Cancers2015, 7(2), 908-929; doi:10.3390/cancers7020815 (registering DOI) - published 22 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Currently, breast cancer affects approximately 12% of women worldwide. While the incidence of breast cancer rises with age, a younger age at diagnosis is linked to increased mortality. We discuss age related factors affecting breast cancer diagnosis, management and treatment, exploring key concepts and identifying critical areas requiring further research. We examine age as a factor in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment relating it to factors such as genetic status, breast cancer subtype, hormone factors and nodal status. We examine the effects of age as seen through the adoption of population wide breast cancer screening programs. Assessing the incidence rates of each breast cancer subtype, in the context of age, we examine the observed correlations. We explore how age affects patient’s prognosis, exploring the effects of age on stage and subtype incidence. Finally we discuss the future of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, examining the potential of emerging tests and technologies (such as microRNA) and how novel research findings are being translated into clinically relevant practices.
Cancers2015, 7(2), 876-907; doi:10.3390/cancers7020814 (registering DOI) - published 22 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The molecular chaperone HSP90 is involved in stabilization and function of multiple client proteins, many of which represent important oncogenic drivers in NSCLC. Utilization of HSP90 inhibitors as radiosensitizing agents is a promising approach. The antitumor activity of ganetespib, HSP90 inhibitor, was evaluated in human lung adenocarcinoma (AC) cells for its ability to potentiate the effects of IR treatment in both in vitro and in vivo. The cytotoxic effects of ganetespib included; G2/M cell cycle arrest, inhibition of DNA repair, apoptosis induction, and promotion of senescence. All of these antitumor effects were both concentration- and time-dependent. Both pretreatment and post-radiation treatment with ganetespib at low nanomolar concentrations induced radiosensitization in lung AC cells in vitro. Ganetespib may impart radiosensitization through multiple mechanisms: such as down regulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway; diminished DNA repair capacity and promotion of cellular senescence. In vivo, ganetespib reduced growth of T2821 tumor xenografts in mice and sensitized tumors to IR. Tumor irradiation led to dramatic upregulation of β-catenin expression in tumor tissues, an effect that was mitigated in T2821 xenografts when ganetespib was combined with IR treatments. These data highlight the promise of combining ganetespib with IR therapies in the treatment of AC lung tumors.
Cancers2015, 7(2), 849-875; doi:10.3390/cancers7020813 (registering DOI) - published 22 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Changes of the electrical charges across the surface cell membrane are absolutely necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis in physiological as well as in pathological conditions. The opening of ion channels alter the charge distribution across the surface membrane as they allow the diffusion of ions such as K+, Ca++, Cl
Cancers2015, 7(2), 823-848; doi:10.3390/cancers7020811 (registering DOI) - published 22 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Neuroblastoma is the second most common paediatric cancer. It developsfrom undifferentiated simpatico-adrenal lineage cells and is mostly sporadic; however, theaetiology behind the development of neuroblastoma is still not fully understood. Intracellularcalcium ([Ca2+]i) is a secondary messenger which regulates numerous cellular processesand, therefore, its concentration is tightly regulated. This review focuses on the role of[Ca2+]i in differentiation, apoptosis and proliferation in neuroblastoma. It describes themechanisms by which [Ca2+]i is regulated and how it modulates intracellular pathways.Furthermore, the importance of [Ca2+]i for the function of anti-cancer drugs is illuminatedin this review as [Ca2+]i could be a target to improve the outcome of anti-cancer treatmentin neuroblastoma. Overall, modulations of [Ca2+]i could be a key target to induce apoptosisin cancer cells leading to a more efficient and effective treatment of neuroblastoma.
Cancers2015, 7(2), 811-822; doi:10.3390/cancers7020812 (registering DOI) - published 22 May 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Within the last couple of years, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has significantly improved. Large-scale gene expression profiling studies have led to the discovery of several molecularly defined subtypes that are characterized by specific oncogene addictions and significant differences in their outcome. Next generation sequencing efforts combined with RNA interference screens frequently identify crucial oncogenes that lead to constitutive activation of various signaling pathways that drive lymphomagenesis. This review summarizes our current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCL subtype that is characterized by poor prognosis. A special emphasis is put on findings that might impact therapeutic strategies of affected patients.
Abstract: Exposure to stray neutrons increases the risk of second cancer development after proton therapy. Previously reported analytical models of this exposure were difficult to configure and had not been investigated below 100 MeV proton energy. The purposes of this study were to test an analytical model of neutron equivalent dose per therapeutic absorbed dose at 75 MeV and to improve the model by reducing the number of configuration parameters and making it continuous in proton energy from 100 to 250 MeV. To develop the analytical model, we used previously published H/D values in water from Monte Carlo simulations of a general-purpose beamline for proton energies from 100 to 250 MeV. We also configured and tested the model on in-air neutron equivalent doses measured for a 75 MeV ocular beamline. Predicted H/D values from the analytical model and Monte Carlo agreed well from 100 to 250 MeV (10% average difference). Predicted H/D values from the analytical model also agreed well with measurements at 75 MeV (15% average difference). The results indicate that analytical models can give fast, reliable calculations of neutron exposure after proton therapy. This ability is absent in treatment planning systems but vital to second cancer risk estimation.