Open AccessArticle
Water–Gas Shift Reaction over Ni/CeO2 Catalysts
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 310; doi:10.3390/catal7100310 -
Abstract
This paper reports the results of a study of a water–gas shift reaction over nickel–ceria catalysts with different metal loading. Within this study, the overall CO conversion and observed kinetic behavior were investigated over the temperature range of 250–550 °C in different reactor
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This paper reports the results of a study of a water–gas shift reaction over nickel–ceria catalysts with different metal loading. Within this study, the overall CO conversion and observed kinetic behavior were investigated over the temperature range of 250–550 °C in different reactor configurations (fixed-bed and microchannel reactors). The quasi-steady state kinetics of the CO water–gas shift reaction was studied for fractions of Ni-containing cerium oxide catalysts in fixed-bed experiments at lab-scale level using a very dilute gas (1% CO + 1.8% H2O in Не). A set of experiments with a microchannel reactor was performed using the feed composition (CO:H2O:H2:N2 = 1:2:2:2), representing a product gas from methane partial oxidation. The results were interpreted using computational models. The kinetic parameters were determined by regression analysis, while mechanistic aspects were considered only briefly. Simulation of the WGS reaction in the microreactor was also carried out by using the COMSOL Multiphysics program. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Concept of Vaporized Urea Dosing in Selective Catalytic Reduction
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 307; doi:10.3390/catal7100307 -
Abstract
This work tried to identify the influence of dosing vaporized urea solution in a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. In the SCR method, optimising the urea evaporation and mixing properties can significantly improve the NOx conversion efficiency in the catalyst. It can
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This work tried to identify the influence of dosing vaporized urea solution in a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. In the SCR method, optimising the urea evaporation and mixing properties can significantly improve the NOx conversion efficiency in the catalyst. It can also exert a positive effect on the uniformity of NH3 concentration distribution across the catalyst face. The concept of an electrically evaporated urea-dosing system was investigated and it was found that urea pre-heating prior to introduction into the exhaust gas is favourable for enhancing NOx removal under steady-state and transient engine operation. In the urea evaporating system the heating chamber was of a cylindrical tube shape and the urea vapour was introduced into the exhaust by means of a Venturi orifice. The concept urea dosing was only a custom-made solution, but proved to be superior to the regular dosing system operating in the liquid phase. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Alcohol Dehydrogenation on Kraft Lignin-Derived Chars with Surface Basicity
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 308; doi:10.3390/catal7100308 -
Abstract
The properties of lignin and its potential as a renewable source make it an ideal precursor for carbon products. Specifically, the high content of Na observed in Kraft lignin makes this industrial by-product an interesting precursor for the preparation of catalysts for different
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The properties of lignin and its potential as a renewable source make it an ideal precursor for carbon products. Specifically, the high content of Na observed in Kraft lignin makes this industrial by-product an interesting precursor for the preparation of catalysts for different applications. In this work, basic activated carbons with different textural properties and surface chemistry were obtained from Kraft lignin by direct carbonization at various temperatures. The influence of a further washing treatment and partial gasification with CO2 was also evaluated. The carbon catalysts were tested as catalysts for the alcohol decomposition reaction. In this sense, 2-propanol, a molecule widely used for testing the acidic-basic character of heterogeneous catalysts, was selectively transformed into acetone, meanwhile, ethanol and methanol yielded mainly acetaldehyde and formaldehyde, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Biolubricant Basestocks from Epoxidized Soybean Oil
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 309; doi:10.3390/catal7100309 -
Abstract
This work deals with the preparation of biolubricant basestocks through the ring-opening reaction of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) by alcohols in presence of solid acid catalysts (SAC-13 resin). To this end, different experimental runs were carried out in a lab-scale reactor, analyzing the
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This work deals with the preparation of biolubricant basestocks through the ring-opening reaction of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) by alcohols in presence of solid acid catalysts (SAC-13 resin). To this end, different experimental runs were carried out in a lab-scale reactor, analyzing the effect of the alcohol (methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, 2-butanol), catalyst mass loading (from 1 to 10 wt % with respect to the oil mass) and operating temperature (60–90 °C). The main focus of investigation was oxirane conversion. The study was complemented by FT-IR, 1H NMR and kinematic viscosity characterization of the different products of the ring-opening reaction. Experimental conversion data were fitted through a suitable kinetic model. Values of the best-fitting parameters in terms of rate constant, activation energy and catalyst reaction order were obtained, and were potentially useful for the design of an industrial process. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Application of Artificial Neural Networks for Catalysis: A Review
