Abstract: Public health interventions are directed to influence the (state of a) risk factor, either by behavioral or environmental changes. Therefore, environmental health risk assessments are highly relevant for public health decision making and policy development. The credibility of an environmental health risk assessment depends, to a large extent, on the strength of the scientific evidence on which it is based. In this article, the main challenges for assessing the impact of a potential adverse health effect from an environmental pollutant are described. Second-hand smoke (SHS) was chosen to illustrate the current state of evidence. The assessment of the impact of potential adverse health effects from environmental risk factors is dependent on several issues, such as the hypothesized health outcome, the nature of the exposure, the dose-response-relationship and the variability and susceptibility of the exposed population. The example of SHS exposure highlights the need for evidence-based public health. Several challenges in terms of study design, assessment methods, as well as data analysis and synthesis with respect to the stratification of results, and consideration of bias and confounding exist. Future research needs to take into account which methods and techniques will be used to generate evidence for population-level decisions.
Abstract: Wildfires occur in different climatic zones, forest cover types and eras. Wildfire or forest fire has always shaped the landscape. Different methodologies and indexes have emerged to determine the likelihood of wildfire, commonly confused with the wildfire hazard. However, none of these are universal or portable. In this paper, we have gone through several articles, projects and books. The aim was to identify factors related to the ignition of a wildfire. Consequently, 28 factors were presented and categorized into climatic, topographic, in-situ, historical and anthropogenic factors. It is the first step in building a generalized, acceptable and portable method to determine the wildfire risk. Its creation is strongly related to the prevention and better assessment of this phenomenon.
Abstract: Estimation and forecast of groundwater recharge and capacities of aquifers are essential issues in water resource investigation. In the current research, groundwater recharge and the recharge coefficient were determined through a case study using empirical methods applicable to the tropical zones. The related climatological data between January 1983 and December 2014 were collected from Ogun-Oshun River Basin Development Authority (OORBDA), Ogun State, Nigeria. Using empirical formulae. The results showed that groundwater recharge was 194.7 mm per year, evapotranspiration was 1296.2 mm per year, and the recharge coefficient was 20.2% for the study area. The result also showed that about 11% of rainfall infiltrated the aquifer, 73% was lost to evapotranspiration, and 16% ended up as run-off. Correlation between climatic parameters and groundwater recharge showed the highest correlation between recharge and rainfall. Temperature, humidity, solar radiation and evapotranspiraton were obtained at the 0.01 significance level; the results of linear regressions proved that precipitation has a significant effect (with R2 = 0.983) on estimated recharge.
Abstract: The transportation sector is severely correlated with major problems in environment, citizens’ health, climate and economy. Issues such as traffic, fuel cost and parking space have make life more difficult, especially in the dense urban environment. Thus, there is a great need for the development of the electric vehicle (EV) sector. The number of cars in cities has increased so much that the current transportation system (roads, parking places, traffic lights, etc.) cannot accommodate them properly. The increasing number of vehicles does not affect only humans but also the environment, through air and noise pollution. According to EPA, the 39.2% of total gas emissions in 2007 was caused by transportation activities. Studies have shown that the pollutants are not only gathered in the major roads and/or highways but can travel depending on the meteorological conditions leading to generic pollution. The promotion of EVs and the charging stations are both equally required to be further developed in order EVs to move out of the cities and finally confront the range problem. In this work, a wind resource and a GIS analysis optimizes in a wider area the sitting of wind based charging stations and proposes an optimizing methodology.
Abstract: There is widespread contamination of the environment of the Niger Delta, which may include enhanced background levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) due to oil production and rapid urbanization activities. Sediments and seafood from the Bonny estuary, Niger Delta, were collected for the purpose of determining baseline data on artificial and natural radioactivity and estimation of effective doses for the public due to ingestion of seafood from the study area. The highest and lowest activity concentrations were reported for 40K and 137Cs in both sediments and fish samples of the Bonny estuary. There was some evidence of spatial variability in the 40K and 137Cs data, with the latter being the likely result of dredging. Other radionuclides were not significantly different between sites impacted by industrial activities or not. Activity of radionuclides measured in the sediments of the study area were higher than reported elsewhere in the Niger Delta and Nigeria and higher than reported global averages by UNSCEAR. The total highest activity concentration in all fish species of gamma emitting radionuclides was observed for 40K, followed by 238U, 232Th and 226Ra, respectively, while 137Cs had the lowest activity concentration. However, 210Po activities were the most important in terms of dose contribution. Consumption of molluscs at typical rates could result in doses exceeding 1 mSv·y−1. Although this baseline data may not be conclusive on prevailing trends in radioactivity in the study area, higher consumption rates of the species studied may have public health consequences due to effects of low dose ionising radiation.