Open AccessArticle
Optimal Line and Tube Placement in Very Preterm Neonates: An Audit of Practice
Children 2017, 4(11), 99; doi:10.3390/children4110099 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Background: Placement of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) and umbilical catheters (UCs) is essential in very preterm infant care. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an educational initiative to optimize correct placement of ETTs and UCs in very preterm infants.
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Background: Placement of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) and umbilical catheters (UCs) is essential in very preterm infant care. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an educational initiative to optimize correct placement of ETTs and UCs in very preterm infants. Methods: A pre–post study design, evaluating optimal radiological position of ETTs and UCs in the first 72 h of life in infants <32 weeks gestational age (GA) was performed. Baseline data was obtained from a preceding 34-month period. The study intervention consisted of information from the pre-intervention audit, surface anatomy images of the newborn for optimal UC positioning, and weight-based calculations to estimate insertion depths for endotracheal intubation. A prospective evaluation of radiological placement of ETTs and UCs was then conducted over a 12-month period. Results: During the study period, 211 infants had at least one of the three procedures performed. One hundred and fifty-seven infants were included in the pre-education group, and 54 in the post-education group. All three procedures were performed in 50.3% (79/157) in the pre-education group, and 55.6% (30/54) in the post-education group. There was no significant difference in accurate placement following the introduction of the educational sessions; depth of ETTs (50% vs. 47%), umbilical arterial catheter (UAC) (40% vs. 43%,), and umbilical venous catheter (UVC)(14% vs. 23%). Conclusion: Despite education of staff on methods for appropriate ETT, UVC and UAC insertion length, the rate of accurate initial insertion depth remained suboptimal. Newer methods of determining optimal position need to be evaluated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Clinical Profile Associated with Adverse Childhood Experiences: The Advent of Nervous System Dysregulation
Children 2017, 4(11), 98; doi:10.3390/children4110098 -
Abstract
Background: We report the prevalence of children with multiple medical symptoms in a pediatric neurology clinic, describe their symptom profiles, and explore their association with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive patients from an outpatient pediatric neurology clinic. Patients
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Background: We report the prevalence of children with multiple medical symptoms in a pediatric neurology clinic, describe their symptom profiles, and explore their association with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive patients from an outpatient pediatric neurology clinic. Patients were included if they were ≥5 years old and reported ≥4 symptoms that were unexplained for ≥3-months. Symptom profiles across six functional domains were recorded: (1) executive dysfunction, (2) sleep disturbances, (3) autonomic dysregulation, (4) somatization, (5) digestive symptoms, and (6) emotional dysregulation. ACEs were scored for all patients. Results: Seventeen patients reported ≥4 medical symptoms. Somatization, sleep disturbances, and emotional dysregulation occurred in 100% patients, with executive dysfunction (94%), autonomic dysregulation (76%), and digestive problems (71%) in the majority. Forty-two children reported ≥1 ACE, but children with ≥4 symptoms were more likely to report ACEs compared to other children (88% vs. 33%; p < 0.0001) and had a higher median total ACE score (3 vs. 1; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Children with multiple medical symptoms should be screened for potential exposure to ACEs. A clinical profile of symptoms across multiple functional domains suggests putative neurobiological mechanisms involving stress and nervous system dysregulation that require further study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Children with Recurrent Wheeze/Asthma: A Single Centre Study
Children 2017, 4(11), 97; doi:10.3390/children4110097 -
Abstract
The relationship between asthma and sleep-disordered breathing is bidirectional due to common risk factors that promote airway inflammation. Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing and recurrent wheeze/asthma are conditions that involve the upper and the lower respiratory system, respectively. The aim of the present study was
