Abstract: In this paper glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger was immobilized by using a modified version of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEA). The co-aggregates were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde; meanwhile dextrin and xanthan gum as protecting agents were added, which provides high affinity with the enzyme molecules. The immobilized glucoamylase was stable over a broad range of pH (3.0–8.0) and temperature (55–75 °C); dependence shows more catalytic activity than a free enzyme. The thermostability, kinetic behavior, and first-order inactivation rate constant (ki) were investigated. The two types of protector made the immobilized glucoamylase more robust than the free form. Both of the immobilized enzymes have excellent recyclability, retaining over 45% of the relative activity after 24 runs. In addition, immobilized enzymes reduced only 40% of the initial activity after three months by the storability measure, indicating high activity.
Abstract: Hybrid multi-functional nanomaterials comprising two or more disparate materials have become a powerful approach to obtain advanced materials for environmental remediation applications. In this work, an Ag-Ag2O/TiO2@polypyrrole (Ag/TiO2@PPy) heterojunction has been synthesized by assembling a self-stabilized Ag-Ag2O (p type) semiconductor (denoted as Ag) and polypyrrole (π-conjugated polymer) on the surface of rutile TiO2 (n type). Ag/TiO2@PPy was synthesized through simultaneous oxidation of pyrrole monomers and reduction of AgNO3 in an aqueous solution containing well-dispersed TiO2 particles. Thus synthesized Ag/TiO2@PPy was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DSR). The photocatalytic activity of synthesized heterojunction was investigated for the decomposition of methylene blue (MB) dye under UV and visible light irradiation. The results revealed that π-conjugated p-n heterojunction formed in the case of Ag/TiO2@PPy significantly enhanced the photodecomposition of MB compared to the p-n type Ag/TiO2 and TiO2@PPy (n-π) heterojunctions. A synergistic effect between Ag-Ag2O and PPy leads to higher photostability and a better electron/hole separation leads to an enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag/TiO2@PPy under both UV and visible light irradiations.
Abstract: Supported molybdenum carbide (yMo2C/M41) and Cu-promoted molybdenum carbide, using a mechanical mixing and co-impregnation method (xCuyMo2C/M41-M and xCuyMo2C/M41-I) on a mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41, were prepared by temperature-programmed carburization method in a CO/H2 atmosphere at 1073 K, and their catalytic performances were tested for CO2 hydrogenation to form methanol. Both catalysts, which were promoted by Cu, exhibited higher catalytic activity. In comparison to 20Cu20Mo2C/M41-M, the 20Cu20Mo2C/M41-I catalyst exhibited a stronger synergistic effect between Cu and Mo2C on the catalyst surface, which resulted in a higher selectivity for methanol in the CO2 hydrogenation reaction. Under the optimal reaction conditions, the highest selectivity (63%) for methanol was obtained at a CO2 conversion of 8.8% over the 20Cu20Mo2C/M41-I catalyst.
Abstract: The differential adsorption heats of oxygen and NO, as well as catalytic oxidation behavior during NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation reactions over supported Pt-catalysts, were investigated by microcalorimetric measurements. The average heat of adsorption (∆H) of oxygen ranged from 310 kJ/mol at 200 °C to 289 kJ/mol at 400 °C. Over this temperature range formation of platinum oxides and coverage dependence caused variations in the apparent heat of adsorption. NO heat of adsorption from 50 to 150 °C was near constant with an average value of 202 kJ/mol over the temperature range.
Abstract: The vanadium oxide/reduced graphene oxide (VOx/RGO) composites have been prepared by a simple solvothermal method with the assistance of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The microstructure and morphology of the resultant VOx/RGO composites have been well characterized. The VOx nanoparticles are highly dispersed on the RGO sheets with a particle size of about 25 nm. When used as hydroxylation catalysts, the VOx/RGO composites are more efficient than individual RGO and vanadium oxide catalysts. The enhanced catalytic performance may be related to not only the well dispersed VOx active species, but also the hydrophobic surface and huge π-electron system of RGO for the adsorption and activation of benzene. In addition, the effects of calcination conditions on the microstructure and catalytic properties of VOx/RGO composites have also been investigated. The uniform VOx nanoparticles on the separated RGO sheets show highly efficient catalytic performance, while the formation of aggregated HxV2O5 and bulk V2O5 species along with the destruction of RGO sheets are poor for the hydroxylation of benzene. Up to 17.4% yield of phenol is achieved under the optimized catalytic reaction conditions.
Abstract: For this paper, a series of rare earth (Gd, La, Sm) promoted NiO catalysts were prepared by using the microwave-assisted precipitation method and tested for N2O direct decomposition. The obtained solids have been characterized by using various techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed that the incorporation of RE oxides into NiO significantly decreases its crystallite size. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations indicated that the addition of RE oxides swells the NiO particles yielding particles into a rice-like morphology. N2 adsorption studies showed a sharp surface area increase as well as mesoporosity development accompanied the RE incorporation. It was found that the RE oxides significantly enhance the NiO activity.