Open AccessArticle
Fabrication and Characterization of AlxCoFeNiCu1−x High Entropy Alloys by Laser Metal Deposition
Coatings 2017, 7(4), 47; doi:10.3390/coatings7040047 -
Abstract
High entropy alloys are multicomponent alloys that have at least five different principal elements as alloying elements. Each of these elements has an atomic percentage between 5% and 35%. Typically, they form body-centered cubic (bcc) or face-centered cubic (fcc) structure and are known
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High entropy alloys are multicomponent alloys that have at least five different principal elements as alloying elements. Each of these elements has an atomic percentage between 5% and 35%. Typically, they form body-centered cubic (bcc) or face-centered cubic (fcc) structure and are known to possess excellent mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, excellent electric and magnetic properties. Owing to their excellent corrosion and wear resistance, researchers are focusing on employing these materials as coatings. In this research, Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) was used to fabricate AlxCoFeNiCu1−x (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75) high entropy alloys from elemental powder based feedstocks. Thin wall claddings fabricated via LMD were characterized by a variety of techniques. Data from X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) suggested that with increase in Al content and decrease in Cu content, a change in crystal structure from a predominantly fcc to a combined fcc and bcc structure can be observed. The microstructure of the material was observed to be columnar dendritic. Data from standard less EDS analysis showed that the dendritic phase was Fe and Co enriched while the matrix was Cu and Al enriched in all the considered high entropy alloy fabrications. The Vickers hardness data was used to estimate the mechanical properties of these deposits. Results also showed that with the increase in aluminum content, AlxCoFeNiCu1−x displayed higher hardness. The high hardness values imply potential applications in wear resistant coatings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Internally Oxidized Ru–Zr Multilayer Coatings
Coatings 2017, 7(4), 46; doi:10.3390/coatings7040046 -
Abstract
In this study, equiatomic Ru–Zr coatings were deposited on Si wafers at 400 °C by using direct current magnetron cosputtering. The plasma focused on the circular track of the substrate holder and the substrate holder rotated at speeds within 1–30 rpm, resulting in
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In this study, equiatomic Ru–Zr coatings were deposited on Si wafers at 400 °C by using direct current magnetron cosputtering. The plasma focused on the circular track of the substrate holder and the substrate holder rotated at speeds within 1–30 rpm, resulting in cyclical gradient concentration in the growth direction. The nanoindentation hardness levels of the as-deposited Ru–Zr coatings increased as the stacking periods of the cyclical gradient concentration decreased. After the coatings were annealed in a 1% O2–99% Ar atmosphere at 600 °C for 30 min, the internally oxidized coatings shifted their respective structures to a laminated structure, misaligned laminated structure, and nanocomposite, depending on their stacking periods. The effects of the stacking period of the cyclical gradient concentration on the mechanical properties and structural evolution of the annealed Ru–Zr coatings were investigated in this study. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Review of Antibacterial Activity of Titanium-Based Implants’ Surfaces Fabricated by Micro-Arc Oxidation
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 45; doi:10.3390/coatings7030045 -
Abstract
Ti and its alloys are the most commonly-used materials for biomedical applications. However, bacterial infection after implant placement is still one of the significant rising complications. Therefore, the application of the antimicrobial agents into implant surfaces to prevent implant-associated infection has attracted much
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Ti and its alloys are the most commonly-used materials for biomedical applications. However, bacterial infection after implant placement is still one of the significant rising complications. Therefore, the application of the antimicrobial agents into implant surfaces to prevent implant-associated infection has attracted much attention. Scientific papers have shown that inorganic antibacterial metal elements (e.g., Ag, Cu, Zn) can be introduced into implant surfaces with the addition of metal nanoparticles or metallic compounds into an electrolyte via micro-arc oxidation (MAO) technology. In this review, the effects of the composition and concentration of electrolyte and process parameters (e.g., voltage, current density, oxidation time) on the morphological characteristics (e.g., surface morphology, bonding strength), antibacterial ability and biocompatibility of MAO antimicrobial coatings are discussed in detail. Anti-infection and osseointegration can be simultaneously accomplished with the selection of the proper antibacterial elements and operating parameters. Besides, MAO assisted by magnetron sputtering (MS) to endow Ti-based implant materials with superior antibacterial ability and biocompatibility is also discussed. Finally, the development trend of MAO technology in the future is forecasted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of a Simplified Mechanism Model for Prediction of Gallium Nitride Thin Film Growth through Numerical Analysis