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The relationship between asthma and sleep-disordered breathing is bidirectional due to common risk factors that promote airway inflammation. Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing and recurrent wheeze/asthma are conditions that involve the upper and the lower respiratory system, respectively. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sleep disordered breathing in children with recurrent wheeze/asthma. This was a retrospective study concerning children older than 2 years who underwent—between January 2014 and November 2016—an in-laboratory overnight polygraphic study. We match the children between those who do or do not have recurrent wheeze/asthma disease. We examined the clinical records of 137 children. We excluded eight patients because of neurological and genetic conditions. Children with recurrent wheeze/asthma (N = 28) were younger (p = 0.002) and leaner (p = 0.013) compared to non-affected children (N = 98). Children with wheeze/asthma and unaffected ones had a similar obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (p = 0.733) and oxygen desaturation index (p = 0.535). The logistic regression analysis, in which the condition of wheeze/asthma (yes/no) was a dependent variable, while demographic (age, sex, body mass index (BMI) Z-score) and polygraphic results during sleep (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index, central apnea index, peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), and snoring) were covariates, showed that children with wheeze/asthma had higher central apnea index (Exp(B) = 2.212; Wald 6.845; p = 0.009). In conclusion, children with recurrent wheeze/asthma showed an increased number of central sleep apneas than unaffected children. This finding may suggest a dysfunction of the breathing control in the central nervous system during sleep. Systemic or central inflammation could be the cause. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Risk and Resilience Factors Related to Parental Bereavement Following the Death of a Child with a Life-Limiting Condition
Children 2017, 4(11), 96; doi:10.3390/children4110096 -
Abstract
This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on risk and resilience factors impacting on parental bereavement outcomes following the death of a child with a life-limiting condition. Over the past few decades, bereavement research has focussed primarily on a risk-based approach. In
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This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on risk and resilience factors impacting on parental bereavement outcomes following the death of a child with a life-limiting condition. Over the past few decades, bereavement research has focussed primarily on a risk-based approach. In light of advances in the literature on resilience, the authors propose a Risk and Resilience Model of Parental Bereavement, thus endeavouring to give more holistic consideration to a range of potential influences on parental bereavement outcomes. The literature will be reviewed with regard to the role of: (i) loss-oriented stressors (e.g., circumstances surrounding the death and multiple losses); (ii) inter-personal factors (e.g., marital factors, social support, and religious practices); (iii) intra-personal factors (e.g., neuroticism, trait optimism, psychological flexibility, attachment style, and gender); and (iv) coping and appraisal, on parental bereavement outcomes. Challenges facing this area of research are discussed, and research and clinical implications considered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Children: A Tertiary United Kingdom Children’s Hospital Experience
Children 2017, 4(11), 95; doi:10.3390/children4110095 -
Abstract
The aim of this study was to review the aetiology, presentation and management of these patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) at a tertiary children’s unit in the United Kingdom. This was a retrospective single-institution study on children (<16 years) who presented with
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The aim of this study was to review the aetiology, presentation and management of these patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) at a tertiary children’s unit in the United Kingdom. This was a retrospective single-institution study on children (<16 years) who presented with acute UGIB over a period of 5 years using known International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes. A total of 32 children (17 males, 15 females) were identified with a total median age at presentation of 5.5 years. The majority (24/32) of patients presented as an emergency. A total of 19/32 presented with isolated haematemesis, 8/32 with isolated melaena and 5/32 with a combination of melaena and haematemesis. On admission, the mean haemoglobin of patients who presented with isolated haematemesis was 11 g/dL, those with isolated melaena 9.3 g/dL and those with a combination 7.8 g/dL. Blood transfusion was required in 3/19 with haematemesis and 3/5 with haematemesis and melaena. A total of 19/32 underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Endoscopic findings were oesophageal varices (5/19) of which 4 required banding; bleeding gastric ulcer (1/19) requiring clips, haemospray and adrenaline; gastric vascular malformation (1/19) treated with Argon plasma coagulation therapy; duodenal ulcer (3/19) which required surgery in two cases; oesophagitis (5/19); and gastritis +/− duodenitis (3/19). A total of 13/32 patients did not undergo endoscopy and the presumed aetiology was a Mallory–Weiss tear (4/13); ingestion of foreign body (2/13); gastritis (3/13); viral illness (1/13); unknown (2/13). While UGIB is uncommon in children, the morbidity associated with it is very significant. Melaena, dropping haemoglobin, and requirement for a blood transfusion appear to be significant markers of an underlying cause of UGIB that requires therapeutic intervention. A multi-disciplinary team comprising gastroenterologists and surgeons is essential. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Infantile Cytomegalovirus-Associated Severe Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: A Case Report
Children 2017, 4(11), 94; doi:10.3390/children4110094 -
Abstract
