Open AccessArticle
One Size Does Not Fit All: Contextualising Family Physical Activity Using a Write, Draw, Show and Tell Approach
Children 2017, 4(7), 59; doi:10.3390/children4070059 -
Abstract
Understanding family physical activity (PA) behaviour is essential for designing effective family-based PA interventions. However, effective approaches to capture the perceptions and “lived experiences” of families are not yet well established. The aims of the study were to: (1) demonstrate how a “write,
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Understanding family physical activity (PA) behaviour is essential for designing effective family-based PA interventions. However, effective approaches to capture the perceptions and “lived experiences” of families are not yet well established. The aims of the study were to: (1) demonstrate how a “write, draw, show and tell” (WDST) methodological approach can be appropriate to family-based PA research, and (2) present two distinct family case studies to provide insights into the habitual PA behaviour and experiences of a nuclear and single-parent family. Six participants (including two “target” children aged 9–11 years, two mothers and two siblings aged 6–8 years) from two families were purposefully selected to take part in the study, based on their family structure. Participants completed a paper-based PA diary and wore an ActiGraph GT9X accelerometer on their left wrist for up to 10 weekdays and 16 weekend days. A range of WDST tasks were then undertaken by each family to offer contextual insight into their family-based PA. The selected families participated in different levels and modes of PA, and reported contrasting leisure opportunities and experiences. These novel findings encourage researchers to tailor family-based PA intervention programmes to the characteristics of the family. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins in Stored Maize Grains Consumed by Infants and Young Children in Nigeria
Children 2017, 4(7), 58; doi:10.3390/children4070058 -
Abstract
Maize is a major complimentary food for infants (0–4years) and young children (5–12years) in Nigeria. In this study, we assessed the risk of exposure of infants and young children (IYC) to some major mycotoxins in stored maize grains from five agro-ecological zones of
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Maize is a major complimentary food for infants (0–4years) and young children (5–12years) in Nigeria. In this study, we assessed the risk of exposure of infants and young children (IYC) to some major mycotoxins in stored maize grains from five agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. The probable daily intake approach was employed to determine exposure to five mycotoxins while the margin of exposure (MOE) and population at risk of primary hepatocellular carcinoma approaches were used to characterize the risk of consuming aflatoxin contaminated maize. Infants and young children in the Derived Savannah zone are more exposed to aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone while those in the Northern Guinea Savanna zone are mainly exposed to deoxynivalenol and fumonisins. The mean national MOE for infants and children were 0.12 and 0.3 respectively while the risk of developing primary liver cancer was estimated at 152.7 and 61.1 cancer/year/100,000 population of infants and children, respectively. Infants and young children consuming mycotoxin contaminated maize in Nigeria are therefore vulnerable to the adverse health effects. Mycotoxin contamination of maize is still a challenge in Nigeria; mitigation efforts should target the value chain and stricter tolerable limits should be enforced. Full article
Open AccessReview
The Association between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Risk in Children
Children 2017, 4(7), 57; doi:10.3390/children4070057 -
Abstract
The rising prevalence of childhood obesity in the past decades has made Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) the most common cause of pediatric chronic liver disease worldwide. Currently, a growing body of evidence links NAFLD with cardiovascular disease (CVD) even at an early
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The rising prevalence of childhood obesity in the past decades has made Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) the most common cause of pediatric chronic liver disease worldwide. Currently, a growing body of evidence links NAFLD with cardiovascular disease (CVD) even at an early age. Data on the pediatric population have shown that NAFLD could represent an independent risk factor not only for cardiovascular events but also for early subclinical abnormalities in myocardial structure and function. Briefly, we review the current knowledge regarding the relationship between pediatric NAFLD and cardiovascular risk in an attempt to clarify our understanding of NAFLD as a possible cardiovascular risk factor in childhood. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Incidence of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Critically Ill Children Undergoing Mechanical Ventilation in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit
Children 2017, 4(7), 56; doi:10.3390/children4070056 -
Abstract
Background: Among hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in children, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common after blood stream infection (BSI). VAP can prolong length of ventilation and hospitalization, increase mortality rate, and directly change a patient’s outcome in Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU). Objectives:
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Background: Among hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in children, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common after blood stream infection (BSI). VAP can prolong length of ventilation and hospitalization, increase mortality rate, and directly change a patient’s outcome in Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU). Objectives: The research on VAP in children is limited, especially in Iran; therefore, the identification of VAP incidence and mortality rate will be important for both clinical and epidemiological implications. Materials and Methods: Mechanically ventilated pediatric patients were assessed for development of VAP during hospital course on the basis of clinical, laboratory and imaging criteria. We matched VAP group with control group for assessment of VAP related mortality in the critically ill ventilated children. Results: VAP developed in 22.9% of critically ill children undergoing mechanical ventilation. Early VAP and late VAP were found in 19.3% and 8.4% of VAP cases, respectively. Among the known VAP risk factors that were investigated, immunodeficiency was significantly greater in the VAP group (p = 0.014). No significant differences were found between the two groups regarding use of corticosteroids, antibiotics, PH (potential of hydrogen) modifying agents (such as ranitidine or pantoprazole), presence of nasogastric tube and total or partial parenteral nutrition administration. A substantial number of patients in the VAP group had more than four risk factors for development of VAP, compared to those without VAP (p = 0.087). Mortality rate was not statistically different between the VAP and control groups (p = 0.477). Conclusion: VAP is still one of the major causes of mortality in PICUs. It is found that altered immune status is a significant risk factor for acquiring VAP. Also, occurrence of VAP was high in the first week after admission in PICU. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sleep Apnea and Hypoventilation in Patients with Down Syndrome: Analysis of 144 Polysomnogram Studies
Children 2017, 4(7), 55; doi:10.3390/children4070055 -
Abstract
Patients with Down syndrome (DS) are at risk for both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea (CSA); however, it is unclear how these components evolve as patients age and whether patients are also at risk for hypoventilation. A retrospective review of
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Patients with Down syndrome (DS) are at risk for both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea (CSA); however, it is unclear how these components evolve as patients age and whether patients are also at risk for hypoventilation. A retrospective review of 144 diagnostic polysomnograms (PSG) in a tertiary care facility over 10 years was conducted. Descriptive data and exploratory correlation analyses were performed. Sleep disordered breathing was common (seen in 78% of patients) with an average apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) = 10. The relative amount of obstructive apnea was positively correlated with age and body mass index (BMI). The relative amount of central sleep apnea was associated with younger age in the very youngest group (0–3 years). Hypoventilation was common occurring in more than 22% of patients and there was a positive correlation between the maximum CO2 and BMI. Sleep disordered breathing, including hypoventilation, was common in patients with DS. The obstructive component increased significantly with age and BMI, while the central component occurred most in the very young age group. Due to the high risk of hypoventilation, which has not been previously highlighted, it may be helpful to consider therapies to target both apnea and hypoventilation in this population. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Surgical Outreach for Children by International Humanitarian Organizations: A Review
Children 2017, 4(7), 53; doi:10.3390/children4070053 -
Abstract
Low- and middle-income countries carry a disproportionate share of the global burden of pediatric surgical disease and have limited local healthcare infrastructure and human resources to address this burden. Humanitarian efforts that have improved or provided access to necessary basic or emergency surgery
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Low- and middle-income countries carry a disproportionate share of the global burden of pediatric surgical disease and have limited local healthcare infrastructure and human resources to address this burden. Humanitarian efforts that have improved or provided access to necessary basic or emergency surgery for children in these settings have included humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, short-term surgical missions, and long-term projects such as building pediatric specialty hospitals and provider networks. Each of these efforts may also include educational initiatives designed to increase local capacity. This article will provide an overview of pediatric humanitarian surgical outreach including reference to available evidence-based analyses of these platforms and make recommendations for surgical outreach initiatives for children. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sino-Nasal 5 Questionnaire is Associated with Poor Asthma Control in Children with Asthma
Children 2017, 4(7), 54; doi:10.3390/children4070054 -
Abstract
Up to 80% of asthmatic children may experience upper airway symptoms which are often perceived as coming from the lower airways. Currently, there are no validated questionnaires to assess upper airway contribution to pediatric asthma symptoms. The Sino-Nasal 5 (SN-5) questionnaire was previously
