Open AccessViewpoint
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease: Three Distinct Clinical Entities
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 19; doi:10.3390/challe9010019 -
Abstract
Many researchers consider chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) to be a synonym of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME). However, the case criteria of ME and CFS define two distinct clinical entities. Although some patients will meet both case criteria, other patients can meet the diagnosis of
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Many researchers consider chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) to be a synonym of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME). However, the case criteria of ME and CFS define two distinct clinical entities. Although some patients will meet both case criteria, other patients can meet the diagnosis of ME and not fulfil the case criteria for CFS, while the diagnosis of CFS is largely insufficient to be qualified as a ME patient. ME is a neuromuscular disease with distinctive muscular symptoms, including prolonged muscle weakness after exertion, and neurological signs implicating cerebral dysfunction, including cognitive impairment and sensory symptoms. The only mandatory symptom of CFS is chronic fatigue. Chronic fatigue must be accompanied by at least four out of eight nonspecific symptoms: substantial impairment in short-term memory or concentration, a sore throat, tender lymph nodes, muscle pain, multijoint pain, a new type of headaches, unrefreshing sleep, and postexertional “malaise” lasting more than 24 h. So, regardless whether the name ME is appropriate or not, ME is not synonymous to CFS. That is not a matter of opinion, but a matter of definition. Due to the definitions of ME and CFS, “ME/CFS” does not exist and cannot be replaced by a new clinical entity (SEID: Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease), as recently suggested. Full article
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Open AccessCreative
Analogies between Heavy Metal Music and the Symptoms of Mental Illness
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 18; doi:10.3390/challe9010018 -
Abstract
This paper builds a link between isolated domains within the arts and sciences, specifically between music and psychiatry. An analogous model is presented that associates heavy metal music with bipolar disorder, a form of mental illness. Metal music consists of a variety of
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This paper builds a link between isolated domains within the arts and sciences, specifically between music and psychiatry. An analogous model is presented that associates heavy metal music with bipolar disorder, a form of mental illness. Metal music consists of a variety of subgenres with distinct manifestations of song, rhythm, instrumentation, and vocal structure. These manifestations are analogous to the symptomatology of bipolar disorder, specifically the recurrent episodes of (hypo)mania and depression. Examples of songs are given which show these analogies. Besides creating a subjective link between apparently unconnected knowledge domains, these analogies could play a heuristic role in clinical applications and education about the disorder and mental illnesses at large. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary
Nanomaterials and Oxidative Stress
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 17; doi:10.3390/challe9010017 -
Abstract
With the rapid development of new nanomaterials, it was recognized early that together with their beneficial properties, nanomaterials may pose a risk to human health and the environment. Evidence has accumulated over the last twenty years in support of oxidative stress as a
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With the rapid development of new nanomaterials, it was recognized early that together with their beneficial properties, nanomaterials may pose a risk to human health and the environment. Evidence has accumulated over the last twenty years in support of oxidative stress as a broad mechanistic concept to explain the interaction of engineered nanoparticles with biological substances. As oxidative stress as a physiological response was recognized in redox biology, its wide-ranging use in nanotoxicology has exposed new challenges and limitations. In this commentary, we review certain oxidative stress concepts and their relevance to nanotoxicology. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary
What are the Current Priorities and Challenges for (Urban) Soundscape Research?