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare hematologic entity in children. Etiologies are mainly viruses or bacteria. We describe here a case of severe warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (IgG- and C3d-positive direct antiglobulin test) in an immunocompetent 6-month-old infant with acute Cytomegalovirus infection that
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Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare hematologic entity in children. Etiologies are mainly viruses or bacteria. We describe here a case of severe warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (IgG- and C3d-positive direct antiglobulin test) in an immunocompetent 6-month-old infant with acute Cytomegalovirus infection that responded well to corticotherapy and intraveneous immunoglobulins without using blood component transfusion. This case demonstrates the importance of recognizing CMV in infantile Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia, especially because hemolysis can be severe and lethal. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Need for Early Referral: Characteristics of Children and Adolescents Who Are Overweight and Obese Attending a Multidisciplinary Weight Management Service
Children 2017, 4(11), 93; doi:10.3390/children4110093 -
Abstract
There is a need to examine the issue of childhood obesity from a systems perspective. This study aimed to describe the baseline characteristics of children attending pediatric multidisciplinary weight management services and understand how this information will inform future service delivery. A total
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There is a need to examine the issue of childhood obesity from a systems perspective. This study aimed to describe the baseline characteristics of children attending pediatric multidisciplinary weight management services and understand how this information will inform future service delivery. A total of 51 children and adolescents who were overweight and obese (27 male) and aged between two and 16 years participated. Body size measures such as body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage were collected. Participants and their parents/guardians also completed questionnaires on dietary intake, behaviors and habits, physical activity and health-related quality of life. A total of 72% of participants were classified as morbidly obese. Adolescents had significantly lower scores for overall diet, physical activity and particular health-related quality of life scores. No significant correlations were found between BMI z-scores and diet, physical activity and health-related quality of life. In adolescents, correlations were detected between dietary scores and health-related quality of life. Results confirm the need to critically examine the current context to adapt and tailor interventions to individual circumstances, and when combined with focused referral, triaging and screening processes, should assist in delivering the right care at the right time. Full article
Open AccessReview
Pediatric Perioperative Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Case-Based Primer
Children 2017, 4(10), 92; doi:10.3390/children4100092 -
Abstract
The perioperative period is an extremely tenuous time for the pediatric patient with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This article will discuss a multidisciplinary approach to preoperative planning, the importance of early identification of pulmonary hypertensive crises, and practical strategies for postoperative management for this
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The perioperative period is an extremely tenuous time for the pediatric patient with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This article will discuss a multidisciplinary approach to preoperative planning, the importance of early identification of pulmonary hypertensive crises, and practical strategies for postoperative management for this unique group of children. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Solitary Intra-Osseous Myofibroma of the Jaw: A Case Report and Review of Literature
Children 2017, 4(10), 91; doi:10.3390/children4100091 -
Abstract
Myofibroma is a rare benign spindle cell neoplasm in children that usually affects both soft tissue and bone in the head and neck region. Approximately one third of these cases are seen within jaw bones as solitary lesions. Solitary intra-osseous myofibroma of the
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Myofibroma is a rare benign spindle cell neoplasm in children that usually affects both soft tissue and bone in the head and neck region. Approximately one third of these cases are seen within jaw bones as solitary lesions. Solitary intra-osseous myofibroma of the jaw bone shares its clinical, radiographic and histological features with other spindle cell tumors. The rarity of this lesion can make diagnosis difficult for clinicians and pathologists. We report a case of a solitary intra-osseous myofibroma in the mandible of a nine-year-old child. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Sleep Disturbances in Newborns
Children 2017, 4(10), 90; doi:10.3390/children4100090 -
Abstract
The purpose of this review is to serve as an introduction to understanding sleep in the fetus, the preterm neonate and the term neonate. Sleep appears to have numerous important roles, particularly in the consolidation of new information. The sleep cycle changes over
