Cells2014, 3(4), 1027-1088; doi:10.3390/cells3041027 - published 12 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Modification by Lys63-linked ubiquitin (UbK63) chains is the second most abundant form of ubiquitylation. In addition to their role in DNA repair or kinase activation, UbK63 chains interfere with multiple steps of intracellular trafficking. UbK63 chains decorate many plasma membrane proteins, providing a signal that is often, but not always, required for their internalization. In yeast, plants, worms and mammals, this same modification appears to be critical for efficient sorting to multivesicular bodies and subsequent lysosomal degradation. UbK63 chains are also one of the modifications involved in various forms of autophagy (mitophagy, xenophagy, or aggrephagy). Here, in the context of trafficking, we report recent structural studies investigating UbK63 chains assembly by various E2/E3 pairs, disassembly by deubiquitylases, and specifically recognition as sorting signals by receptors carrying Ub-binding domains, often acting in tandem. In addition, we address emerging and unanticipated roles of UbK63 chains in various recycling pathways that function by activating nucleators required for actin polymerization, as well as in the transient recruitment of signaling molecules at the plasma or ER membrane. In this review, we describe recent advances that converge to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the wealth of trafficking functions of UbK63 chains.
Abstract: microRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that have been shown to be central players in the establishment of cellular programs, often acting as switches that control the choice between proliferation and differentiation during development and in adult tissues. The heart develops from two small patches of cells in the mesoderm, the heart fields, which originate the different cardiac cell types, including cardiomyocytes, vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. These progenitors proliferate and differentiate to establish a highly connected three-dimensional structure, involving a robust succession of gene expression programs strongly influenced by microRNAs. Although the mammalian heart has conventionally been viewed as a post-mitotic organ, cardiac cells have recently been shown to display some regenerative potential, which is nonetheless insufficient to regenerate heart lesions, in contrast with other vertebrates like the zebrafish. Both the proliferation of adult cardiac stem cells and the ability of cardiomyocytes to re-enter the cell cycle have been proposed to sustain these regenerative processes. Here we review the role of microRNAs in the control of stem cell and cardiomyocyte dependent cardiac regeneration processes, and discuss potential applications for the treatment of cardiac injury.
Abstract: The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper : In Table 2 on page 623, the Quercinitol activation value for TRPA1V1 should be 2.3 instead of 57.6. Quercinitol does not activate TRPA1V1. We thank Michael J.M. Fisher (University of Erlangen, Germany) for his feedback which helped us to review our result. The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused to the readers by these changes.
Abstract: TGF-β(transforming growth factor-β) superfamily signaling mediators are important regulators of diverse physiological and pathological events. TGF-β signals are transduced by transmembrane type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors and their downstream effectors, the SMAD(drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic protein) proteins. Numerous studies have already demonstrated crucial regulatory roles for modification of TGF-β pathway components by poly-ubiquitination. Recently, several studies also uncovered mono-ubiquitination of SMADs as a mechanism for SMAD activation or inactivation. Mono-ubiquitination and subsequent deubiquitination of SMAD proteins accordingly play important roles in the control of TGF-β superfamily signaling. This review highlights the major pathways regulated by SMAD mono-ubiquitination.
Abstract: Vascular calcification is highly prevalent in patients with coronary artery disease and, when present, is associated with major adverse cardiovascular events, including an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. The pathogenesis of vascular calcification is complex and is now recognized to recapitulate skeletal bone formation. Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) play an integral role in this process by undergoing transdifferentiation to osteoblast-like cells, elaborating calcifying matrix vesicles and secreting factors that diminish the activity of osteoclast-like cells with mineral resorbing capacity. Recent advances have identified microRNAs (miRs) as key regulators of this process by directing the complex genetic reprogramming of SMCs and the functional responses of other relevant cell types relevant for vascular calcification. This review will detail SMC and bone biology as it relates to vascular calcification and relate what is known to date regarding the regulatory role of miRs in SMC-mediated vascular calcification.
Abstract: In contrast to other Classical Transient Receptor Potential TRPC channels the function of TRPC1 as an ion channel is a matter of debate, because it is often difficult to obtain substantial functional signals over background in response to over-expression of TRPC1 alone. Along these lines, heterologously expressed TRPC1 is poorly translocated to the plasma membrane as a homotetramer and may not function on its own physiologically, but may rather be an important linker and regulator protein in heteromeric TRPC channel tetramers. However, due to the lack of specific TRPC1 antibodies able to detect native TRPC1 channels in primary cells, identification of functional TRPC1 containing heteromeric TRPC channel complexes in the plasma membrane is still challenging. Moreover, an extended TRPC1 cDNA, which was recently discovered, may seriously question results obtained in heterologous expression systems transfected with shortened cDNA versions. Therefore, this review will focus on the current status of research on TRPC1 function obtained in primary cells and a TRPC1-deficient mouse model.