Open AccessReview
Mind–Body Therapy for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Children 2017, 4(5), 31; doi:10.3390/children4050031 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is pervasive among the pediatric population and new treatments with minimal adverse effects are necessary to be studied. The purpose of this article is to review current research studying mind–body therapies for treatment of children diagnosed with ADHD. Literature was
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is pervasive among the pediatric population and new treatments with minimal adverse effects are necessary to be studied. The purpose of this article is to review current research studying mind–body therapies for treatment of children diagnosed with ADHD. Literature was reviewed pertaining to the effectiveness of movement-based therapies and mindfulness/meditation-based therapies for ADHD. Many positive effects of yoga, Tai Chi, physical activity, and meditation may significantly improve symptoms of ADHD among children. Full article
Open AccessReview
Overview of Four Functional Classification Systems Commonly Used in Cerebral Palsy
Children 2017, 4(4), 30; doi:10.3390/children4040030 -
Abstract
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in childhood. CP comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders that can result in spasticity, dystonia, muscle contractures, weakness and coordination difficulty that ultimately affects the ability to control movements. Traditionally, CP has been classified
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Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in childhood. CP comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders that can result in spasticity, dystonia, muscle contractures, weakness and coordination difficulty that ultimately affects the ability to control movements. Traditionally, CP has been classified using a combination of the motor type and the topographical distribution, as well as subjective severity level. Imprecise terms such as these tell very little about what a person is able to do functionally and can impair clear communication between providers. More recently, classification systems have been created employing a simple ordinal grading system of functional performance. These systems allow a more precise discussion between providers, as well as better subject stratification for research. The goal of this review is to describe four common functional classification systems for cerebral palsy: the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), and the Eating and Drinking Ability Classification System (EDACS). These measures are all standardized, reliable, and complementary to one another. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary
Parent, partner, co-parent or partnership? The need for clarity as family systems thinking takes hold in the quest to motivate behavioural change
Children 2017, 4(4), 29; doi:10.3390/children4040029 -
Abstract
Research is increasingly pointing to the importance of extending the focus of childhood obesity intervention to include fathers, fathering figures, and other members of a child’s primary parenting network. Advances in communication technology are now making it possible to achieve this aim, within
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Research is increasingly pointing to the importance of extending the focus of childhood obesity intervention to include fathers, fathering figures, and other members of a child’s primary parenting network. Advances in communication technology are now making it possible to achieve this aim, within current resources, using modalities such text messaging, web-based resources and apps that extend intervention to parents not in attendance at face to face interactions. However, published research is often unclear as to which parent/s they targeted or engaged with, whether interventions planned to influence behaviours and capabilities across family systems, and how this can be achieved. As childhood obesity research employing information technology to engage with family systems takes hold it is becoming important for researchers clearly describe who they engage with, what they hope to achieve with them, and the pathways of influence that they aim to activate. This paper integrates extant knowledge on family systems thinking, parenting efficacy, co-parenting, and family intervention with the way parents are represented and reported in childhood obesity research. The paper concludes with recommendations on terminology that can be used to describe parents and parenting figures in future studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of CPAP and HFNC in Management of Bronchiolitis in Infants and Young Children
Children 2017, 4(4), 28; doi:10.3390/children4040028 -
Abstract
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used in infants with bronchiolitis for decades. Recently, high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was introduced We conducted a retrospective study of treatment with CPAP vs. HFNC between 2013 and 2015, comparing the development in respiratory
