Catalysts2014, 4(3), 321-345; doi:10.3390/catal4030321 - published 10 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this review, we summarize our recent development of palladium(0)-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of perfluoro organic compounds with organometallic reagents. The oxidative addition of a C–F bond of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) to palladium(0) was promoted by the addition of lithium iodide, affording a trifluorovinyl palladium(II) iodide. Based on this finding, the first palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of TFE with diarylzinc was developed in the presence of lithium iodide, affording α,β,β-trifluorostyrene derivatives in excellent yield. This coupling reaction was expanded to the novel Pd(0)/PR3-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of TFE with arylboronates. In this reaction, the trifluorovinyl palladium(II) fluoride was a key reaction intermediate that required neither an extraneous base to enhance the reactivity of organoboronates nor a Lewis acid additive to promote the oxidative addition of a C–F bond. In addition, our strategy utilizing the synergetic effect of Pd(0) and lithium iodide could be applied to the C–F bond cleavage of unreactive hexafluorobenzene (C6F6), leading to the first Pd(0)-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of C6F6 with diarylzinc compounds.
Catalysts2014, 4(3), 307-320; doi:10.3390/catal4030307 - published 20 August 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Pd-catalyzed, site-selective mono-cross-coupling of substrates with two identical halo groups is a useful method for synthesizing substituted monohalogenated arenes. Such arenes constitute an important class of compounds, which are commonly identified as drug components and synthetic intermediates. Traditionally, these site-selective reactions have been realized in a “substrate-controlled” manner, which is based on the steric and electronic differences between the two carbon-halogen bonds of the substrate. Recently, an alternative strategy, “catalyst-controlled” site-selective cross-coupling, has emerged. In this strategy, the preferred reaction site of a dihaloarene can be switched, merely by changing the catalyst used. This type of selective reaction further expands the utility of Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling. In this review, we summarize the reported examples of catalyst-controlled site-selectivity switching in Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of dihaloarenes.
Abstract: Perovskite-type catalysts have been prominent oxide catalysts for many years due to attributes such as flexibility in choosing cations, significant thermal stability, and the unique nature of lattice oxygen. Nearly 90% metallic elements of the Periodic Table can be stabilized in perovskite’s crystalline framework . Moreover, by following the Goldschmidt rule , the A- and/or B-site elements can be partially substituted, making perovskites extremely flexible in catalyst design. One successful example is the commercialization of noble metal-incorporated perovskites (e.g., LaFe0.57Co0.38Pd0.05O3) for automotive emission control used by Daihatsu Motor Co. Ltd. . Thus, growing interest in, and application of perovskites in the fields of material sciences, heterogeneous catalysis, and energy storage have prompted this Special Issue on perovskite catalysts. [...]
Abstract: Gold is an element that has fascinated mankind for millennia. The catalytic properties of gold have been a source of debate, due to its complete chemical inertness when in a bulk form, while it can oxidize CO at temperatures as low as ~200 K when in a nanocrystalline state, as discovered by Haruta in the late 1980s . Since then, extensive activity in both applied and fundamental research on gold has been initiated. The importance of the catalysis by gold represents one of the fasted growing fields in science and is proven by the promising applications in several fields, such as green chemistry and environmental catalysis, in the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, as modifiers of Ni catalysts for methane steam and dry reforming reactions and in biological and electrochemistry applications. The range of reactions catalyzed by gold, as well as the suitability of different supports and the influence of the preparation conditions have been widely explored and optimized in applied research . Gold catalysts appeared to be very different from the other noble metal-based catalysts, due to their marked dependence on the preparation method, which is crucial for the genesis of the catalytic activity. Several methods, including deposition-precipitation, chemical vapor deposition and cation adsorption, have been applied for the preparation of gold catalysts over reducible oxides, like TiO2. Among these methods, deposition-precipitation has been the most frequently employed method for Au loading, and it involves the use of tetrachloroauric (III) acid as a precursor. On the other hand, the number of articles dealing with Au-loaded acidic supports is smaller than that on basic supports, possibly because the deposition of [AuCl4]− or [AuOHxCl4−x]− species on acidic supports is difficult, due to their very low point of zero charge. Despite this challenge, several groups have reported the use of acidic zeolites as supports for gold. Zeolites are promising supports for Au stabilization, because of the presence of ion-exchange sites, such as NH4+, that can be substituted by Au+ ions through the elimination of NH4Cl . Moreover, zeolites, due to their high thermal stability, the presence of a large surface area and micropores, may hinder Au sintering. [...]
Abstract: Indirect reductive amination of aldehydes, catalyzed by polymer supported triphenylphosphine-palladium acetate complex PS-TPP-Pd(OAc)2 catalyst have been developed. The imine is prepared with molecular sieves in the first stage, followed by reduction with potassium formate catalyzed by PS-TPP-Pd(OAc)2. The recovered catalyst could be reused for four consecutive cycles without loss in activity and provided an excellent yield of the desired products.
Abstract: Series catalysts of Ru-SnOx/Al2O3 with varying SnOx loading of 0–3 wt% were prepared, and their catalytic activity and selectivity have been discussed and compared for the selective hydrogenation of m-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB) to m-nitroaniline(m-NAN). The Ru-SnOx/Al2O3 catalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and desorption (H2-TPD). Under the modification of SnOx, the reaction activity increased obviously, and the best selectivity to m-NAN reached above 97% at the complete conversion of m-DNB. With the increasing of the SnOx loading, the amount of active hydrogen adsorption on the surface of the catalyst increased according to the H2-TPD analysis, and the electron transferred from Ru to SnOx species, as determined by XPS, inducing an electron-deficient Ru, which is a benefit for the absorption of the nitro group. Therefore, the reaction rate and product selectivity were greatly enhanced. Moreover, the Ru-SnOx/Al2O3 catalyst presented high stability: it could be recycled four times without any loss in activity and selectivity.