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The purpose of this review is to serve as an introduction to understanding sleep in the fetus, the preterm neonate and the term neonate. Sleep appears to have numerous important roles, particularly in the consolidation of new information. The sleep cycle changes over time, neonates spend the most time in active sleep and have a progressive shortening of active sleep and lengthening of quiet sleep. Additionally, the sleep cycle is disrupted by many things including disease state and environment, and the amplitude integrated EEG can be a useful tool in evaluating sleep, and sleep disturbances, in neonates. Finally, there are protective factors for infant sleep that are still being studied. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Associated with Malnutrition among Under-Five Children: Illustration using Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2014 Data
Children 2017, 4(10), 88; doi:10.3390/children4100088 -
Abstract
Child malnutrition remains one of the major public health problems in many parts of the world, especially in a developing country like Bangladesh. Several socioeconomic and demographic factors are responsible for this condition. The present study was conducted to uncover the risk factors
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Child malnutrition remains one of the major public health problems in many parts of the world, especially in a developing country like Bangladesh. Several socioeconomic and demographic factors are responsible for this condition. The present study was conducted to uncover the risk factors associated with malnutrition among under-five children in Bangladesh by analyzing the data from a nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) in 2014. The ordinal dependent variable—child nutrition status (severely malnourished, moderately malnourished, and nourished)—was developed by calculating weight-for-age Z score (WAZ). Bivariate analysis was conducted by performing gamma measure and chi-square test of independence to explore the association between child nutrition status and selected independent variables. To know the adjusted effects of covariates, a popular ordinal model—namely, the proportional odds (PO) model—was considered. All the selected covariates were found highly significant (p < 0.01) in the bivariate setup. However, in the multivariate setup, father’s and mother’s education, wealth index, mother’s body mass index (BMI), and antenatal care service during pregnancy were found highly significant (p < 0.01) factors for child malnutrition. Among the divisions, only Dhaka had more control on child malnutrition, compared to the Sylhet division. Birth interval of children was also reported as a significant factor at a 5% level of significance. Finally, the results of this paper strongly highlighted the necessity of increasing parent’s education level, improving the mother’s nutritional status, and increasing facilities providing antenatal care service in order to achieve better nutrition status among under-five children in Bangladesh. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Is There a Causal Relationship between Intussusception and Food Allergy?
Children 2017, 4(10), 89; doi:10.3390/children4100089 -
Abstract
Although intussusception and food allergy are common health problems in childhood, the relation between these two diseases remain obscure. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between food allergy and intussusception, and the factors associated with both. Patients diagnosed with
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Although intussusception and food allergy are common health problems in childhood, the relation between these two diseases remain obscure. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between food allergy and intussusception, and the factors associated with both. Patients diagnosed with intussusception by the Brighton Collaboration Intussusception Working Group criteria were prospectively investigated for food allergy per the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Guideline. They were analyzed per demographic features, clinical, physical and laboratory findings. There were eight (38.1%) patients diagnosed with food allergy, while 13 (61.9%) patients were non-allergic. The mean number of days of presenting symptoms was 1.13 days in the allergy group and 7.85 days in the non-allergy group. The mean number of intussusception attacks was 1.63 in the allergy group while 1 in the non-allergy group (p < 0.05, relative risk (RR) = 2.6). In the allergy group, one (13%) patient was followed up, six (75%) patients were reduced with pneumatic and one (13%) patient reduced manually. In the non-allergy group, four (31%) patients were followed up, six (46%) patients were reduced with pneumotic, one (7%) patient was reduced manually, and resection anastomosis was performed in two (15%) patients. Food allergy is an unrecognized associated factor for intussusception patients, which increases the risk for recurrence. Due to the small patient population, these results should be interpreted with caution. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Oligoarticular Hemarthroses and Osteomyelitis Complicating Pasteurella Meningitis in an Infant
Children 2017, 4(10), 87; doi:10.3390/children4100087 -
Abstract
A 5-month-old previously healthy female presented with a one-week history of fever and increased fussiness. Her presentation revealed an ill-appearing infant with an exam and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies concerning bacterial meningitis; CSF cultures grew Pasteurella multocida. Additionally, brain magnetic resonance imaging