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Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used in infants with bronchiolitis for decades. Recently, high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was introduced We conducted a retrospective study of treatment with CPAP vs. HFNC between 2013 and 2015, comparing the development in respiratory rate, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) and heart rate, treatment failure, duration of treatment, and length of hospital stay. A sample size of 49 children were included. Median age was 1.9 months. Median baseline pCO2 was 7.4 kPa in both groups, respiratory rate per minute was 57 vs. 58 (CPAP vs. HFNC). Respiratory rate decreased faster in the CPAP group (p < 0.05). FiO2 decreased in the CPAP group and increased in the HFNC group during the first 12 h, whereafter it decreased in both groups. (p < 0.01). Heart rate development was similar in both groups. Twelve children (55%) changed systems from HFNC to CPAP due to disease progression. There was no difference in length of treatment, hospital stay, or transmission to intensive care unit between the groups. CPAP was more effective than HFNC in decreasing respiratory rate (RR) and FiO2. No differences were observed in length of treatment or complications. Further studies should be conducted to compare the efficacy of the two treatments of bronchiolitis, preferably through prospective randomized trials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae among Children under Five in Southwest Ethiopia
Children 2017, 4(4), 27; doi:10.3390/children4040027 -
Abstract
Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is found to play an important role in the development and transmission of pneumococcal diseases. In this study, we assessed the nasopharyngeal carriage, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associated risk factors of S. pneumoniae among children under five. A
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Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is found to play an important role in the development and transmission of pneumococcal diseases. In this study, we assessed the nasopharyngeal carriage, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associated risk factors of S. pneumoniae among children under five. A total of 361 children under five attending the outpatient department of Shanan Gibe Hospital in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia were enrolled from June to September 2014. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected using sterile plastic applicator rayon tipped swab and inoculated on tryptone soy agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood and 5 µg/mL gentamycin. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the modified disk diffusion method. The overall prevalence of S. pneumoniae carriage was 43.8% (158/361) among children under five. Resistance to tetracycline, cotrimoxazole, penicillin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin was observed in 53.2% (84/158), 43.7% (69/158), 36.1% (57/158), 13.3% (21/158) and 8.9% (14/158) of isolates respectively. Multidrug resistance was seen in 17.7% (28/158) of isolates. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, children living with sibling(s) < 5 years old (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.798; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.169–2.766) and malnutrition (AOR = 2.065; 95% CI, 1.239–3.443) were significantly associated with S. pneumoniae carriage. A high nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae was observed among children under five in Southwest Ethiopia. There should be a strategy to prevent S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal colonization and identify the appropriate antibiotic to the individual child. Full article
Open AccessReview
A Narrative Review: Actigraphy as an Objective Assessment of Perioperative Sleep and Activity in Pediatric Patients
Children 2017, 4(4), 26; doi:10.3390/children4040026 -
Abstract
Sleep is an important component of pediatric health and is crucial for cognitive development. Actigraphy is a validated, objective tool to capture sleep and movement data that is increasingly being used in the perioperative context. The aim of this review is to present
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Sleep is an important component of pediatric health and is crucial for cognitive development. Actigraphy is a validated, objective tool to capture sleep and movement data that is increasingly being used in the perioperative context. The aim of this review is to present recent pediatric studies that utilized actigraphy in the perioperative period, highlight gaps in the literature, and provide recommendations for future research. A literature search was completed using OVID and PubMed databases and articles were selected for inclusion based on relevance to the topic. The literature search resulted in 13 papers that utilized actigraphic measures. Results of the review demonstrated that actigraphy has been used to identify predictors and risk factors for poor postoperative sleep, examine associations among perioperative pain and sleep patterns, and assess activity and energy expenditure in both inpatient and outpatient settings. We propose expansion of actigraphy research to include assessment of sleep via actigraphy to: predict functional recovery in pediatric populations, to study postoperative sleep in high-risk pediatric patients, to test the efficacy of perioperative interventions, and to assess outcomes in special populations for which self-report data on sleep and activity is difficult to obtain. Full article
Open AccessReview
Pressure Injuries in Medically Complex Children: A Review
Children 2017, 4(4), 25; doi:10.3390/children4040025 -
Abstract
Pressure injuries are a challenging problem in the care of medically complex children. Available evidence is limited, and there are theoretical reasons to use caution before extrapolating adult data, including key differences in body composition, common locations of pressure injury, and association with
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Pressure injuries are a challenging problem in the care of medically complex children. Available evidence is limited, and there are theoretical reasons to use caution before extrapolating adult data, including key differences in body composition, common locations of pressure injury, and association with medical devices. The focus of this article will be to review the definition of a pressure injury and what is known about pathophysiology, prevention, recognition, staging, and treatment of pressure injuries in children with medical complexity. Full article
