Open AccessArticle
Influence of the Distribution of a Spray Paint on the Efficacy of Anti-Graffiti Coatings on a Highly Porous Natural Stone Material
Coatings 2017, 7(2), 18; doi:10.3390/coatings7020018 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Graffiti on facades often has a heavy impact in social and economic terms, particularly when historical and artistic artefacts are affected. To limit the damages to the surfaces, preventive plans are implemented and anti-graffiti coatings are used as a protective measure. In this
[...] Read more.
Graffiti on facades often has a heavy impact in social and economic terms, particularly when historical and artistic artefacts are affected. To limit the damages to the surfaces, preventive plans are implemented and anti-graffiti coatings are used as a protective measure. In this study, the distribution of a spray paint inside a highly porous stone, with and without anti-graffiti protection, was investigated. Two commercial sacrificial anti-graffiti systems were used and an acrylic-based paint was applied as staining agent. Environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis were performed to characterise, from the morphological and chemical point of view, the anti-graffiti coatings and the paint. Maps of the main elements were acquired to locate the different products inside the stone. Chemical removers were used to clean the stained surfaces, then the effectiveness of the cleaning was assessed by visual observations and colour measurements, as well as on the basis of percentage of residual stain. The obtained results highlighted that the anti-graffiti efficacy strongly depended on the characteristics of the applied coating. This latter usually acted as a barrier, but good results were obtained only where the stain did not remain as a separate layer, but penetrated the protective coating. Microcracks in the anti-graffiti coating were able to nullify the protective action. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Efficient Cu2ZnSnS4 Solar Cells by Sputtering Single Stoichiometric Target
Coatings 2017, 7(2), 19; doi:10.3390/coatings7020019 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Low cost single stoichiometric target sputtering of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) precursor has been adopted to fabricate CZTS solar cells. The effect of a series of deposition pressures and deposition durations on the device performance has been investigated. A 3.74% efficient solar
[...] Read more.
Low cost single stoichiometric target sputtering of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) precursor has been adopted to fabricate CZTS solar cells. The effect of a series of deposition pressures and deposition durations on the device performance has been investigated. A 3.74% efficient solar cell has been achieved at a base pressure of 1 × 10−4 Torr with a stoichiometric target, which to the authors’ knowledge, is the record efficiency for such a stoichiometric target. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Electroplating of CdTe Thin Films from Cadmium Sulphate Precursor and Comparison of Layers Grown by 3-Electrode and 2-Electrode Systems
Coatings 2017, 7(2), 17; doi:10.3390/coatings7020017 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Electrodeposition of CdTe thin films was carried out from the late 1970s using the cadmium sulphate precursor. The solar energy group at Sheffield Hallam University has carried out a comprehensive study of CdTe thin films electroplated using cadmium sulfate, cadmium nitrate and cadmium
[...] Read more.
Electrodeposition of CdTe thin films was carried out from the late 1970s using the cadmium sulphate precursor. The solar energy group at Sheffield Hallam University has carried out a comprehensive study of CdTe thin films electroplated using cadmium sulfate, cadmium nitrate and cadmium chloride precursors, in order to select the best electrolyte. Some of these results have been published elsewhere, and this manuscript presents the summary of the results obtained on CdTe layers grown from cadmium sulphate precursor. In addition, this research program has been exploring the ways of eliminating the reference electrode, since this is a possible source of detrimental impurities, such as K+ and Ag+ for CdS/CdTe solar cells. This paper compares the results obtained from CdTe layers grown by three-electrode (3E) and two-electrode (2E) systems for their material properties and performance in CdS/CdTe devices. Thin films were characterized using a wide range of analytical techniques for their structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties. These layers have also been used in device structures; glass/FTO/CdS/CdTe/Au and CdTe from both methods have produced solar cells to date with efficiencies in the region of 5%–13%. Comprehensive work carried out to date produced comparable and superior devices fabricated from materials grown using 2E system. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
MHD Flow and Heat Transfer Analysis in the Wire Coating Process Using Elastic-Viscous
Coatings 2017, 7(1), 15; doi:10.3390/coatings7010015 -
Abstract
The most important plastic resins used for wire coating are polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon, polysulfone, and low-/high-density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE). In this article, the coating process is performed using elastic-viscous fluid as a coating material for wire coating in a pressure type coating die.