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 16; doi:10.3390/challe9010016 -
Abstract
Soundscape research is attracting an ever-increasing worldwide interest from different disciplines and stakeholders. This brief commentary paper aims at offering some insights into the new directions this research (and practice) field will likely go, in the near future. For this purpose, eleven early-career
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Soundscape research is attracting an ever-increasing worldwide interest from different disciplines and stakeholders. This brief commentary paper aims at offering some insights into the new directions this research (and practice) field will likely go, in the near future. For this purpose, eleven early-career soundscape researchers and practitioners were approached and asked to provide a response to the question “What are the current priorities and challenges for soundscape research?” Five recurring themes were identified in the participants’ statements. A major concern of the interviewed sample is the need to bridge the academic and practice sides of the soundscape community, in order to better position this discipline in the broader framework of (urban) sound planning and design. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary
Pharmacological Activities of Phytomedicines: A Challenge Horizon for Rational Knowledge
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 15; doi:10.3390/challe9010015 -
Abstract
Herbal drugs have been widely used throughout the course of history. Traditional knowledge based on religious beliefs and/or experience has been transmitted orally between generations. First attempts to provide scientific evidence came in the 19th century when potent compounds were first isolated. Since
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Herbal drugs have been widely used throughout the course of history. Traditional knowledge based on religious beliefs and/or experience has been transmitted orally between generations. First attempts to provide scientific evidence came in the 19th century when potent compounds were first isolated. Since then, modern pharmacology theory has been assumed by phytotherapy. Scientists have tried to elucidate the molecular mechanism of each compound and, for a pharmacological indication, propose an effective and secure dose. Stepwise, clinical trials confirm the benefits of herbal drug use in therapeutics, especially for chronic diseases. However, herbal drugs exert pleiotropic effects, and there is still a need for a complete, rational, and widely accepted theory that can explain phytotherapy efficacy. The “-omics” might help with this matter. Studies of modification in the gene expression profile, the metabolome, and the physiopathological state after the administration of a herbal extract could provide relevant information that verifies herbal therapies. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Challenges in Governing the Digital Transportation Ecosystem in Jakarta: A Research Direction in Smart City Frameworks
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 14; doi:10.3390/challe9010014 -
Abstract
Mobility is one of the most difficult domains of the smart city to face. In fact, most large cities in the world are still facing urban mobility problems, especially traffic congestion. Particularly, in Jakarta, Indonesia, traffic congestion is a major issue that negatively
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Mobility is one of the most difficult domains of the smart city to face. In fact, most large cities in the world are still facing urban mobility problems, especially traffic congestion. Particularly, in Jakarta, Indonesia, traffic congestion is a major issue that negatively affects productivity and the overall living quality of the citizens. Along with the development of the information communication and technology (ICT), the transportation domain in Jakarta has formed a digital transportation ecosystem, shown by the emergence of innovative digital-based transportation services. In line with this current condition, this paper hopes to contribute to the improvement of urban traffic in Jakarta by proposing research directions to govern the digital transportation ecosystem within a smart city framework. The significance of the research directions is reviewed using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology in a systematic review of previous studies. Ultimately, the research directions proposed in this paper lead to the necessity for an architectural perspective and relevant big data analytical tools to improve the digital transportation ecosystem in Jakarta. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary
Larger Than Life: Injecting Hope into the Planetary Health Paradigm
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 13; doi:10.3390/challe9010013 -
Abstract
The term planetary health, popularized in the 1980s and 1990s, was born out of necessity; although the term was used by many diverse groups, it was consistently used to underscore that human health is coupled to the health of natural systems within the
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The term planetary health, popularized in the 1980s and 1990s, was born out of necessity; although the term was used by many diverse groups, it was consistently used to underscore that human health is coupled to the health of natural systems within the Earth’s biosphere. The interrelated challenges of climate change, massive biodiversity losses, environmental degradation, grotesque socioeconomic inequalities, conflicts, and a crisis of non-communicable diseases are, mildly stated, daunting. Despite ‘doomsday’ scenarios, there is plenty of room for hope and optimism in planetary health. All over planet Earth, humans are making efforts at the macro, meso and micro scales to promote the health of civilization with the ingredients of hope—agency and pathway thinking; we propose that planetary health requires a greater commitment to understanding hope at the personal and collective levels. Prioritizing hope as an asset in planetary health necessitates deeper knowledge and discourse concerning the barriers to hope and the ways in which hope and the utopian impulse are corrupted; in particular, it requires examining the ways in which hope is leveraged by advantaged groups and political actors to maintain the status quo, or even promote retrograde visions completely at odds with planetary health. Viewing the Earth as a superorganism, with humans as the collective ‘nervous system’, may help with an understanding of the ways in which experience and emotions lead to behavioral responses that may, or may not be, in the best interest of planetary health. We argue that the success of planetary health solutions is predicated on a more sophisticated understanding of the psychology of prevention and intervention at all scales. Full article
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Open AccessConcept Paper
Cold Climate Structural Fire Danger Rating System?