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 306; doi:10.3390/catal7100306 -
Abstract
Machine learning has proven to be a powerful technique during the past decades. Artificial neural network (ANN), as one of the most popular machine learning algorithms, has been widely applied to various areas. However, their applications for catalysis were not well-studied until recent
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Machine learning has proven to be a powerful technique during the past decades. Artificial neural network (ANN), as one of the most popular machine learning algorithms, has been widely applied to various areas. However, their applications for catalysis were not well-studied until recent decades. In this review, we aim to summarize the applications of ANNs for catalysis research reported in the literature. We show how this powerful technique helps people address the highly complicated problems and accelerate the progress of the catalysis community. From the perspectives of both experiment and theory, this review shows how ANNs can be effectively applied for catalysis prediction, the design of new catalysts, and the understanding of catalytic structures. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Recent Advances in Graphene Based TiO2 Nanocomposites (GTiO2Ns) for Photocatalytic Degradation of Synthetic Dyes
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 305; doi:10.3390/catal7100305 -
Abstract
Synthetic dyes are widely used in textile, paper, food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. During industrial processes, some of these dyes are released into the wastewater and their successive release into rivers and lakes produces serious environmental problems. TiO2 is one of the
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Synthetic dyes are widely used in textile, paper, food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. During industrial processes, some of these dyes are released into the wastewater and their successive release into rivers and lakes produces serious environmental problems. TiO2 is one of the most widely studied and used photocatalysts for environmental remediation. However, it is mainly active under UV-light irradiation due to its band gap of 3.2 eV, while it shows low efficiency under the visible light spectrum. Regarding the exploration of TiO2 activation in the visible light region of the total solar spectrum, the incorporation of carbon nanomaterials, such as graphene, in order to form carbon-TiO2 composites is a promising area. Graphene, in fact, has a large surface area which makes it a good adsorbent for organic pollutants removal through the combination of electrostatic attraction and π-π interaction. Furthermore, it has a high electron mobility and therefore it reduces the electron-hole pair recombination, improving the photocatalytic activity of the semiconductor. In recent years, there was an increasing interest in the preparation of graphene-based TiO2 photocatalysts. The present short review describes the recent advances in TiO2 photocatalyst coupling with graphene materials with the aim of extending the light absorption of TiO2 from UV wavelengths into the visible region, focusing on recent progress in the design and applications in the photocatalytic degradation of synthetic dyes. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Flame-Made Cu/TiO2 and Cu-Pt/TiO2 Photocatalysts for Hydrogen Production
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 301; doi:10.3390/catal7100301 -
Abstract
The effect of Cu or Cu-Pt nanoparticles in TiO2 photocatalysts prepared by flame spray pyrolysis in one step was investigated in hydrogen production from methanol photo-steam reforming. Two series of titanium dioxide photocatalysts were prepared, containing either (i) Cu nanoparticles (0.05–0.5 wt%)
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The effect of Cu or Cu-Pt nanoparticles in TiO2 photocatalysts prepared by flame spray pyrolysis in one step was investigated in hydrogen production from methanol photo-steam reforming. Two series of titanium dioxide photocatalysts were prepared, containing either (i) Cu nanoparticles (0.05–0.5 wt%) or (ii) both Cu (0 to 0.5 wt%) and Pt (0.5 wt%) nanoparticles. In addition, three photocatalysts obtained either by grafting copper and/or by depositing platinum by wet methods on flame-made TiO2 were also investigated. High hydrogen production rates were attained with copper-containing photocatalysts, though their photoactivity decreased with increasing Cu loading, whereas the photocatalysts containing both Cu and Pt nanoparticles exhibit a bell-shaped photoactivity trend with increasing copper content, the highest hydrogen production rate being attained with the photocatalyst containing 0.05 wt% Cu. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Reactivity of Trapped and Accumulated Electrons in Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 303; doi:10.3390/catal7100303 -
Abstract
Electrons, photogenerated in conduction bands (CB) and trapped in electron trap defects (Tids) in titanium dioxide (TiO2), play crucial roles in characteristic reductive reactions. This review summarizes the recent progress in the research on electron transfer in photo-excited TiO
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Electrons, photogenerated in conduction bands (CB) and trapped in electron trap defects (Tids) in titanium dioxide (TiO2), play crucial roles in characteristic reductive reactions. This review summarizes the recent progress in the research on electron transfer in photo-excited TiO2. Particularly, the reactivity of electrons accumulated in CB and trapped at Tids on TiO2 is highlighted in the reduction of molecular oxygen and molecular nitrogen, and the hydrogenation and dehalogenation of organic substrates. Finally, the prospects for developing highly active TiO2 photocatalysts are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Brookite: Nothing New under the Sun?
