Open AccessReview
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Systematic Review.
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 37; doi:10.3390/brainsci8020037 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Despite the advances in psychopharmacology and established psychotherapeutic interventions, more than 40% of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not respond to conventional treatment approaches. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been recently proposed as a therapeutic tool to alleviate treatment-resistant symptoms in
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Despite the advances in psychopharmacology and established psychotherapeutic interventions, more than 40% of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not respond to conventional treatment approaches. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been recently proposed as a therapeutic tool to alleviate treatment-resistant symptoms in patients with OCD. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art and future clinical applications of tDCS in patients with OCD. A literature search conducted on the PubMed database following PRISMA guidelines and completed by a manual search yielded 12 results: eight case reports, three open-label studies (with 5, 8, and 42 participants), and one randomized trial with two active conditions (12 patients). There was no sham-controlled study. A total of 77 patients received active tDCS with a large diversity of electrode montages mainly targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex or the (pre-) supplementary motor area. Despite methodological limitations and the heterogeneity of stimulation parameters, tDCS appears to be a promising tool to decrease obsessive-compulsive symptoms as well as comorbid depression and anxiety in patients with treatment-resistant OCD. Further sham-controlled studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results. Full article
Open AccessReview
Neurobiology of Propofol Addiction and Supportive Evidence: What Is the New Development?
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 36; doi:10.3390/brainsci8020036 -
Abstract
Propofol is a short-acting intravenous anesthetic agent suitable for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia as well as for procedural and intensive care unit sedation. As such it has become an unparalleled anesthetic agent of choice in many institutional and office practices. However,
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Propofol is a short-acting intravenous anesthetic agent suitable for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia as well as for procedural and intensive care unit sedation. As such it has become an unparalleled anesthetic agent of choice in many institutional and office practices. However, in addition to its idealistic properties as an anesthetic agent, there is accumulating evidence suggesting its potential for abuse. Clinical and experimental evidence has revealed that not only does propofol have the potential to be abused, but also that addiction to propofol shows a high mortality rate. Based on this evidence, different researchers have shown interest in determining the probability of propofol to be an addictive agent by comparing it with other drugs of abuse and depicting a functional similitude that involves the mesocorticolimbic pathway of addiction. In light of this, the Drug Enforcement Agency and the American Society of Anesthesiologists have put forth certain safety recommendations for the use of propofol. Despite this, the abuse potential of propofol has been challenged at different levels and therefore the preeminent focus will be to further validate the linkage from medicinal and occasional use of propofol to its addiction, as well as to explore the cellular and molecular targets involved in establishing this linkage, so as to curb the harm arising out of it. This review incorporates the clinical and biomolecular evidence supporting the abuse potential of propofol and brings forth the promising targets and the foreseeable mechanism causing the propofol addiction phenotypes, which can be called upon for future developments in this field. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Octodrine: New Questions and Challenges in Sport Supplements
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 34; doi:10.3390/brainsci8020034 -
Abstract
Background: Octodrine is the trade name for Dimethylhexylamine (DMHA), a central nervous stimulant that increases the uptake of dopamine and noradrenaline. Originally developed as a nasal decongestant in the 1950’s, it has recently been re-introduced on the market as a pre-workout and
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Background: Octodrine is the trade name for Dimethylhexylamine (DMHA), a central nervous stimulant that increases the uptake of dopamine and noradrenaline. Originally developed as a nasal decongestant in the 1950’s, it has recently been re-introduced on the market as a pre-workout and ‘fat-burner’ product but its use remains unregulated. Our work provides the first observational cross-sectional analytic study on Octodrine as a new drug trend and its associated harms after a gap spanning seven decades. Methods: A comprehensive multilingual assessment of literature, websites, drug fora and other online resources was carried out with no time restriction in English, German, Russian and Arabic. Keywords included Octodrine’s synonyms and chemical isomers. Results: Only five relevant publications emerged from the literature search, with most of the available data on body building websites and fora. Since 2015, Octodrine has been advertised online as “the next big thing” and “the god of stimulants,” with captivating marketing strategies directed at athletes and a wider cohort of users. Reported side-effects include hypertension, dyspnoea and hyperthermia. Conclusions: The uncontrolled use of Octodrine, its physiological and psychoactive effects raise serious health implications with possible impact on athletes and doping practices. This new phenomenon needs to be thoroughly studied and monitored. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Surgical Considerations of Intractable Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 35; doi:10.3390/brainsci8020035 -
Abstract
Surgery of temporal lobe epilepsy is the best opportunity for seizure freedom in medically intractable patients. The surgical approach has evolved to recognize the paramount importance of the mesial temporal structures in the majority of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy who have a
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Surgery of temporal lobe epilepsy is the best opportunity for seizure freedom in medically intractable patients. The surgical approach has evolved to recognize the paramount importance of the mesial temporal structures in the majority of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy who have a seizure origin in the mesial temporal structures. For those individuals with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, a selective amygdalohippocampectomy surgery can be done that provides an excellent opportunity for seizure freedom and limits the resection to temporal lobe structures primarily involved in seizure genesis. Full article
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Open AccessReview
New Insights into the Role of Neuron-Specific Enolase in Neuro-Inflammation, Neurodegeneration, and Neuroprotection
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 33; doi:10.3390/brainsci8020033 -
Abstract
Neurodegeneration is a complex process that leads to irreversible neuronal damage and death in spinal cord injury (SCI) and various neurodegenerative diseases, which are serious, debilitating conditions. Despite exhaustive research, the cause of neuronal damage in these degenerative disorders is not completely understood.