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 12; doi:10.3390/challe9010012 -
Abstract
Worldwide, fires kill 300,000 people every year. The fire season is usually recognized to be in the warmer periods of the year. Recent research has, however, demonstrated that the colder season also has major challenges regarding severe fires, especially in inhabited (heated) wood-based
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Worldwide, fires kill 300,000 people every year. The fire season is usually recognized to be in the warmer periods of the year. Recent research has, however, demonstrated that the colder season also has major challenges regarding severe fires, especially in inhabited (heated) wood-based structures in cold-climate areas. Knowledge about the effect of dry cellulose-based materials on fire development, indoor and outdoor, is a motivation for monitoring possible changes in potential fire behavior and associated fire risk. The effect of wind in spreading fires to neighboring structures points towards using weather forecasts as information on potential fire spread behavior. As modern weather forecasts include temperature and relative humidity predictions, there may already be sufficient information available to develop a structural fire danger rating system. Such a system may include the following steps: (1) Record weather forecasts and actual temperature and relative humidity inside and outside selected structures; (2) Develop a meteorology-data-based model to predict indoor relative humidity levels; (3) Perform controlled drying chamber experiments involving typical hygroscopic fire fuel; (4) Compare the results to the recorded values in selected structures; and (5) Develop the risk model involving the results from drying chamber experiments, weather forecasts, and separation between structures. Knowledge about the structures at risk and their use is also important. The benefits of an automated fire danger rating system would be that the society can better plan for potentially severe cold-climate fires and thereby limit the negative impacts of such fires. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Method for Citizen Scientists to Catalogue Worldwide Chlorociboria spp. Distribution
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 11; doi:10.3390/challe9010011 -
Abstract
The blue-green pigment known as xylindein that is produced by species in the Chlorociboria genus is under heavy investigation for its potential in textile dyes, wood dyes, and solar cells. Xylindein has not yet been synthesized, and while its production can be stimulated
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The blue-green pigment known as xylindein that is produced by species in the Chlorociboria genus is under heavy investigation for its potential in textile dyes, wood dyes, and solar cells. Xylindein has not yet been synthesized, and while its production can be stimulated under laboratory conditions, it is also plentiful in downed, decayed wood in forested lands. Unfortunately, little is known about the wood preference and forest type preference for this genus, especially outside New Zealand. To map the genus would be a massive undertaking, and herein a method by which citizen scientists could contribute to the distribution map of Chlorociboria species is proposed. The initial trial of this method found untrained participants successfully identified Chlorociboria stained wood in each instance, regardless of forest type. This simple, easy identification and classification system should be well received by citizen-scientists and is the first step towards a global understanding of how xylindein production might be managed for across various ecosystems. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary
From Authoritarianism to Advocacy: Lifestyle-Driven, Socially-Transmitted Conditions Require a Transformation in Medical Training and Practice
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 10; doi:10.3390/challe9010010 -
Abstract
The epidemic of socially-rooted, lifestyle-driven non-communicable diseases (NCDs; also referred to as socially-transmitted conditions) has now overtaken infectious diseases as the leading cause of human mortality. Despite this reality, physician education, training and practice within industrialized nations is heavily slanted toward the biopharmaceutical
