Open AccessArticle
A Control Strategy of DC Building Microgrid Connected to the Neighborhood and AC Power Network
Buildings 2017, 7(2), 42; doi:10.3390/buildings7020042 -
Abstract
Recently, the use of DC microgrid distribution system has become more attractive than traditional AC systems due to their energy efficiency and ability to easily integrate with renewable energy sources and batteries. This paper proposes a 500 V DC microgrid which consists of
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Recently, the use of DC microgrid distribution system has become more attractive than traditional AC systems due to their energy efficiency and ability to easily integrate with renewable energy sources and batteries. This paper proposes a 500 V DC microgrid which consists of a 20 kWp photovoltaic panel, batteries, and DC loads. A hierarchical control strategy to ensure balance power of the DC microgrid and the maintenance of common DC bus voltage is presented. The capability of exchanging power energy of the microgrid with the power system of neighborhood buildings is also considered. Typical operation modes are simulated in the Matlab/simulink environment to confirm the good performance of the controllers and the efficiency of appropriately controlling the charge–discharge of the battery system. This research is expected to bring benefits to the design and operation of the system, such as reducing the capacity of batteries, increasing the self-supply of buildings, and decreasing the electricity demand from the AC grid. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Review of Daylighting Strategies in Schools: State of the Art and Expected Future Trends
Buildings 2017, 7(2), 41; doi:10.3390/buildings7020041 -
Abstract
The study of daylight conditions within educational buildings has been a topic of interest since the nineteenth century in western countries, and European ones in particular. Although it has been argued that providing a view outside—or even using daylight instead of more stable
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The study of daylight conditions within educational buildings has been a topic of interest since the nineteenth century in western countries, and European ones in particular. Although it has been argued that providing a view outside—or even using daylight instead of more stable and manageable artificial light—could reduce students’ performance without providing a pleasant and healthy environment, nowadays it seems that a large consensus upon the need to design well daylit spaces is being reached. This paper reviews how the research community has tackled the task of understanding and solving the complex relationships amongst local climate, users’ needs and design constraints in school buildings by showing the different approaches used and technological solutions suggested. The reported case studies, based either on experimental measurements or on simulations, highlight the need of a comprehensive approach to the topic to fully understand the non-trivial requirements of a daylit educational environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Form Follows Environment: Biomimetic Approaches to Building Envelope Design for Environmental Adaptation
Buildings 2017, 7(2), 40; doi:10.3390/buildings7020040 -
Abstract
Building envelopes represent the interface between the outdoor environment and the indoor occupied spaces. They are often considered as barriers and shields, limiting solutions that adapt to environmental changes. Nature provides a large database of adaptation strategies that can be implemented in design
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Building envelopes represent the interface between the outdoor environment and the indoor occupied spaces. They are often considered as barriers and shields, limiting solutions that adapt to environmental changes. Nature provides a large database of adaptation strategies that can be implemented in design in general, and in the design of building envelopes in particular. Biomimetics, where solutions are obtained by emulating strategies from nature, is a rapidly growing design discipline in engineering, and an emerging field in architecture. This paper presents a biomimetic approach to facilitate the generation of design concepts, and enhance the development of building envelopes that are better suited to their environments. Morphology plays a significant role in the way systems adapt to environmental conditions, and provides a multi-functional interface to regulate heat, air, water, and light. In this work, we emphasize the functional role of morphology for environmental adaptation, where distinct morphologies, corresponding processes, their underlying mechanisms, and potential applications to buildings are distinguished. Emphasizing this morphological contribution to environmental adaptation would enable designers to apply a proper morphology for a desired environmental process, hence promoting the development of adaptive solutions for building envelopes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Implications of Climate Zones on the Cost-Optimal Level and Cost-Effectiveness of Building Envelope Energy Renovation and Space Heat Demand Reduction
Buildings 2017, 7(2), 39; doi:10.3390/buildings7020039 -
Abstract
The cost-optimal level of energy performance for buildings shall be identified according to the European directive of 2010. The Swedish building stock needs comprehensive knowledge and an overall strategy for the cost-optimal level of renovation. This paper studies the contribution of Swedish climate
