Open AccessArticle
Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunosensor for the Detection of Campylobacter jejuni
Chemosensors 2017, 5(2), 16; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5020016 -
Abstract
Campylobacteriosis is an internationally important foodborne disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni. The bacterium is prevalent in chicken meat and it is estimated that as much as 90% of chicken meat on the market may be contaminated with the bacterium. The current gold
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Campylobacteriosis is an internationally important foodborne disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni. The bacterium is prevalent in chicken meat and it is estimated that as much as 90% of chicken meat on the market may be contaminated with the bacterium. The current gold standard for the detection of C. jejuni is the culturing method, which takes at least 48 h to confirm the presence of the bacterium. Hence, the aim of this work was to investigate the development of a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor platform for C. jejuni detection. Bacterial strains were cultivated in-house and used in the development of the sensor. SPR sensor chips were first functionalized with polyclonal antibodies raised against C. jejuni using covalent attachment. The gold chips were then applied for the direct detection of C. jejuni. The assay conditions were then optimized and the sensor used for C. jejuni detection, achieving a detection limit of 8 × 106 CFU·mL−1. The sensitivity of the assay was further enhanced to 4 × 104 CFU·mL−1 through the deployment of a sandwich assay format using the same polyclonal antibody. The LOD obtained in the sandwich assay was higher than that achieved using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (106–107 CFU·mL−1). This indicate that the SPR-based sandwich sensor method has an excellent potential to replace ELISA tests for C. jejuni detection. Specificity studies performed with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, demonstrated the high specific of the sensor for C. jejuni. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Disulfides for Chemoresistive Gas Sensing: Perspective and Challenges
Chemosensors 2017, 5(2), 15; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5020015 -
Abstract
Transition metal disulfides have been attracting significant attentions in recent years. There are extensive applications of transition metal disulfides, especially on gas sensing applications, due to their large specific surface-to-volume ratios, high sensitivity to adsorption of gas molecules and tunable surface functionality depending
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Transition metal disulfides have been attracting significant attentions in recent years. There are extensive applications of transition metal disulfides, especially on gas sensing applications, due to their large specific surface-to-volume ratios, high sensitivity to adsorption of gas molecules and tunable surface functionality depending on the decoration species or functional groups. However, there are several drawbacks such as poor gas selectivity, sluggish recovery characteristics and difficulty in the fabrication of large-scale devices. Here, we provide a review of recent progress on the chemoresistive gas sensing properties of two-dimensional transition metal disulfides. This review also provides various methods to enhance the gas sensing performance of two-dimensional disulfides, such as surface functionalization, decoration receptor functions and developing nanostructures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microfluidic Electronic Tongue Applied to Soil Analysis
Chemosensors 2017, 5(2), 14; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5020014 -
Abstract
Precision agriculture is crucial for increasing food output without expanding the cultivable area, which requires sensors to be deployed for controlling the level of nutrients in the soil. In this paper, we report on a microfluidic electronic tongue (e-tongue) based on impedance measurements
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Precision agriculture is crucial for increasing food output without expanding the cultivable area, which requires sensors to be deployed for controlling the level of nutrients in the soil. In this paper, we report on a microfluidic electronic tongue (e-tongue) based on impedance measurements which is capable of distinguishing soil samples enriched with plant macronutrients. The e-tongue setup consisted of an array of sensing units made with layer-by-layer films deposited onto gold interdigitated electrodes. Significantly, the sensing units could be reused with adequate reproducibility after a simple washing procedure, thus indicating that there is no cross-contamination in three independent sets of measurements. A high performance was achieved by treating the capacitance data with the multidimensional projection techniques Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Interactive Document Map (IDMAP), and Sammon’s Mapping. While an optimized performance was demonstrated with IDMAP and feature selection, during which data of a limited frequency range were used, the distinction of all soil samples was also possible with the well-established PCA analysis for measurements at a single frequency. The successful use of a simple microfluidic e-tongue for soil analysis paves the way for enhanced tools to support precision agriculture. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Chemically-Bound Glutathione Sensor Bioinspired by the Defense of Organisms against Heavy Metal Contamination: Optimization of the Immobilization Conditions
