Abstract: Nano HPLC-MS/MS separation and detection of peptides for proteomic analysis is usually performed upon tryptic digest of proteins and peptide pre-concentration on trap columns. Pre-concentration on trap columns is needed for sample wash (removal of salts and impurities), sample focusing prior to separation, and volume reduction. Usually, trap columns are mounted on selection valves close to the separation column in order to keep the void volume low and to enable injection of large sample amounts onto nano-separation column. Since separation columns are operated at elevated temperature of ≥45 °C and they are mounted on the same valve as the trap column (in the column oven); loading samples at elevated temperature will result with significant loss of analytes. A method for loading samples on a trap column at 60 °C was developed and optimized. No sample loss was observed when the optimized method was used for analysis of standards and of complex biological samples.
Abstract: A sensitive and selective ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the quantification of temozolomide (TMZ) in nonhuman primate (NHP) plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain extracellular fluid (ECF) following microdialysis. Ethyl acetate was used to extract the plasma and CSF samples, using theophylline as the internal standard (IS). ECF samples were diluted with acetonitrile prior to analysis. TMZ was separated on a Waters UPLC® BEH C18 column with an isocratic mobile phase of ammonium acetate (10 mM)-0.1% formic acid/acetonitrile (30:70, v/v) in a positive-ion multiple reaction monitoring mode (m/z 195.5→137.6 for TMZ; m/z 181.5→124.2 for IS). The retention time of TMZ and theophylline was 0.45 min with a total run time of 2.5 min. The method was validated over the range from 5–2000 ng/mL in NHP plasma, CSF, and ECF with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity, and stability. This method was successfully applied toward the measurement of pharmacokinetic samples following various routes of drug administration.
Abstract: Water samples were collected and analyzed for conductivity, pH, temperature and trihalomethanes (THMs) during the fall of 2014 at two monitored municipal drinking water source ponds. Both spot (or grab) and time weighted average (TWA) sampling methods were assessed over the same two day sampling time period. For spot sampling, replicate samples were taken at each site and analyzed within 12 h of sampling by both Headspace (HS)- and direct (DI)- solid phase microextraction (SPME) sampling/extraction methods followed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). For TWA, a two day passive on-site TWA sampling was carried out at the same sampling points in the ponds. All SPME sampling methods undertaken used a 65-µm PDMS/DVB SPME fiber, which was found optimal for THM sampling. Sampling conditions were optimized in the laboratory using calibration standards of chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1,2-dichloroethane, prepared in aqueous solutions from analytical grade samples. Calibration curves for all methods with R2 values ranging from 0.985–0.998 (N = 5) over the quantitation linear range of 3–800 ppb were achieved. The different sampling methods were compared for quantification of the water samples, and results showed that DI- and TWA- sampling methods gave better data and analytical metrics. Addition of 10% wt./vol. of (NH4)2SO4 salt to the sampling vial was found to aid extraction of THMs by increasing GC peaks areas by about 10%, which resulted in lower detection limits for all techniques studied. However, for on-site TWA analysis of THMs in natural waters, the calibration standard(s) ionic strength conditions, must be carefully matched to natural water conditions to properly quantitate THM concentrations. The data obtained from the TWA method may better reflect actual natural water conditions.
Abstract: A novel method for the labeling and rapid separation of morphine, morphine-3-beta-d-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-beta-d-glucuronide (M6G) in human urine employing a new boronic acid functionalized squarylium dye (SQ-BA3) and capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) is described. The spectrochemical properties, solution stability, pH range, and mechanisms for interactions with morphine and its metabolites were first established for SQ-BA3, followed by optimization of an on-column labeling procedure and CE-LIF method. SQ-BA3 itself was shown to be unstable and weakly fluorescent in aqueous buffers due to aggregate formation. However, SQ-BA3 showed a relative stability and dramatic increase in fluorescence intensity upon the addition of morphine, M3G, and M6G. Because of the low background fluorescence of this dye, on-column labeling was feasible, leading to a simple and rapid analytical method with the potential for clinical applications.
Abstract: This article presents an overview of recent advances in the field of portable capillary electrophoresis and microchip electrophoresis equipment during the period 2013–Mid 2015. Instrumental achievements in the separation as well as the detection part of the equipment are discussed. Several applications from a variety of fields are described.