Open AccessCommentary
A Diagnosis of Denial: How Mental Health Classification Systems Have Struggled to Recognise Family Violence as a Serious Risk Factor in the Development of Mental Health Issues for Infants, Children, Adolescents and Adults
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(10), 133; doi:10.3390/brainsci7100133 -
Abstract
Child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) routinely overlook assessing for, and providing treatment to, infants and children living with family violence, despite family violence being declared endemic across the globe. As contemporary neuro-developmental research recognises the harm of being exposed to early
[...] Read more.
Child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) routinely overlook assessing for, and providing treatment to, infants and children living with family violence, despite family violence being declared endemic across the globe. As contemporary neuro-developmental research recognises the harm of being exposed to early relational trauma, key international diagnostic texts such as the DSM-5 and ICD-10 struggle to acknowledge or appreciate the relational complexities inherent in addressing family violence and its impacts during childhood. These key texts directly influence thinking, funding and research imperatives in adult services as well as CAMHS, however, they rarely reference family violence. Their emphasis is to pathologise conditions over exploring causality which may be attributable to relational violence. Consequently, CAMHS can miss important indicators of family violence, misdiagnose disorders and unwittingly, not address unacceptable risks in the child’s caregiving environment. Notwithstanding urgent safety concerns, ongoing exposure to family violence significantly heightens the development of mental illness amongst children. CAMHS providers cannot and should not rely on current diagnostic manuals alone. They need to act now to see family violence as a significant and important risk factor to mental health and to treat its impacts on children before these develop into enduring neurological difficulties. Full article
Open AccessReview
Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 and Oligodendrogenesis: Significance in Alcohol Use Disorders
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(10), 131; doi:10.3390/brainsci7100131 -
Abstract
Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder with few therapeutic strategies that address the core pathophysiology. Brain tissue loss and oxidative damage are key components of alcoholism, such that reversal of these phenomena may help break the addictive cycle in alcohol use disorder (AUD).
[...] Read more.
Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder with few therapeutic strategies that address the core pathophysiology. Brain tissue loss and oxidative damage are key components of alcoholism, such that reversal of these phenomena may help break the addictive cycle in alcohol use disorder (AUD). The current review focuses on platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1), a key modulator of the cerebral endothelial integrity and neuroinflammation, and a targetable transmembrane protein whose interaction within AUD has not been well explored. The current review will elaborate on the function of PECAM-1 in physiology and pathology and infer its contribution in AUD neuropathology. Recent research reveals that oligodendrocytes, whose primary function is myelination of neurons in the brain, are a key component in new learning and adaptation to environmental challenges. The current review briefly introduces the role of oligodendrocytes in healthy physiology and neuropathology. Importantly, we will highlight the recent evidence of dysregulation of oligodendrocytes in the context of AUD and then discuss their potential interaction with PECAM-1 on the cerebral endothelium. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Three Lipidated Oxytocin Analogs on Behavioral Deficits in CD38 Knockout Mice
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(10), 132; doi:10.3390/brainsci7100132 -
Abstract
Oxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide that plays an important role in social behavior. Nasal administration of OT has been shown to improve trust in healthy humans and social interaction in autistic subjects. As is consistent with the nature of a peptide, OT has
[...] Read more.
Oxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide that plays an important role in social behavior. Nasal administration of OT has been shown to improve trust in healthy humans and social interaction in autistic subjects. As is consistent with the nature of a peptide, OT has some unfavorable characteristics: it has a short half-life in plasma and shows poor permeability across the blood-brain barrier. Analogs with long-lasting effects may overcome these drawbacks. To this end, we have synthesized three analogs: lipo-oxytocin-1 (LOT-1), in which two palmitoyl groups are conjugated to the cysteine and tyrosine residues, lipo-oxytocin-2 (LOT-2) and lipo-oxytocin-3 (LOT-3), which include one palmitoyl group conjugated at the cysteine or tyrosine residue, respectively. The following behavioral deficits were observed in CD38 knockout (CD38−/−) mice: a lack of paternal nurturing in CD38−/− sires, decreased ability for social recognition, and decreased sucrose consumption. OT demonstrated the ability to recover these disturbances to the level of wild-type mice for 30 min after injection. LOT-2 and LOT-3 partially recovered the behaviors for a short period. Conversely, LOT-1 restored the behavioral parameters, not for 30 min, but for 24 h. These data suggest that the lipidation of OT has some therapeutic benefits, and LOT-1 would be most useful because of its long-last activity. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Propofol Induces Apoptosis of Neurons but Not Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, or Neural Stem Cells in the Neonatal Mouse Hippocampus
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(10), 130; doi:10.3390/brainsci7100130 -
Abstract
It has been shown that propofol can induce widespread apoptosis in neonatal mouse brains followed by long-term cognitive dysfunction. However, selective brain area and cell vulnerability to propofol remains unknown. This study was aimed to dissect toxic effect of propofol on multiple brain
[...] Read more.
It has been shown that propofol can induce widespread apoptosis in neonatal mouse brains followed by long-term cognitive dysfunction. However, selective brain area and cell vulnerability to propofol remains unknown. This study was aimed to dissect toxic effect of propofol on multiple brain cells, including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neural stem cells (NSCs). Seven-day-old mice were intraperitoneally administrated propofol or intralipid as a vehicle control for 6 hours. To identify vulnerable cells undergoing apoptosis following propofol exposure, brain sagittal sections were co-stained with antibodies against an apoptosis marker along with neuron, astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, or NSC markers using immunofluorescence staining. The results showed widespread apoptosis in propofol-treated brains (apoptotic cells: 1.55 ± 0.04% and 0.06 ± 0.01% in propofol group and intralipid-treated control group, respectively). Apoptotic cell distribution exhibits region- and cell-specific patterns. Several brain regions (e.g., cerebral cortex and hippocampus) were more vulnerable to propofol than other brain regions. Most apoptotic cells in the hippocampus were located in the cornus ammonis 1 (CA1) subfield. These apoptotic cells were only detected in neurons and not astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, or NSCs. These data demonstrate that different brain regions, subfields, and different types of neuronal cells in mice exhibit various vulnerabilities to propofol. Understanding region- and cell-specific susceptibility to propofol will help to better understand cellular contribution to developmental neurotoxicity and further develop novel therapeutic targets. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Neural Hyperexcitability in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(10), 129; doi:10.3390/brainsci7100129 -
Abstract
Despite the progress that has been made in research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the understanding of the biological basis of ASD to identify targets for novel, effective treatment remains limited. One of the leading biological theories of autism is a model of
[...] Read more.
Despite the progress that has been made in research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the understanding of the biological basis of ASD to identify targets for novel, effective treatment remains limited. One of the leading biological theories of autism is a model of cortical hyperexcitability. While numerous genetic and epigenetic studies support this model, how this particular biological alteration relates to known phenotypes in ASD is not well established. Using examples of sensory processing alterations, this review illustrates how cortical excitability may affect neural processes to result eventually in some core clinical phenotypes in ASD. Applications of the cortical excitability model for translational research and drug development are also discussed. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
An Overview of Recent Findings on Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescents and Young Adults at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(10), 127; doi:10.3390/brainsci7100127 -
Abstract
Background: Some studies have shown that anxiety is particularly frequent in the Clinical High Risk (CHR) for psychosis population. Notably, social anxiety disorder is identified as one of the most common anxiety disorders in CHR adolescents and young adults. Despite this, the frequency
[...] Read more.
