF CVD Method
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 135; doi:10.3390/coatings8040135 -
Abstract
In this paper, the surface properties and selected mechanical and biological properties of various multi-layer systems based on diamond-like carbon structure deposited on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) substrate were studied. Plasma etching and layers deposition (incl. DLC, N-DLC, Si-DLC) were carried out using the
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In this paper, the surface properties and selected mechanical and biological properties of various multi-layer systems based on diamond-like carbon structure deposited on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) substrate were studied. Plasma etching and layers deposition (incl. DLC, N-DLC, Si-DLC) were carried out using the RF CVD (radio frequency chemical vapor deposition) method. In particular, polyethylene with deposited N-DLC and DLC layers in one process was characterized by a surface hardness ca. seven times (up to ca. 2.3 GPa) higher than the unmodified substrate. Additionally, its surface roughness was determined to be almost two times higher than the respective plasma-untreated polymer. It is noteworthy that plasma-modified LDPE showed no significant cytotoxicity in vitro. Thus, based on the current research results, it is concluded that a multilayer system (based on DLC coatings) obtained using plasma treatment of the LDPE surface can be proposed as a prospective solution for improving mechanical properties while maintaining biocompatibility. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tribological Properties of New Cu-Al/MoS2 Solid Lubricant Coatings Using Magnetron Sputter Deposition
Coatings 2018, 8(4), 134; doi:10.3390/coatings8040134 -
Abstract
The increasing demands of environmental protection have led to solid lubricant coatings becoming more and more important. A new type of MoS2-based coating co-doped with Cu and Al prepared by magnetron sputtering, including Cu/MoS2 and Cu-Al/MoS2 coatings, for lubrication
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The increasing demands of environmental protection have led to solid lubricant coatings becoming more and more important. A new type of MoS2-based coating co-doped with Cu and Al prepared by magnetron sputtering, including Cu/MoS2 and Cu-Al/MoS2 coatings, for lubrication applications is reported. To this end, the coatings were annealed in an argon atmosphere furnace. The microstructure and the tribological properties of the coatings prior to and following annealing were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and with a multi-functional tester for material surface properties. The results demonstrated that the friction coefficient of the Cu/MoS2 coating was able to reach as low as 0.07, due to the synergistic lubrication effect of the soft metal Cu with MoS2. However, the wear resistance of the coating was not satisfied. Although the lowest friction coefficient of the Cu-Al/MoS2 coatings was 0.083, the wear resistance was enhanced, which was attributed to the improved the toughness of the coatings due to the introduction of aluminum. The XRD results revealed that the γ2-Cu9Al4 phase was formed in the specimen of Cu-Al/MoS2 coatings. The comprehensive performance of the Cu-Al/MoS2 coatings after annealing was improved in comparison to substrate heating, since the heat-treatment was beneficial for the strengthening of the solid solution of the coatings. Full article
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