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 43; doi:10.3390/coatings7030043 -
Abstract
A numerical procedure was performed to simplify the complicated mechanism of an epitaxial thin-film growth process. In this study, three numerical mechanism models are presented for verifying the growth rate of the gallium nitride (GaN) mechanism. The mechanism models were developed through rate
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A numerical procedure was performed to simplify the complicated mechanism of an epitaxial thin-film growth process. In this study, three numerical mechanism models are presented for verifying the growth rate of the gallium nitride (GaN) mechanism. The mechanism models were developed through rate of production analysis. All of the results can be compared in one schematic diagram, and the differences among these three mechanisms are pronounced at high temperatures. The simplified reaction mechanisms were then used as input for a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT, enabling the accurate prediction of growth rates. Validation studies are presented for two types of laboratory-scale reactors (vertical and horizontal). A computational study including thermal and flow field was also performed to investigate the fluid dynamic in those reactors. For each study, the predictions agree acceptably well with the experimental data, indicating the reasonable accuracy of the reaction mechanisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High-Temperature Corrosion of AlCrSiN Film in Ar-1%SO2 Gas
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 44; doi:10.3390/coatings7030044 -
Abstract
AlCrSiN film with a composition of 29.1Al-17.1Cr-2.1Si-51.7N in at. % was deposited on a steel substrate by cathodic arc ion plating at a thickness of 1.8 μm. It consisted of nanocrystalline hcp-AlN and fcc-CrN, where a small amount of Si was
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AlCrSiN film with a composition of 29.1Al-17.1Cr-2.1Si-51.7N in at. % was deposited on a steel substrate by cathodic arc ion plating at a thickness of 1.8 μm. It consisted of nanocrystalline hcp-AlN and fcc-CrN, where a small amount of Si was dissolved. Corrosion tests were carried out at 800 °C for 5–200 h in Ar-1%SO2 gas. The major corrosion reaction was oxidation owing to the high oxygen affinity of Al and Cr in the film. The formed oxide scale consisted primarily of (Al,Cr)2O3, within which Fe, Si, and S were dissolved. Even after corrosion for 200 h, the thickness of the scale was about 0.7–1.2 μm, indicating that the film had good corrosion resistance in the SO2-containing atmosphere. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Defect-Free Large-Area (25 cm2) Light Absorbing Perovskite Thin Films Made by Spray Coating
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 42; doi:10.3390/coatings7030042 -
Abstract
In this work, we report on reproducible fabrication of defect-free large-area mixed halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3−xClx) thin films by scalable spray coating with the area of 25 cm2. This is essential for the
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In this work, we report on reproducible fabrication of defect-free large-area mixed halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3−xClx) thin films by scalable spray coating with the area of 25 cm2. This is essential for the commercialization of the perovskite solar cell technology. Using an automated spray coater, the film thickness and roughness were optimized by controlling the solution concentration and substrate temperature. For the first time, the surface tension, contact angle, and viscosity of mixed halide perovskite dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF) are reported as a function of the solution concentration. A low perovskite solution concentration of 10% was selected as an acceptable value to avoid crystallization dewetting. The determined optimum substrate temperature of 150 °C, followed by annealing at 100 °C render the highest perovskite precursor conversion, as well as the highest possible droplet spreading, desired to achieve a continuous thin film. The number of spray passes was also tuned to achieve a fully-covered film, for the condition of the spray nozzle used in this work. This work demonstrates that applying the optimum substrate temperature decreases the standard deviation of the film thickness and roughness, leading to an increase in the quality and reproducibility of the large-area spray-on films. The optimum perovskite solution concentration and the substrate temperature are universally applicable to other spray coating systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ozone Resistance, Water Permeability, and Concrete Adhesion of Metallic Films Sprayed on a Concrete Structure for Advanced Water Purification