[...] Read more.
The most important plastic resins used for wire coating are polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon, polysulfone, and low-/high-density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE). In this article, the coating process is performed using elastic-viscous fluid as a coating material for wire coating in a pressure type coating die. The elastic-viscous fluid is electrically conducted in the presence of an applied magnetic field. The governing non-linear equations are modeled and then solved analytically by utilizing an Adomian decomposition method (ADM). The convergence of the series solution is established. The results are also verified by Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM). The effect of different emerging parameters such as non-Newtonian parameters α and β, magnetic parameter Mand the Brinkman number Br on solutions (velocity and temperature profiles) are discussed through several graphs. Additionally, the current results are compared with published work already available. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Combustion Synthesis during Flame Spraying (“CAFSY”) for the Production of Catalysts on Substrates
Coatings 2017, 7(1), 14; doi:10.3390/coatings7010014 -
Abstract
Combustion-assisted flame spraying (“CAFSY”) has been used to produce catalytically active nickel aluminide coatings on ceramic substrates. Their catalytic activity was studied in CO2 (dry) reforming of methane, which is particularly significant for environmental protection as well as production of synthesis gas
[...] Read more.
Combustion-assisted flame spraying (“CAFSY”) has been used to produce catalytically active nickel aluminide coatings on ceramic substrates. Their catalytic activity was studied in CO2 (dry) reforming of methane, which is particularly significant for environmental protection as well as production of synthesis gas (CO + H2). By varying the CAFSY processing parameters, it is possible to obtain a range of Ni–Al alloys with various ratios of catalytically active phases on the substrate. The influence of the number of coating layers and the type of substrate on the final catalyst composition and on the catalytic activity of the CAFSY coatings was studied and is presented here. The morphology and microstructure of the composite coatings were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific area analysis. Catalytic tests for dry reforming of methane were carried out using crushed pellets from the coatings at temperatures of 750–900 °C, and gas chromatography showed that methane conversion approached 88% whereas that of carbon dioxide reached 100%. The H2/CO ratio in the synthesis gas produced by the reaction varied from about 0.7 to over 1.2, depending on the catalyst and substrate type and testing temperature. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Corrosion Behavior of Electroless Ni-P Coating in Flue Gas Condensate
Coatings 2017, 7(1), 16; doi:10.3390/coatings7010016 -
Abstract
The corrosion behavior of Ni-P coating deposited on 3003 aluminum alloy in flue gas condensate was investigated by electrochemical approaches. The results indicated that nitrite acted as a corrosion inhibitor. The inhibiting effect of nitrite was reduced in solutions containing sulfate or nitrate.
[...] Read more.
The corrosion behavior of Ni-P coating deposited on 3003 aluminum alloy in flue gas condensate was investigated by electrochemical approaches. The results indicated that nitrite acted as a corrosion inhibitor. The inhibiting effect of nitrite was reduced in solutions containing sulfate or nitrate. Chloride and sulfate accelerated the corrosion of Ni-P coatings greatly. This can provide important information for the researchers to develop special Ni-P coatings with high corrosion resistance in the flue gas condensate. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Regenerable Antibacterial Cotton Fabric by Plasma Treatment with Dimethylhydantoin: Antibacterial Activity against S. aureus
Coatings 2017, 7(1), 11; doi:10.3390/coatings7010011 -
Abstract
This study examined the influence of variables in a finishing process for making cotton fabric with regenerable antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH) was coated onto cotton fabric by a pad-dry-plasma-cure method. Sodium hypochlorite was used for chlorinating
[...] Read more.
