Open AccessArticle
Predicting the Wear of High Friction Surfacing Aggregate
Coatings 2017, 7(5), 71; doi:10.3390/coatings7050071 -
Abstract
High friction surfacing (HFS) is a specialist type of road coating with very high skid resistance. It is used in the UK at locations where there is significant risk of serious or fatal accidents. This paper considers the aggregate used in HFS. Calcined
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High friction surfacing (HFS) is a specialist type of road coating with very high skid resistance. It is used in the UK at locations where there is significant risk of serious or fatal accidents. This paper considers the aggregate used in HFS. Calcined bauxite is the only aggregate that provides the highest levels of skid resistance over the longest period. No naturally occurring aggregate has been found to give a comparable level of in-service performance. This paper reviews the historical development of HFS in the UK relating to aggregate. In-service performance is predicted in the laboratory using the Wear test which subjects test specimens to an estimated 5–8 years simulated trafficking. Examples are given of Wear test data. They illustrate why calcined bauxite performs better than natural aggregate. They show how the amount of calcined bauxite can be reduced by blending with high skid resistant natural aggregates. Data from the Wear test can be related to every HFS laboratory experiment and road trial carried out in the UK for over the last 50 years. Anyone considering the prediction of HFS performance needs to carefully consider the data given in this paper with any other test method currently being considered or used to investigate HFS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A New Finite Element Formulation for Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of the Hard-Coating Cylindrical Shell
Coatings 2017, 7(5), 70; doi:10.3390/coatings7050070 -
Abstract
In this paper, a four-node composite cylindrical shell finite element model based on Love’s first approximation theory is proposed to solve the nonlinear vibration of the hard-coating cylindrical shell efficiently. The developed model may have great significance for vibration reduction of the cylindrical
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In this paper, a four-node composite cylindrical shell finite element model based on Love’s first approximation theory is proposed to solve the nonlinear vibration of the hard-coating cylindrical shell efficiently. The developed model may have great significance for vibration reduction of the cylindrical shell structures of the aero engine or aircraft. The influence of the strain dependence of the coating material on the complex stiffness matrix is considered in this model. Nonlinear iterative solution formulas with a unified iterative method are theoretically derived for solving the resonant frequency and response of the composite cylindrical shell. Then, a cylindrical shell coated with a thin layer of NiCoCrAlY + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is chosen to demonstrate the proposed formulation, and the rationality is validated by comparing with the finite element iteration method (FEIM). Results show that the developed finite element method is more efficient, and the hard-coating cylindrical shell has the characteristics of soft nonlinearity due to the strain dependence of the coating material. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Heating Conditions for Formation of a Thin Apatite Film on Zirconia Using a Molecular Precursor Method
Coatings 2017, 7(5), 69; doi:10.3390/coatings7050069 -
Abstract
The influence of heating conditions, heating temperature, and heating time on the formation of a thin carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite (CA) film onto partially stabilized zirconia using a molecular precursor method was evaluated. The molecular precursor solution was prepared from a mixture of calcium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
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The influence of heating conditions, heating temperature, and heating time on the formation of a thin carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite (CA) film onto partially stabilized zirconia using a molecular precursor method was evaluated. The molecular precursor solution was prepared from a mixture of calcium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid complex and phosphate compounds at Ca/P ratio of 1.67. After the application of molecular precursor solution onto zirconia, four different heating conditions—namely, 600 °C-2 h, 800 °C-2 h, 1000 °C-2 h, and 600 °C-4 h—were applied. No distinct difference of surface appearance of CA coating was observed between 600 and 800 °C-2 h. Fusion of apatite crystals was observed at 1000 °C-2 h. Surface roughness of CA film at 1000 °C-2 h was significantly higher than those under other heating conditions. Heating at 800 °C produced a significantly more hydrophilic surface and higher degree of crystallization. No significant differences were recognized in the critical load at the first crack in the coating among the four samples by scratch tests. After 30 days’ immersion in phosphate buffered saline, the four different CA coating films were still present. Simulated body fluid immersion experiments were performed as in vitro biocompatibility tests. After 48 h immersion, the CA film at 800 °C-2 h showed a greater amount of spherical crystal precipitation. It was suggested that properties of CA coating on partially stabilized zirconia using a molecular precursor method were influenced by the heating temperature and time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stiffness of Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings
