Abstract: Aptasensors based on stripping voltammetry exhibit several advantages, such as high sensitivity and multi-target detection from stripping voltammetric technology, and high selectivity from the specific binding of apamers with targets. This review comprehensively discusses the recent accomplishments in signal amplification strategies based on nanomaterials, such as metal nanoparticles, semiconductor nanoparticles, and nanocomposite materials, which are detected by stripping voltammetry after suitable dissolution. Focus will be put in discussing multiple amplification strategies that are widely applied in aptasensors for small biomolecules, proteins, disease markers, and cancer cells.
Abstract: In this work, a novel magnetic beads (MBs)-based immunosensing approach for the rapid and simultaneous determination of the main peanut allergenic proteins (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2) is reported. It involves the use of sandwich-type immunoassays using selective capture and detector antibodies and carboxylic acid-modified magnetic beads (HOOC-MBs). Amperometric detection at −0.20 V was performed using dual screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPdCEs) and the H2O2/hydroquinone (HQ) system. This methodology exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity for the target proteins providing detection limits of 18.0 and 0.07 ng/mL for Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, respectively, with an assay time of only 2 h. The usefulness of the approach was evaluated by detecting the endogenous content of both allergenic proteins in different food extracts as well as trace amounts of peanut allergen (0.0001% or 1.0 mg/kg) in wheat flour spiked samples. The developed platform provides better Low detection limits (LODs) in shorter assay times than those claimed for the allergen specific commercial ELISA kits using the same immunoreagents and quantitative information on individual food allergen levels. Moreover, the flexibility of the methodology makes it readily translate to the detection of other food-allergens.
Abstract: Protein analysis and quantification are required daily by thousands of laboratories worldwide for activities ranging from protein characterization to clinical diagnostics. Multiple factors have to be considered when selecting the best detection and quantification assay, including the amount of protein available, its concentration, the presence of interfering molecules, as well as costs and rapidity. This is also the case for lysozyme, a 14.3-kDa protein ubiquitously present in many organisms, that has been identified with a variety of functions: antibacterial activity, a biomarker of several serious medical conditions, a potential allergen in foods or a model of amyloid-type protein aggregation. Since the design of the first lysozyme aptamer in 2001, lysozyme became one of the most intensively-investigated biological target analytes for the design of novel biosensing concepts, particularly with regards to electrochemical aptasensors. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of aptamer-based electrochemical sensing of lysozyme, with emphasis on sensing in serum and real samples.
Abstract: Strontium-82 is produced by proton activation of a rubidium chloride target in an accelerator or cyclotron and purified by ion exchange chromatography. The Strontrium-82 is used in Cardigen generators to produce Rubidium-82 for cardiac imaging. Quality control testing of the purified Strontium-82 is performed with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and gamma spectroscopy. To meet Department of Energy specifications for HCl molarity the purified Strontium-82 solution needs to be tested to determine if the isotope is in the 0.05–0.5 M HCl range. This manuscript reports a simple HCl molarity test to determine if the purified Strontium-82 solution meets specifications. Validation of the assay was performed by evaluating all solutions associate with Strontium-82 processing.
Abstract: NO2 emission is mostly related to combustion processes, where gas temperatures exceed far beyond 500 °C. The detection of NO2 in combustion and exhaust gases at elevated temperatures requires sensors with high NO2 selectivity. The thermodynamic equilibrium for NO2/NO ≥ 500 °C lies on the NO side. High temperature stability of TiO2 makes it a promising material for elevated temperature towards CO, H2, and NO2. The doping of TiO2 with Al3+ (Al:TiO2) increases the sensitivity and selectivity of sensors to NO2 and results in a relatively low cross-sensitivity towards CO. The results indicate that NO2 exposure results in a resistance decrease of the sensors with the single Al:TiO2 layers at 600 °C, with a resistance increase at 800 °C. This alteration in the sensor response in the temperature range of 600 °C and 800 °C may be due to the mentioned thermodynamic equilibrium changes between NO and NO2. This work investigates the NO2-sensing behavior of duplex layers consisting of Al:TiO2 and BaTi(1-x)RhxO3 catalysts in the temperature range of 600 °C and 900 °C. Al:TiO2 layers were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on interdigitated sensor platforms, while a catalytic layer, which was synthesized by wet chemistry in the form of BaTi(1-x)RhxO3 powders, were screen-printed as thick layers on the Al:TiO2-layers. The use of Rh-incorporated BaTiO3 perovskite (BaTi(1-x)RhxO3) as a catalytic filter stabilizes the sensor response of Al-doped TiO2 layers yielding more reliable sensor signal throughout the temperature range.
Abstract: The development of an electrochemical dissolved oxygen (DO) sensor based on a novel Cu(II) complex-modified screen printed carbon electrode is reported. The voltammetric behavior of the modified electrode was investigated at different scan rates and oxygen concentrations in PBS (pH = 7). An increase of cathodic current (at about −0.4 vs. Ag/AgCl) with the addition of oxygen was observed. The modified Cu(II) complex electrode was demonstrated for the determination of DO in water using chronoamperometry. A small size and low power consumption home-made portable electrochemical analyzer based on custom electronics for sensor interfacing and operating in voltammetry and amperometry modes has been also designed and fabricated. Its performances in the monitoring of DO in water were compared with a commercial one.