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Up to 80% of asthmatic children may experience upper airway symptoms which are often perceived as coming from the lower airways. Currently, there are no validated questionnaires to assess upper airway contribution to pediatric asthma symptoms. The Sino-Nasal 5 (SN-5) questionnaire was previously validated for identifying radiographic confirmed sinus disease in children. In this study, we hypothesize that significant SN-5 scores (≥3.5) are associated with abnormal National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) based asthma impairment and control in asthmatic children. Retrospective data collected on children with asthma referred for pulmonary evaluation included age, gender, ethnicity, NAEPP asthma severity, asthma control (Test for Respiratory and Asthma Control in Kids (TRACK) < 5 years, Asthma Control Test (ACT) 5 years) and pulmonary function testing. Associations between SN-5 scores and asthma impairment and control were identified. Seventy-six children were evaluated; 38% were female with a mean age of 6.9 years. Significant SN-5 scores were associated with decreased control of daytime symptoms (odds ratio (OR): 0.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06–0.44)), night time awakenings (0.09 (0.03–0.29)), activity interference (0.2 (0.06–0.68)), NAEPP defined asthma control (0.32 (0.12–0.85)) and poor asthma control based on TRACK (p < 0.001) and ACT (p < 0.001). This suggests upper airways may play a larger role in perceived lower airway symptoms, and SN-5 may be beneficial in assessing the contribution of upper airway conditions on asthma control. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Immersive Virtual Reality for Pediatric Pain
Children 2017, 4(7), 52; doi:10.3390/children4070052 -
Abstract
Children must often endure painful procedures as part of their treatment for various medical conditions. Those with chronic pain endure frequent or constant discomfort in their daily lives, sometimes severely limiting their physical capacities. With the advent of affordable consumer-grade equipment, clinicians have
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Children must often endure painful procedures as part of their treatment for various medical conditions. Those with chronic pain endure frequent or constant discomfort in their daily lives, sometimes severely limiting their physical capacities. With the advent of affordable consumer-grade equipment, clinicians have access to a promising and engaging intervention for pediatric pain, both acute and chronic. In addition to providing relief from acute and procedural pain, virtual reality (VR) may also help to provide a corrective psychological and physiological environment to facilitate rehabilitation for pediatric patients suffering from chronic pain. The special qualities of VR such as presence, interactivity, customization, social interaction, and embodiment allow it to be accepted by children and adolescents and incorporated successfully into their existing medical therapies. However, the powerful and transformative nature of many VR experiences may also pose some risks and should be utilized with caution. In this paper, we review recent literature in pediatric virtual reality for procedural pain and anxiety, acute and chronic pain, and some rehabilitation applications. We also discuss the practical considerations of using VR in pediatric care, and offer specific suggestions and information for clinicians wishing to adopt these engaging therapies into their daily clinical practice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adolescents’ Knowledge of Breastfeeding and Their Intention to Breastfeed in the Future
Children 2017, 4(6), 51; doi:10.3390/children4060051 -
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to analyze third-year secondary school students’ knowledge of breastfeeding and intention to breastfeed their children, based on the results of a questionnaire. The respondents were 154 students (101 female/43 male) of two secondary schools in Bjelovar. The
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The aim of this paper is to analyze third-year secondary school students’ knowledge of breastfeeding and intention to breastfeed their children, based on the results of a questionnaire. The respondents were 154 students (101 female/43 male) of two secondary schools in Bjelovar. The students completed a questionnaire which consisted of 23 questions regarding knowledge and intention to breastfeed. The answers were analyzed statistically and different results were compared by nonparametric tests. About half of the respondents think that both partners should decide on breastfeeding and recognize the role that fathers have in initiating and maintaining breastfeeding. Only 13.64% of the respondents know that breastfeeding is to be done only on demand. Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, as recommended by the medical profession, is recognized by 70.13% of the students. The question on how justified is the initiation of formula together with the mother’s milk was answered correctly by 29.22% of the students. Secondary school students’ knowledge of breastfeeding is insufficient, and schools, families, social communities and other sources of information should share the responsibility for improving this. We consider it necessary to pay more attention to improving students’ knowledge of breastfeeding through school curricula. Full article
Open AccessReview
A Mind–Body Approach to Pediatric Pain Management
Children 2017, 4(6), 50; doi:10.3390/children4060050 -
Abstract
Pain is a significant public health problem that affects all populations and has significant financial, physical and psychological impact. Opioid medications, once the mainstay of pain therapy across the spectrum, can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Centers for Disease and Control
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Pain is a significant public health problem that affects all populations and has significant financial, physical and psychological impact. Opioid medications, once the mainstay of pain therapy across the spectrum, can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Centers for Disease and Control (CDC) guidelines recommend that non-opioid pain medications are preferred for chronic pain outside of certain indications (cancer, palliative and end of life care). Mindfulness, hypnosis, acupuncture and yoga are four examples of mind–body techniques that are often used in the adult population for pain and symptom management. In addition to providing significant pain relief, several studies have reported reduced use of opioid medications when mind–body therapies are implemented. Mind–body medicine is another approach that can be used in children with both acute and chronic pain to improve pain management and quality of life. Full article