Coatings 2017, 7(5), 68; doi:10.3390/coatings7050068 -
Abstract
Thermal spray coatings (TSCs) have complex microstructures and they often operate in demanding environments. Plasma sprayed (PS) thermal barrier coating (TBC) is one such ceramic layer that is applied onto metallic components where a low macroscopic stiffness favors stability by limiting the stresses
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Thermal spray coatings (TSCs) have complex microstructures and they often operate in demanding environments. Plasma sprayed (PS) thermal barrier coating (TBC) is one such ceramic layer that is applied onto metallic components where a low macroscopic stiffness favors stability by limiting the stresses from differential thermal contraction. In this paper, the Young’s modulus of TBC top coat, measured using different techniques, such as four-point bending, indentation and impulse excitation is reported, along with a brief description of how the techniques probe different length scales. Zirconia-based TBC top coats were found to have a much lower global stiffness than that of dense zirconia. A typical value for the as-sprayed Young’s modulus was ~23 GPa, determined by beam bending. Indentation, probing a local area, gave significantly higher values. The difference between the two stiffness values is thought to explain the wide range of TBC top coat Young’s modulus values reported in the literature. On exposure to high temperature, due to the sintering process, detached top coats exhibit an increase in stiffness. This increase in stiffness caused by the sintering of fine-scale porosity has significant impact on the strain tolerance of the TBC. The paper discusses the different techniques for measuring the Young’s modulus of the TBC top coats and implications of the measured values. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of the Anti-Graffiti Properties of Powder Organic Coatings Applied in Train Field
Coatings 2017, 7(5), 67; doi:10.3390/coatings7050067 -
Abstract
The widespread prevalence of the phenomenon of graffiti and the growth of the removal cost—in particular in public transport systems—has pushed the research for technical solutions to this problem. Suitable solutions to address graffiti-related concerns are needed in order to reduce the cleaning
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The widespread prevalence of the phenomenon of graffiti and the growth of the removal cost—in particular in public transport systems—has pushed the research for technical solutions to this problem. Suitable solutions to address graffiti-related concerns are needed in order to reduce the cleaning costs as well as the downtime of trains. Graffiti are a big problem for painted metal, because the protective coatings and graffiti have the same chemical nature (polymeric matter). A permanent coating is expected to be able to resist the highest possible number of cleanings of the graffiti without modifying its aesthetic and corrosion protection properties. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodological approach for the characterization of graffiti-resistant organic coatings. For this purpose, a critical review of the existing standards is carried out. The anti-graffiti properties of a polyurethane organic coating were investigated before and after accelerated weathering. In order to understand the behavior of the coatings during cleaning, the aging of the coating in contact with the remover was carried out. The effect on the corrosion protection properties was assessed during the accelerated aging. The resistance of the coating was proved to be strongly affected by the surface finishing. UV exposure modified surface properties and graffiti removal efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fatigue and Healing Properties of Low Environmental Impact Rubberized Bitumen for Asphalt Pavement
Coatings 2017, 7(5), 66; doi:10.3390/coatings7050066 -
Abstract
The addition of recycled tyre rubber as a modifier to enhance the mechanical properties of bitumen has proven to provide asphalt mixtures with better mechanical performance. However the rubberised bitumen presents the limitation of requiring higher manufacturing and compaction temperatures. This could be