Background: Some studies have shown that anxiety is particularly frequent in the Clinical High Risk (CHR) for psychosis population. Notably, social anxiety disorder is identified as one of the most common anxiety disorders in CHR adolescents and young adults. Despite this, the frequency and the clinical significance of social anxiety in this population have been underestimated. Methods: A selective review of literature published between 2011 and 2017 on social anxiety disorder in CHR adolescents and young adults. Results: Five studies are included. In particular, three studies demonstrated that CHR adolescents and young adults have higher levels of anxiety compared to controls. Furthermore, anxiety, including social anxiety, is related to the severity of psychotic symptoms. The other studies included show inconsistent results regarding the possible relationship between social anxiety and social functioning. Conclusions: To date, the eidence concerning the comorbidity of social anxiety disorder and CHR in adolescents and young adults is not sufficient to provide clear guidelines for clinical practice. Future longitudinal studies on larger samples of the CHR adolescents and young adults are required to examine the relationship between social anxiety disorder and the presence of attenuated psychotic symptomatology. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Protein Misfolding and Aggregation as a Therapeutic Target for Polyglutamine Diseases
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(10), 128; doi:10.3390/brainsci7100128 -
Abstract
The polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, such as Huntington’s disease and several types of spinocerebellar ataxias, are a group of inherited neurodegenerative diseases that are caused by an abnormal expansion of the polyQ tract in disease-causative proteins. Proteins with an abnormally expanded polyQ stretch undergo
[...] Read more.
The polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, such as Huntington’s disease and several types of spinocerebellar ataxias, are a group of inherited neurodegenerative diseases that are caused by an abnormal expansion of the polyQ tract in disease-causative proteins. Proteins with an abnormally expanded polyQ stretch undergo a conformational transition to β-sheet rich structure, which assemble into insoluble aggregates with β-sheet rich amyloid fibrillar structures and accumulate as inclusion bodies in neurons, eventually leading to neurodegeneration. Since misfolding and aggregation of the expanded polyQ proteins are the most upstream event in the most common pathogenic cascade of the polyQ diseases, they are proposed to be one of the most ideal targets for development of disease-modifying therapies for polyQ diseases. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the molecular pathogenic mechanisms of the polyQ diseases, and introduce therapeutic approaches targeting misfolding and aggregation of the expanded polyQ proteins, which are not only effective on a wide spectrum of polyQ diseases, but also broadly correct the functional abnormalities of multiple downstream cellular processes affected in the aggregation process of polyQ proteins. We hope that in the near future, effective therapies are developed, to bring hope to many patients suffering from currently intractable polyQ diseases. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Child Community Mental Health Services in Asia Pacific and Singapore’s REACH Model
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(10), 126; doi:10.3390/brainsci7100126 -
Abstract
In recent decades, there have been concerted efforts to improve mental health services for youths alongside the challenges of rising healthcare costs and increasing demand for mental health needs. One important phenomenon is the shift from traditional clinic-based care to community-based mental health
[...] Read more.
In recent decades, there have been concerted efforts to improve mental health services for youths alongside the challenges of rising healthcare costs and increasing demand for mental health needs. One important phenomenon is the shift from traditional clinic-based care to community-based mental health services to improve accessibility to services and provide patient-centred care. In this article, we discuss the child and adolescent community mental health efforts within the Asia-Pacific region. We also discuss Singapore’s community and school-based mental health service, known as the Response, Early Intervention and Assessment in Community Mental Health (REACH). This article discusses how REACH has evolved over the years in response to the changing needs of youths in Singapore. Finally, we discuss the current challenges and future directions for youth mental health care. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Impact of Prenatal and Subsequent Adult Alcohol Exposure on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in Brain Regions Necessary for Simple Recognition Memory
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(10), 125; doi:10.3390/brainsci7100125 -
Abstract
Microglia, the immune cells of the brain, are important and necessary for appropriate neural development; however, activation of microglia, concomitant with increased levels of secreted immune molecules during brain development, can leave the brain susceptible to certain long-term changes in immune function associated
[...] Read more.