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 41; doi:10.3390/coatings7030041 -
Abstract
We evaluated the applicability of metal spray coating as a waterproofing/corrosion protection method for a concrete structure used for water purification. We carried out an ozone resistance test on four metal sprays and evaluated the water permeability and bond strength of the metals
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We evaluated the applicability of metal spray coating as a waterproofing/corrosion protection method for a concrete structure used for water purification. We carried out an ozone resistance test on four metal sprays and evaluated the water permeability and bond strength of the metals with superior ozone resistance, depending on the surface treatment method. In the ozone resistance test, four metal sprays and an existing ozone-proof paint were considered. In the experiment on the water permeability and bond strength depending on the surface treatment method, the methods of no treatment, surface polishing, and two types of pore sealing agents were considered. The results showed that the sprayed titanium had the best ozone resistance. Applying a pore sealing agent provided the best adhesion performance, of about 3.2 MPa. Applying a pore sealing agent also provided the best waterproofing performance. Scanning electron microscope analysis showed that applying a pore sealing agent resulted in an excellent waterproofing performance because a coating film formed on top of the metal spray coating. Thus, when using a metal spray as waterproofing/corrosion protection for a water treatment concrete structure, applying a pore sealing agent on top of a film formed by spraying titanium was concluded to be the most appropriate method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Fabrication Process Using Suspension Plasma Spray for Titanium Oxide Photovoltaic Device
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 40; doi:10.3390/coatings7030040 -
Abstract
In order to reduce the high costs of conventional materials, and to reduce the power necessary for the deposition of titanium dioxide, titanium tetrabutoxide has been developed in the form of a suspension of TiO2 using water instead of expensive ethanol. To avoid
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In order to reduce the high costs of conventional materials, and to reduce the power necessary for the deposition of titanium dioxide, titanium tetrabutoxide has been developed in the form of a suspension of TiO2 using water instead of expensive ethanol. To avoid sedimentation of hydroxide particles in the suspension, mechanical milling of the suspension was conducted in order to create diffusion in colloidal suspension before using it as feedstock. Consequently, through the creation of a colloidal suspension, coating deposition was able to be conducted without sedimentation of the hydroxide particles in the suspension during the deposition process. Though an amorphous as-deposited coating was able to be deposited, through post heat treatment at 630 °C for 60 min, the chemical structure became anatase rich. In addition, it was confirmed that the post heat treated anatase rich coating had enough photo-catalytic activity to decolor methylene-blue droplets. From these results, this technique was found to have high potential in the low cost photo-catalytic titanium coating production process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of the Electrolyte Concentration on the Smooth TiO2 Anodic Coatings on Ti-6Al-4V
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 39; doi:10.3390/coatings7030039 -
Abstract
To obtain smooth TiO2 coatings for building a new design of Ti-6Al-4V heart valve, the anodic oxidation technique in pre-spark conditions was evaluated. TiO2 coating is necessary for its recognized biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. A required feature on surfaces in contact