Open AccessPerspective
The Case for the Use of Nurse Practitioners in the Care of Children with Medical Complexity
Children 2017, 4(4), 24; doi:10.3390/children4040024 -
Abstract
Although children with medically complex illness represent less than one percent of the total pediatric population, their health care expenditures and health care system utilization far exceed the numbers of other pediatric patients. Nurse practitioners, with their educational background focused on health care
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Although children with medically complex illness represent less than one percent of the total pediatric population, their health care expenditures and health care system utilization far exceed the numbers of other pediatric patients. Nurse practitioners, with their educational background focused on health care promotion and education, are uniquely qualified to reduce this inequity with cost effective care. Currently, nurse practitioners are used in a variety of health care settings and can provide acute and chronic care. Incorporating nurse practitioners at each step in the care of children with medical complexity can improve the quality of life for these children and their families, increase family satisfaction and decrease costs. Full article
Open AccessCommentary
Perspectives on Technology-Assisted Relaxation Approaches to Support Mind-Body Skills Practice in Children and Teens: Clinical Experience and Commentary
Children 2017, 4(4), 20; doi:10.3390/children4040020 -
Abstract
It has been well-established that a variety of mind-body (MB) techniques, including yoga, mental imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback, and meditation, are effective at addressing symptoms such as pain, anxiety, nausea, and insomnia, as well as helping with a wide variety of medical, emotional, and
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It has been well-established that a variety of mind-body (MB) techniques, including yoga, mental imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback, and meditation, are effective at addressing symptoms such as pain, anxiety, nausea, and insomnia, as well as helping with a wide variety of medical, emotional, and behavioral issues in pediatric populations. In addition, MB skills can also be health promoting in the long-term, and with regular practice, could potentially contribute to longer attention spans, social skills, emotional regulation, and enhanced immune system functioning. Importantly, the benefits accrued from MB skills are largely dose dependent, meaning that individuals who practice with some consistency tend to benefit the most, both in the short- and long-term. However, clinical experience suggests that for busy patients, the regular practice of MB skills can be challenging and treatment adherence commonly becomes an issue. This commentary reviews the concept of technology assisted relaxation as an engaging and effective option to enhance treatment adherence (i.e., daily practice) for pediatric patients, for whom MB skills have been recommended to address physical and mental health challenges. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Links between Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnostic Status and Family Quality of Life
Children 2017, 4(4), 23; doi:10.3390/children4040023 -
Abstract
Quality of life is often relatively lowered in families of children with additional needs, and this may be particularly the case where additional needs are accompanied by an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here we explore the effects of diagnostic status specifically, comparing families
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Quality of life is often relatively lowered in families of children with additional needs, and this may be particularly the case where additional needs are accompanied by an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here we explore the effects of diagnostic status specifically, comparing families with children with an ASD diagnosis with others who a) have additional needs but no signs of ASD; and b) have additional needs and signs of ASD but no diagnosis. Mothers (n = 76) of children with additional needs completed standardised questionnaires about quality of life, stress, service provision, child behaviour and presence and severity of ASD traits. In addition, a group of mothers of typically developing young people (n = 17) completed standardised questionnaires on individual and family quality of life and on the behaviour of their son or daughter. Mothers of typically developing young people had significantly higher individual and family quality of life scores than each of the three other groups. Increased severity of ASD was associated with increased maternal stress, which in turn was associated with decreased family and maternal quality of life. The group reporting the lowest quality of life and the highest stress were the mothers of individuals with signs of ASD but no diagnosis. This pattern did not seem to be explained by lack of access to services, or rates of intellectual disability or challenging behaviour in this sub‐group. The finding that poor quality of life and high stress was most apparent in the sub‐group of mothers with children who had signs of ASD but did not have a diagnosis of ASD suggests that an interesting topic for further investigation is whether receipt of a diagnosis itself can positively influence quality of life and levels of maternal stress. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Mind–Body Interventions for Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Children 2017, 4(4), 22; doi:10.3390/children4040022 -