Microglia, the immune cells of the brain, are important and necessary for appropriate neural development; however, activation of microglia, concomitant with increased levels of secreted immune molecules during brain development, can leave the brain susceptible to certain long-term changes in immune function associated with neurological and developmental disorders. One mechanism by which microglia can be activated is via alcohol exposure. We sought to investigate if low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure can alter the neuroimmune response to a subsequent acute dose of alcohol in adulthood. We also used the novel object location and recognition memory tasks to determine whether there are cognitive deficits associated with low prenatal alcohol exposure and subsequent adulthood alcohol exposure. We found that adult rats exposed to an acute binge-like level of alcohol, regardless of gestational alcohol exposure, have a robust increase in the expression of Interleukin (IL)-6 within the brain, and a significant decrease in the expression of IL-1β and CD11b. Rats exposed to alcohol during gestation, adulthood, or at both time points exhibited impaired cognitive performance in the cognitive tasks. These results indicate that both low-level prenatal alcohol exposure and even acute alcohol exposure in adulthood can significantly impact neuroimmune and associated cognitive function. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Advances in Neuroimmunology
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(10), 124; doi:10.3390/brainsci7100124 -
Abstract
It is now widely accepted that an innate immune system exists within the brain and plays an important role in both physiological and pathological processes [1,2].[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Multifaceted Communication Problems in Everyday Conversations Involving People with Parkinson’s Disease
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(10), 123; doi:10.3390/brainsci7100123 -
Abstract
It is known that Parkinson’s disease is often accompanied by a motor speech disorder, which results in impaired communication. However, people with Parkinson’s disease may also have impaired word retrieval (anomia) and other communicative problems, which have a negative impact on their ability
[...] Read more.
It is known that Parkinson’s disease is often accompanied by a motor speech disorder, which results in impaired communication. However, people with Parkinson’s disease may also have impaired word retrieval (anomia) and other communicative problems, which have a negative impact on their ability to participate in conversations with family as well as healthcare staff. The aim of the present study was to explore effects of impaired speech and language on communication and how this is managed by people with Parkinson’s disease and their spouses. Using a qualitative method based on Conversation Analysis, in-depth analyses were performed on natural conversational interaction in five dyads including elderly men who were at different stages of Parkinson’s disease. The findings showed that the motor speech disorder in combination with word retrieval difficulties and adaptations, such as using communication strategies, may result in atypical utterances that are difficult for communication partners to understand. The coexistence of several communication problems compounds the difficulties faced in conversations and individuals with Parkinson’s disease are often dependent on cooperation with their communication partner to make themselves understood. Full article
Open AccessReview
Changes in Cognition and Decision Making Capacity Following Brain Tumour Resection: Illustrated with Two Cases
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(10), 122; doi:10.3390/brainsci7100122 -
Abstract
Changes in cognition, behaviour and emotion frequently occur in patients with primary and secondary brain tumours. This impacts the ability to make considered decisions, especially following surgical resection, which is often overlooked in the management of patients. Moreover, the impact of cognitive deficits
[...] Read more.
Changes in cognition, behaviour and emotion frequently occur in patients with primary and secondary brain tumours. This impacts the ability to make considered decisions, especially following surgical resection, which is often overlooked in the management of patients. Moreover, the impact of cognitive deficits on decision making ability affects activities of daily living and functional independence. The assessment process to ascertain decision making capacity remains a matter of debate. One avenue for evaluating a patient’s ability to make informed decisions in the context of brain tumour resection is neuropsychological assessment. This involves the assessment of a wide range of cognitive abilities on standard measurement tools, providing a robust approach to ascertaining capacity. Evidence has shown that a comprehensive and tailored neuropsychological assessment has greater sensitivity than brief cognitive screening tools to detect subtle and/or specific cognitive deficits in brain tumours. It is the precise nature and severity of any cognitive deficits that determines any implications for decision making capacity. This paper focuses on cognitive deficits and decision making capacity following surgical resection of both benign and malignant, and primary and secondary brain tumours in adult patients, and the implications for patients’ ability to consent to future medical treatment and make decisions related to everyday activities. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Integrity of Cerebellar Fastigial Nucleus Intrinsic Neurons Is Critical for the Global Ischemic Preconditioning
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(10), 121; doi:10.3390/brainsci7100121 -
Abstract
Excitation of intrinsic neurons of cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) renders brain tolerant to local and global ischemia. This effect reaches a maximum 72 h after the stimulation and lasts over 10 days. Comparable neuroprotection is observed following sublethal global brain ischemia, a phenomenon
[...] Read more.