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To obtain smooth TiO2 coatings for building a new design of Ti-6Al-4V heart valve, the anodic oxidation technique in pre-spark conditions was evaluated. TiO2 coating is necessary for its recognized biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. A required feature on surfaces in contact with blood is a low level of roughness (Ra ≤ 50 nm) that does not favor the formation of blood clots. The present paper compares the coatings obtained by anodic oxidation of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy using H2SO4 at different concentrations (0.1–4 M) as electrolyte and applying different voltages (from 20 to 70 V). Color and morphological analysis of coatings are performed using optical and scanning microscopy. The crystalline phases were analyzed by glancing X-ray diffraction. By varying the applied voltage, different interference colors coatings were obtained. The differences in morphologies of the coatings caused by changes in acid concentration are more evident at high voltages, limiting the oxidation conditions for the desired application. Anatase phase was detected from 70 V for 1 M H2SO4. An increase in the concentration of H2SO4 decreases the voltage at which the transformation of amorphous to crystalline coatings occurs; i.e., with 4 M H2SO4, the anatase phase appears at 60 V. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Coating Performance of UV-Curable Hybrid Polymers Containing 1H,1H,2H,2H-Perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane Coated on Aluminum Substrates
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 37; doi:10.3390/coatings7030037 -
Abstract
This study describes preparation and characterization of fluorine-containing organic-inorganic hybrid coatings. The organic part consists of bisphenol-A glycerolate (1 glycerol/phenol) diacrylate resin and 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate reactive diluent. The inorganically rich part comprises trimethoxysilane-terminated urethane, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane, 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate and sol–gel precursors that are
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This study describes preparation and characterization of fluorine-containing organic-inorganic hybrid coatings. The organic part consists of bisphenol-A glycerolate (1 glycerol/phenol) diacrylate resin and 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate reactive diluent. The inorganically rich part comprises trimethoxysilane-terminated urethane, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane, 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate and sol–gel precursors that are products of hydrolysis and condensation reactions. Bisphenol-A glycerolate (1 glycerol/phenol) diacrylate resin was added to the inorganic part in predetermined amounts. The resultant mixture was utilized in the preparation of free films as well as coatings on aluminum substrates. Thermal and mechanical tests such as DSC, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), and tensile and shore D hardness tests were performed on free films. Water contact angle, gloss, Taber abrasion test, cross-cut and tubular impact tests were conducted on the coated samples. SEM examination and EDS analysis was performed on the fractured surfaces of free films. The hybrid coatings on the aluminum sheets gave rise to properties such as moderately glossed surface; low wear rate and hydrophobicity. Tensile strength of free films increased with up to 10% inorganic content in the hybrid structure and this increase was approximately three times that of the control sample. As expected; the % strain value decreased by 17.3 with the increase in inorganic content and elastic modulus values increased by a factor of approximately 6. Resistance to ketone-based solvents was proven and an increase in hardness was observed as the ratio of the inorganic part increased. Samples which contain 10% sol–gel content were observed to provide optimal properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Field Performance Evaluation Scheme for Microwave-Absorbing Material Coatings
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 38; doi:10.3390/coatings7030038 -
Abstract
Performance evaluation is an important aspect in the study of microwave-absorbing material coatings. The reflectivity of the incident wave is usually taken as the performance indicator. There have been various methods to directly or indirectly measure the reflectivity, but existing methods are mostly
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Performance evaluation is an important aspect in the study of microwave-absorbing material coatings. The reflectivity of the incident wave is usually taken as the performance indicator. There have been various methods to directly or indirectly measure the reflectivity, but existing methods are mostly cumbersome and require a strict testing environment. What is more, they cannot be applied to field measurement. In this paper, we propose a scheme to achieve field performance evaluation of microwave-absorbing materials, which adopts a small H-plane sectoral horn antenna as the testing probe and a small microwave reflectometer as the indicator. When the size of the H-plane sectoral horn antenna is specially designed, the field distribution at the antenna aperture can be approximated as a plane wave similar to the far field of the microwave emitted by a radar unit. Therefore, the reflectivity can be obtained by a near-field measurement. We conducted experiments on a kind of ferrite-based microwave-absorbing material at X band (8.2–12.4 GHz) to validate the scheme. The experimental results show that the reflectivity is in agreement with the reference data measured by the conventional method as a whole. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Electrochemically Deposited MgO Coating on Printable Perovskite Solar Cell Performance