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Neurodegeneration is a complex process that leads to irreversible neuronal damage and death in spinal cord injury (SCI) and various neurodegenerative diseases, which are serious, debilitating conditions. Despite exhaustive research, the cause of neuronal damage in these degenerative disorders is not completely understood. Elevation of cell surface α-enolase activates various inflammatory pathways, including the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and some growth factors that are detrimental to neuronal cells. While α-enolase is present in all neurological tissues, it can also be converted to neuron specific enolase (NSE). NSE is a glycolytic enzyme found in neuronal and neuroendocrine tissues that may play a dual role in promoting both neuroinflammation and neuroprotection in SCI and other neurodegenerative events. Elevated NSE can promote ECM degradation, inflammatory glial cell proliferation, and actin remodeling, thereby affecting migration of activated macrophages and microglia to the injury site and promoting neuronal cell death. Thus, NSE could be a reliable, quantitative, and specific marker of neuronal injury. Depending on the injury, disease, and microenvironment, NSE may also show neurotrophic function as it controls neuronal survival, differentiation, and neurite regeneration via activation of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. This review discusses possible implications of NSE expression and activity in neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and neuroprotection in SCI and various neurodegenerative diseases for prognostic and therapeutic potential. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Neuroprotective Effects of Bioactive Compounds and MAPK Pathway Modulation in “Ischemia”—Stressed PC12 Pheochromocytoma Cells
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 32; doi:10.3390/brainsci8020032 -
Abstract
This review surveys the efforts taken to investigate in vitro neuroprotective features of synthetic compounds and cell-released growth factors on PC12 clonal cell line temporarily deprived of oxygen and glucose followed by reoxygenation (OGD/R). These cells have been used previously to mimic some
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This review surveys the efforts taken to investigate in vitro neuroprotective features of synthetic compounds and cell-released growth factors on PC12 clonal cell line temporarily deprived of oxygen and glucose followed by reoxygenation (OGD/R). These cells have been used previously to mimic some of the properties of in vivo brain ischemia-reperfusion-injury (IRI) and have been instrumental in identifying common mechanisms such as calcium overload, redox potential, lipid peroxidation and MAPKs modulation. In addition, they were useful for establishing the role of certain membrane penetrable cocktails of antioxidants as well as potential growth factors which may act in neuroprotection. Pharmacological mechanisms of neuroprotection addressing modulation of the MAPK cascade and increased redox potential by natural products, drugs and growth factors secreted by stem cells, in either undifferentiated or nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 cells exposed to ischemic conditions are discussed for future prospects in neuroprotection studies. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Acute Confusional Migraine: Distinct Clinical Entity or Spectrum of Migraine Biology?