Open AccessReview
The Association between Pediatric NAFLD and Common Genetic Variants
Children 2017, 4(6), 49; doi:10.3390/children4060049 -
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common complications of obesity. Several studies have shown that genetic predisposition probably plays an important role in its pathogenesis. In fact, in the last few years a large number of genetic studies have
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common complications of obesity. Several studies have shown that genetic predisposition probably plays an important role in its pathogenesis. In fact, in the last few years a large number of genetic studies have provided compelling evidence that some gene variants, especially those in genes encoding proteins regulating lipid metabolism, are associated with intra-hepatic fat accumulation. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the gene variants that have affected the natural history of the disease. Full article
Open AccessReview
Microcephaly
Children 2017, 4(6), 47; doi:10.3390/children4060047 -
Abstract
Microcephaly is defined as a head circumference more than two standard deviations below the mean for gender and age. Congenital microcephaly is present at birth, whereas postnatal microcephaly occurs later in life. Genetic abnormalities, syndromes, metabolic disorders, teratogens, infections, prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal
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Microcephaly is defined as a head circumference more than two standard deviations below the mean for gender and age. Congenital microcephaly is present at birth, whereas postnatal microcephaly occurs later in life. Genetic abnormalities, syndromes, metabolic disorders, teratogens, infections, prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal injuries can cause both congenital and postnatal microcephaly. Evaluation of patients with microcephaly begins with a thorough history and physical examination. In cases of worsening microcephaly or neurological signs or symptoms, neuroimaging, metabolic, or genetic testing should be strongly considered. Any further studies and workup should be directed by the presence of signs or symptoms pointing to an underlying diagnosis and are usually used as confirmatory testing for certain conditions. Neuroimaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often the first diagnostic test in evaluating children with microcephaly. Genetic testing is becoming more common and is often the next step following neuroimaging when there is no specific evidence in the history or physical examination suggesting a diagnosis. Microcephaly is a lifelong condition with no known cure. The prognosis is usually worse for children who experienced an intrauterine infection or have a chromosomal or metabolic abnormality. Zika virus has rapidly spread since 2015, and maternal infection with this virus is associated with microcephaly and other serious brain abnormalities. Microcephaly has become much more prevalent in the news and scientific community with the recent emergence of Zika virus as a cause of congenital microcephaly. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Pediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Children 2017, 4(6), 48; doi:10.3390/children4060048 -
Abstract
Abstract: With the increase in the prevalence of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become among the leading causes of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group. Once believed to be a “two-hit process”, it is now clear that the
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Abstract: With the increase in the prevalence of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become among the leading causes of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group. Once believed to be a “two-hit process”, it is now clear that the actual pathophysiology of NAFLD is complex and involves multiple pathways. Moreover, NAFLD is not always benign, and patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are at increased risk of developing advanced stages of liver disease. It has also been shown that NAFLD is not only a liver disease, but is also associated with multiple extrahepatic manifestations, including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and low bone mineral density. Although the data is scarce in the pediatric population, some studies have suggested that long-term mortality and the requirement of liver transplantation will continue to increase in patients with NAFLD. More studies are needed to better understand the natural history of NAFLD, especially in the pediatric age group. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
Parent Perspective on Care Coordination Services for Their Child with Medical Complexity
Children 2017, 4(6), 45; doi:10.3390/children4060045 -
Abstract
The overarching goal of care coordination is communication and co-management across settings. Children with medical complexity require care from multiple services and providers, and the many benefits of care coordination on health and patient experience outcomes have been documented. Despite these findings, parents