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 36; doi:10.3390/coatings7030036 -
Abstract
Herein, we studied the effect of MgO coating thickness on the performance of printable perovskite solar cells (PSCs) by varying the electrodeposition time of Mg(OH)2 on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/TiO2 electrode. Electrodeposited Mg(OH)2 in the electrode was confirmed by
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Herein, we studied the effect of MgO coating thickness on the performance of printable perovskite solar cells (PSCs) by varying the electrodeposition time of Mg(OH)2 on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/TiO2 electrode. Electrodeposited Mg(OH)2 in the electrode was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images. The performance of printable PSC structures on different deposition times of Mg(OH)2 was evaluated on the basis of their photocurrent density-voltage characteristics. The overall results confirmed that the insulating MgO coating has an adverse effect on the photovoltaic performance of the solid state printable PSCs. However, a marginal improvement in the device efficiency was obtained for the device made with the 30 s electrodeposited TiO2 electrode. We believe that this undesirable effect on the photovoltaic performance of the printable PSCs is due to the higher coverage of TiO2 by the insulating MgO layer attained by the electrodeposition technique. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pitted Corrosion Detection of Thermal Sprayed Metallic Coatings Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors
Coatings 2017, 7(3), 35; doi:10.3390/coatings7030035 -
Abstract
Metallic coatings using thermal spraying techniques are widely applied to structural steels to protect infrastructure against corrosion and improve durability of the associated structures for longer service life. The thermal sprayed metallic coatings consisting of various metals, although have higher corrosion resistance, will
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Metallic coatings using thermal spraying techniques are widely applied to structural steels to protect infrastructure against corrosion and improve durability of the associated structures for longer service life. The thermal sprayed metallic coatings consisting of various metals, although have higher corrosion resistance, will still corrode in a long run and may also subject to corrosion induced damages such as cracks. Corrosion and the induced damages on the metallic coatings will reduce the effectiveness of the coatings for protection of the structures. Timely repair on these damaged metallic coatings will significantly improve the reliability of protected structures again deterioration. In this paper, an inline detection system for corrosion and crack detection was developed using fiber Bragg (FBG) grating sensors. Experimental results from laboratory accelerated corrosion tests showed that the developed sensing system can quantitatively detect corrosion rate of the coating, corrosion propagations, and cracks initialized in the metallic coating in real time. The developed system can be used for real-time corrosion detection of coated metal structures in field. Full article
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Open AccessReview
SnS Thin Film Solar Cells: Perspectives and Limitations
Coatings 2017, 7(2), 34; doi:10.3390/coatings7020034 -
Abstract
Thin film solar cells have reached commercial maturity and extraordinarily high efficiency that make them competitive even with the cheaper Chinese crystalline silicon modules. However, some issues (connected with presence of toxic and/or rare elements) are still limiting their market diffusion. For this
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Thin film solar cells have reached commercial maturity and extraordinarily high efficiency that make them competitive even with the cheaper Chinese crystalline silicon modules. However, some issues (connected with presence of toxic and/or rare elements) are still limiting their market diffusion. For this reason new thin film materials, such as Cu2ZnSnS4 or SnS, have been introduced so that expensive In and Te, and toxic elements Se and Cd, are substituted, respectively, in CuInGaSe2 and CdTe. To overcome the abundance limitation of Te and In, in recent times new thin film materials, such as Cu2ZnSnS4 or SnS, have been investigated. In this paper we analyze the limitations of SnS deposition in terms of reproducibility and reliability. SnS deposited by thermal evaporation is analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The raw material is also analyzed and a different composition is observed according to the different number of evaporation (runs). The sulfur loss represents one of the major challenges of SnS solar cell technology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Static and Dynamic Magnetization Investigation in Permalloy Electrodeposited onto High Resistive N-Type Silicon Substrates