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The cost-optimal level of energy performance for buildings shall be identified according to the European directive of 2010. The Swedish building stock needs comprehensive knowledge and an overall strategy for the cost-optimal level of renovation. This paper studies the contribution of Swedish climate zones to the cost-optimal level of renovation on a multi-story residential building in Sweden from the building owner perspective. The building space heat demand is simulated for four Swedish climate zones. The net present profit (NPP) method is defined and used in this study in order to analyze the cost-optimal level and the cost-effective renovation of building envelope components (e.g., attic floor, basement walls, exterior walls and windows). The implication of different discount rates is studied, as well. The results show that the optimum renovation of the building envelope offers 51% more energy savings for space heating when the building is in a northern climate zone compared to a southern zone. The study suggests that different renovation strategies for the building stock renovation need to be identified, separately, for each climate zone. The NPP analysis identifies the minimum required investment and maximum achievable energy savings that are needed to have a cost-effective renovation. The broad range of studied climate zones provides the opportunity to apply the obtained results to other climate zones by either interpolation or extrapolation of NPPs for the buildings with similar characteristics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Demand-Side Management on Thermal Comfort and Energy Costs in a Residential nZEB
Buildings 2017, 7(2), 37; doi:10.3390/buildings7020037 -
Abstract
In this study, simulation work has been carried out to investigate the impact of a demand-side management control strategy in a residential nZEB. A refurbished apartment within a multi-family dwelling representative of Mediterranean building habits was chosen as a study case and modelled
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In this study, simulation work has been carried out to investigate the impact of a demand-side management control strategy in a residential nZEB. A refurbished apartment within a multi-family dwelling representative of Mediterranean building habits was chosen as a study case and modelled within a simulation framework. A flexibility strategy based on set-point modulation depending on the energy price was applied to the building. The impact of the control strategy on thermal comfort was studied in detail with several methods retrieved from the standards or other literature, differentiating the effects on day and night living zones. It revealed a slight decrease of comfort when implementing flexibility, although this was not prejudicial. In addition, the applied strategy caused a simultaneous increase of the electricity used for heating by up to 7% and a reduction of the corresponding energy costs by up to around 20%. The proposed control thereby constitutes a promising solution for shifting heating loads towards periods of lower prices and is able to provide benefits for both the user and the grid sides. Beyond that, the activation of energy flexibility in buildings (nZEB in the present case) will participate in a more successful integration of renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy mix. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Criteria Analysis in Compound Decision Processes: The AHP and the Architectural Competition for the Chamber of Deputies in Rome (Italy)
Buildings 2017, 7(2), 38; doi:10.3390/buildings7020038 -
Abstract
In 1967, a national architectural competition was released for a preliminary project proposal, aimed at the realization of the new building for the Chamber of Deputies in Rome. The outcomes of that competition were unusual: eighteen projects were declared joint winners, and no
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In 1967, a national architectural competition was released for a preliminary project proposal, aimed at the realization of the new building for the Chamber of Deputies in Rome. The outcomes of that competition were unusual: eighteen projects were declared joint winners, and no winner was consequently selected. With reference to that event, this research aims to examine the usefulness of the evaluation tools that are currently employed and the positive effects that one of these techniques would have had, as support for the identification of the “winner” project, are highlighted. Therefore, an hypothetical examination/adjustment of the decision process of that competition through the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is developed, analyzing the outputs obtained by the implementations of this technique on the final decision. In addition to confirming the usefulness of the evaluation tools for compound and conflicting decision processes, the results of this experiment led to a further understanding of the socio-cultural dynamics related to the original outcomes of the competition analyzed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Co-Citation Analysis on Thermal Comfort and Productivity Aspects in Production and Office Buildings
Buildings 2017, 7(2), 36; doi:10.3390/buildings7020036 -
Abstract
In this work, the literature about the relationship between thermal comfort and productivity in workplaces is reviewed and explored by means of a co-citation analysis—i.e., a factor analysis applied to the mutual citations of the most relevant contributions. A structure of three main
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In this work, the literature about the relationship between thermal comfort and productivity in workplaces is reviewed and explored by means of a co-citation analysis—i.e., a factor analysis applied to the mutual citations of the most relevant contributions. A structure of three main clusters of papers describing the relationships between workers’ thermal comfort and productivity were identified according to the factor analysis and then confirmed with a multidimensional scaling. Results indicate that comfortable indoor thermal conditions can have beneficial impacts on workers’ well-being and productivity, such as higher operational rates, lower production losses, fewer sick leaves, and reduced health related costs. Some authors proposed analytical and empirical expressions for the quantification of the impact of thermal comfort on productivity; nevertheless, due to the broad spectrum of activities and their applicability, the literature is still far from reaching a general consensus on the potential impact of comfort/discomfort on productivity and proposed models can vary significantly in the different studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lightweight Concrete Containing Phase Change Materials (PCMs): A Numerical Investigation on the Thermal Behaviour of Cladding Panels