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 304; doi:10.3390/catal7100304 -
Abstract
Advances in the synthesis of pure brookite and brookite-based TiO2 materials have opened the way to fundamental and applicative studies of the once least known TiO2 polymorph. Brookite is now recognized as an active phase, in some cases showing enhanced performance
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Advances in the synthesis of pure brookite and brookite-based TiO2 materials have opened the way to fundamental and applicative studies of the once least known TiO2 polymorph. Brookite is now recognized as an active phase, in some cases showing enhanced performance with respect to anatase, rutile or their mixture. The peculiar structure of brookite determines its distinct electronic properties, such as band gap, charge–carrier lifetime and mobility, trapping sites, surface energetics, surface atom arrangements and adsorption sites. Understanding the relationship between these properties and the photocatalytic performances of brookite compared to other TiO2 polymorphs is still a formidable challenge, because of the interplay of many factors contributing to the observed efficiency of a given photocatalyst. Here, the most recent advances in brookite TiO2 material synthesis and applications are summarized, focusing on structure/activity relation studies of phase and morphology-controlled materials. Many questions remain unanswered regarding brookite, but one answer is clear: Is it still worth studying such a hard-to-synthesize, elusive TiO2 polymorph? Yes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Catalytic Performance of Lipase Supported on Clay/Chitosan Composite Beads
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 302; doi:10.3390/catal7100302 -
Abstract
Clay/chitosan composite beads were prepared and used as the carrier to support lipase by adsorption, to improve the activity and stability of lipase in the hydrolysis of olive oil. Under conditions of pH 6.0, 25 °C and adsorption for 10 h, immobilized lipases
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Clay/chitosan composite beads were prepared and used as the carrier to support lipase by adsorption, to improve the activity and stability of lipase in the hydrolysis of olive oil. Under conditions of pH 6.0, 25 °C and adsorption for 10 h, immobilized lipases on chitosan bead (CB–lipase) and three clay/chitosan composite beads, at different clay to chitosan proportions of 1:8 (CCB-8-lipase), 1:5 (CCB-5-lipase) and 1:3 (CCB-3-lipase), were prepared. By comparing the activity of these immobilized lipases, CCB-5-lipase showed the highest activity, followed by CCB-8-lipase > CCB-3-lipase > CB-lipase; this improvement was attributed to the synergetic effect of enrichment of olive oil by clay at the reaction surface and better biocompatibility of chitosan with lipase molecules. The optimum pH and temperature in the reaction respectively changed from 7.0 and 30 °C for free lipase to 7.5 and 35 °C for immobilized forms. Furthermore, the thermal stability and repeated usability of these immobilized lipases were sequenced as CCB-3-lipase > CCB-5-lipase > CCB-8-lipase > CB–lipase, due to greater rigidity of immobilized lipase with the addition of clay, which was further confirmed by SEM. The study shows that the incorporation of clay with chitosan creates a good synergetic effect to improve the catalytic performance of immobilized lipase on clay/chitosan composite. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biotransformation of Ergostane Triterpenoid Antcin K from Antrodia cinnamomea by Soil-Isolated Psychrobacillus sp. AK 1817
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 299; doi:10.3390/catal7100299 -
Abstract
Antcin K is one of the major ergostane triterpenoids from the fruiting bodies of Antrodia cinnamomea, a parasitic fungus that grows only on the inner heartwood wall of the aromatic tree Cinnamomum kanehirai Hay (Lauraceae). To search for strains that have the
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Antcin K is one of the major ergostane triterpenoids from the fruiting bodies of Antrodia cinnamomea, a parasitic fungus that grows only on the inner heartwood wall of the aromatic tree Cinnamomum kanehirai Hay (Lauraceae). To search for strains that have the ability to biotransform antcin K, a total of 4311 strains of soil bacteria were isolated, and their abilities to catalyze antcin K were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography analysis. One positive strain, AK 1817, was selected for functional studies. The strain was identified as Psychrobacillus sp., based on the DNA sequences of the 16S rRNA gene. The biotransformation metabolites were purified with the preparative high-performance liquid chromatography method and identified as antcamphin E and antcamphin F, respectively, based on the mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data. The present study is the first to report the biotransformation of triterpenoids from A. cinnamomea (Antrodia cinnamomea). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
PEG1000-Based Dicationic Acidic Ionic Liquid/Solvent-Free Conditions: An Efficient Catalytic System for the Synthesis of Bis(Indolyl)methanes
