Abstract: Between 23%–46% of children with cerebral palsy experience sleep problems. Many of the sensory-motor and cognitive features of cerebral palsy (such as immobility, pain, and seizures) act as predisposing factors for sleep problems in this population. This paper presents the background related to the etiology and consequences of sleep problems in children with cerebral palsy. The relationship between pain and sleep is emphasized, as the risk of pain is highly prevalent in children with cerebral palsy. The review concludes with a discussion of the evidence-base for environmental non-pharmacological interventions based on light, temperature, sound and bedding to promote sleep for children with cerebral palsy.
Abstract: The role of play in Brazilian children’s hospitals is highlighted, as well as the perspective of humanization in Brazil. Some aspects of our culture are crucial to understanding the importance of play considering our society. Sabara Children’s Hospital (“Hospital Infantil Sabará”) in Brazil is used particularly to discuss humanization. To understand the issue of play in Brazil, it is important to discuss hospitals in their social context, their history, current roles in children’s care, humanization history and child development, according to the approaches of Piaget and Winnicott that are used in our culture.
Abstract: Increase in the prevalence of disease and illness has dramatically altered the landscape of pediatrics. As a result, there is a demand for pediatricians with new skills and a sharper focus on preventative health. Patient demand and shifting pediatric illness patterns have accelerated research in the field of pediatric integrative medicine. This emerging field can be defined as healing-oriented medicine that considers the whole child, including all elements of lifestyle and family health. It is informed by evidence and carefully weighs all appropriate treatment options. This Special Issue of Children, containing a collection of articles written by expert clinicians, represents an important educational contribution to the field. The goal of the edition is to raise awareness about integrative topics with robust supporting evidence, and to identify areas where more research is needed.
Abstract: The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, together with the subsequent tsunami and nuclear power station accident, damaged a wide area of land. Children who experienced these terrible disasters and the post-disaster situation are still suffering in mental, physical and social ways. Children’s play is an activity that they undertake naturally and which can help them recover from such disasters. This paper addresses the role of play, adventure playgrounds and other play interventions, including play buses, for the health triangle, which addresses mental, physical and social issues of children after the disasters. These interventions were shown to be effective because children could express their stress. This included play for their mental health, different body movements for their physical health and communication with playworkers and new friends for restructuring their social health. These three aspects relate to and support each other within the health triangle. An increase in childhood obesity and lack of exercise is an additional health issue in Fukushima. For a balanced recovery within the health triangle, more play environments should be provided and some improved. A child’s right to play should be implemented in the recovery stage after a disaster.
Abstract: Children treated for cancer are at increased risk of developing chronic health conditions, some of which may manifest during or soon after treatment while others emerge many years after therapy. These health problems may limit physical performance and functional capacity, interfering with participation in work, social, and recreational activities. In this review, we discuss treatment-induced impairments in the endocrine, musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiopulmonary systems and their influence on mobility and physical function. We found that cranial radiation at a young age was associated with a broad range of chronic conditions including obesity, short stature, low bone mineral density and neuromotor impairments. Anthracyclines and chest radiation are associated with both short and long-term cardiotoxicity. Although numerous chronic conditions are documented among individuals treated for childhood cancer, the impact of these conditions on mobility and function are not well characterized, with most studies limited to survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors. Moving forward, further research assessing the impact of chronic conditions on participation in work and social activities is required. Moreover, interventions to prevent or ameliorate the loss of physical function among children treated for cancer are likely to become an important area of survivorship research.