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 29; doi:10.3390/brainsci8020029 -
Abstract
The goal of this review is to explore the literature reports of acute confusional migraine (ACM) including patient characteristics, migraine symptomatology, and proposed diagnostic criteria. A literature review was conducted using PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science using the terms “confusional migraine” and
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The goal of this review is to explore the literature reports of acute confusional migraine (ACM) including patient characteristics, migraine symptomatology, and proposed diagnostic criteria. A literature review was conducted using PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science using the terms “confusional migraine” and “confusional state in migraine”. All the relevant articles from 1970 to 2016 were included. A total of 120 patients were found in the literature. Most of the cases were seen in the pediatric population with a slight male predominance. Personal or family history of migraine was common. Most patients had a headache prior to the confusional state. In addition to confusion and agitation, some developed visual (32.5%) and/or sensory symptoms (19%) and/or speech problems (39%) either prior to or during the confusional state. Data on treatment outcomes is lacking. Patients with most common forms of migraine report attention and cognitive disturbances but awareness remains intact as opposed to patients with ACM. ACM is a distinct entity and should be included as part of the appendix of International Classification of Headache Disoders-3 beta version (ICHD-3β) criteria. Prospective studies are needed to further study this disorder and its association with other migraine forms. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Possible Role of Inflammation and Galectin-3 in Brain Injury after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 30; doi:10.3390/brainsci8020030 -
Abstract
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is known as one of the most devastating diseases in the central nervous system. In the past few decades, research on SAH has focused on cerebral vasospasm to prevent post-SAH delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and to improve outcomes. However,
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Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is known as one of the most devastating diseases in the central nervous system. In the past few decades, research on SAH has focused on cerebral vasospasm to prevent post-SAH delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and to improve outcomes. However, increasing evidence has suggested that early brain injury (EBI) is an important mechanism contributing to DCI, cerebral vasospasm as well as poor outcomes. Though the mechanism of EBI is very complex, inflammation is thought to play a pivotal role in EBI. Galectin-3 is a unique chimera type in the galectin family characterized by its β-galactoside-binding lectin, which mediates various pathologies, such as fibrosis, cell adhesion, and inflammation. Recently, two clinical studies revealed galectin-3 to be a possible prognostic biomarker in SAH patients. In addition, our recent report suggested that higher acute-stage plasma galectin-3 levels correlated with subsequent development of delayed cerebral infarction that was not associated with vasospasm in SAH patients. We review the possible role and molecular mechanisms of inflammation as well as galectin-3 in brain injuries, especially focusing on EBI after SAH, and discuss galectin-3 as a potential new therapeutic or research target in post-SAH brain injuries. Full article
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Open AccessReview
With a Little Help from My Friends: The Role of Intraoperative Fluorescent Dyes in the Surgical Management of High-Grade Gliomas
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 31; doi:10.3390/brainsci8020031 -
Abstract
High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are the most frequent primary malignant brain tumors in adults, which lead to death within two years of diagnosis. Maximal safe resection of malignant gliomas as the first step of multimodal therapy is an accepted goal in malignant glioma surgery.
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High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are the most frequent primary malignant brain tumors in adults, which lead to death within two years of diagnosis. Maximal safe resection of malignant gliomas as the first step of multimodal therapy is an accepted goal in malignant glioma surgery. Gross total resection has an important role in improving overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), but identification of tumor borders is particularly difficult in HGGS. For this reason, imaging adjuncts, such as 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) or fluorescein sodium (FS) have been proposed as superior strategies for better defining the limits of surgical resection for HGG. 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is implicated as precursor in the synthetic pathway of heme group. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is an intermediate compound of heme metabolism, which produces fluorescence when excited by appropriate light wavelength. Malignant glioma cells have the capacity to selectively synthesize or accumulate 5-ALA-derived porphyrins after exogenous administration of 5-ALA. Fluorescein sodium (FS), on the other hand, is a fluorescent substance that is not specific to tumor cells but actually it is a marker for compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB) areas. Its effectiveness is confirmed by multicenter phase-II trial (FLUOGLIO) but lack of randomized phase III trial data. We conducted an analytic review of the literature with the objective of identifying the usefulness of 5-ALA and FS in HGG surgery in adult patients. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Electric Field Comparison between Microelectrode Recording and Deep Brain Stimulation Systems—A Simulation Study
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 28; doi:10.3390/brainsci8020028 -
Abstract
The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) relies primarily on the localization of the implanted electrode. Its final position can be chosen based on the results of intraoperative microelectrode recording (MER) and stimulation tests. The optimal position often differs from the final one
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The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) relies primarily on the localization of the implanted electrode. Its final position can be chosen based on the results of intraoperative microelectrode recording (MER) and stimulation tests. The optimal position often differs from the final one selected for chronic stimulation with the DBS electrode. The aim of the study was to investigate, using finite element method (FEM) modeling and simulations, whether lead design, electrical setup, and operating modes induce differences in electric field (EF) distribution and in consequence, the clinical outcome. Finite element models of a MER system and a chronic DBS lead were developed. Simulations of the EF were performed for homogenous and patient-specific brain models to evaluate the influence of grounding (guide tube vs. stimulator case), parallel MER leads, and non-active DBS contacts. Results showed that the EF is deformed depending on the distance between the guide tube and stimulating contact. Several parallel MER leads and the presence of the non-active DBS contacts influence the EF distribution. The DBS EF volume can cover the intraoperatively produced EF, but can also extend to other anatomical areas. In conclusion, EF deformations between stimulation tests and DBS should be taken into consideration as they can alter the clinical outcome. Full article