This study examined the influence of variables in a finishing process for making cotton fabric with regenerable antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH) was coated onto cotton fabric by a pad-dry-plasma-cure method. Sodium hypochlorite was used for chlorinating the DMH coated fabric in order to introduce antibacterial properties. An orthogonal array testing strategy (OATS) was used in the finishing process for finding the optimum treatment conditions. After finishing, UV-Visible spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to characterise the properties of the treated cotton fabric, including the concentration of chlorine, morphological properties, and functional groups. The results show that cotton fabric coated with DMH followed by plasma treatment and chlorination can inhibit S. aureus and that the antibacterial property is regenerable. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Numerical and Experimental Investigation on the Spray Coating Process Using a Pneumatic Atomizer: Influences of Operating Conditions and Target Geometries
Coatings 2017, 7(1), 13; doi:10.3390/coatings7010013 -
Abstract
This paper presents a numerical simulation of the spray painting process using a pneumatic atomizer with the help of a computational fluid dynamics code. The droplet characteristics that are necessary for the droplet trajectory calculation were experimentally investigated using different shaping air flow
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a numerical simulation of the spray painting process using a pneumatic atomizer with the help of a computational fluid dynamics code. The droplet characteristics that are necessary for the droplet trajectory calculation were experimentally investigated using different shaping air flow rates. It was found that the droplet size distribution depends on both the atomizing and the shaping air flow rate. An injection model for creating the initial droplet conditions is necessary for the spray painting simulation. An approach for creating these initial conditions has been proposed, which takes different operating conditions into account and is suitable for practical applications of spray coating simulation using spray guns. Further, tests on complicated targets and complex alignments of the atomizer have been carried out to verify this numerical approach. The results confirm the applicability and reliability of the chosen method for the painting process. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
On the Durability and Wear Resistance of Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings
Coatings 2017, 7(1), 12; doi:10.3390/coatings7010012 -
Abstract
Transparent liquid repellent coatings with exceptional wear and abrasion resistance are very demanding to fabricate. The most important reason for this is the fact that majority of the transparent liquid repellent coatings have so far been fabricated by nanoparticle assembly on surfaces in
[...] Read more.
Transparent liquid repellent coatings with exceptional wear and abrasion resistance are very demanding to fabricate. The most important reason for this is the fact that majority of the transparent liquid repellent coatings have so far been fabricated by nanoparticle assembly on surfaces in the form of films. These films or coatings demonstrate relatively poor substrate adhesion and rubbing induced wear resistance compared to polymer-based transparent hydrophobic coatings. However, recent advances reported in the literature indicate that considerable progress has now been made towards formulating and applying transparent, hydrophobic and even oleophobic coatings onto various substrates which can withstand certain degree of mechanical abrasion. This is considered to be very promising for anti-graffiti coatings or treatments since they require resistance to wear abrasion. Therefore, this review intends to highlight the state-of-the-art on materials and techniques that are used to fabricate wear resistant liquid repellent transparent coatings so that researchers can assess various aptitudes and limitations related to translating some of these technologies to large scale stain repellent outdoor applications. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Photocatalytic Properties of Doped TiO2 Coatings Deposited Using Reactive Magnetron Sputtering
Coatings 2017, 7(1), 10; doi:10.3390/coatings7010010 -
Abstract
Mechanically robust photocatalytic titanium oxide coatings can be deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering. In this article, we investigate the effect of doping on the activity of reactively sputtered TiO2. Silver, copper and stainless steel targets were used to co-deposit the dopants.
[...] Read more.
Mechanically robust photocatalytic titanium oxide coatings can be deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering. In this article, we investigate the effect of doping on the activity of reactively sputtered TiO2. Silver, copper and stainless steel targets were used to co-deposit the dopants. The films were characterised using XRD, SEM and EDX. Adhesion and mechanical properties were evaluated using scratch testing and nano-indentation, respectively, and confirmed that the coatings had excellent adhesion to the stainless steel substrate. All coatings showed superhydrophilicity under UV irradiation. A methylene blue degradation test was used to assess their photocatalytic activity and showed all coatings to be photoactive to varying degrees, dependent upon the dopant, its concentration and the resulting coating structure. The results demonstrated that copper doping at low concentrations resulted in the coatings with the highest photocatalytic activity under both UV and fluorescent light irradiation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Thickness Measurement Methods for Physical Vapor Deposited Aluminum Coatings in Packaging Applications: A Review
Coatings 2017, 7(1), 9; doi:10.3390/coatings7010009 -
Abstract
The production of barrier packaging materials, e.g., for food, by physical vapor deposition (PVD) of inorganic coatings such as aluminum on polymer substrates is an established and well understood functionalization technique today. In order to achieve a sufficient barrier against gases, a coating
[...] Read more.