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The epidemic of socially-rooted, lifestyle-driven non-communicable diseases (NCDs; also referred to as socially-transmitted conditions) has now overtaken infectious diseases as the leading cause of human mortality. Despite this reality, physician education, training and practice within industrialized nations is heavily slanted toward the biopharmaceutical (and away from the psychosocial) aspects of prevention and treatment. As we underscore, the current state of physician training and practical application of guidelines pertaining to lifestyle is paltry and untenable. However, the solution is not a few more hours of nutritional biochemistry to check off the curricula box. Physician readiness for the current NCD crisis will require a philosophical shift in medicine-at-large, including candidate pooling. Recent elections in the United States and Europe have cast a spotlight on the public health consequences of political authoritarianism. However, we highlight that authoritarianism—and its related facets of social dominance orientation and Machiavellianism—are not exclusive to political candidates. Here, we open a dialogue on authoritarianism in westernized medicine as a starting point in order to encourage the development of critical research and to explore its potential as a barrier to patient care. We suggest that authoritarianism and its prejudices act as a border wall to the World Health Organization’s broad vision of global health, cultural competency and patient autonomy. Moreover, the evidence reviewed here would suggest that in the context of the NCDs crisis, westernized medicine is long overdue a Flexner Report for the 21st Century. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary
Delivering Environmental Justice through Environmental Impact Assessment in the United States: The Challenge of Public Participation
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 9; doi:10.3390/challe9010009 -
Abstract
The United States (US) occupies the frontline of events in modern history of environmental reform. The federal government through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1970 has not only established an environmental policy template for other nations to emulate, but has also
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The United States (US) occupies the frontline of events in modern history of environmental reform. The federal government through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1970 has not only established an environmental policy template for other nations to emulate, but has also produced a viable tool for regulating environmental quality (EQ) and delivering environmental justice (EJ)—Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). However, environmental history provides evidence that political process and special interests govern the attainment of the EJ goal by way of inadequate adherence to the NEPA provisions. Public participation (PP) is a principal requirement for achieving EJ and constitutes a pivotal determinant of EIA outcome. Effective delivery of EJ through EIA does require complete compliance with NEPA stipulations. Furthermore, the responsible agency’s resources in terms of both funding and commitment in allowing for the full representation of the opinions of residents within communities of concern (CoC) for environmental decision-making process are critically important. Public health research approach offers valuable tools towards achieving EJ goals. To approach this topic, first I provide a historical background on EIA and EJ from the standpoint of the NEPA. Second, I discuss the meaning and impediments of PP. Third, I examine two scenarios viz the Triassic Park Hazardous Waste Dump in Roswell, and the public hearing of the recent “controversial” oil and gas ordinance in Sandoval County, both in New Mexico. Finally, in the discussion part, I attempt to evaluate PP in both cases and suggest that none of the criteria seem to have been met in either case. I conclude that the Home State Rule designation of New Mexico State in terms of control over oil and gas activities places it at an advantage in benefitting from a fair PP. Full article
Open AccessBook Review
Microbiology in Dairy Processing: Challenges and Opportunities. By Palmiro Poltronieri. IFT Press Series, Wiley-Blackwell, UK, 2017; 321 pp.; ISBN: 978-1-119-11480-2
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 8; doi:10.3390/challe9010008 -
Abstract
In this context, an overview is presented of the book “Microbiology in dairy processing; challenges and opportunities” [...]
Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper
The Making of Compassion Stress Injury: A Review of Historical and Etiological Models toward a De-Stigmatizing Neurobehavioral Conceptualization
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 7; doi:10.3390/challe9010007 -
Abstract
The complex interactions between empathy and vulnerability amongst those in helping professions/roles have been explored by practitioners and researchers across multiple disciplines for decades. While these explorations have spurred interest and awareness in the unique risks and protective factors of helping professions/roles, they
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The complex interactions between empathy and vulnerability amongst those in helping professions/roles have been explored by practitioners and researchers across multiple disciplines for decades. While these explorations have spurred interest and awareness in the unique risks and protective factors of helping professions/roles, they have also resulted in myriad competing, overlapping, and/or parallel definitions, conceptualizations, terminology, and etiological attributions of adverse impacts of secondary exposure to others’ suffering. In this conceptual review, we will follow the historical origins of this phenomenon, beginning with the early 1900s with the First World War and the works of early psychiatric clinicians and moving toward recent advances in understanding etiology and conceptualization. Finally, we will provide support for the use and additional research of a proposed unifying and comprehensive conceptualization term: compassion stress injury (CSI), based on a mind-body and de-stigmatizing framework. Full article
Open AccessBook Review
Scientific Peer Review: Guidelines for Informative Peer Review. By J. Matthias Starck. Springer Spektrum: Wiesbaden, Germany, 2017; 60 pp.; ISBN: 978-3-658-19915-9
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 6; doi:10.3390/challe9010006 -
Abstract
Peer-reviewed publications, such as journal articles, book reviews, and books are critical in the dissemination of scientific knowledge [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
The Dichotomy of the Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-Like Thermozyme from Sulfolobus solfataricus
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 5; doi:10.3390/challe9010005 -
Abstract
The first evidence of an ADP-ribosylating activity in Archaea was obtained in Sulfolobus solfataricus(strain MT-4) where a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-like thermoprotein, defined with the acronymous PARPSso, was found. Similarly to the eukaryotic counterparts PARPSso cleaves beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to synthesize oligomers of
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The first evidence of an ADP-ribosylating activity in Archaea was obtained in Sulfolobus solfataricus(strain MT-4) where a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-like thermoprotein, defined with the acronymous PARPSso, was found. Similarly to the eukaryotic counterparts PARPSso cleaves beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to synthesize oligomers of ADP-ribose; cross-reacts with polyclonal anti-PARP-1 catalytic site antibodies; binds DNA. The main differences rely on the molecular mass (46.5 kDa) and the thermophily of PARPSso which works at 80 °C. Despite the biochemical properties that allow correlating it to PARP enzymes, the N-terminal and partial amino acid sequences available suggest that PARPSso belongs to a different group of enzymes, the DING proteins, an item discussed in detail in this review.This finding makes PARPSso the first example of a DING protein in Archaea and extends the existence of DING proteins into all the biological kingdoms. PARPSsohas a cell peripheral localization, along with the edge of the cell membrane. The ADP-ribosylation reaction is reverted by a poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase-like activity, able to use the eukaryotic poly(ADP-ribose) as a substrate too. Here we overview the research of (ADP-ribosyl)ation in Sulfolobus solfataricus in the past thirty years and discuss the features of PARPSso common with the canonical poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, and the structure fitting with that of DING proteins. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Contingency versus Constraints on the Body-Mass Scaling of Metabolic Rate
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 4; doi:10.3390/challe9010004 -
Abstract
I illustrate the effects of both contingency and constraints on the body-mass scaling of metabolic rate by analyzing the significantly different influences of ambient temperature (Ta) on metabolic scaling in ectothermic versus endothermic animals. Interspecific comparisons show that increasing Ta
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I illustrate the effects of both contingency and constraints on the body-mass scaling of metabolic rate by analyzing the significantly different influences of ambient temperature (Ta) on metabolic scaling in ectothermic versus endothermic animals. Interspecific comparisons show that increasing Ta results in decreasing metabolic scaling slopes in ectotherms, but increasing slopes in endotherms, a pattern uniquely predicted by the metabolic-level boundaries hypothesis, as amended to include effects of the scaling of thermal conductance in endotherms outside their thermoneutral zone. No other published theoretical model explicitly predicts this striking variation in metabolic scaling, which I explain in terms of contingent effects of Ta and thermoregulatory strategy in the context of physical and geometric constraints related to the scaling of surface area, volume, and heat flow across surfaces. My analysis shows that theoretical models focused on an ideal 3/4-power law, as explained by a single universally applicable mechanism, are clearly inadequate for explaining the diversity and environmental sensitivity of metabolic scaling. An important challenge is to develop a theory of metabolic scaling that recognizes the contingent effects of multiple mechanisms that are modulated by several extrinsic and intrinsic factors within specified constraints. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Roles of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) in Biological Systems
