Chemosensors2016, 4(2), 8; doi:10.3390/chemosensors4020008 (registering DOI) - published 29 April 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: NO2 emission is mostly related to combustion processes, where gas temperatures exceed far beyond 500 °C. The detection of NO2 in combustion and exhaust gases at elevated temperatures requires sensors with high NO2 selectivity. The thermodynamic equilibrium for NO2/NO ≥ 500 °C lies on the NO side. High temperature stability of TiO2 makes it a promising material for elevated temperature towards CO, H2, and NO2. The doping of TiO2 with Al3+ (Al:TiO2) increases the sensitivity and selectivity of sensors to NO2 and results in a relatively low cross-sensitivity towards CO. The results indicate that NO2 exposure results in a resistance decrease of the sensors with the single Al:TiO2 layers at 600 °C, with a resistance increase at 800 °C. This alteration in the sensor response in the temperature range of 600 °C and 800 °C may be due to the mentioned thermodynamic equilibrium changes between NO and NO2. This work investigates the NO2-sensing behavior of duplex layers consisting of Al:TiO2 and BaTi(1-x)RhxO3 catalysts in the temperature range of 600 °C and 900 °C. Al:TiO2 layers were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on interdigitated sensor platforms, while a catalytic layer, which was synthesized by wet chemistry in the form of BaTi(1-x)RhxO3 powders, were screen-printed as thick layers on the Al:TiO2-layers. The use of Rh-incorporated BaTiO3 perovskite (BaTi(1-x)RhxO3) as a catalytic filter stabilizes the sensor response of Al-doped TiO2 layers yielding more reliable sensor signal throughout the temperature range.
Abstract: The development of an electrochemical dissolved oxygen (DO) sensor based on a novel Cu(II) complex-modified screen printed carbon electrode is reported. The voltammetric behavior of the modified electrode was investigated at different scan rates and oxygen concentrations in PBS (pH = 7). An increase of cathodic current (at about −0.4 vs. Ag/AgCl) with the addition of oxygen was observed. The modified Cu(II) complex electrode was demonstrated for the determination of DO in water using chronoamperometry. A small size and low power consumption home-made portable electrochemical analyzer based on custom electronics for sensor interfacing and operating in voltammetry and amperometry modes has been also designed and fabricated. Its performances in the monitoring of DO in water were compared with a commercial one.
Abstract: One-dimensional metal oxide nanostructures such as nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes, and nanobelts gained great attention for applications in sensing devices. ZnO is one of the most studied oxides for sensing applications due to its unique physical and chemical properties. In this paper, we provide a review of the recent research activities focused on the synthesis and sensing properties of pure, doped, and functionalized ZnO quasi-one dimensional nanostructures. We describe the development prospects in the preparation methods and modifications of the surface structure of ZnO, and discuss its sensing mechanism. Next, we analyze the sensing properties of ZnO quasi-one dimensional nanostructures, and summarize perspectives concerning future research on their synthesis and applications in conductometric sensing devices.
Abstract: Two different classes of fluorescent dyes were prepared as a turn off/on sensor system for aldehydes. Amino derivatives of a boron dipyrromethene (BDP) fluorophore and a xanthene-derived fluorophore (rosamine) were prepared. Model compounds of their product with an aldehyde were prepared using salicylaldehyde. Both amino boron dipyrromethene and rosamine derivatives are almost non-fluorescent in polar and apolar solvent. However, imine formation with salicylaldehyde on each fluorophore increases the fluorescence quantum yield by almost a factor of 10 (from 0.05 to 0.4). These fluorophores are therefore suitable candidates for development of fluorescence-based sensors for aldehydes.
Abstract: This article presents a review of recent research efforts and developments for the fabrication of metal-oxide gas sensors using chemical vapour deposition (CVD), presenting its potential advantages as a materials synthesis technique for gas sensors along with a discussion of their sensing performance. Thin films typically have poorer gas sensing performance compared to traditional screen printed equivalents, attributed to reduced porosity, but the ability to integrate materials directly with the sensor platform provides important process benefits compared to competing synthetic techniques. We conclude that these advantages are likely to drive increased interest in the use of CVD for gas sensor materials over the next decade, whilst the ability to manipulate deposition conditions to alter microstructure can help mitigate the potentially reduced performance in thin films, hence the current prospects for use of CVD in this field look excellent.
Abstract: A composite metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensor array based on tin dioxide (SNO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) has been fabricated using a straight forward mechanical mixing method. The array was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The array was evaluated against a number of environmentally important reducing and oxidizing gases across a range of operating temperatures (300–500 °C). The highest response achieved was against 100 ppm ethanol by the 50 wt% ZnO–50 wt% SnO2 device, which exhibited a response of 109.1, a 4.5-fold increase with respect to the pure SnO2 counterpart (which displayed a response of 24.4) and a 12.3-fold enhancement with respect to the pure ZnO counterpart (which was associated with a response of 8.9), towards the same concentration of the analyte. Cross sensitivity studies were also carried out against a variety of reducing gases at an operating temperature of 300 °C. The sensors array showed selectivity towards ethanol. The enhanced behaviour of the mixed oxide materials was influenced by junction effects, composition, the packing structure and the device microstructure. The results show that it is possible to tune the sensitivity and selectivity of a composite sensor, through a simple change in the composition of the composite.