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The overarching goal of care coordination is communication and co-management across settings. Children with medical complexity require care from multiple services and providers, and the many benefits of care coordination on health and patient experience outcomes have been documented. Despite these findings, parents still report their greatest challenge is communication gaps. When this occurs, parents assume responsibility for aggregating and sharing health information across providers and settings. A new primary-specialty care coordination partnership model for children with medical complexity works to address these challenges and bridge communication gaps. During the first year of the new partnership, parents participated in focus groups to better understand how they perceive communication and collaboration between the providers and services delivering care for their medically complex child. Our findings from these sessions reflect the current literature and highlight additional challenges of rural families, as seen from the perspective of the parents. We found that parents appreciate when professional care coordination is provided, but this is often the exception and not the norm. Additionally, parents feel that the local health system’s inability to care for their medically complex child results in unnecessary trips to urban-based specialty care. These gaps require a system-level approach to care coordination and, consequently, new paradigms for delivery are urgently needed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism in Non‐Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Children 2017, 4(6), 46; doi:10.3390/children4060046 -
Abstract
Due to the epidemic of obesity across the world, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disorders in children and adolescents. NAFLD comprises a spectrum of fat-associated liver conditions that can result in end-stage liver disease
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Due to the epidemic of obesity across the world, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disorders in children and adolescents. NAFLD comprises a spectrum of fat-associated liver conditions that can result in end-stage liver disease and the need for liver transplantation. Simple steatosis, or fatty liver, occurs early in NAFLD and may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism of the liver injury in NAFLD is currently thought to be a “multiple-hit process” where the first “hit” is an increase in liver fat, followed by multiple additional factors that trigger the inflammatory activity. At the onset of disease, NAFLD is characterized by hepatic triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance. Liver fat accumulation is associated with increased lipotoxicity from high levels of free fatty acids, free cholesterol and other lipid metabolites. As a consequence, mitochondrial dysfunction with oxidative stress and production of reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated mechanisms, are activated. The present review focuses on the relationship between intra-cellular lipid accumulation and insulin resistance, as well as on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in NAFLD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treatment on Lipids in Obese Children
Children 2017, 4(6), 44; doi:10.3390/children4060044 -
Abstract
Obesity in children is associated with several co-morbidities including dyslipidemia. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is commonly seen in obese children. In adults, diagnosis of OSA independent of obesity is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors including dyslipidemia. There is limited data on the impact
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Obesity in children is associated with several co-morbidities including dyslipidemia. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is commonly seen in obese children. In adults, diagnosis of OSA independent of obesity is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors including dyslipidemia. There is limited data on the impact of treatment of OSA on lipids in children. The objective of the study was to examine the impact of treatment of OSA on lipids in 24 obese children. Methods: Seventeen children were treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and five underwent adenotonsillectomy. Mean apnea hypopnea index prior to treatment was 13.0 + 12.1 and mean body mass index (BMI) was 38.0 + 10.6 kg/m2. Results: Treatment of OSA was associated with improvement in total cholesterol (mean change = −11 mg/dL, p < 0.001), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mean change = –8.8 mg/dL, p = 0.021). Conclusion: Obese children should be routinely screened for OSA, as treatment of OSA favorably influences lipids and therefore decreases their cardiovascular risk. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Placebo by Proxy in Neonatal Randomized Controlled Trials: Does It Matter?
Children 2017, 4(6), 43; doi:10.3390/children4060043 -
Abstract
Placebo effects emerging from the expectations of relatives, also known as placebo by proxy, have seldom been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate whether in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) there is a clinically relevant difference in long-term outcome between
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Placebo effects emerging from the expectations of relatives, also known as placebo by proxy, have seldom been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate whether in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) there is a clinically relevant difference in long-term outcome between very preterm infants whose parents assume that verum (PAV) had been administered and very preterm infants whose parents assume that placebo (PAP) had been administered. The difference between the PAV and PAP infants with respect to the primary outcome–IQ at 5 years of age–was considered clinically irrelevant if the confidence interval (CI) for the mean difference resided within our pre-specified ±5-point equivalence margins. When adjusted for the effects of verum/placebo, socioeconomic status (SES), head circumference and sepsis, the CI was [−3.04, 5.67] points in favor of the PAV group. Consequently, our study did not show equivalence between the PAV and PAP groups, with respect to the pre-specified margins of equivalence. Therefore, our findings suggest that there is a small, but clinically irrelevant degree to which a preterm infant’s response to therapy is affected by its parents’ expectations, however, additional large-scale studies are needed to confirm this conjecture. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Genetic Testing among Children in a Complex Care Program