The production of barrier packaging materials, e.g., for food, by physical vapor deposition (PVD) of inorganic coatings such as aluminum on polymer substrates is an established and well understood functionalization technique today. In order to achieve a sufficient barrier against gases, a coating thickness of approximately 40 nm aluminum is necessary. This review provides a holistic overview of relevant methods commonly used in the packaging industry as well as in packaging research for determining the aluminum coating thickness. The theoretical background, explanation of methods, analysis and effects on measured values, limitations, and resolutions are provided. In industrial applications, quartz micro balances (QCM) and optical density (OD) are commonly used for monitoring thickness homogeneity. Additionally, AFM (atomic force microscopy), electrical conductivity, eddy current measurement, interference, and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are presented as more packaging research related methods. This work aims to be used as a guiding handbook regarding the thickness measurement of aluminum coatings for packaging technologists working in the field of metallization. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Environmental Performance of TiO2 Nanoparticles Coated Self-Cleaning Float Glass
Coatings 2017, 7(1), 8; doi:10.3390/coatings7010008 -
Abstract
In recent years, superhydrophilic and photocatalytic self-cleaning nanocoatings have been widely used in the easy-to-clean surfaces field. In the building sector, self-cleaning glass was one of the first nanocoating applications. These products are based on the photocatalytic property of a thin layer of
[...] Read more.
In recent years, superhydrophilic and photocatalytic self-cleaning nanocoatings have been widely used in the easy-to-clean surfaces field. In the building sector, self-cleaning glass was one of the first nanocoating applications. These products are based on the photocatalytic property of a thin layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles deposited on the surface of any kind of common glass. When exposed to UV radiation, TiO2 nanoparticles react with the oxygen and water molecules adsorbed on their surface to produce radicals leading to oxidative species. These species are able to reduce or even eliminate airborne pollutants and organic substances deposited on the material’s surface. To date, TiO2 nanoparticles’ benefits have been substantiated; however, their ecological and human health risks are still under analysis. The present work studies the ecodesign of the industrial scale-up of TiO2 nanoparticles self-cleaning coated float glass production performed by the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and applies new human toxicity indicators to the impact assessment stage. Production, particularly the TiO2 nanoparticle application, is the life cycle phase most contributing to the total damage. According to the ecodesign approach, the production choices carried out have exacerbated environmental burdens. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Different Levels of Boron on Microstructure and Hardness of CoCrFeNiAlxCu0.7Si0.1By High-Entropy Alloy Coatings by Laser Cladding
Coatings 2017, 7(1), 7; doi:10.3390/coatings7010007 -
Abstract
High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are novel solid solution strengthening metallic materials, some of which show attractive mechanical properties. This paper aims to reveal the effect of adding small atomic boron on the interstitial solid solution strengthening ability in the laser cladded CoCrFeNiAlxCu
[...] Read more.
High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are novel solid solution strengthening metallic materials, some of which show attractive mechanical properties. This paper aims to reveal the effect of adding small atomic boron on the interstitial solid solution strengthening ability in the laser cladded CoCrFeNiAlxCu0.7Si0.1By (x = 0.3, x = 2.3, and 0.3 ≤ y ≤ 0.6) HEA coatings. The results show that laser rapid solidification effectively prevents brittle boride precipitation in the designed coatings. The main phase is a simple face-centered cubic (FCC) matrix when the Al content is equal to 0.3. On the other hand, the matrix transforms to single bcc solid solution when x increases to 2.3. Increasing boron content improves the microhardness of the coatings, but leads to a high degree of segregation of Cr and Fe in the interdendritic microstructure. Furthermore, it is worth noting that CoCrFeNiAl0.3Cu0.7Si0.1B0.6 coatings with an FCC matrix and a modulated structure on the nanometer scale exhibit an ultrahigh hardness of 502 HV0.5. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Coatings in 2016
Coatings 2017, 7(1), 6; doi:10.3390/coatings7010006 -
Abstract The editors of Coatings would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers  for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Shape Memory and Huge Superelasticity in Ni–Mn–Ga Glass-Coated Fibers
Coatings 2017, 7(1), 5; doi:10.3390/coatings7010005 -
Abstract
Ni–Mn–Ga polycrystalline alloy fibers with diameters of 33 μm are reported to exhibit significantly improved ductility and huge superelastic and shape memory strains in comparison to conventional brittle bulk polycrystalline alloys. Particularly, the recoverable strain of the Ni54.9–Mn23.5–Ga21.6 fiber can be as high
[...] Read more.