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 300; doi:10.3390/catal7100300 -
Abstract
An efficient procedure has been researched for the solvent-free synthesis of bis(indolyl)methanes via a one-pot reaction of indoles and aldehydes or ketones promoted by PEG1000-based dicationic acidic ionic liquid (PEG1000-DAIL). The catalyst PEG1000-DAIL could be reused seven
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An efficient procedure has been researched for the solvent-free synthesis of bis(indolyl)methanes via a one-pot reaction of indoles and aldehydes or ketones promoted by PEG1000-based dicationic acidic ionic liquid (PEG1000-DAIL). The catalyst PEG1000-DAIL could be reused seven times with excellent results. Furthermore, through this method, a highly chemoselective reaction of benzaldehyde and acetophenone with indole could be achieved. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Review on the Production and Purification of Biomass-Derived Hydrogen Using Emerging Membrane Technologies
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 297; doi:10.3390/catal7100297 -
Abstract
Hydrogen energy systems are recognized as a promising solution for the energy shortage and environmental pollution crises. To meet the increasing demand for hydrogen, various possible systems have been investigated for the production of hydrogen by efficient and economical processes. Because of its
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Hydrogen energy systems are recognized as a promising solution for the energy shortage and environmental pollution crises. To meet the increasing demand for hydrogen, various possible systems have been investigated for the production of hydrogen by efficient and economical processes. Because of its advantages of being renewable and environmentally friendly, biomass processing has the potential to become the major hydrogen production route in the future. Membrane technology provides an efficient and cost-effective solution for hydrogen separation and greenhouse gas capture in biomass processing. In this review, the future prospects of using gas separation membranes for hydrogen production in biomass processing are extensively addressed from two perspectives: (1) the current development status of hydrogen separation membranes made of different materials and (2) the feasibility of using these membranes for practical applications in biomass-derived hydrogen production. Different types of hydrogen separation membranes, including polymeric membranes, dense metal membranes, microporous membranes (zeolite, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), silica, etc.) are systematically discussed in terms of their fabrication methods, gas permeation performance, structure stability properties, etc. In addition, the application feasibility of these membranes in biomass processing is assessed from both practical and economic perspectives. The benefits and possibilities of using membrane reactors for hydrogen production in biomass processing are also discussed. Lastly, we summarize the limitations of the currently available hydrogen membranes as well as the gaps between research achievements and industrial application. We also propose expected research directions for the future development of hydrogen gas membrane technology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
HDO of Methyl Palmitate over Silica-Supported Ni Phosphides: Insight into Ni/P Effect
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 298; doi:10.3390/catal7100298 -
Abstract
Two sets of silica-supported nickel phosphide catalysts with a nickel content of about 2.5 and 10 wt % and Ni/P molar ratio 2/1, 1/1 and 1/2 in each set, were prepared by way of a temperature-programmed reduction method using (Ni(CH3COO)2
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Two sets of silica-supported nickel phosphide catalysts with a nickel content of about 2.5 and 10 wt % and Ni/P molar ratio 2/1, 1/1 and 1/2 in each set, were prepared by way of a temperature-programmed reduction method using (Ni(CH3COO)2) and ((NH4)2HPO4) as a precursor. The NixPy/SiO2 catalysts were characterized using chemical analysis N2 physisorption, XRD, TEM, 31P MAS NMR. Methyl palmitate hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) was performed in a trickle-bed reactor at 3 MPa and 290 °C with LHSV ranging from 0.3 to 16 h−1. The Ni/P ratio was found to affect the nickel phosphide phase composition, POx groups content and catalytic properties in methyl palmitate HDO with the TOF increased along with a decline of Ni/P ratio and a growth of POx groups’ content. Taking into account the possible routes of methyl palmitate conversion (metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis or acid-catalyzed hydrolysis), we proposed that the enhancement of acid POx groups’ content with the Ni/P ratio decrease provides an enhancement of the rate of methyl palmitate conversion through the acceleration of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Immobilization of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone-Dependent Alcohol Dehydrogenase with a Polyion Complex and Redox Polymer for a Bioanode
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 296; doi:10.3390/catal7100296 -
Abstract