Chemosensors 2017, 5(2), 12; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5020012 -
Abstract
The influence of the experimental conditions (glutathione concentration and incubation time and temperature) concerning the covalent immobilization of glutathione via carbodiimide coupling on the behavior of a glutathione modified screen-printed carbon electrode obtained by electrografting is evaluated. The optimized parameters fasten the modification
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The influence of the experimental conditions (glutathione concentration and incubation time and temperature) concerning the covalent immobilization of glutathione via carbodiimide coupling on the behavior of a glutathione modified screen-printed carbon electrode obtained by electrografting is evaluated. The optimized parameters fasten the modification process and improve the performance of the sensor as compared to the usual procedure. This suggests the convenience of a tailored preparation of metal sensors based on metal-binding biomolecules such as glutathione. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Electrochemical Immunosensors and Aptasensors
Chemosensors 2017, 5(2), 13; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5020013 -
Abstract Since the first electrochemical biosensor for glucose detection, pioneered in 1962 by Clark and Lyons [1], research and application in the field has grown at an impressive rate and we are still witnessing a continuing evolution of research on this topic [2].[...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Enzymes as Tools in MIP-Sensors
Chemosensors 2017, 5(2), 11; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5020011 -
Abstract
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have the potential to complement antibodies in bioanalysis, are more stable under harsh conditions, and are potentially cheaper to produce. However, the affinity and especially the selectivity of MIPs are in general lower than those of their biological pendants.
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Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have the potential to complement antibodies in bioanalysis, are more stable under harsh conditions, and are potentially cheaper to produce. However, the affinity and especially the selectivity of MIPs are in general lower than those of their biological pendants. Enzymes are useful tools for the preparation of MIPs for both low and high-molecular weight targets: As a green alternative to the well-established methods of chemical polymerization, enzyme-initiated polymerization has been introduced and the removal of protein templates by proteases has been successfully applied. Furthermore, MIPs have been coupled with enzymes in order to enhance the analytical performance of biomimetic sensors: Enzymes have been used in MIP-sensors as “tracers” for the generation and amplification of the measuring signal. In addition, enzymatic pretreatment of an analyte can extend the analyte spectrum and eliminate interferences. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Immunosensor for Detection of IgY in Food and Food Supplements
Chemosensors 2017, 5(1), 10; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5010010 -
Abstract
Immunoglobulin Y is a water-soluble protein present in high concentration in hen serum and egg yolk. IgY has applications in many fields, e.g., from food stuff to the mass production of antibodies. In this work, we have implemented an electrochemical immunosensor for IgY
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Immunoglobulin Y is a water-soluble protein present in high concentration in hen serum and egg yolk. IgY has applications in many fields, e.g., from food stuff to the mass production of antibodies. In this work, we have implemented an electrochemical immunosensor for IgY based on templated nanoelectrodes ensembles. IgY is captured by the templating polycarbonate and reacted with anti-IgY labeled with horseradish peroxidase. In the presence of H2O2 and methylene blue as the redox mediator, an electrocatalytic current is generated which scales with IgY concentration in the sample. After optimizing the extracting procedure, the immunosensor was applied for analysis of fresh eggs and food integrators. The data obtained with the biosensor were validated by SDS-PAGE and Western blot measurements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Study of Trametes Versicolor Laccase Compatibility to Different Polyphenolic Substrates
Chemosensors 2017, 5(1), 9; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5010009 -
Abstract
The aim of this electrochemical study was to ascertain which position of hydroxy groups on a benzene ring provides electroactive products after enzymatic oxidation by laccase originating from the Trametes versicolor mushroom, exhibiting intense redox signals that are exploitable for their amperometric determination.