Abstract
Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. There is emerging evidence that the brain–gut connection affects inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients more than previously thought. This is evidenced by comorbid mood disorders, irritable bowel
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Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. There is emerging evidence that the brain–gut connection affects inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients more than previously thought. This is evidenced by comorbid mood disorders, irritable bowel symptoms concurrent with quiescent IBD, and the potential of psychosocial stressors to trigger IBD flares. Mind–body interventions such as psychotherapy, relaxation, mindfulness, biofeedback, yoga, and clinical hypnosis offer an adjunct to standard medical treatment for IBD. We will review the current evidence base for these mind– body interventions in the treatment of pediatric IBD, illustrate a case study, and offer suggestions for future research for this promising field. Full article
Open AccessReview
Review of Randomized Controlled Trials of Massage in Preterm Infants
Children 2017, 4(4), 21; doi:10.3390/children4040021 -
Abstract
Preterm birth affects about 10% of infants born in the United States. Massage therapy is being used in some neonatal intensive care units for its potential beneficial effects on preterm infants. This article reviews published randomized controlled trials on the effects of massage
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Preterm birth affects about 10% of infants born in the United States. Massage therapy is being used in some neonatal intensive care units for its potential beneficial effects on preterm infants. This article reviews published randomized controlled trials on the effects of massage in preterm infants. Most studies evaluating the effect of massage in weight gain in premature infants suggest a positive effect on weight gain. Increase in vagal tone has been reported in infants who receive massage and has been suggested as a possible mechanism for improved weight gain. More studies are needed on the underlying mechanisms of the effects of massage therapy on weight gain in preterm infants. While some trials suggest improvements in developmental scores, decreased stress behavior, positive effects on immune system, improved pain tolerance and earlier discharge from the hospital, the number of such studies is small and further evidence is needed. Further studies, including randomized controlled trials, are needed on the effects of massage in preterm infants. Full article
Open AccessReview
Clinical Hypnosis, an Effective Mind–Body Modality for Adolescents with Behavioral and Physical Complaints
Children 2017, 4(4), 19; doi:10.3390/children4040019 -
Abstract
Mind–body medicine is a system of health practices that includes meditation/relaxation training, guided imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback, yoga, art/music therapy, prayer, t’ai chi, and psychological therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Clinical hypnosis is an important mind–body tool that serves as an adjunct to
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Mind–body medicine is a system of health practices that includes meditation/relaxation training, guided imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback, yoga, art/music therapy, prayer, t’ai chi, and psychological therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Clinical hypnosis is an important mind–body tool that serves as an adjunct to conventional medical care for the adolescent patient. Clinical hypnosis specifically uses self-directed therapeutic suggestions to cultivate the imagination and facilitate the mind–body connection, leading to positive emotional and physical well-being. There are many similarities between clinical hypnosis and other mind–body/self-regulatory modalities such as visual imagery, mindfulness meditation, yoga, and biofeedback that incorporate experiential learning and mechanisms for change. They may be viewed as subtypes of the hypnotic experience and share the common experience of trance as the entrée into self-empowered change in physiologic and psychological states. Clinical hypnosis can be used by health care providers to teach adolescents coping skills to deal with a wide variety of conditions such as chronic headaches, recurrent abdominal pain, anxiety, depression, grief and bereavement, phobias, anger, family stressors, sleep disorders, or enuresis. Clinical vignettes are given to help illustrate the effectiveness of hypnosis in adolescents. Full article
Open AccessEssay
Incorporating Hypnosis into Pediatric Clinical Encounters
Children 2017, 4(3), 18; doi:10.3390/children4030018 -
Abstract
Increasing numbers of licensed health professionals who care for children have been trained in clinical hypnosis. The evidence base for the safety and efficacy of this therapeutic approach in a wide variety of conditions is also growing. Pediatricians and other health professionals who
