Catalysts2015, 5(1), 270-285; doi:10.3390/catal5010270 (registering DOI) - published 2 March 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Composites consisting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown directly on oxygen-deficient anatase TiO2 (TiO2−δ) were synthesized by a two-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and applied in photocatalytic hydrogen production from aqueous methanol solutions using photodeposited Pt as the co-catalyst. Thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, photocurrent analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and (scanning) transmission electron microscopy were performed to investigate the physical and (photo)chemical properties of the synthesized CNT-TiO2−δ composites before and after photocatalytic methanol reforming. The initial photocatalytic activity of TiO2 was found to be significantly improved in the presence of oxygen vacancies. An optimized amount (~7.2 wt%) of CNTs grown on the TiO2−δ surface led to a highly effective stabilization of the photocatalytic performance of TiO2−δ, which is attributed to the improved dispersion and stability of the photodeposited Pt co-catalyst nanoparticles and enhanced separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, rendering the photocatalysts less prone to deactivation.
Catalysts2015, 5(1), 145-269; doi:10.3390/catal5010145 - published 26 February 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Deactivation of heterogeneous catalysts is a ubiquitous problem that causes loss of catalytic rate with time. This review on deactivation and regeneration of heterogeneous catalysts classifies deactivation by type (chemical, thermal, and mechanical) and by mechanism (poisoning, fouling, thermal degradation, vapor formation, vapor-solid and solid-solid reactions, and attrition/crushing). The key features and considerations for each of these deactivation types is reviewed in detail with reference to the latest literature reports in these areas. Two case studies on the deactivation mechanisms of catalysts used for cobalt Fischer-Tropsch and selective catalytic reduction are considered to provide additional depth in the topics of sintering, coking, poisoning, and fouling. Regeneration considerations and options are also briefly discussed for each deactivation mechanism.
Catalysts2015, 5(1), 131-144; doi:10.3390/catal5010131 - published 13 February 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Bimetallic AuPd supported on different carbonaceous materials and TiO2 was tested in the liquid phase oxidation of commercial grade and raw glycerol. The latter was directly obtained from the base-catalyzed transesterification of edible rapeseed oil using KOH. The best catalytic results were obtained using activated carbon and nitrogen-functionalized carbon nanofibers as supports. In fact, the catalysts were more active using pure glycerol instead of the one obtained from rapeseed, where strong deactivation phenomena were present. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and TEM were utilized to investigate the possible reasons for the observed loss of activity.
Catalysts2015, 5(1), 119-130; doi:10.3390/catal5010119 - published 11 February 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this article, the combination of guanidine hydrochloride with co-catalyst ZnI2 proved to be a highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the environmentally benign, solvent-free synthesis of cyclic carbonates under mild reaction conditions. The effects of different co-catalysts as well as reaction parameters including catalyst loadings, CO2 pressure, reaction temperature, and reaction time on the coupling reaction of CO2 to propylene oxide were thoroughly investigated. With the molar ratio of guanidine hydrochloride to ZnI2 at 5:1, excellent yield (94%) and selectivity (≥99%) of propylene carbonate were obtained under 100 °C and at 1 MPa for 1.5 h. Additionally, ZnI2 could be recycled, but because of the washing loss of guanidine hydrochloride, there was a slight decrease in the yield of propylene carbonate. Gratifyingly, the activity of the catalytic system could be restored by adding additional 20 mol% of fresh guanidine hydrochloride, thus exhibiting excellent recyclability of the ZnI2 catalyst. Moreover, the binary catalysts were also versatile when using other epoxides for CO2 cycloaddition. A possible reaction mechanism was proposed wherein guanidine hydrochloride plays a dual role in activating CO2 and epoxide, and ZnI2 activated epoxide, simultaneously. The synergistic effect of guanidine hydrochloride and ZnI2 ensure the reaction proceeds effectively.
Catalysts2015, 5(1), 106-118; doi:10.3390/catal5010106 - published 9 February 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The application of a catch-and-release system for soluble Pd species between water (reaction medium) and polystyrene (polymer support) was examined in the Suzuki coupling reaction with 2-bromothiophene and the Heck reaction with styrene or bromobenzene. Although a slight increase in particle size was observed by TEM after re-stabilization of the Pd species on linear polystyrene, no agglomeration was observed.
Catalysts2015, 5(1), 88-105; doi:10.3390/catal5010088 - published 6 February 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Pt-loaded β-type zeolite catalysts with constant Pt content (0.11 wt.%) and similar pore structure were prepared using a water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion. The effect of Pt particle synthesis conditions using microemulsion (a type of Pt complex-forming agents and the molar ratio of complex-forming agent to Pt4+) on loaded Pt particle size was investigated. The Pt particle size of the Pt catalyst using tetraethylammonium chloride (TEAC) as a complex-forming agent with the molar TEAC/Pt ratio 10 was the minimum value (3.8 nm), and was much smaller than that (6.7 nm) prepared by the impregnation method. The utilization of the complex-forming agent of which hydrophobic groups occupied a small volume and the appropriate complex-forming agent/Pt ratio were favorable for synthesis of small Pt particles. The effect of loaded Pt particle size on the hydrocracking of the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) product was investigated using the Pt-loaded zeolite catalysts at 250 °C with an initial H2 pressure of 0.5 MPa, and reaction time of 1 h. The Pt catalyst with a Pt particle size of 4.2 nm prepared using the microemulsion exhibited the maximum corresponding jet fuel yield (30.0%), which was higher than that of the impregnated catalyst.