A bioanode for ethanol oxidation was prepared by immobilizing the recombinant pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida KT 2440 (PpADH) with polyion complex (PIC) and redox polymer. The PIC based on poly-l-lysine (PLL) and poly-l-glutamic acid (PGA) was suitable
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A bioanode for ethanol oxidation was prepared by immobilizing the recombinant pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida KT 2440 (PpADH) with polyion complex (PIC) and redox polymer. The PIC based on poly-l-lysine (PLL) and poly-l-glutamic acid (PGA) was suitable for immobilizing PpADH on the electrode. PpADH was immobilized using only one redox polymer, aminoferrocene, which was attached to the PGA backbone (PGA-AmFc) on the electrode. The anodic current density at 0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was 22.6 μA·cm−2. However, when the number of the cycles was increased, the catalytic current drastically decreased. PpADH was immobilized using PGA-AmFc and PIC on the electrode. The anodic current density at 0.5 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was 47.3 μA·cm−2, and the performance maintained 74% of the initial value after five cycles. This result indicated that the combination of PIC and PGA-AmFc was suitable for the immobilization of PpADH on the electrode. In addition, the long-term stability and catalytic current density were improved by using the large surface area afforded by the gold nanoparticles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Promoting the Synthesis of Ethanol and Butanol by Salicylic Acid
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 295; doi:10.3390/catal7100295 -
Abstract
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with salicylic acid (SA). The copper-cobalt catalyst was impregnated on the SA functionalized MWCNTs (SA-MWCNTs). The catalyst copper-cobalt/SA-MWCNTs was used to catalyze the synthesis of alcohols from synthesis gas. Salicylic acid can promote the synthesis of ethanol
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Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with salicylic acid (SA). The copper-cobalt catalyst was impregnated on the SA functionalized MWCNTs (SA-MWCNTs). The catalyst copper-cobalt/SA-MWCNTs was used to catalyze the synthesis of alcohols from synthesis gas. Salicylic acid can promote the synthesis of ethanol and butanol from synthesis gas, thus reducing the synthesis of methanol. This work demonstrated that salicylic acid not only can be used to functionalize carbon nanotubes, but also can enhance the production of ethanol and butanol from synthesis gas. On the other hand, the copper-cobalt catalyst supported on MWCNTs of 30 nm in diameter can synthesize more ethanol and butanol than supported on MWCNTs of 15 and 50 nm in diameter, indicating that the diameter of MWCNTs also has an effect on the synthesis of alcohols. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Morpholine-Modified Pd/γ-Al2O3@ASMA Pellet Catalyst with Excellent Catalytic Selectivity in the Hydrogenation of p-Chloronitrobenzene to p-Chloroaniline
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 292; doi:10.3390/catal7100292 -
Abstract
An amino poly (styrene-co-maleic anhydride) polymer (ASMA) encapsulated γ-Al2O3 pellet material has been synthesized successfully. After loading with Pd species and modified with morpholine, the inorganic-organic hybrid material shows an excellent catalytic property in the selective hydrogenation
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An amino poly (styrene-co-maleic anhydride) polymer (ASMA) encapsulated γ-Al2O3 pellet material has been synthesized successfully. After loading with Pd species and modified with morpholine, the inorganic-organic hybrid material shows an excellent catalytic property in the selective hydrogenation of p-chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB) to p-chloroaniline (p-CAN). In this procedure, morpholine can connect with the polymer layer in a form of amide bond and acts as an unparalleled immobilized dechlorination inhibitor, which can avoid further dechlorination efficiently and keeps stability due to the repulsive effect from the surviving C-O-C bond. The catalyst as prepared was characterized by using XRD, TGA, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, and ICP-OES, and it was further tested in the selective hydrogenation of p-CNB. It shows a supreme catalytic activity (almost 100%) and selectivity (up to 99.51%) after recycling for even 10 times, much superior to the blank alumina supported palladium (47.09%). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Transformation of Sugar Maple Bark through Catalytic Organosolv Pulping
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 294; doi:10.3390/catal7100294 -
Abstract
The catalytic organosolv pulping of sugar maple bark was performed adopting the concept of forest biorefinery in order to transform bark into several valuable products. Our organosolv process, consisting of pre-extracting the lignocellulosic material followed by pulping with ferric chloride as a catalyst,