Excitation of intrinsic neurons of cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) renders brain tolerant to local and global ischemia. This effect reaches a maximum 72 h after the stimulation and lasts over 10 days. Comparable neuroprotection is observed following sublethal global brain ischemia, a phenomenon known as preconditioning. We hypothesized that FN may participate in the mechanisms of ischemic preconditioning as a part of the intrinsic neuroprotective mechanism. To explore potential significance of FN neurons in brain ischemic tolerance we lesioned intrinsic FN neurons with excitotoxin ibotenic acid five days before exposure to 20 min four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) global ischemia while analyzing neuronal damage in Cornu Ammoni area 1 (CA1) hippocampal area one week later. In FN-lesioned animals, loss of CA1 cells was higher by 22% compared to control (phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-injected) animals. Moreover, lesion of FN neurons increased morbidity following global ischemia by 50%. Ablation of FN neurons also reversed salvaging effects of five-minute ischemic preconditioning on CA1 neurons and morbidity, while ablation of cerebellar dentate nucleus neurons did not change effect of ischemic preconditioning. We conclude that FN is an important part of intrinsic neuroprotective system, which participates in ischemic preconditioning and may participate in naturally occurring neuroprotection, such as “diving response”. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Investing in the Early Childhood Mental Health Workforce Development: Enhancing Professionals’ Competencies to Support Emotion and Behavior Regulation in Young Children
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(9), 120; doi:10.3390/brainsci7090120 -
Abstract
This paper delineates a preventive approach to early childhood mental health by preparing the workforce to provide relational, sensitive care to young children ages 0–5. One of the most prevalent issues in early childhood is behavioral challenges and the inability of young children
[...] Read more.
This paper delineates a preventive approach to early childhood mental health by preparing the workforce to provide relational, sensitive care to young children ages 0–5. One of the most prevalent issues in early childhood is behavioral challenges and the inability of young children to regulate themselves. This leads to an expulsion rate in early childhood (3–4 times higher than K-12 expulsion rate) and future mental health issues. The Early Childhood Social-Emotional and Behavior Regulation Intervention Specialist (EC-SEBRIS) graduate level certificate program was created to strengthen early care and education providers with the knowledge and practice of how to support emotion and behavior regulation in young children in their groups. Evaluation data provide evidence that early care and education professionals increased in their perception of self-efficacy and in their sensitivity of care and skills to support behavioral health in young children. Results indicated that the children in their care showed less challenging behaviors and increased social competencies. This manuscript highlights the importance of prevention and the dire need to provide young children with high-quality, appropriate care to support their mental health. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessConcept Paper
COACH CV: The Seven Clinical Phenotypes of Concussion
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(9), 119; doi:10.3390/brainsci7090119 -
Abstract
Our understanding of the diverse physiological manifestations of concussion is changing rapidly. This has an influence on the clinical assessment of patients who have sustained a concussion. The 2017 Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport states that numerous post-injury clinical findings, such as
[...] Read more.
Our understanding of the diverse physiological manifestations of concussion is changing rapidly. This has an influence on the clinical assessment of patients who have sustained a concussion. The 2017 Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport states that numerous post-injury clinical findings, such as cognitive deficits, post-traumatic headaches, dizziness, difficulties with oculomotor function, and depression have all been associated with a poorer prognosis in concussed patients. This demonstrates that there are several potential clinical manifestations after head injury warranting clinical evaluation. We have developed an acronym to guide the office-based assessment of concussed patients to consider each of the potential clinical phenotypes. “COACH CV” prompts the clinician to evaluate for cognitive problems, oculomotor dysfunction, affective disturbances, cervical spine disorders, headaches, and cardiovascular and vestibular anomalies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Feasibility of Equivalent Dipole Models for Electroencephalogram-Based Brain Computer Interfaces
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(9), 118; doi:10.3390/brainsci7090118 -
Abstract
This article examines the localization errors of equivalent dipolar sources inverted from the surface electroencephalogram in order to determine the feasibility of using their location as classification parameters for non-invasive brain computer interfaces. Inverse localization errors are examined for two head models: a
[...] Read more.