Buildings 2017, 7(2), 35; doi:10.3390/buildings7020035 -
Abstract
The use of phase change materials (PCMs) in building elements has gained increasing popularity in recent years because of the potential energy savings that result from the heat stored during variable temperature–time histories. This paper describes the results of non-linear numerical analyses on
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The use of phase change materials (PCMs) in building elements has gained increasing popularity in recent years because of the potential energy savings that result from the heat stored during variable temperature–time histories. This paper describes the results of non-linear numerical analyses on sandwich panels characterized by different geometry and consisting of an innovative concrete, i.e., lightweight concrete with aggregates containing PCMs. The amount of embedded PCMs has no equal in the literature, and this calls for a detailed assessment of its thermal performance within a typical building element. The heat transfer process inside the panels is modelled via finite elements in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of PCMs with regard to insulation. The results show that adding PCMs may significantly reduce (by up to 20%) the energy required for cooling in the hot season, while the reduction of the energy required for heating in the cold season is lower (up to 10%). Moreover, there is a significant reduction in the instantaneous power required, both for heating and cooling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Mass Appraisal Model Based on Market Segment Parameters
Buildings 2017, 7(2), 34; doi:10.3390/buildings7020034 -
Abstract
The proposed evaluation scheme is a uni-equation model to evaluate properties of Mass Appraisal (MA) in terms of widespread availability of sample data. It all allows the use of statistical models and in the opposite conditions of the absence of data of comparable
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The proposed evaluation scheme is a uni-equation model to evaluate properties of Mass Appraisal (MA) in terms of widespread availability of sample data. It all allows the use of statistical models and in the opposite conditions of the absence of data of comparable properties, the functions of similar market areas are known as well as the ones near to those for which you want to estimate the function. Of course, the accuracy of the evaluation increases with the amount of available data, with other equal conditions and evaluations carried out without data (but in the presence of other market information). It requires extra-statistical appraisal procedures involving a complete knowledge of the real estate market. However, such knowledge is also required in the MA performed by quantitative models with regard to the data sampling and performance monitoring process. The model considers micro-level characteristics of the properties and macro-level parameters of the real estate market segments. The appraisal model defines the prediction function with both the statistical models and estimation procedures. For this purpose, the model considers four specific situations: the construction of a statistical model operating with a sufficiently large sample of market prices; the construction of a prediction function operating with a very few number of market prices samples; in this situation, the appraisal function of market value is defined by using a sample of market prices referred to comparable properties, and these are few for statistical use but perfectly suitable to the appraisal process; the construction of a prediction function operating with only one market price; the construction of a prediction function operating in the absence of real estate data but with similar functions of market areas with other estimated proprieties. The presented model provides a uniform method of estimating the market value of properties (and fees), through the modular functions. The model studied is able to operate also with reduced information, considering the practical circumstances, the boundary conditions, the application precautions and the significance of the results. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Seismic Response of a Platform-Frame System with Steel Columns
Buildings 2017, 7(2), 33; doi:10.3390/buildings7020033 -
Abstract
Timber platform-frame shear walls are characterized by high ductility and diffuse energy dissipation but limited in-plane shear resistance. A novel lightweight constructive system composed of steel columns braced with oriented strand board (OSB) panels was conceived and tested. Preliminary laboratory tests were performed
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Timber platform-frame shear walls are characterized by high ductility and diffuse energy dissipation but limited in-plane shear resistance. A novel lightweight constructive system composed of steel columns braced with oriented strand board (OSB) panels was conceived and tested. Preliminary laboratory tests were performed to study the OSB-to-column connections with self-drilling screws. Then, the seismic response of a shear wall was determined performing a quasi-static cyclic-loading test of a full-scale specimen. Results presented in this work in terms of force-displacement capacity show that this system confers to shear walls high in-plane strength and stiffness with good ductility and dissipative capacity. Therefore, the incorporation of steel columns within OSB bracing panels results in a strong and stiff platform-frame system with high potential for low- and medium-rise buildings in seismic-prone areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Patterns of Growth—Biomimetics and Architectural Design
Buildings 2017, 7(2), 32; doi:10.3390/buildings7020032 -
Abstract
This paper discusses the approach of biomimetic design in architecture applied to the theme of growth in biology by taking two exemplary research projects at the intersection of arts and sciences. The first project, ‘Biornametics’, dealt with patterns from nature; the second project