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The aim of this electrochemical study was to ascertain which position of hydroxy groups on a benzene ring provides electroactive products after enzymatic oxidation by laccase originating from the Trametes versicolor mushroom, exhibiting intense redox signals that are exploitable for their amperometric determination. The electrochemical properties of phenol together with all isomers of benzenediol and cresol at the bare carbon paste electrode (CPE) and CPE modified with enzyme laccase (CPE/Laccase) were investigated using cyclic voltammetry at various scan rates. Comparison of resulting redox signals and their differences confirmed the suitability of classes of polyphenolic compounds as substrates for Trametes versicolor laccase and their potential use as suitable biological components in the development of amperometric enzyme biosensors for the determination of such species. The feasibility of the proposed approach was verified by electrochemical assays of the enzymatic oxidation of polyphenolic analogues of simple phenols, e.g., gentisic acid, caffeic acid, resveratrol, and others. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Electrochemical Affinity Biosensors in Food Safety
Chemosensors 2017, 5(1), 8; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5010008 -
Abstract
Safety and quality are key issues of today’s food industry. Since the food chain is becoming more and more complex, powerful analytical methods are required to verify the performance of food safety and quality systems. Indeed, such methods require high sensitivity, selectivity, ability
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Safety and quality are key issues of today’s food industry. Since the food chain is becoming more and more complex, powerful analytical methods are required to verify the performance of food safety and quality systems. Indeed, such methods require high sensitivity, selectivity, ability for rapid implementation and capability of automatic screening. Electroanalytical chemistry has, for decades, played a relevant role in food safety and quality assessment, taking more and more significance over time in the solution of analytical problems. At present, the implementation of electrochemical methods in the food is evident. This is in a large part due to the relevant results obtained by combining the attractive advantages of electrochemical transduction strategies (in terms of relatively simple hardware, versatility, interface with automatic logging and feasibility of application outside the laboratory environment) with those from biosensors technology. Important examples of enzyme electrochemical biosensors are those dedicated to the determination of glucose, alcohol or cholesterol are important examples. In addition, other types of different electrochemical biosensing approaches have emerged strongly in the last years. Among these, the strategies involving affinity interactions have been shown to possess a large number of applications. Therefore, electrochemical immunosensors and DNA-based biosensors have been widely used to determine major and minor components in foodstuffs, providing sufficient data to evaluate food freshness, the quality of raw materials, or the origin of samples, as well as to determine a variety of compounds at trace levels related to food safety such as micotoxins, allergens, drugs residues or pathogen microorganisms. This review discusses some critical examples of the latest advances in this area, pointing out relevant methodologies related to the measurement techniques, including the use of nanostructured electrodes and strategies for signal amplification. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Gravimetric Viral Diagnostics: QCM Based Biosensors for Early Detection of Viruses
Chemosensors 2017, 5(1), 7; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5010007 -
Abstract
Viruses are pathogenic microorganisms that can inhabit and replicate in human bodies causing a number of widespread infectious diseases such as influenza, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, meningitis, pneumonia, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) etc. A majority of these viral diseases are contagious and can spread
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Viruses are pathogenic microorganisms that can inhabit and replicate in human bodies causing a number of widespread infectious diseases such as influenza, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, meningitis, pneumonia, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) etc. A majority of these viral diseases are contagious and can spread from infected to healthy human beings. The most important step in the treatment of these contagious diseases and to prevent their unwanted spread is to timely detect the disease-causing viruses. Gravimetric viral diagnostics based on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) transducers and natural or synthetic receptors are miniaturized sensing platforms that can selectively recognize and quantify harmful virus species. Herein, a review of the label-free QCM virus sensors for clinical diagnostics and point of care (POC) applications is presented with major emphasis on the nature and performance of different receptors ranging from the natural or synthetic antibodies to selective macromolecular materials such as DNA and aptamers. A performance comparison of different receptors is provided and their limitations are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Amino Acid Derivatives into Enzyme-Responsive Luminescent Gel