Coatings 2017, 7(2), 33; doi:10.3390/coatings7020033 -
Abstract
The present study reports on the development of permalloy thin films obtained by electrodeposition onto low-doped n-type silicon substrates. While changing from non-percolated clusters into percolated thin films upon increasing the electrodeposition time, the static and dynamic magnetic properties of the as-obtained structures
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The present study reports on the development of permalloy thin films obtained by electrodeposition onto low-doped n-type silicon substrates. While changing from non-percolated clusters into percolated thin films upon increasing the electrodeposition time, the static and dynamic magnetic properties of the as-obtained structures were investigated. We found the experimental magnetic results to be in very good agreement with the simulations performed by solving the Landau-Lifshitz for the dynamics of the magnetic moment. For short electrodeposition times we found the static and dynamic magnetization behavior of the as-formed nanoclusters evidencing vortex magnetization with random chirality and polarization, which is explained in terms of dipolar interaction minimization. Indeed, it is herein emphasized that recent applications of ferromagnetic materials in silicon-based spintronic devices, such as logic and bipolar magnetic transistors and magnetic memories, have revived the possible utilization of low cost and simple electrodeposition techniques for the development of these upcoming hetero-nanostructured devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Damping Optimization of Hard-Coating Thin Plate by the Modified Modal Strain Energy Method
Coatings 2017, 7(2), 32; doi:10.3390/coatings7020032 -
Abstract
Due to the medium and small damping characteristics of the hard coating compared with viscoelastic materials, the classical modal strain energy (CMSE) method cannot be applied to the prediction of damping characteristics of hard-coating composite structure directly. In this study, the CMSE method
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Due to the medium and small damping characteristics of the hard coating compared with viscoelastic materials, the classical modal strain energy (CMSE) method cannot be applied to the prediction of damping characteristics of hard-coating composite structure directly. In this study, the CMSE method was modified in order to be suitable for this calculation, and then the damping optimization of the hard-coating thin plate was carried out. First, the solution formula of modified modal strain energy (MMSE) method was derived and the relevant calculation procedure was proposed. Then, based on the principle that depositing the hard coating on the locations where modal strain energy is higher, the damping optimization method and procedure were presented. Next, a cantilever thin plate coated with Mg-Al hard coating was taken as an example to demonstrate the solution of the modal damping parameters for the composite plate. Finally, the optimization of coating location was studied according to the proposed method for the cantilever thin plate, and the effect of the coating area on the damping characteristics of hard-coating plate was also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment on the Effects of ZnO and Coated ZnO Particles on iPP and PLA Properties for Application in Food Packaging
Coatings 2017, 7(2), 29; doi:10.3390/coatings7020029 -
Abstract
This paper compares the properties of iPP based composites and PLA based biocomposites using 5% of ZnO particles or ZnO particles coated with stearic acid as filler. In particular, the effect of coating on the UV stability, thermostability, mechanical, barrier, and antibacterial properties
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This paper compares the properties of iPP based composites and PLA based biocomposites using 5% of ZnO particles or ZnO particles coated with stearic acid as filler. In particular, the effect of coating on the UV stability, thermostability, mechanical, barrier, and antibacterial properties of the polymer matrix were compared and related to the dispersion and distribution of the loads in the polymer matrix and the strength of the adhesion between the matrix and the particles. This survey demonstrated that, among the reported systems, iPP/5%ZnOc and PLA/5%ZnO films are the most suitable active materials for potential application in the active food packaging field. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructural Changes of Al Hot-Dipped P91 Steel during High-Temperature Oxidation
Coatings 2017, 7(2), 31; doi:10.3390/coatings7020031 -
Abstract