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Increasing numbers of licensed health professionals who care for children have been trained in clinical hypnosis. The evidence base for the safety and efficacy of this therapeutic approach in a wide variety of conditions is also growing. Pediatricians and other health professionals who have received training may wish to apply these skills in appropriate clinical scenarios but still may be unsure of the practical matters of how to incorporate this skill-set into day to day practice. Moreover, the practical application of such skills will take very different forms depending on the practice setting, types of acute or chronic conditions, patient and family preferences, and the developmental stages of the child or teen. This article reviews the application of pediatric clinical hypnosis skills by describing the use of hypnotic language outside of formal trance induction, by describing natural trance states that occur in children and teens in healthcare settings, and by describing the process of planning a clinical hypnosis encounter. It is assumed that this article does not constitute training in hypnosis or qualify its readers for the application of such skills; rather, it may serve as a practical guide for those professionals who have been so trained, and may serve to inform other professionals what to expect when referring a patient for hypnotherapy. The reader is referred to specific training opportunities and organizations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Differential Influences of Parenting Dimensions and Parental Physical Abuse during Childhood on Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents
Children 2017, 4(3), 17; doi:10.3390/children4030017 -
Abstract
Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this
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Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parenting dimensions and weight status, non-parametric conditional inference trees were applied. Three gender-specific pathways for a heightened risk of overweight/obesity were observed: (1) female adolescents who report having experienced severe parental physical abuse and medium/high parental warmth in childhood; (2) male adolescents who report having experienced low or medium parental monitoring in childhood; and (3) this second pathway for male adolescents is more pronounced if the families receive welfare. The importance of promoting parenting styles characterized by warmth and a lack of physical abuse is also discussed. This is one of only a few studies examining the association of parenting dimensions/parental physical abuse and weight status in adolescence. Future studies should include even more parenting dimensions, as well as parental physical abuse levels, in order to detect and untangle gender-specific effects on weight status. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Mindfulness in Reducing the Adverse Effects of Childhood Stress and Trauma
Children 2017, 4(3), 16; doi:10.3390/children4030016 -
Abstract
Research suggests that many children are exposed to adverse experiences in childhood. Such adverse childhood exposures may result in stress and trauma, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality into adulthood. In general populations and trauma-exposed adults, mindfulness interventions have demonstrated reduced
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Research suggests that many children are exposed to adverse experiences in childhood. Such adverse childhood exposures may result in stress and trauma, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality into adulthood. In general populations and trauma-exposed adults, mindfulness interventions have demonstrated reduced depression and anxiety, reduced trauma-related symptoms, enhanced coping and mood, and improved quality of life. Studies in children and youth also demonstrate that mindfulness interventions improve mental, behavioral, and physical outcomes. Taken together, this research suggests that high-quality, structured mindfulness instruction may mitigate the negative effects of stress and trauma related to adverse childhood exposures, improving short- and long-term outcomes, and potentially reducing poor health outcomes in adulthood. Future work is needed to optimize implementation of youth-based mindfulness programs and to study long-term outcomes into adulthood. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lifestyle Risk Factors for Weight Gain in Children with and without Asthma
Children 2017, 4(3), 15; doi:10.3390/children4030015 -
Abstract
A higher proportion of children with asthma are overweight and obese compared to children without asthma; however, it is unknown whether asthmatic children are at increased risk of weight gain due to modifiable lifestyle factors. Thus, the aim of this cross-sectional study was
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A higher proportion of children with asthma are overweight and obese compared to children without asthma; however, it is unknown whether asthmatic children are at increased risk of weight gain due to modifiable lifestyle factors. Thus, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare weight-gain risk factors (sleep, appetite, diet, activity) in an opportunistic sample of children with and without asthma. Non-obese children with (n = 17; age 10.7 (2.4) years) and without asthma (n = 17; age 10.8 (2.3) years), referred for overnight polysomnography, underwent measurement of lung function, plasma appetite hormones, dietary intake and food cravings, activity, and daytime sleepiness. Sleep latency (56.6 (25.5) vs. 40.9 (16.9) min, p = 0.042) and plasma triglycerides (1.0 (0.8, 1.2) vs. 0.7 (0.7, 0.8) mmol/L, p = 0.013) were significantly greater in asthmatic versus non-asthmatic children. No group difference was observed in appetite hormones, dietary intake, or activity levels (p > 0.05). Sleep duration paralleled overall diet quality (r = 0.36, p = 0.04), whilst daytime sleepiness paralleled plasma lipids (r = 0.61, p =0.001) and sedentary time (r = 0.39, p = 0.02). Disturbances in sleep quality and plasma triglycerides were evident in non-obese asthmatic children referred for polysomnography, versus non-asthmatic children. Observed associations between diet quality, sedentary behavior, and metabolic and sleep-related outcomes warrant further investigation, particularly the long-term health implications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Neighborhood Safety and Major Depressive Disorder in a National Sample of Black Youth; Gender by Ethnic Differences