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The addition of recycled tyre rubber as a modifier to enhance the mechanical properties of bitumen has proven to provide asphalt mixtures with better mechanical performance. However the rubberised bitumen presents the limitation of requiring higher manufacturing and compaction temperatures. This could be solved by subjecting the tyre rubber to sort of pre-treatments such as: Adding warm-mix additives and/or using partial devulcanisation. These solutions have the potential of lowering the overall environmental impact of the asphalt pavement, however it is still not clear whether these can be detrimental for the rubberized asphalt binder mechanical properties. This paper investigates the effect on fatigue and healing properties of rubberized bitumen blended with pre-treated crumb rubber. An innovative combined fatigue and healing analysis will be presented and used to compare the several rubberised binders with a neat bitumen. The analysis consists in conducting time sweep tests by means of dynamic shear rheometer, by applying repeated cycles of stress or strain loading at selected temperatures and loading frequency. The healing potential of binders was evaluated by introducing short rest periods after a certain number of load pulses. At last, the unique energy parameter obtained using the Ratio of Dissipated Energy Change approach, was applied to obtain a unique index that could provide combined information for both fatigue binder damage and healing phenomenon. The results showed that the analysed rubberised bitumens show having better fatigue and healing performance when compared to the straight-run bitumen. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Specified Procedure for Distress Identification and Assessment for Urban Road Surfaces Based on PCI
Coatings 2017, 7(5), 65; doi:10.3390/coatings7050065 -
Abstract
In this paper, a simplified procedure for the assessment of pavement structural integrity and the level of service for urban road surfaces is presented. A sample of 109 Asphalt Concrete (AC) urban pavements of an Italian road network was considered to validate the
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In this paper, a simplified procedure for the assessment of pavement structural integrity and the level of service for urban road surfaces is presented. A sample of 109 Asphalt Concrete (AC) urban pavements of an Italian road network was considered to validate the methodology. As part of this research, the most recurrent defects, those never encountered and those not defined with respect to the list collected in the ASTM D6433 have been determined by statistical analysis. The goal of this research is the improvement of the ASTM D6433 Distress Identification Catalogue to be adapted to urban road surfaces. The presented methodology includes the implementation of a Visual Basic for Application (VBA) language-based program for the computerization of Pavement Condition Index (PCI) calculation with interpolation by the parametric cubic spline of all of the density/deduct value curves of ASTM D6433 distress types. Also, two new distress definitions (for manholes and for tree roots) and new density/deduct curve values were proposed to achieve a new distress identification manual for urban road pavements. To validate the presented methodology, for the 109 urban pavements considered, the PCI was calculated using the new distress catalogue and using the ASTM D6433 implemented on PAVERTM. The results of the linear regression between them and their statistical parameters are presented in this paper. The comparison of the results shows that the proposed method is suitable for the identification and assessment of observed distress in urban pavement surfaces at the PCI-based scale. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Fabrication of Photovoltaic Textiles
Coatings 2017, 7(5), 63; doi:10.3390/coatings7050063 -
Abstract
Solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays are providing an increasing fraction of global electrical demand, with an accelerating rate of new installations. Most of these employ conventional glass-fronted panels, but this type of PV array does not satisfy applications that require a light-weight, flexible PV
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Solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays are providing an increasing fraction of global electrical demand, with an accelerating rate of new installations. Most of these employ conventional glass-fronted panels, but this type of PV array does not satisfy applications that require a light-weight, flexible PV generator. An option discussed in this article is to consider textiles for such solar cell substrates. As explained in this review, combining the choice of PV cell type with the choice of textile offers alternative structures for flexible PV cells. In particular, the relative advantages and disadvantages are contrasted, either forming PV-coated fibres into a fabric, or coating an already formed fabric with the PV materials. It is shown that combining thin-film amorphous silicon PV technology and woven polyester fabric offers one solution to realizing flexible fabric PV cells, using well-understood coating methods from the textile and semiconductor industries. Finally a few applications are presented that are addressed by this approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Strain Effects by Surface Oxidation of Cu3N Thin Films Deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering
Coatings 2017, 7(5), 64; doi:10.3390/coatings7050064 -
Abstract
We report the self-buckling (or peeling off) of cubic Cu3N films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering of a Cu target in a nitrogen environment at a gas pressure of 1 Pa. The deposited layer partially peels off as it is exposed
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We report the self-buckling (or peeling off) of cubic Cu3N films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering of a Cu target in a nitrogen environment at a gas pressure of 1 Pa. The deposited layer partially peels off as it is exposed to ambient air at atmospheric pressure, but still adheres to the substrate. The chemical composition of the thin film as investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows a considerable surface oxidation after exposure to ambient air. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) confirms the formation of a crystalline Cu3N phase of the quenched film. Notable are the peak shifts in the deposited film to smaller angles in comparison to stress-free reference material. The X-ray pattern of Cu3N exhibits clear differences in the integral width of the line profiles. Changes in the film microstructure are revealed by X-ray diffraction, making use of X-ray line broadening (Williamson–Hall and Stokes–Fourier/Warren–Averbach method); it indicates that the crystallites are anisotropic in shape and show remarkable stress and micro-strain. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Kinetic Analysis of Additive on Plasma Electrolytic Boriding
Coatings 2017, 7(5), 61; doi:10.3390/coatings7050061 -
Abstract
Plasma electrolytic boriding (PEB) is a method of combination surface strengthening and surface texturing on metal. In this study, the kinetics and the lubrication friction of borided layers in the plasma electrolytic boriding on the Q235 were investigated in an aqueous solution for
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Plasma electrolytic boriding (PEB) is a method of combination surface strengthening and surface texturing on metal. In this study, the kinetics and the lubrication friction of borided layers in the plasma electrolytic boriding on the Q235 were investigated in an aqueous solution for 5–15 min. The cross-section and surface morphologies of the boriding layers were confirmed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The presence of phases on the surface was determined using the X-ray diffraction. The hardness and the lubrication friction were evaluated using a micro-hardness tester and pin-on-disk friction tester in an oil sliding condition, respectively. The PEB layer contains phases in FeB, Fe2B, Ni3B4, NiB, and Ni2B. It is indicated that the value of activation energy in the PEB treatment is approximately 186.17 kJ/mol. The random micro-pores in surface texturing are unevenly distributed on the surface of the Q235. The micro-hardness of the boriding layer is up to 900 HV, whereas that of the substrate is approximately 181 HV. The weight loss of PEB sample in 10 min is 0.0017 mg in the lubrication friction, whereas that of untreated sample is 0.0047 mg in the same condition. The formation of boriding strengthening surface texturing in PEB improves lubrication friction greatly. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An All Sol-Gel Process for the Heteroepitaxial Growth of YBa2Cu3O7−x/LaNiO3/YBa2Cu3O7−x Tri-layer
Coatings 2017, 7(5), 62; doi:10.3390/coatings7050062 -
Abstract
The preparation of a YBa2Cu3O7−x/LaNiO3/YBa2Cu3O7−x sandwich structured film on a LaAlO3 (100) substrate by a sol-gel method was investigated. YBa2Cu3O7−x/
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The preparation of a YBa2Cu3O7−x/LaNiO3/YBa2Cu3O7−x sandwich structured film on a LaAlO3 (100) substrate by a sol-gel method was investigated. YBa2Cu3O7−x/LaNiO3/YBa2Cu3O7−x tri-layer heterostructures with different epitaxial characteristics can be deposited by controlling the heat treatment temperature. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results show that the bottom YBCO film grows epitaxially on the LaAlO3 substrate along the c axis, and that this epitaxial growth trend is extended to the subsequently deposited LaNiO3 film. For this reason, the LaNiO3 film also grows epitaxially along the c axis. Furthermore, this epitaxial growth trend is extended to the top YBa2Cu3O7−x film, yielding YBa2Cu3O7−x/LaNiO3/YBa2Cu3O7−x tri-layer heterostructures with epitaxial growth characteristics along the c axis, which enables both the bottom and top YBa2Cu3O7−x layers to possess superconducting abilities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Theoretical Studies of the Adsorption and Migration Behavior of Boron Atoms on Hydrogen-Terminated Diamond (001) Surface