This article examines the localization errors of equivalent dipolar sources inverted from the surface electroencephalogram in order to determine the feasibility of using their location as classification parameters for non-invasive brain computer interfaces. Inverse localization errors are examined for two head models: a model represented by four concentric spheres and a realistic model based on medical imagery. It is shown that the spherical model results in localization ambiguity such that a number of dipolar sources, with different azimuths and varying orientations, provide a near match to the electroencephalogram of the best equivalent source. No such ambiguity exists for the elevation of inverted sources, indicating that for spherical head models, only the elevation of inverted sources (and not the azimuth) can be expected to provide meaningful classification parameters for brain–computer interfaces. In a realistic head model, all three parameters of the inverted source location are found to be reliable, providing a more robust set of parameters. In both cases, the residual error hypersurfaces demonstrate local minima, indicating that a search for the best-matching sources should be global. Source localization error vs. signal-to-noise ratio is also demonstrated for both head models. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Risk Factors for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(9), 117; doi:10.3390/brainsci7090117 -
Abstract
It was has been my pleasure to have acted as the guest editor for the Brain Sciences Special Issue on Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI).[...] Full article
Open AccessErratum
Erratum: Balconi, M.; et al. Evidences from Rewarding System, FRN and P300 Effect in Internet-Addiction in Young People SHORT TITLE: Rewarding System and EEG in Internet-Addiction Brain Sciences 2017, 7, 81
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(9), 116; doi:10.3390/brainsci7090116 -
Abstract
We would like to submit the following erratum to our recently published paper [1] due to the error in the title.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Childhood Autism
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(9), 115; doi:10.3390/brainsci7090115 -
Abstract
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of heterogeneous, behaviorally defined disorders whereby currently no biological markers are common to all affected individuals. A deregulated immune response may be contributing to the etiology of ASD. The active metabolite of vitamin D3
[...] Read more.
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of heterogeneous, behaviorally defined disorders whereby currently no biological markers are common to all affected individuals. A deregulated immune response may be contributing to the etiology of ASD. The active metabolite of vitamin D3 has an immunoregulatory role mediated by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in monocyte, macrophages, and lymphocytes. The effects of vitamin D and interaction with the VDR may be influenced by polymorphism in the VDR gene. Methods: Genetic association of four different VDR polymorphisms (Apa-I, Bsm-I, Taq-I, Fok-I) associated with susceptibility to the development of autism in children was investigated. Results: We uniquely found an association between the presence of the T allele at position Taq-I and presence of the a allele at position Apa-I of the VDR gene with decreased ASD incidence. There was also an association between female gender and the presence of the T allele. We found no statistical significant correlation between VDR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and vitamin D3 concentration in serum of ASD children. Conclusion: Genetic polymorphism in two SNP in VDR may be correlated with development of ASD symptoms by influencing functionality of vitamin D3 metabolism, while vitamin D3 levels were not significantly different between ASD and non-ASD children. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Computer versus Compensatory Calendar Training in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Functional Impact in a Pilot Study
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(9), 112; doi:10.3390/brainsci7090112 -
Abstract
This pilot study examined the functional impact of computerized versus compensatory calendar training in cognitive rehabilitation participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Fifty-seven participants with amnestic MCI completed randomly assigned calendar or computer training. A standard care control group was used for comparison.
[...] Read more.
This pilot study examined the functional impact of computerized versus compensatory calendar training in cognitive rehabilitation participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Fifty-seven participants with amnestic MCI completed randomly assigned calendar or computer training. A standard care control group was used for comparison. Measures of adherence, memory-based activities of daily living (mADLs), and self-efficacy were completed. The calendar training group demonstrated significant improvement in mADLs compared to controls, while the computer training group did not. Calendar training may be more effective in improving mADLs than computerized intervention. However, this study highlights how behavioral trials with fewer than 30–50 participants per arm are likely underpowered, resulting in seemingly null findings. Full article
Figures

Figure 1