Children 2017, 4(2), 14; doi:10.3390/children4020014 -
Abstract
Adolescence is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among Black youth. In addition to stress related to their developmental transition, social factors such as a perceived unsafe neighborhood impose additional risks. We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between
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Adolescence is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among Black youth. In addition to stress related to their developmental transition, social factors such as a perceived unsafe neighborhood impose additional risks. We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between perceived neighborhood safety and major depressive disorder (MDD) among a national sample of Black youth. We used data from the National Survey of American Life - Adolescents (NSAL-A), 2003–2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (age 13 to 17). Demographic factors, perceived neighborhood safety, and MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) were measured. Logistic regressions were used to test the association between neighborhood safety and MDD in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity by gender groups. In the pooled sample of Black youth, those who perceived their neighborhoods to be unsafe were at higher risk of MDD (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.25; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.02-1.51). The perception that one’s neighborhood is unsafe was associated with a higher risk of MDD among African American males (OR=1.41; 95% CI = 1.03–1.93) but not African American females or Caribbean Black males and females. In conclusion, perceived neighborhood safety is not a universal psychological determinant of MDD across ethnic by gender groups of Black youth; however, policies and programs that enhance the sense of neighborhood safety may prevent MDD in male African American youth. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Do Mothers Benefit from a Child-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Treatment (CBT) for Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain? A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial
Children 2017, 4(2), 13; doi:10.3390/children4020013 -
Abstract
While the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) approaches for childhood functional abdominal pain (FAP) is well-established for child outcomes, only a few studies have reported on parent-specific outcomes. This randomized controlled pilot trial analyzed effects of a group CBT on maternal variables (i.e.,
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While the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) approaches for childhood functional abdominal pain (FAP) is well-established for child outcomes, only a few studies have reported on parent-specific outcomes. This randomized controlled pilot trial analyzed effects of a group CBT on maternal variables (i.e., pain-related behavior, worries and self-efficacy, as well as general psychosocial strain). Methods: The sample constituted of 15 mothers in the intervention group (IG) and 14 mothers in the waitlist control group (WLC). Outcome measures were assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and at three months follow-up. Results: Analyses revealed significant, large changes in maladaptive maternal reactions related to the child’s abdominal pain in the IG compared to the WLC—i.e., reduced attention (d = 0.95), medical help-seeking (d = 0.92), worries (d = 1.03), as well as a significant increase in behaviors that encourage the child’s self-management (d = 1.03). In addition, maternal self-efficacy in dealing with a child’s pain significantly increased in the IG as well (d = 0.92). Treatment effects emerged post-treatment and could be maintained until three months follow-up. There were no effects on general self-efficacy and maternal quality of life. Conclusion: While these results are promising, and underline the efficacy of the CBT approach for both the child and mothers, further studies, including long-term follow-ups, are warranted. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Medical Yoga Therapy
Children 2017, 4(2), 12; doi:10.3390/children4020012 -
Abstract
Medical yoga is defined as the use of yoga practices for the prevention and treatment of medical conditions. Beyond the physical elements of yoga, which are important and effective for strengthening the body, medical yoga also incorporates appropriate breathing techniques, mindfulness, and meditation
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Medical yoga is defined as the use of yoga practices for the prevention and treatment of medical conditions. Beyond the physical elements of yoga, which are important and effective for strengthening the body, medical yoga also incorporates appropriate breathing techniques, mindfulness, and meditation in order to achieve the maximum benefits. Multiple studies have shown that yoga can positively impact the body in many ways, including helping to regulate blood glucose levels, improve musculoskeletal ailments and keeping the cardiovascular system in tune. It also has been shown to have important psychological benefits, as the practice of yoga can help to increase mental energy and positive feelings, and decrease negative feelings of aggressiveness, depression and anxiety. Full article