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This paper discusses the approach of biomimetic design in architecture applied to the theme of growth in biology by taking two exemplary research projects at the intersection of arts and sciences. The first project, ‘Biornametics’, dealt with patterns from nature; the second project ‘Growing as Building (GrAB)’ took on biological growth as a specific theme for the transfer to architecture and the arts. Within a timeframe of five years (2011–2015), the research was conducted under the Program for Arts-based Research PEEK (Programm zur Entwicklung und Erschliessung der Künste) of the Austrian Science Fund FWF (Fonds zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung). The underlying hypothesis was that growth processes in nature have not been studied for transfer into technology and architecture yet and that, with advanced software tools, promising applications could be found. To ensure a high degree of innovation, this research was done with an interdisciplinary team of architects, engineers, and scientists (mainly biologists) to lay the groundwork for future product-oriented technological solutions. Growth, as one of the important characteristics of living organisms, is used as a frame for research into systems and principles that shall deliver innovative and sustainable solutions in architecture and the arts. Biomimetics as a methodology was used to create and guide information transfer from the life sciences to innovative proto-architectural solutions. The research aimed at transferring qualities present in biological growth; for example, adaptiveness, exploration, or local resource harvesting into technical design and production processes. In contrast to our current building construction, implementing principles of growth could potentially transform building towards a more integrated and sustainable setting, a new living architecture. Tools and methods, especially Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for matching biological role models with growth principles and architecturally desired functions and a Biolab as an experimentation platform are presented. Three main experimental trajectories were explored that matched the objectives of the research: (1) Transfer from biology into architecture, namely self-growing structures (proto-steps in form of a mobile 3D printer working with local material); (2) Integration of biology into material systems, namely fragmented waste matter grown into one solid building material (mycelium); and (3) Interventions in existing architecture, namely optimization of 3D path-finding through a single cell organism (slime mold). Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Using Genetic Algorithms for Real Estate Appraisals
Buildings 2017, 7(2), 31; doi:10.3390/buildings7020031 -
Abstract
The main aim of this paper is the interpretation of the existing relationship between real estate rental prices and geographical location of housing units in a central urban area of Naples (Santa Lucia and Riviera of Chiaia neighborhoods). Genetic algorithms (GA) are used
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The main aim of this paper is the interpretation of the existing relationship between real estate rental prices and geographical location of housing units in a central urban area of Naples (Santa Lucia and Riviera of Chiaia neighborhoods). Genetic algorithms (GA) are used for this purpose. Also, to verify the reliability of genetic algorithms for real estate appraisals and, at the same time, to show the forecasting potentialities of these techniques in the analysis of housing markets, a multiple regression analysis (MRA) was applied comparing results of GA and MRA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Energy and Economic Evaluation of Green Roofs for Residential Buildings in Hot-Humid Climates
Buildings 2017, 7(2), 30; doi:10.3390/buildings7020030 -
Abstract
Green roofs may be considered a passive energy saving technology that also offer benefits like environmental friendliness and enhancement of aesthetic and architectural qualities of buildings. This paper examines the energy and economic viability of the green roof technology in the hot humid
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Green roofs may be considered a passive energy saving technology that also offer benefits like environmental friendliness and enhancement of aesthetic and architectural qualities of buildings. This paper examines the energy and economic viability of the green roof technology in the hot humid climate of Saudi Arabia by considering a modern four bedroom residential building in the city of Dhahran as a case study. The base case and green roof modelling of the selected building has been developed with the help of DesignBuilder software. The base case model has been validated with the help of 3-month measured data about the energy consumption without a green roof installed. The result shows that the energy consumption for the base case is 169 kWh/m2 while the energy consumption due to the application of a green roof on the entire roof surface is 110 kWh/m2. For the three investigated green roof options, energy saving is found to be in the range of 24% to 35%. The economic evaluation based on the net present value (NPV) approach for 40 years with consideration to other environmental advantages indicates that the benefits of the green roof technology are realized towards the end of the life cycle of the building. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Measures for Managing Issues in Post-Disaster Housing Reconstruction
Buildings 2017, 7(2), 29; doi:10.3390/buildings7020029 -
Abstract
After large scale disasters, reconstruction is often initiated by stakeholders to minimize disaster impacts and to mitigate a recurrence. For most reconstruction programmes, priority is given to reconstruction of permanent housing in consideration of the multiplying effects of housing reconstruction on social and
