Abstract: Sleep is critical for the healthy development of children, yet most children simply don’t get enough. Whilst school based sleep education programs have been developed for parents and their children, they have had mixed success. We consider how existing school-based sleep education programs can be improved by applying a broader model to behaviour change theory. We find that the mixed success of school-based sleep education programs may be due to a plausible but misleading assumption that simply increasing information about the importance of sleep and the risks of insufficient and/or inefficient sleep, will necessarily result in improved sleep behaviours. We identify the potential benefits of using a more inclusive behavior change theory in the development of sleep education programs with a particular need for theories that incorporate the multiple biological, environmental and social impacts on children’s sleep. Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological model is presented to illustrate how one such inclusive behavior change theory could significantly improve the success of sleep education programs and ultimately support the healthy development of children.
Abstract: There has been limited empirical examination of how parent variables such as anxiety and solicitousness collectively impact child pain response. We sought to examine the relationships among maternal anxiety, solicitous parenting, and children’s laboratory anxiety and pain intensity in children with chronic pain. Participants included 80 children and adolescents (ages 8–18) with chronic pain and their mothers. Children completed questionnaires and lab pain tasks measuring their parents’ solicitous parenting, pressure, cold and heat pain anticipatory anxiety and pain intensity. Using bootstrapping analysis, maternal anxiety predicted child anticipatory anxiety and pain intensity in girls with chronic pain, which was mediated by the child’s report of parental solicitousness. For boys with chronic pain, maternal anxiety predicted boys’ anticipatory anxiety and pain intensity, with no support for mediation. This study adds to the growing literature demonstrating the impact of maternal anxiety on children’s pain. The study highlights the importance of considering parents in treatment designed to reduce children’s pain.
Abstract: The awareness of primary immunodeficiency (PID) in Malaysia is still not forthcoming. Certain practical issues such as lack of clinical immunologists and specialized laboratory diagnostic facilities remain to be addressed. However, great efforts taken by passionate clinicians and scientists in the immunology networking have ascertained some prevalence. Despite the limitation, all suspected cases of PID are being properly investigated and competently managed. In this case report we highlighted the obstacles we faced in managing PID patients, particularly preparing for bone marrow transplant. This is the first transplanted case of chronic granulomatous disease in Malaysia, which emphasizes the importance of collaborative work to ensure further morbidities or mortalities are prevented.
Abstract: The majority of behavioural sleep interventions for young children (defined as 5 years of age or less) involve extinction procedures where parents must ignore their child’s cries for a period. Many parents have difficulties implementing and maintaining these procedures, leading to attrition, non-compliance and treatment avoidance. Yet the reasons for these methods being difficult to implement for parents have not been well understood or addressed in the literature. In fact, they are being ignored. We discuss that understanding and addressing parental concerns may enable better targeted sleep interventions.
Abstract: Immunizations have made an enormous impact on the health of children by decreasing childhood morbidity and mortality from a variety of vaccine-preventable diseases worldwide. The eradication of polio from Nigeria and India is one of the most recent victories for one of the greatest technological advances in human history. Despite these international successes, the United States has experienced the re-emergence of measles, driven largely by increasing parental refusal of vaccines. Pediatricians should be trained to be very knowledgeable about vaccines and should continue to advocate for parents to immunize their children.