Children 2017, 4(5), 42; doi:10.3390/children4050042 -
Abstract
Little is known about the pattern of genetic testing and frequency of genetic diagnoses among children enrolled in structured complex care programs (CCPs). Such information may inform the suitability of emerging genome diagnostics for this population. The objectives were to describe the proportion
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Little is known about the pattern of genetic testing and frequency of genetic diagnoses among children enrolled in structured complex care programs (CCPs). Such information may inform the suitability of emerging genome diagnostics for this population. The objectives were to describe the proportion of children with undiagnosed genetic conditions despite genetic testing and measure the testing period, types and costs of genetic tests used. A retrospective analysis of 420 children enrolled in Toronto’s Hospital for Sick Children’s CCP from January 2010 until June 2014 was conducted. Among those who underwent genetic testing (n = 319; 76%), a random sample of 20% (n = 63) was further analyzed. A genetic diagnosis was confirmed in 48% of those who underwent testing. Those with no genetic diagnosis underwent significantly more genetic tests than those with a confirmed genetic diagnosis [median interquartile range (IQR): six tests (4–9) vs. three tests (2–4), p = 0.002], more sequence-level tests and a longer, more expensive testing period than those with a genetic diagnosis [median (IQR): length of testing period: 4.12 years (1.73–8.42) vs. 0.35 years (0.12–3.04), p < 0.001; genetic testing costs C$8496 ($4399–$12,480) vs. C$2614 ($1605–$4080), p < 0.001]. A genetic diagnosis was not established for 52% of children. Integrating genome-wide sequencing into clinical care may improve diagnostic efficiency and yield in this population. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Respiratory Care Considerations for Children with Medical Complexity
Children 2017, 4(5), 41; doi:10.3390/children4050041 -
Abstract
Children with medical complexity (CMC) are a growing population of diagnostically heterogeneous children characterized by chronic conditions affecting multiple organ systems, the use of medical technology at home as well as intensive healthcare service utilization. Many of these children will experience either a
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Children with medical complexity (CMC) are a growing population of diagnostically heterogeneous children characterized by chronic conditions affecting multiple organ systems, the use of medical technology at home as well as intensive healthcare service utilization. Many of these children will experience either a respiratory-related complication and/or they will become established on respiratory technology at home during their care trajectory. Therefore, healthcare providers need to be familiar with the respiratory related complications commonly experienced by CMC as well as the indications, technical and safety considerations and potential complications that may arise when caring for CMC using respiratory technology at home. This review will outline the most common respiratory disease manifestations experienced by CMC, and discuss various respiratory-related treatment options that can be considered, including tracheostomy, invasive and non-invasive ventilation, as well as airway clearance techniques. The caregiver requirements associated with caring for CMC using respiratory technology at home will also be reviewed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Mental Health Service Utilization among Black Youth; Psychosocial Determinants in a National Sample
Children 2017, 4(5), 40; doi:10.3390/children4050040 -
Abstract
Racial disparity in mental health service utilization (MHSU) persists, and youths are not an exception to the underutilization of services. Very limited research has been conducted on the determinants of MHSU among Black youth. Using a national sample of American Black youth, the
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Racial disparity in mental health service utilization (MHSU) persists, and youths are not an exception to the underutilization of services. Very limited research has been conducted on the determinants of MHSU among Black youth. Using a national sample of American Black youth, the current study investigated the association between demographic factors, socioeconomic status, psychiatric disorders, and self-rated health (SRH) on MHSU. We also tested the heterogeneity of the effects of SRH and psychiatric disorders based on ethnicity, gender, and their intersection. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescents supplement (NSAL-A), 2003–2004. The study enrolled 1170 Black youth between 13 and 17 years old including 810 African Americans and 360 Caribbean Blacks. Age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, SRH, 12-month psychiatric disorders (Composite International Diagnostic Interview modified version), and MHSU (last year) were measured. Logistic regressions were used for data analysis. Ethnicity (odds ratio (OR) = 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.17–0.65), subjective socioeconomic status (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.09–1.88), SRH (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.00–6.37), and psychiatric disorders (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.05–4.48) were associated with MHSU. Age, gender, and objective socioeconomic status were not associated with MHSU. Gender and ethnicity did not interact with SRH and psychiatric disorders on MHSU. Actual and perceived need both universally influence Black youths’ likelihood of MHSU, regardless of their ethnicity and gender. Ethnicity and perceived socioeconomic status also play unique roles in MHSU. Future research is needed to understand pathways to MHSU for Black youth who both have and perceive mental health needs. There is also a need to find ways to promote MHSU for those with a need for mental health services. Full article