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A 5-month-old previously healthy female presented with a one-week history of fever and increased fussiness. Her presentation revealed an ill-appearing infant with an exam and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies concerning bacterial meningitis; CSF cultures grew Pasteurella multocida. Additionally, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated cervical osteomyelitis. Despite multiple days of antibiotic therapy, she remained febrile with continued pain; MRI showed oligoarticular effusions, and aspiration of these joints yielded bloody aspirates. Evaluations for coagulopathy and immune complex-mediated arthropathy were negative. The patient improved following appropriate antibiotic therapy and spontaneous resolution of hemarthroses, and was discharged to a short-term rehabilitation hospital. P. multocida is a small, encapsulated coccobacillus that is part of the commensal oral flora of animals. It most commonly causes skin infections in humans, yet is a rare cause of meningitis in the pediatric population, especially in children <1 year of age. Transmission due to P. multocida is most commonly due to direct contact with animals. To our knowledge, this is the first case of oligoarticular hemarthroses and cervical osteomyelitis complicating P multocida meningitis. This case highlights the physician’s potential for cognitive bias and premature anchoring, and the resulting implications in delivering excellent patient care. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
A Potential Novel Mechanism for Vagus Nerve Stimulator-Related Central Sleep Apnea
Children 2017, 4(10), 86; doi:10.3390/children4100086 -
Abstract
The treatment of epilepsy with vagus nerve stimulation can inadvertently cause obstructive and central sleep apnea (CSA). The mechanism for CSA seen in patients with a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) is not fully known. We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl in
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The treatment of epilepsy with vagus nerve stimulation can inadvertently cause obstructive and central sleep apnea (CSA). The mechanism for CSA seen in patients with a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) is not fully known. We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl in whom VNS activation induced tachypnea and post-hyperventilation central apnea. Following adjustment of VNS settings, the post-hyperventilation CSA resolved. Polysomnography may assist with management when patients with epilepsy develop sleep disruption after VNS placement. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Coconut Allergy Revisited
Children 2017, 4(10), 85; doi:10.3390/children4100085 -
Abstract
Despite concerns voiced often by food-allergic patients, allergy to coconut is rare, not directly associated with nut allergy and few cases are reported so far in the literature. We present an interesting case of coconut allergy in a child that was previously tolerant
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Despite concerns voiced often by food-allergic patients, allergy to coconut is rare, not directly associated with nut allergy and few cases are reported so far in the literature. We present an interesting case of coconut allergy in a child that was previously tolerant to coconut and regularly exposed via both the skin and gastrointestinal route. Full article
Open AccessReview
Sleep Disorders in Childhood Neurological Diseases
Children 2017, 4(10), 84; doi:10.3390/children4100084 -
Abstract
Sleep problems are frequently addressed as a primary or secondary concern during the visit to the pediatric neurology clinic. Sleep disorders can mimic other neurologic diseases (e.g., epilepsy and movement disorders), and this adds challenges to the diagnostic process. Sleep disorders can significantly
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Sleep problems are frequently addressed as a primary or secondary concern during the visit to the pediatric neurology clinic. Sleep disorders can mimic other neurologic diseases (e.g., epilepsy and movement disorders), and this adds challenges to the diagnostic process. Sleep disorders can significantly affect the quality of life and functionality of children in general and those with comorbid neurological diseases in particular. Understanding the pathophysiology of sleep disorders, recognizing the implications of sleep disorder in children with neurologic diseases and behavioral difficulties, and early intervention continue to evolve resulting in better neurocognitive outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
If You Build It, They Will Come: Initial Experience with a Multi-Disciplinary Pediatric Neurocritical Care Follow-Up Clinic
Children 2017, 4(9), 83; doi:10.3390/children4090083 -
Abstract
Pediatric Neurocritical Care diagnoses account for a large proportion of intensive care admissions. Critical care survivors suffer high rates of long-term morbidity, including physical disability, cognitive impairment, and psychosocial dysfunction. To address these morbidities in Pediatric Neurocritical Care survivors, collaboration between Pediatric Neurology