Ni–Mn–Ga polycrystalline alloy fibers with diameters of 33 μm are reported to exhibit significantly improved ductility and huge superelastic and shape memory strains in comparison to conventional brittle bulk polycrystalline alloys. Particularly, the recoverable strain of the Ni54.9–Mn23.5–Ga21.6 fiber can be as high as 10% at 40 °C. Such optimized behavior has been achieved by a suitable fabrication process via a glass-coating melt spinning method. The superelastic properties at different temperatures and the shape memory effect of Ni54.9–Mn23.5–Ga21.6 fibers were investigated. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Study on the Growth of Holes in Cold Spraying via Numerical Simulation and Experimental Methods
Coatings 2017, 7(1), 2; doi:10.3390/coatings7010002 -
Abstract
Cold spraying is a promising method for rapid prototyping due to its high deposition efficiency and high-quality bonding characteristic. However, many researchers have noticed that holes cannot be replenished and will grow larger and larger once formed, which will significantly decrease the deposition
[...] Read more.
Cold spraying is a promising method for rapid prototyping due to its high deposition efficiency and high-quality bonding characteristic. However, many researchers have noticed that holes cannot be replenished and will grow larger and larger once formed, which will significantly decrease the deposition efficiency. No work has yet been done on this problem. In this paper, a computational simulation method was used to investigate the origins of these holes and the reasons for their growth. A thick copper coating was deposited around the pre-drilled, micro-size holes using a cold spraying method on copper substrate to verify the simulation results. The results indicate that the deposition efficiency inside the hole decreases as the hole become deeper and narrower. The repellant force between the particles perpendicular to the impaction direction will lead to porosity if the particles are too close. There is a much lower flattening ratio for successive particles if they are too close at the same location, because the momentum energy contributes to the former particle’s deformation. There is a high probability that the above two phenomena, resulting from high powder-feeding rate, will form the original hole, which will grow larger and larger once it is formed. It is very important to control the powder feeding rate, but the upper limit is yet to be determined by further simulation and experimental investigation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Study of a Particle Based Films Cure Process by High-Frequency Eddy Current Spectroscopy
Coatings 2017, 7(1), 3; doi:10.3390/coatings7010003 -
Abstract
Particle-based films are today an important part of various designs and they are implemented in structures as conductive parts, i.e., conductive paste printing in the manufacture of Li-ion batteries, solar cells or resistive paste printing in IC. Recently, particle based films were also
[...] Read more.
Particle-based films are today an important part of various designs and they are implemented in structures as conductive parts, i.e., conductive paste printing in the manufacture of Li-ion batteries, solar cells or resistive paste printing in IC. Recently, particle based films were also implemented in the 3D printing technique, and are particularly important for use in aircraft, wind power, and the automotive industry when incorporated onto the surface of composite structures for protection against damages caused by a lightning strike. A crucial issue for the lightning protection area is to realize films with high homogeneity of electrical resistance where an in-situ noninvasive method has to be elaborated for quality monitoring to avoid undesirable financial and time costs. In this work the drying process of particle based films was investigated by high-frequency eddy current (HFEC) spectroscopy in order to work out an automated in-situ quality monitoring method with a focus on the electrical resistance of the films. Different types of particle based films deposited on dielectric and carbon fiber reinforced plastic substrates were investigated in the present study and results show that the HFEC method offers a good opportunity to monitor the overall drying process of particle based films. Based on that, an algorithm was developed, allowing prediction of the final electrical resistance of the particle based films throughout the drying process, and was successfully implemented in a prototype system based on the EddyCus® HFEC device platform presented in this work. This prototype is the first solution for a portable system allowing HFEC measurement on huge and uneven surfaces. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Influence of Isothermal Heat Treatment on Porosity and Crystallite Size in Axial Suspension Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Applications
Coatings 2017, 7(1), 4; doi:10.3390/coatings7010004 -
Abstract
Axial suspension plasma spraying (ASPS) is an advanced thermal spraying technique, which enables the creation of specific microstructures in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) used for gas turbine applications. However, the widely varying dimensional scale of pores, ranging from a few nanometers to a
[...] Read more.