Coatings 2017, 7(5), 57; doi:10.3390/coatings7050057 -
Abstract
The adsorption and migration activation energies of boron atoms on a hydrogen-terminated diamond (001) surface were calculated using first principles methods based on density functional theory. The values were then used to investigate the behavior of boron atoms in the deposition process of
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The adsorption and migration activation energies of boron atoms on a hydrogen-terminated diamond (001) surface were calculated using first principles methods based on density functional theory. The values were then used to investigate the behavior of boron atoms in the deposition process of B-doped diamond film. On the fully hydrogen-terminated surface, the adsorption energy of a boron atom is relatively low and the maximum value is 1.387 eV. However, on the hydrogen-terminated surface with one open radical site or two open radical sites, the adsorption energy of a boron atom increases to 4.37 eV, and even up to 5.94 eV, thereby forming a stable configuration. When a boron atom deposits nearby a radical site, it can abstract a hydrogen atom from a surface carbon atom, and then form a BH radical and create a new radical site. This study showed that the number and distribution of open radical sites, namely, the adsorption of hydrogen atoms and the abstraction of surface hydrogen atoms, can influence the adsorption and migration of boron atoms on hydrogen-terminated diamond surfaces. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ride Quality Due to Road Surface Irregularities: Comparison of Different Methods Applied on a Set of Real Road Profiles
Coatings 2017, 7(5), 59; doi:10.3390/coatings7050059 -
Abstract
Road roughness evaluation can be carried out using different approaches. Among these, the assessment of ride quality level perceived by road users is one of the most-used. In this sense, different evaluation methods have been developed in order to link the level of
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Road roughness evaluation can be carried out using different approaches. Among these, the assessment of ride quality level perceived by road users is one of the most-used. In this sense, different evaluation methods have been developed in order to link the level of irregularities present on road surface profiles with the induced detrimental effects in terms of discomfort. In particular, relationships between wavelength content of road profiles and consequent level of comfort perceived had been investigated by using, in general, a mean panel ratings approach. In this paper, four ride quality evaluation methods (Ride Number, Michigan Ride Quality Index (RQI), Minnesota Ride Quality Index and frequency-weighted vertical acceleration, awz, according to ISO 2631 were applied to a set of real road profiles. The obtained results were analyzed, investigating a possible relation between the different indices, comparing them also with the most-used road roughness method worldwide: the International Roughness Index (IRI). The analyses carried out in this work have highlighted how the various rating scales may lead to a different ride quality assessment of the same road pavements. Furthermore, comparing the awz with the values obtained for the other three methods, it was found that their rating scales are set for speeds within the range 80–100 km/h. For this reason, it is necessary to identify new thresholds to be applied for lower speeds, as in the case of urban roads. In this sense, the use of the ISO 2631 approach would seem to be a useful tool. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Field Evaluation of Red-Coloured Hot Mix Asphalt Pavements for Bus Rapid Transit Lanes in Ontario, Canada
Coatings 2017, 7(5), 58; doi:10.3390/coatings7050058 -
Abstract
Coloured pavements have been implemented by metropolitan areas to denote dedicated lanes for bus rapid transit to maintain a high level of safety. Transit benefits of these installations are well documented. However, field performance of various types of coloured pavement has not been
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Coloured pavements have been implemented by metropolitan areas to denote dedicated lanes for bus rapid transit to maintain a high level of safety. Transit benefits of these installations are well documented. However, field performance of various types of coloured pavement has not been investigated systematically, with questions not being answered. In collaboration with the Regional Municipality of York (ON, Canada) where red pavement sections have been in operation for years for its bus rapid transit lanes, the Centre for Pavement and Transportation Technology at the University of Waterloo (Waterloo, ON, Canada) assessed the performance of various types of red pavements including epoxy paint and red asphalt mixes. It was found that, with significant lower texture depth, epoxy paint surface has disadvantages to red asphalt pavement from a pavement texture and safety perspective. The red asphalt sections in this study were observed as lower yet compatible frictional levels to conventional black pavement. Various types of contamination onto the red pavement were observed during field survey. In addition, the ultraviolet radiation degraded the colour of red asphalt pavement over time and may make it less effective for lane designation. Long-term monitoring is recommended to evaluate the functional and structural performance of red asphalt pavement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Water and Oil Repellent Finishing of Textiles by UV Curing: Evaluation of the Influence of Scaled-Up Process Parameters