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After large scale disasters, reconstruction is often initiated by stakeholders to minimize disaster impacts and to mitigate a recurrence. For most reconstruction programmes, priority is given to reconstruction of permanent housing in consideration of the multiplying effects of housing reconstruction on social and economic recovery and the development of community resilience. However, numerous challenges arise during implementation which have reportedly been poorly managed and this has resulted in the ineffectiveness of housing reconstruction programmes and the failure of housing interventions to achieve their intended goals. In previous, related research, the issues affecting the implementation of housing reconstruction programmes were identified and a conceptual framework proposed. This study systematically reviews the academic literature, case studies and working papers in order to identify measures that have been applied by managers of reconstruction programmes to overcome these previously identified issues. The measures identified will be used to develop the previously proposed conceptual framework and thus to enable data collection through an experts’ opinion survey. Findings from the experts’ opinion survey will, in turn, be used to deduce best practice measures for managing permanent housing reconstruction programmes. This study is intended to aid policy making by providing stakeholders with good practice measures for managing issues in post-disaster housing reconstruction. In addition, it improves the knowledge base by presenting current housing reconstruction management practices and recommending how they can be improved for better community recovery and resilience building after large-scale disasters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Annual Performance of Sensible and Total Heat Recovery in Ventilation Systems: Humidity Control Constraints for European Climates
Buildings 2017, 7(2), 28; doi:10.3390/buildings7020028 -
Abstract
Ensuring a comfortable indoor air quality requires a minimum fresh air supply by ventilation. Moreover, the improvement of the air tightness in new and refurbished high performance buildings enhances the role of mechanical ventilation and its importance in further increasing the energy efficiency.
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Ensuring a comfortable indoor air quality requires a minimum fresh air supply by ventilation. Moreover, the improvement of the air tightness in new and refurbished high performance buildings enhances the role of mechanical ventilation and its importance in further increasing the energy efficiency. Indeed, a reduction of the ventilation load can be achieved by installing air-to-air heat recovery devices, whose potential energy savings can be easily assessed by means of their nominal effectiveness. However, this estimation does not consider the impact on the overall performance of the system, in particular when humidity control is needed. Proper control strategies can be defined on the basis of the indoor latent load to prevent preheating or avoid moisture recovery when dehumidification by cooling is then required. In this work, the energy saving potential of heat recovery systems has been analyzed, considering the impact of different control strategies on both energy and cost savings. The calculations have been generalized using the specific latent load, which allows for the analysis of strategies and savings based on typical utilization categories, without considering in detail all the building characteristics. Representative hourly weather data for 66 European cities have been used to evaluate sensible and total heat recovery devices. The energy and the cost saving results have been mapped per each European Köppen-Geiger climate class and each country, respectively. The proposed strategies based on humidity control can strongly reduce the attractiveness of total heat recovery with respect to sensible heat recovery in terms of energy and cost savings, especially when high specific latent loads are considered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Space Heating Energy Consumption of Residential Buildings Based on Traditional and Model-Based Techniques
Buildings 2017, 7(2), 27; doi:10.3390/buildings7020027 -
Abstract
This paper presents a comparison of different scenarios in controlling the space heating systems in residential buildings. The space heating energy consumption of a three-storey residential building is estimated using traditional control methods (fixed-temperature schedule and fixed-time schedule) and a mathematical model-based control
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This paper presents a comparison of different scenarios in controlling the space heating systems in residential buildings. The space heating energy consumption of a three-storey residential building is estimated using traditional control methods (fixed-temperature schedule and fixed-time schedule) and a mathematical model-based control strategy. The model-based control technique takes the usage pattern of the building into account and operates the heaters based on the calculated heating time of the building. The results from the experiments confirm that the use of a model in heating control is the best option, which can save up to 1400 kWh and 320 kWh per year compared to a fixed-temperature schedule and fixed-time schedule, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nearly Zero Energy Standard for Non-Residential Buildings with high Energy Demands—An Empirical Case Study Using the State-Related Properties of BAVARIA
Buildings 2017, 7(1), 25; doi:10.3390/buildings7010025 -
Abstract
The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) 2010 calls for the Nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB) Standard for new buildings from 2021 onwards: Buildings using “almost no energy” are powered by renewable sources or by the energy produced by the building itself. For