Axial suspension plasma spraying (ASPS) is an advanced thermal spraying technique, which enables the creation of specific microstructures in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) used for gas turbine applications. However, the widely varying dimensional scale of pores, ranging from a few nanometers to a few tenths of micrometers, makes it difficult to experimentally measure and analyze porosity in SPS coatings and correlate it with thermal conductivity or other functional characteristics of the TBCs. In this work, an image analysis technique carried out at two distinct magnifications, i.e., low (500×) and high (10,000×), was adopted to analyze the wide range of porosity. Isothermal heat treatment of five different coatings was performed at 1150 °C for 200 h under a controlled atmosphere. Significant microstructural changes, such as inter-columnar spacing widening or coalescence of pores (pore coarsening), closure or densification of pores (sintering) and crystallite size growth, were noticed in all the coatings. The noted changes in thermal conductivity of the coatings following isothermal heat treatment are attributable to sintering, crystallite size growth and pore coarsening. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Weathering of Two Anti-Graffiti Protective Coatings on Concrete Paving Slabs
Coatings 2017, 7(1), 1; doi:10.3390/coatings7010001 -
Abstract
The durability of anti-graffiti coatings is of special relevance since, unlike other protective treatments, they are not only affected by environmental factors, but also by often aggressive cleaning procedures. However, little is known about the long-term performance of either permanent or sacrificial coatings.
[...] Read more.
The durability of anti-graffiti coatings is of special relevance since, unlike other protective treatments, they are not only affected by environmental factors, but also by often aggressive cleaning procedures. However, little is known about the long-term performance of either permanent or sacrificial coatings. This study explores the durability of two commercial coatings on concrete paving slabs under both natural and artificial ageing tests. The results of this research show that a fluorinated polyurethane and a crystalline micro wax weathered in less than 2000 h in a chamber with UVB radiation and after one year of outdoor exposure in the south of England. The former weathered by getting yellow and dark, and eventually, only under the accelerated ageing test, by losing its adhesion to the concrete slabs, and the latter weathered by getting dark, cracked and by reducing its water repellency under natural conditions. Cleaning efficiency of the protected surfaces from graffiti paints was therefore diminished, particularly when pressurized water spray was used on the polyurethane coated surfaces, since the treatment was partially removed and the concrete surface eroded. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Local Electrical Response in Alkaline-Doped Electrodeposited CuInSe2/Cu Films
Coatings 2016, 6(4), 71; doi:10.3390/coatings6040071 -
Abstract
The local electrical response in alkaline-doped CuInSe2 films prepared by single-step electrodeposition onto Cu substrates was studied by current-sensing atomic force microscopy. The CuInSe2 (CIS) films were prepared from single baths containing the dopant ions (Li, Na, K or Cs) and
[...] Read more.
The local electrical response in alkaline-doped CuInSe2 films prepared by single-step electrodeposition onto Cu substrates was studied by current-sensing atomic force microscopy. The CuInSe2 (CIS) films were prepared from single baths containing the dopant ions (Li, Na, K or Cs) and were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and photocurrent response. Increased crystallinity and surface texturing as the ion size increased were observed, as well as an enhanced photocurrent response in Cs-doped CIS. Li- and Na-doped films had larger conductivity than the undoped film while the K- and Cs-doped samples displayed shorter currents and the current images indicated strong charge accumulation in the K- and Cs-doped films, forming surface capacitors. Corrected current-sensing AFM IV curves were adjusted with the Shockley equation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1