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Pediatric Neurocritical Care diagnoses account for a large proportion of intensive care admissions. Critical care survivors suffer high rates of long-term morbidity, including physical disability, cognitive impairment, and psychosocial dysfunction. To address these morbidities in Pediatric Neurocritical Care survivors, collaboration between Pediatric Neurology and Pediatric Critical Care created a multidisciplinary follow-up clinic providing specialized evaluations after discharge. Clinic referrals apply to all Pediatric Neurocritical Care patients regardless of admission severity of illness. Here, we report an initial case series, which revealed a population that is heterogenous in age, ranging from 1 month to 18 years, and in diagnoses. Traumatic brain injuries of varying severity as well as neuroinfectious and inflammatory diseases accounted for the majority of referrals. Most patients (87%) seen in the clinic had morbidities identified, requiring ongoing evaluation and expansion of the clinic. Cognitive and psychological disturbance were seen in over half of patients at the initial clinic follow-up. Sleep disturbances, daytime fatigue, headache or chronic pain, and vision or hearing concerns were also common at initial follow-up. Data from this initial population of clinic patients reiterates the need for specialized follow-up care, but also highlights the difficulties related to providing this comprehensive care and evaluating interventions to improve outcomes. Full article
Open AccessReview
Sleep Disorders in Childhood Neurogenetic Disorders
Children 2017, 4(9), 82; doi:10.3390/children4090082 -
Abstract
Genetic advances in the past three decades have transformed our understanding and treatment of many human diseases including neurogenetic disorders. Most neurogenetic disorders can be classified as “rare disease,” but collectively neurogenetic disorders are not rare and are commonly encountered in general pediatric
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Genetic advances in the past three decades have transformed our understanding and treatment of many human diseases including neurogenetic disorders. Most neurogenetic disorders can be classified as “rare disease,” but collectively neurogenetic disorders are not rare and are commonly encountered in general pediatric practice. The authors decided to select eight relatively well-known neurogenetic disorders including Down syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Smith–Magenis syndrome, congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, achondroplasia, mucopolysaccharidoses, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Each disorder is presented in the following format: overview, clinical characteristics, developmental aspects, associated sleep disorders, management and research/future directions. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Fever in Children: Pearls and Pitfalls
Children 2017, 4(9), 81; doi:10.3390/children4090081 -
Abstract
Fever in children is a common concern for parents and one of the most frequent presenting complaints in emergency department visits, often involving non-pediatric emergency physicians. Although the incidence of serious infections has decreased after the introduction of conjugate vaccines, fever remains a
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Fever in children is a common concern for parents and one of the most frequent presenting complaints in emergency department visits, often involving non-pediatric emergency physicians. Although the incidence of serious infections has decreased after the introduction of conjugate vaccines, fever remains a major cause of laboratory investigation and hospital admissions. Furthermore, antipyretics are the most common medications administered to children. We review the epidemiology and measurement of fever, the meaning of fever and associated clinical signs in children of different ages and under special conditions, including fever in children with cognitive impairment, recurrent fevers, and fever of unknown origin. While the majority of febrile children have mild, self-resolving viral illness, a minority may be at risk of life-threatening infections. Clinical assessment differs markedly from adult patients. Hands-off evaluation is paramount for a correct evaluation of breathing, circulation and level of interaction. Laboratory markers and clinical prediction rules provide limited help in identifying children at risk for serious infections; however, clinical examination, prudent utilization of laboratory tests, and post-discharge guidance (“safety netting”) remain the cornerstone of safe management of febrile children. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sleep Disorders in a Sample of Adopted Children: A Pilot Study
Children 2017, 4(9), 77; doi:10.3390/children4090077 -
Abstract
Sleep disorders occur in up to 25% of children and are more prevalent in children who have attention problems and attachment issues. Research shows that foster children display sleep problems, but limited knowledge exists on sleep problems in adopted children. This pilot study
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Sleep disorders occur in up to 25% of children and are more prevalent in children who have attention problems and attachment issues. Research shows that foster children display sleep problems, but limited knowledge exists on sleep problems in adopted children. This pilot study aimed to identify the types of sleep disorders in adopted children and associated psychosocial factors. Parents of adopted children in Ontario, Canada, ages 2–10 years were asked to complete questionnaires evaluating demographic measures, sleep history, and the presence of behavioral problems. Insomnias and parasomnias were reported in adopted children and were associated with attention problems. This pilot study emphasizes the need for further research on the underlying factors governing the relationship between poor sleep and behavioral problems in adopted children. Full article
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