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 3; doi:10.3390/challe9010003 -
Abstract
NAD+ has emerged as a crucial element in both bioenergetic and signaling pathways since it acts as a key regulator of cellular and organism homeostasis. NAD+ is a coenzyme in redox reactions, a donor of adenosine diphosphate-ribose (ADPr) moieties in ADP-ribosylation
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NAD+ has emerged as a crucial element in both bioenergetic and signaling pathways since it acts as a key regulator of cellular and organism homeostasis. NAD+ is a coenzyme in redox reactions, a donor of adenosine diphosphate-ribose (ADPr) moieties in ADP-ribosylation reactions, a substrate for sirtuins, a group of histone deacetylase enzymes that use NAD+ to remove acetyl groups from proteins; NAD+ is also a precursor of cyclic ADP-ribose, a second messenger in Ca++ release and signaling, and of diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and oligoadenylates (oligo2′-5′A), two immune response activating compounds. In the biological systems considered in this review, NAD+ is mostly consumed in ADP-ribose (ADPr) transfer reactions. In this review the roles of these chemical products are discussed in biological systems, such as in animals, plants, fungi and bacteria. In the review, two types of ADP-ribosylating enzymes are introduced as well as the pathways to restore the NAD+ pools in these systems. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Advances and Remaining Challenges in the Study of Influenza and Anthrax Infection in Lung Cell Culture
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 2; doi:10.3390/challe9010002 -
Abstract
For over 30 years, immortalized lung cells have enabled researchers to elucidate lung-pathogen molecular interactions. However, over the last five years, numerous commercial companies are now providing affordable, ready-to-use primary lung cells for use in research laboratories. Despite advances in primary cell culture,
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For over 30 years, immortalized lung cells have enabled researchers to elucidate lung-pathogen molecular interactions. However, over the last five years, numerous commercial companies are now providing affordable, ready-to-use primary lung cells for use in research laboratories. Despite advances in primary cell culture, studies using immortalized lung cells still dominate the recent scientific literature. In this review, we highlight recent influenza and anthrax studies using in vitro primary lung tissue models and how these models are providing better predictive outcomes for when extrapolated to in vivo observations. By focusing on one virus (influenza) and one bacterium (Bacillus anthracis), it is the intent that these primary lung cell culture observations may translate into more useful studies for other related viral and bacterial lung pathogens of interest. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Challenges in 2017
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 1; doi:10.3390/challe9010001 -
Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Challenges maintains high quality standards for its published papers.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impacts of Autonomous Vehicles on Consumers Time-Use Patterns
Challenges 2017, 8(2), 32; doi:10.3390/challe8020032 -
Abstract
We use the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) to characterize how different consumers in the US might use Autonomous Vehicles (AVs). Our approach is to identify sub-groups of the population likely to benefit from AVs and compare their activity patterns with an otherwise
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We use the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) to characterize how different consumers in the US might use Autonomous Vehicles (AVs). Our approach is to identify sub-groups of the population likely to benefit from AVs and compare their activity patterns with an otherwise similar group. The first subgroup is working individuals who drive to work with long total travel times. Auto-travelers in the top 20% of travel time number 19 million and travel 1.6 h more on a workday than those in the bottom 80%. For car-commuting professionals, the additional travel time of the long-traveling group comes from 30 min less work, 29 min less sleep, and 30 min less television watching per day. The second subgroup is working individuals with a long travel time and who take public transport. Long public transit riders show very similar differences in activity times as the driving subgroup. Work, sleep, and video functionalities of AVs are presumably in high demand by both groups. The third sub-group identified is elderly retired people. AVs enable mobility-restricted groups to travel more like those without restrictions. We compare two age groups, 60–75 years and >75 years old, the latter, on average, experiencing more mobility restrictions than their younger counterparts. The retired population older than 75 years numbers 16 million and travels 14 min less per day than retirees aged 60–75 years. The main activity change corresponding to this reduced travel is 7 min per day less shopping and 8 min per day less socializing. If older retired people use AVs to match the lifestyle of the 60–75 years old group, this would induce additional personal travel and retail sector demand. The economic, environmental and social implications of AV are very difficult to predict but expected to be transformative. The contribution of this work is that it utilizes time-use surveys to suggest how AV adoption could induce lifestyle changes inside and outside the vehicle. Full article
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