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The catalytic organosolv pulping of sugar maple bark was performed adopting the concept of forest biorefinery in order to transform bark into several valuable products. Our organosolv process, consisting of pre-extracting the lignocellulosic material followed by pulping with ferric chloride as a catalyst, was applied to sugar maple bark. The pre-extraction step has yielded a mixture of phenolic extractives, applicable as antioxidants. The organosolv pulping of extractives-free sugar maple bark yielded a solid cellulosic pulp (42.3%) and a black liquor containing solubilized bark lignin (24.1%) and products of sugars transformation (22.9% of hemicelluloses), mainly represented by furfural (0.35%) and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF, 0.74%). The bark cellulosic pulp was determined to be mainly constituted of glucose, with a high residual lignin content, probably related to the protein content of the original bark (containing cambium tissue). The biorefinery approach to the transformation of a solid bark residue into valuable biopolymers (lignin and cellulose) along with phenolic antioxidants from pre-extraction and the HMF derivatives from black liquor (applicable for 2,5-diformylfuran production) is an example of a catalytic process reposing on sustainable engineering and green chemistry concepts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Total Oxidation of Naphthalene with Zirconia-Supported Cobalt, Copper and Nickel Catalysts
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 293; doi:10.3390/catal7100293 -
Abstract
ZrO2 nH2O (hydrogel) impregnated with transition metals (Cu, Co, and Ni) was studied in this work as a precursor for the synthesis of CuO/ZrO2 (CuZ), CoOx/ZrO2 (CoZ), and NiO/ZrO2 (NiZ) catalysts, employed in the naphthalene
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ZrO2 nH2O (hydrogel) impregnated with transition metals (Cu, Co, and Ni) was studied in this work as a precursor for the synthesis of CuO/ZrO2 (CuZ), CoOx/ZrO2 (CoZ), and NiO/ZrO2 (NiZ) catalysts, employed in the naphthalene oxidation reaction. Fresh and catalytically used materials were characterized by different physicochemical techniques, to compare the bulk and surface behavior, with particular attention to the effect of the supported metal species’ properties on the catalytic activity. Techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS UV–vis), and Raman spectroscopy, allow for establishing structural and textural aspects of the support, as well as the surface coordination and the accessibility of supported species. Results were in agreement with the CuZ > CoZ > NiZ sequence for the activity in naphthalene oxidation reaction. Electronic properties, ionic sizes, oxide phase deposition on the support surface, reducibility, metal–support interaction, and local site symmetry of metals seem to be decisive factors for the catalytic interaction with the gaseous phase. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Conductive Cotton Filters for Affordable and Efficient Water Purification
Catalysts 2017, 7(10), 291; doi:10.3390/catal7100291 -
Abstract
It is highly desirable to develop affordable, energy-saving, and highly-effective technologies to alleviate the current water crisis. In this work, we reported a low-cost electrochemical filtration device composing of a conductive cotton filter anode and a Ti foil cathode. The device was operated
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It is highly desirable to develop affordable, energy-saving, and highly-effective technologies to alleviate the current water crisis. In this work, we reported a low-cost electrochemical filtration device composing of a conductive cotton filter anode and a Ti foil cathode. The device was operated by gravity feed. The conductive cotton filter anodes were fabricated by a facile dying method to incorporate carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as fillers. The CNTs could serve as adsorbents for pollutants adsorption, as electrocatalysts for pollutants electrooxidation, and as conductive additives to render the cotton filters highly conductive. Cellulose-based cotton could serve as low-cost support to ‘host’ these CNTs. Upon application of external potential, the developed filtration device could not only achieve physically adsorption of organic compounds, but also chemically oxide these compounds on site. Three model organic compounds were employed to evaluate the oxidative capability of the device, i.e., ferrocyanide (a model single-electron-transfer electron donor), methyl orange (MO, a common recalcitrant azo-dye found in aqueous environments), and antibiotic tetracycline (TC, a common antibiotic released from the wastewater treatment plants). The devices exhibited a maximum electrooxidation flux of 0.37 mol/h/m2 for 5.0 mmol/L ferrocyanide, of 0.26 mol/h/m2 for 0.06 mmol/L MO, and of 0.9 mol/h/m2 for 0.2 mmol/L TC under given experimental conditions. The effects of several key operational parameters (e.g., total cell potential, CNT amount, and compound concentration) on the device performance were also studied. This study could shed some light on the good design of effective and affordable water purification devices for point-of-use applications. Full article
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