The 9Cr-1Mo steel (ASTM P91) was hot-dip aluminized, and its microstructural changes during oxidation were studied. Before oxidation, the coating consisted of (Al-rich topcoat containing a small amount of Al5Fe2 and Al13Fe4)/(Al13Fe4-rich,
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The 9Cr-1Mo steel (ASTM P91) was hot-dip aluminized, and its microstructural changes during oxidation were studied. Before oxidation, the coating consisted of (Al-rich topcoat containing a small amount of Al5Fe2 and Al13Fe4)/(Al13Fe4-rich, Al13Fe4-containing alloy layer)/(Al5Fe2 alloy layer containing a small amount of Al9Cr4 precipitates), from the surface. During oxidation at 700–900 °C for 20–100 h, Al diffused inward and the substrate elements migrated outward to broaden and soften the coating, and also to transform (high Al)-Fe intermetallics to (low Al)-Fe intermetallics. The phases in the coating progressively transformed during oxidation as follows; (Al-rich topcoat)/(Al5Fe2–rich, Al13Fe4-containing alloy layer)/(Al5Fe2 alloy layer)→(α-Al2O3 scale)/(Al13Fe4–rich, Al5Fe2-containing layer)/(Al5Fe2 layer)/(AlFe interlayer)→(α-Al2O3 scale)/(AlFe–rich, Al5Fe2-containing layer)/(AlFe layer)/(AlFe3 layer))→((α-Al2O3, Fe2O3)-mixed scale)/(AlFe3 layer)/(Fe(Al) layer) from the surface. As the oxidation progressed, the scale changed from α-Al2O3 to the (α-Al2O3, Fe2O3)-mixture, which provided the necessary oxidation resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improving the Wear Resistance of Moulds for the Injection of Glass Fibre–Reinforced Plastics Using PVD Coatings: A Comparative Study
Coatings 2017, 7(2), 28; doi:10.3390/coatings7020028 -
Abstract
It is well known that injection of glass fibre–reinforced plastics (GFRP) causes abrasive wear in moulds’ cavities and runners. Physical vapour deposition (PVD) coatings are intensively used to improve the wear resistance of different tools, also being one of the most promising ways
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It is well known that injection of glass fibre–reinforced plastics (GFRP) causes abrasive wear in moulds’ cavities and runners. Physical vapour deposition (PVD) coatings are intensively used to improve the wear resistance of different tools, also being one of the most promising ways to increase the moulds’ lifespan, mainly when used with plastics strongly reinforced with glass fibres. This work compares four different thin, hard coatings obtained using the PVD magnetron sputtering process: TiAlN, TiAlSiN, CrN/TiAlCrSiN and CrN/CrCN/DLC. The first two are monolayer coatings while the last ones are nanostructured and consist of multilayer systems. In order to carry out the corresponding tribological characterization, two different approaches were selected: A laboratorial method, using micro-abrasion wear tests based on a ball-cratering configuration, and an industrial mode, analysing the wear resistance of the coated samples when inserted in a plastic injection mould. As expected, the wear phenomena are not equivalent and the results between micro-abrasion and industrial tests are not similar due to the different means used to promote the abrasion. The best wear resistance performance in the laboratorial wear tests was attained by the TiAlN monolayer coating while the best performance in the industrial wear tests was obtained by the CrN/TiAlCrSiN nanostructured multilayer coating. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Rare Earth Elements on Properties of Ni-Base Superalloy Powders and Coatings
Coatings 2017, 7(2), 30; doi:10.3390/coatings7020030 -
Abstract
NiCrMoY alloy powders were prepared using inert gas atomization by incorporation of rare earth elements, such as Mo, Nb, and Y into Ni60A powders, the coatings were sprayed by oxy-acetylene flame spray and then remelted with high-frequency induction. The morphologies, hollow particle ratio,
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NiCrMoY alloy powders were prepared using inert gas atomization by incorporation of rare earth elements, such as Mo, Nb, and Y into Ni60A powders, the coatings were sprayed by oxy-acetylene flame spray and then remelted with high-frequency induction. The morphologies, hollow particle ratio, particle-size distribution, apparent density, flowability, and the oxygen content of the NiCrMoY alloy powders were investigated, and the microstructure and hardness of the coatings were evaluated by optical microscopy (OM). Due to incorporation of the rare earth elements of Mo, Nb, or Y, the majority of the NiCrMoY alloy particles are near-spherical, the minority of which have small satellites, the surface of the particles is smoother and hollow particles are fewer, the particles exhibit larger apparent density and lower flowability than those of particles without incorporation, i.e., Ni60A powders, and particle-size distribution exhibits a single peak and fits normal distribution. The microstructure of the NiCrMoY alloy coatings exhibits finer structure and Rockwell hardness HRC of 60–63 in which the bulk- and needle-like hard phases are formed. Full article
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