Buildings2015, 5(3), 985-1002; doi:10.3390/buildings5030985 (registering DOI) - published 28 August 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Projected climate change is likely to have a significant impact on a range of energy systems. When a building is the centre of that system, a changing climate will affect the energy system in several ways. Firstly, the energy demand of the building will be altered. Taken across the entire building stock, and placed in context of technological and behavioural changes over the same timescale, this can have implications for important parameters such as peak demand and load factors of energy requirement. The performance of demand-side, distribution/transmission and supply-side technologies can also alter as a result of changing temperatures. With such uncertainty, a flexible approach is required for ensuring that this whole energy system is robust for a wide range of future scenarios. Therefore, building design must have a standardised and systematic approach for integrating climate change into the overall energy assessment of a building (or buildings), understanding the implications for the larger energy network. Based on the work of the Low Carbon Futures (LCF) and Adaptation and Resilience In Energy Systems (ARIES) projects, this paper overviews some of the risks that might be linked to a changing climate in relation to provision and use of energy in buildings. The UK is used as a case-study but the outputs are demonstrated to be of relevance, and the tools applicable, to other countries.
Abstract: This study uses numerical thermal simulation to investigate the potential use of building geometry to eliminate or reduce current and future thermal discomfort overheating risk in UK Passivhaus dwellings. The study focused on the optimum inclination of a south façade to make use of the building shape to self-protect itself. Dynamic simulation modelling software was used to test a range of different inclined façades with regards to their effectiveness in reducing overheating risk. The research found that implementing a tilted façade could completely eliminate the risk of overheating for current UK climates, but with some consequences for natural ventilation and daylighting. Future overheating was significantly reduced by the tilted façade. However, geometric considerations could not eradicate completely the risk of thermal discomfort overheating, particularly by the 2080s.
Abstract: Biophilic design has received increasing attention as a design philosophy in recent years. This review paper focused on the three Biophilic design categories as proposed by Stephen Kellert and Elizabeth Calabrese in “The Practice of Biophilic Design”. Psychological, peer reviewed literature supporting the benefits of Biophilic design was searched for through the lens of restorative environments. Results indicate that there exists much evidence supporting certain attributes of Biophilic design (such as the presence of natural elements), while empirical evidence for other attributes (such as the use of natural materials or processes) is lacking. The review concludes with a call for more research on restorative environments and Biophilic design.
Abstract: The study aims to assess the urban heat island (UHI) effects in the city under the present land use conditions as well as those conditions proposed by the Hanoi Master Plan 2030 through numerical simulation, using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF). Furthermore, this paper assesses additional land use scenarios with different spatial and green space configurations. The results show that the implementation of the master plan does not significantly affect the peak air temperature in the built-up areas (approximately 1 °C higher at the maximum). However, high temperature areas, with temperature of 40–41 °C, would expand widely over the new built-up areas. On the other hand, the nocturnal air temperature would increase by up to 2–3 °C over the newly expanded built-up areas. The number of hotspots increased further when the strategic green spaces in the master plan were not taken into account. However, the cooling effect of the strategic green spaces did not reach the existing city center sufficiently because the green spaces are located far from the city center. The large and centralized green spaces proposed in the master plan were seen to be insufficient to mitigate UHIs compared to the equally distributed green spaces. Moreover, the greater reduction of hotspot areas by up to 56.5% was seen when the mixed forest is employed as the land cover in the green spaces.
Abstract: Many thermal comfort studies have been conducted in offices, classrooms and dwellings, but few in public buildings such as cathedrals, museums and markets. A recent thermal comfort study has been conducted in three naturally ventilated (NV) buildings, a cathedral, a museum and a market, in Jakarta, between March and April 2014. There is a curiosity as to whether people doing slightly different activities with slightly different clothing insulation values, in different building types, might have different comfort temperatures. Approximately the same number of subjects (respondents) participated in the study of each building. Using the same monitoring equipment, results of this study show that subjects’ comfort temperatures were found to be similar in all of the buildings; however, it was found that the spread of the subjects’ comfort range in the three buildings was significantly different.
Abstract: A building information model (BIM) contains data that can be accessed and exported for other uses during the lifetime of the building especially for facilities management (FM) and operations. Working under the guidance of well-designed BIM guidelines to insure completeness and compatibility with FM software, architects and contractors can deliver an information rich data model that is valuable to the client. Large owners such as universities often provide these detailed guidelines and deliverable requirements to their building teams. Investigation of the University of Southern California (USC) Facilities Management Service’s (FMS) website showed a detailed plan including standards, file names, parameter lists, and other requirements of BIM data, which were specifically designated for facilities management use, as deliverables on new construction projects. Three critical details were also unearthed in the reading of these documents: Revit was the default BIM software; COBie was adapted to help meet facilities management goals; and EcoDomus provided a display of the collected data viewed through Navisworks. Published accounts about the Cinema Arts Complex developed with and under these guidelines reported positive results. Further examination with new projects underway reveal the rapidly changing relational database landscape evident in the new USC “Project Record Revit Requirement Execution Plan (PRxP)”.