Chemosensors 2017, 5(1), 6; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5010006 -
Abstract
In this study, a novel three-component hydrogel has been designed and fabricated via hierarchical self-assembly by amino acid derivative (NPPD), riboflavin (RF) and α-cyclodextrin (α-CD). These molecules were aggregated to form some fibrous structures based on hydrogen bond and π–π stacking. The results
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In this study, a novel three-component hydrogel has been designed and fabricated via hierarchical self-assembly by amino acid derivative (NPPD), riboflavin (RF) and α-cyclodextrin (α-CD). These molecules were aggregated to form some fibrous structures based on hydrogen bond and π–π stacking. The results show that the hydrogel has a specific response to α-amylase and the fluorescence disappears once hydrolyzed. Therefore, this multi-component hydrogel has potential application in the field of drug delivery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Selectivity and Efficiency of Conductive Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (c-MIP) Based on 5-Phenyl-Dipyrromethane and 5-Phenol-Dipyrromethane for Quorum Sensing Precursors Detection
Chemosensors 2017, 5(1), 5; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5010005 -
Abstract
Functional polymers that selectively recognize target compounds are developed by imprinting polymerization. In the present paper, two different dipyrromethanes, 5-phenol-dipyrromethane (5-pOH-DP) and 5-phenyl-dipyrromethane (5-ph-DP), are synthetized and investigated to develop conductive molecularly imprinted polymer (cMIP) sensors. As target molecules, two homoserine lactone derivatives
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Functional polymers that selectively recognize target compounds are developed by imprinting polymerization. In the present paper, two different dipyrromethanes, 5-phenol-dipyrromethane (5-pOH-DP) and 5-phenyl-dipyrromethane (5-ph-DP), are synthetized and investigated to develop conductive molecularly imprinted polymer (cMIP) sensors. As target molecules, two homoserine lactone derivatives were templated by an electrochemically driven polymerization process. Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), also called homoserine lactones (HS), are a class of signaling molecules involved in bacterial quorum sensing (QS), which is a strategy of coordination among bacteria mediated by population density. The preparation of cMIP from 5-pOH-DP and 5-ph-DP in the presence of acetyl-homoserine lactone (Acetyl-HS) or carboxybenzyl-homoserine lactone (Cbz-HS) was performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The cMIP selectivity and sensitivity were assessed by microgravimetry (QCM). Both series of measurements were performed with the aid of an Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance (EQCM/QCM). The experimental evidences are discussed with respect to NMR measurements that were conducted to gain insight into the interactions established between monomers and templates. The NMR data interpretation offers preliminary information about the most probable positions involved in interaction development for both molecules and highlights the role of the hydration shell. The QCM-cMIP sensor was able to detect the analyte in the linear range from 10−8 mol·L−1 to 10−6 mol·L−1 and a limit of detection (LOD) of 22.3 ng (3σ of the blank signal) were evaluated. QCM rebinding tests demonstrated that cMIP selectivity was driven by the pendant group of dipyrromethane, which was also confirmed by the NMR data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Influence of the As-Grown ZnO Nanorods and Applied Potentials on an Electrochemical Sensor for In-Vitro Glucose Monitoring
Chemosensors 2017, 5(1), 4; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5010004 -
Abstract
The influence of the as-grown zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) on the fabricated electrochemical sensor for in vitro glucose monitoring were investigated. A direct growth of ZnO NRs was performed on the Si/SiO2/Au electrode, using hydrothermal and sol-gel techniques at low
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The influence of the as-grown zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) on the fabricated electrochemical sensor for in vitro glucose monitoring were investigated. A direct growth of ZnO NRs was performed on the Si/SiO2/Au electrode, using hydrothermal and sol-gel techniques at low temperatures. The structure, consisting of a Si/SiO2/Au/GOx/Nafion membrane, was considered as a baseline, and it was tested under several applied potential 0.1–0.8 V. The immobilized working electrode, with GOx and a nafion membrane, was characterized amperometrically using a source meter Keithely 2410, and an electrochemical impedance Gamry potentiostat. The sensor exhibited the following: a high sensitivity of ~0.468 mA/cm2 mM, a low detection limit in the order of 166.6 µM, and a fast and sharp response time of around 2 s. The highest sensitivity and the lowest limit of detection were obtained at 0.4 volt, after the growth of ZnO NRs. The highest net sensitivity was obtained after subtracting the sensitivity of the baseline, and it was in the order of 0.315 mA/cm2·mM. The device was tested with a range of glucose concentrations from 1–10 mM, showing a linear line from 3–8 mM, and the device was saturated after exceeding high concentrations of glucose. Such devices can be used for in vitro glucose monitoring, since glucose changes can be accurately detected. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Chemosensors in 2016