Coatings 2017, 7(5), 60; doi:10.3390/coatings7050060 -
Abstract
In this work, various textile fabrics were coated with silicone and fluorocarbon-based resins by photo-curing using ultraviolet irradiation. A great number of large fabric samples were impregnated by padding with commercial finishing agents and then irradiated in air with a high power, semi-industrial
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In this work, various textile fabrics were coated with silicone and fluorocarbon-based resins by photo-curing using ultraviolet irradiation. A great number of large fabric samples were impregnated by padding with commercial finishing agents and then irradiated in air with a high power, semi-industrial UV source. The add-on of various finishing agents was kept low to reduce the treatment cost. White and dyed samples of different textile composition were treated and evaluated in terms of conferred repellency, yellowing, or color changes. Most relevant process parameters were investigated, utilizing the thermal process normally adopted at industrial level as reference. The results were statistically evaluated by ANOVA using Minitab 16 software, in order to identify the most influential parameters and to evaluate the real possibility of replacing the thermal treatment with UV curing. Full article
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Open AccessReview
State of the Art of Antimicrobial Edible Coatings for Food Packaging Applications
Coatings 2017, 7(4), 56; doi:10.3390/coatings7040056 -
Abstract
The interest for the development of new active packaging materials has rapidly increased in the last few years. Antimicrobial active packaging is a potential alternative to protect perishable products during their preparation, storage and distribution to increase their shelf-life by reducing bacterial and
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The interest for the development of new active packaging materials has rapidly increased in the last few years. Antimicrobial active packaging is a potential alternative to protect perishable products during their preparation, storage and distribution to increase their shelf-life by reducing bacterial and fungal growth. This review underlines the most recent trends in the use of new edible coatings enriched with antimicrobial agents to reduce the growth of different microorganisms, such as Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, molds and yeasts. The application of edible biopolymers directly extracted from biomass (proteins, lipids and polysaccharides) or their combinations, by themselves or enriched with natural extracts, essential oils, bacteriocins, metals or enzyme systems, such as lactoperoxidase, have shown interesting properties to reduce the contamination and decomposition of perishable food products, mainly fish, meat, fruits and vegetables. These formulations can be also applied to food products to control gas exchange, moisture permeation and oxidation processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF) Spraying to the Fabrication of Yb-Silicate Environmental Barrier Coatings
Coatings 2017, 7(4), 55; doi:10.3390/coatings7040055 -
Abstract
From the literature, it is known that due to their glass formation tendency, it is not possible to deposit fully-crystalline silicate coatings when the conventional atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process is employed. In APS, rapid quenching of the sprayed material on the substrate
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From the literature, it is known that due to their glass formation tendency, it is not possible to deposit fully-crystalline silicate coatings when the conventional atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process is employed. In APS, rapid quenching of the sprayed material on the substrate facilitates the amorphous deposit formation, which shrinks when exposed to heat and forms pores and/or cracks. This paper explores the feasibility of using a high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) process for the cost-effective fabrication of dense, stoichiometric, and crystalline Yb2Si2O7 environmental barrier coatings. We report our findings on the HVOF process optimization and its resultant influence on the microstructure development and crystallinity of the Yb2Si2O7 coatings. The results reveal that partially crystalline, dense, and vertical crack-free EBCs can be produced by the HVOF technique. However, the furnace thermal cycling results revealed that the bonding of the Yb2Si2O7 layer to the Silicon bond coat needs to be improved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Erosion Wear Investigation of HVOF Sprayed WC-10Co4Cr Coating on Slurry Pipeline Materials