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The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) 2010 calls for the Nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB) Standard for new buildings from 2021 onwards: Buildings using “almost no energy” are powered by renewable sources or by the energy produced by the building itself. For residential buildings, this ambitious new standard has already been reached. But for other building types, this goal is still far away. The potential of these buildings to meet a nZEB Standard was investigated by analyzing ten case studies, representing non-residential buildings with different uses. The analysis shows that the primary characteristics common to critical building types are a dense building context with a very high degree of technical installation (such as hospital, research, and laboratory buildings). The large primary energy demand of these types of buildings cannot be compensated by building- and property-related energy generation, including off-site renewables. If the future nZEB Standard were to be defined with lower requirements because of this, the state-related properties of Bavaria suggest that the real potential energy savings available in at least 85% of all new buildings would be insufficiently exploited. Therefore, it would be more useful to individualize the legal energy verification process for new buildings, to distinguish critical building types such as laboratories and hospitals from the other building types. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Valuation of Real Estate Investments through Fuzzy Logic
Buildings 2017, 7(1), 26; doi:10.3390/buildings7010026 -
Abstract
This paper aims to outline the application of Fuzzy Logic in real estate investment. In literature, there is a wide theoretical background on real estate investment decisions, but there has been a lack of empirical support in this regard. For this reason, the
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This paper aims to outline the application of Fuzzy Logic in real estate investment. In literature, there is a wide theoretical background on real estate investment decisions, but there has been a lack of empirical support in this regard. For this reason, the paper would fill the gap between theory and practice. The fuzzy logic system is adopted to evaluate the situations of a real estate market with imprecise and vague information. To highlight the applicability of the Possibility Theory, we proceeded to reconsider an example of property investment evaluation through fuzzy logic. The case study concerns the purchase of an office building. The results obtained with Fuzzy Logic have been also compared with those arising from a deterministic approach through the use of crisp numbers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Settlers’ Guide: Designing for Resilience in the Hinterlands
Buildings 2017, 7(1), 23; doi:10.3390/buildings7010023 -
Abstract
There has often been a mutually beneficial relationship between cities and their rural hinterlands. The Kapiti region outside the city of Wellington in New Zealand is a prime example: it once provided Wellington’s food, water and cultural diversity for both Māori and European
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There has often been a mutually beneficial relationship between cities and their rural hinterlands. The Kapiti region outside the city of Wellington in New Zealand is a prime example: it once provided Wellington’s food, water and cultural diversity for both Māori and European settlers. However, productivity-driven agriculture and extensive dormitory-suburbanization have affected significant parts of this once-abundant hinterland. Food production is becoming more mono-cultural, water quality is degrading, ecosystems’ biodiversity is disappearing, provincial town centres are shrinking, emigrating youth are leaving unbalanced demographics, Māori are increasingly disassociating their culture from their traditional lands and natural disasters are causing more impact—all of which is making Kapiti less resilient, and severing the once-healthy city-hinterland relationship. Our work on future settlement opportunities in Kapiti proposes alternatives, using experimental design-led research methods to develop speculative architectural and landscape architectural schemes. The schemes are framed by some of the spatial attributes of resilience: diversity, complexity, redundancy, interconnectivity and adaptability. Collectively, the work reveals design strategies that have a potential to rebuild hinterlands’ culture, town centres, housing, agriculture, community and ecosystems and to recalibrate the broader relationship between hinterlands and metropolitan systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bioclimatic Analysis in Pre‐Design Stage of Passive  House in Indonesia
Buildings 2017, 7(1), 24; doi:10.3390/buildings7010024 -
Abstract
The objective of this study is to investigate the climate characteristics of Indonesian regions using an Olgyay Bioclimatic chart, a Givoni–Milne Bioclimatic chart and a Mahoney Table as the pre‐design stage in the development of a passive house design standard for residential house
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The objective of this study is to investigate the climate characteristics of Indonesian regions using an Olgyay Bioclimatic chart, a Givoni–Milne Bioclimatic chart and a Mahoney Table as the pre‐design stage in the development of a passive house design standard for residential house construction in Indonesia. Jakarta was the city chosen for deep analysis, because it represents most of the Indonesian regions in terms of temperature and relative humidity. The Olgyay Bioclimatic chart showed that the climate needs a high wind velocity to counteract the vapor pressure and shading in order to reduce solar gain entering the building. The Givoni–Milne Bioclimatic chart proposed natural ventilation and shading devices, while the Mahoney Table recommends open spaces for protection against hot wind, rooms single‐banked and permanent provision for air movement. The composite size of the opening at body height is better to allow the wind to counter the high levels of humidity and temperature. Heavy walls and roofs are suggested, as well as the provision of protection devices for the high amount of rainfall. Energy simulation was also done to investigate the effectiveness of the passive strategy proposed by the bioclimatic analysis. These results give a contribution as the indispensable basis for the development of a passive house standard in Indonesia. Full article
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