Chemosensors 2017, 5(1), 3; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5010003 -
Open AccessArticle
Nitrate Ion Selective Electrode Based on Ion Imprinted Poly(N-methylpyrrole)
Chemosensors 2017, 5(1), 2; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5010002 -
Abstract
A poly(N-methylpyrrole) based ion selective electrode (ISE) has been prepared by electro-polymerization of N-methylpyrrole using potassium nitrate as the supporting electrolyte. Electrochemical and chemical variables were used to optimize the potentiometric response of the electrodes and to maximize the selectivity
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A poly(N-methylpyrrole) based ion selective electrode (ISE) has been prepared by electro-polymerization of N-methylpyrrole using potassium nitrate as the supporting electrolyte. Electrochemical and chemical variables were used to optimize the potentiometric response of the electrodes and to maximize the selectivity for nitrate over potential interferences. The selectivity, longevity and stability of the ion-imprinted polymer give this electrode advantages over traditional nitrate ISEs. The best prototype electrode exhibits a linear potential response to nitrate ion within the concentration range of 5.0 × 10−6 to 0.1 M nitrate with a near Nernstian slope of −56.3 mV per decade (R2 = 0.9998) and a strong preference for the nitrate ion over other anions. The selectivity coefficients of the electrode were evaluated by the fixed interference method. The use of N-methylpyrrole has advantages over pyrrole in terms of selectivity and pH insensitivity. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in Electrochemical-Based Sensing Platforms for Aflatoxins Detection
Chemosensors 2017, 5(1), 1; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5010001 -
Abstract
Mycotoxin are small (MW ~700 Da), toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungal species that readily colonize crops and contaminate them at both pre- and post-harvesting. Among all, aflatoxins (AFs) are mycotoxins of major significance due to their presence in common food commodities and
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Mycotoxin are small (MW ~700 Da), toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungal species that readily colonize crops and contaminate them at both pre- and post-harvesting. Among all, aflatoxins (AFs) are mycotoxins of major significance due to their presence in common food commodities and the potential threat to human health worldwide. Based on the severity of illness and increased incidences of AFs poisoning, a broad range of conventional and analytical detection techniques that could be useful and practical have already been reported. However, due to the variety of structural analogous of these toxins, it is impossible to use one common technique for their analysis. Numerous recent research efforts have been directed to explore alternative detection technologies. Recently, immunosensors and aptasensors have gained promising potential in the area of sample preparation and detection systems. These sensors offer the advantages of disposability, portability, miniaturization, and on-site analysis. In a typical design of an aptasensor, an aptamer (ssDNA or RNA) is used as a bio-recognition element either integrated within or in intimate association with the transducer surface. This review paper is focused on the recent advances in electrochemical immuno- and aptasensing platforms for detection of AFs in real samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Voltammetric Sensor Based on Chemically Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode for the Simultaneous Analysis of Uric Acid, Ascorbic Acid and Dopamine
Chemosensors 2016, 4(4), 25; doi:10.3390/chemosensors4040025 -
Abstract
A disposable screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) (rGO-SPCE) is described. The rGO-SPCE was characterized by UV-Vis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The electrode displays excellent electrocatalytic activity towards uric acid (UA), ascorbic acid (AA) and
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A disposable screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) (rGO-SPCE) is described. The rGO-SPCE was characterized by UV-Vis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The electrode displays excellent electrocatalytic activity towards uric acid (UA), ascorbic acid (AA) and dopamine (DA). Three resolved voltammetric peaks (at 183 mV for UA, 273 mV for AA and 317 mV for DA, all vs. Ag/AgCl) were found. Differential pulse voltammetry was used to simultaneously detect UA, AA and DA in their ternary mixtures. The linear working range extends from 10 to 3000 μM for UA; 0.1 to 2.5 μM, and 5.0 to 2 × 104 µM for AA; and 0.2 to 80.0 μM and 120.0 to 500 µM for DA, and the limits of detection (S/N = 3) are 0.1, 50.0, and 0.4 μM, respectively. The performance of the sensor was evaluated by analysing spiked human urine samples, and the recoveries were found to be well over 98.0% for the three compounds. These results indicate that the rGO-SPCE represents a sensitive analytical sensing tool for simultaneous analysis of UA, AA and DA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Smart Ring Experience in l’Aquila (Italy): Integrating Smart Mobility Public Services with Air Quality Indexes