Coatings 2017, 7(4), 54; doi:10.3390/coatings7040054 -
Abstract
In the present work, erosion wear due to slurry mixture flow has been investigated using a slurry erosion pot tester. Erosion tests are conducted on three different slurry pipe materials, namely, mild steel, SS202, and SS304, to establish the influence of rotational speed,
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In the present work, erosion wear due to slurry mixture flow has been investigated using a slurry erosion pot tester. Erosion tests are conducted on three different slurry pipe materials, namely, mild steel, SS202, and SS304, to establish the influence of rotational speed, concentration, and time period. In order to increase erosion wear resistance, a high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coating technique is used to deposit a WC-10Co4Cr coating on the surface of all piping materials. Experimental results show that rotational speed is a highly-influencing parameter for the erosion wear rate as compared to solid concentration, time duration, and weighted mean diameter. WC-10Co4Cr HVOF coating improved the erosion resistance of piping materials up to 3.5 times. From experimental data, the exponents of solid concentration, velocity, and the size of particles are calculated for the empirical erosion wear equation. A functional equation of the erosion wear rate is developed. The predicted erosion wear is in agreement with the experimental data and found to be within a deviation of ±12%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Temperature and Local pH on Calcareous Deposit Formation in Damaged Thermal Spray Aluminum (TSA) Coatings and Its Implication on Corrosion Mitigation of Offshore Steel Structures
Coatings 2017, 7(4), 52; doi:10.3390/coatings7040052 -
Abstract
This paper is based on experimental data and provides better understanding of the mechanism of calcareous deposit formation on cathodically polarized steel surfaces exposed to synthetic seawater at 30 °C and 60 °C. The study comprises measurement of the interfacial pH of thermally
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This paper is based on experimental data and provides better understanding of the mechanism of calcareous deposit formation on cathodically polarized steel surfaces exposed to synthetic seawater at 30 °C and 60 °C. The study comprises measurement of the interfacial pH of thermally sprayed aluminum (TSA) coated steel samples with and without a holiday (exposing 20% of the surface area). Tests were conducted at the corrosion potential for up to 350 h. It was experimentally determined that the local pH adjacent to the steel surface in the holiday region reached a maximum of 10.19 and 9.54 at 30 °C and 60 °C, respectively, before stabilizing at about 8.8 and 7.9 at the two temperatures. The interfacial pH on the TSA coating at 30 °C was initially 7.74 dropping to 4.76 in 220 h, while at 60 °C it increased from pH 6.41 to the range pH 7.0–8.5. The interfacial pH governed the deposition of brucite and aragonite from seawater on the steel surface cathodically polarized by the TSA. This mechanism is likely to affect the performance of TSA-coated offshore steel structures, especially when damaged in service. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of Metal Coatings on Steel Balls Using Mechanical Coating Technique and Its Process Analysis
Coatings 2017, 7(4), 53; doi:10.3390/coatings7040053 -
Abstract
We successfully applied mechanical coating technique to prepare Ti coatings on the substrates of steel balls and stainless steel balls. The prepared samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The weight increase of the ball substrates and the
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We successfully applied mechanical coating technique to prepare Ti coatings on the substrates of steel balls and stainless steel balls. The prepared samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The weight increase of the ball substrates and the average thickness of Ti coatings were also monitored. The results show that continuous Ti coatings were prepared at different revolution speeds after different durations. Higher revolution speed can accelerate the formation of continuous Ti coatings. Substrate hardness also markedly affected the formation of Ti coatings. Specifically, the substance with lower surface hardness was more suitable as the substrate on which to prepare Ti coatings. The substrate material plays a key role in the formation of Ti coatings. Specifically, Ti coatings formed more easily on metal/alloy balls than ceramic balls. The above conclusion can also be applied to other metal or alloy coatings on metal/alloy and ceramic substrates. Full article
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