Chemosensors 2016, 4(4), 24; doi:10.3390/chemosensors4040024 -
Abstract
This work presents the “City Dynamics and Smart Environment” activities of the Smart Ring project, a model for the smart city, based on the integration of sustainable urban transport services and environmental monitoring over a 4–5-km circular path, the “Smart Ring”, around the
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This work presents the “City Dynamics and Smart Environment” activities of the Smart Ring project, a model for the smart city, based on the integration of sustainable urban transport services and environmental monitoring over a 4–5-km circular path, the “Smart Ring”, around the historical center of l’Aquila (Italy). We describe our pilot experience performed during an experimental on-demand public service electric bus, “SmartBus”, which was equipped with a multi-parametric air quality low-cost gas electrochemical sensor platform, “NASUS IV”. For five days (28–29 August 2014 and 1–3 September 2014), the sensor platform was installed inside the SmartBus and measured air quality gas compounds (nitrogen dioxide, carbon oxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide) during the service. Data were collected and analyzed on the bases of an air quality index, which provided qualitative insights on the air status potentially experienced by the users. The results obtained are in agreement with the synoptic meteorological conditions, the urban background air quality reference measurements and the potential traffic flow variations. Furthermore, they indicated that the air quality status was influenced by the gas component NO2, followed by H2S, SO2 and CO. We discuss the features of our campaign, and we highlight the potential, limitations and key factors to consider for future project designs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design of an Affibody-Based Recognition Strategy for Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) Detection by Electrochemical Biosensors
Chemosensors 2016, 4(4), 23; doi:10.3390/chemosensors4040023 -
Abstract
In this study, we have designed and realized three simple electrochemical bioassays for the detection of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) cancer biomarker using magnetic beads coupling screen-printed arrays. The different approaches were based on a sandwich format in which
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In this study, we have designed and realized three simple electrochemical bioassays for the detection of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) cancer biomarker using magnetic beads coupling screen-printed arrays. The different approaches were based on a sandwich format in which affibody (Af) or antibody (Ab) molecules were coupled respectively to streptavidin or protein A-modified magnetic beads. The bioreceptor-modified beads were used to capture the HER2 protein from the sample and sandwich assay was performed by adding the labeled secondary affibody or the antibody. An enzyme-amplified detection scheme based on the coupling of secondary biotinylated bioreceptor with streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase enzyme conjugate was then applied. The enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of the electro-inactive 1-naphthyl-phosphate to the electro-active 1-naphthol, which was detected by means of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Each developed assay has been studied and optimized. Furthermore, a thorough comparison of the analytical performances of developed assays was performed. Finally, preliminary experiments using serum samples spiked with HER2 protein were also carried out. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Application of Electrochemical Sensor Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer and Carbon Nanotubes for the Determination of Carvedilol
Chemosensors 2016, 4(4), 22; doi:10.3390/chemosensors4040022 -
Abstract
This work describes the preparation of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for determination of carvedilol (CAR). Electrochemical behavior of CAR on the modified electrode was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry. The best composition
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This work describes the preparation of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for determination of carvedilol (CAR). Electrochemical behavior of CAR on the modified electrode was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry. The best composition was found to be 65% (m/m) of MIP. Under optimized conditions (pH 8.5 in 0.25 mol L−1 Britton–Robinson buffer and 0.1 mol L−1 KCl) the voltammetric method showed a linear response for CAR in the range of 50–325 µmol L−1 (R = 0.9755), with detection and quantification limits of 16.14 µmol L−1 and 53.8 µmol L−1, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for determination of CAR in real samples of pharmaceuticals. The sensor presented good sensitivity, rapid detection of CAR, and quick and easy preparation. Furthermore, the material used as modifier has a simple synthesis and its amount utilized is very small, thus illustrating the economic feasibility of this sensor. Full article
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