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Open AccessReview
ABCA7 and Pathogenic Pathways of Alzheimer’s Disease
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 27; doi:10.3390/brainsci8020027 -
Abstract
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) reporter family functions to regulate the homeostasis of phospholipids and cholesterol in the central nervous system, as well as peripheral tissues. ABCA7 belongs to the A subfamily of ABC transporters, which shares 54% sequence identity with ABCA1. While ABCA7
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The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) reporter family functions to regulate the homeostasis of phospholipids and cholesterol in the central nervous system, as well as peripheral tissues. ABCA7 belongs to the A subfamily of ABC transporters, which shares 54% sequence identity with ABCA1. While ABCA7 is expressed in a variety of tissues/organs, including the brain, recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ABCA7 gene variants as susceptibility loci for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). More important, subsequent genome sequencing analyses have revealed that premature termination codon mutations in ABCA7 are associated with the increased risk for AD. Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia, where the accumulation and deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides cleaved from amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain trigger the pathogenic cascade of the disease. In consistence with human genetic studies, increasing evidence has demonstrated that ABCA7 deficiency exacerbates Aβ pathology using in vitro and in vivo models. While ABCA7 has been shown to mediate phagocytic activity in macrophages, ABCA7 is also involved in the microglial Aβ clearance pathway. Furthermore, ABCA7 deficiency results in accelerated Aβ production, likely by facilitating endocytosis and/or processing of APP. Taken together, current evidence suggests that ABCA7 loss-of-function contributes to AD-related phenotypes through multiple pathways. A better understanding of the function of ABCA7 beyond lipid metabolism in both physiological and pathological conditions becomes increasingly important to explore AD pathogenesis. Full article
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Open AccessReview
What is Developmental Dyslexia?
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 26; doi:10.3390/brainsci8020026 -
Abstract
Until the 1950s, developmental dyslexia was defined as a hereditary visual disability, selectively affecting reading without compromising oral or non-verbal reasoning skills. This changed radically after the development of the phonological theory of dyslexia; this not only ruled out any role for visual
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Until the 1950s, developmental dyslexia was defined as a hereditary visual disability, selectively affecting reading without compromising oral or non-verbal reasoning skills. This changed radically after the development of the phonological theory of dyslexia; this not only ruled out any role for visual processing in its aetiology, but it also cast doubt on the use of discrepancy between reading and reasoning skills as a criterion for diagnosing it. Here I argue that this theory is set at too high a cognitive level to be explanatory; we need to understand the pathophysiological visual and auditory mechanisms that cause children’s phonological problems. I discuss how the ‘magnocellular theory’ attempts to do this in terms of slowed and error prone temporal processing which leads to dyslexics’ defective visual and auditory sequencing when attempting to read. I attempt to deal with the criticisms of this theory and show how it leads to a number of successful ways of helping dyslexic children to overcome their reading difficulties. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Consonant and Vowel Processing in Word Form Segmentation: An Infant ERP Study
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 24; doi:10.3390/brainsci8020024 -
Abstract
Segmentation skill and the preferential processing of consonants (C-bias) develop during the second half of the first year of life and it has been proposed that these facilitate language acquisition. We used Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neural bases of early
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Segmentation skill and the preferential processing of consonants (C-bias) develop during the second half of the first year of life and it has been proposed that these facilitate language acquisition. We used Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neural bases of early word form segmentation, and of the early processing of onset consonants, medial vowels, and coda consonants, exploring how differences in these early skills might be related to later language outcomes. Our results with French-learning eight-month-old infants primarily support previous studies that found that the word familiarity effect in segmentation is developing from a positive to a negative polarity at this age. Although as a group infants exhibited an anterior-localized negative effect, inspection of individual results revealed that a majority of infants showed a negative-going response (Negative Responders), while a minority showed a positive-going response (Positive Responders). Furthermore, all infants demonstrated sensitivity to onset consonant mispronunciations, while Negative Responders demonstrated a lack of sensitivity to vowel mispronunciations, a developmental pattern similar to previous literature. Responses to coda consonant mispronunciations revealed neither sensitivity nor lack of sensitivity. We found that infants showing a more mature, negative response to newly segmented words compared to control words (evaluating segmentation skill) and mispronunciations (evaluating phonological processing) at test also had greater growth in word production over the second year of life than infants showing a more positive response. These results establish a relationship between early segmentation skills and phonological processing (not modulated by the type of mispronunciation) and later lexical skills. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How Effectively Do People Remember Voice Disordered Speech? An Investigation of the Serial-Position Curve
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 25; doi:10.3390/brainsci8020025 -
Abstract
We examined how well typical adult listeners remember the speech of a person with a voice disorder (relative to that of a person without a voice disorder). Participants (n = 40) listened to two lists of words (one list uttered in a
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We examined how well typical adult listeners remember the speech of a person with a voice disorder (relative to that of a person without a voice disorder). Participants (n = 40) listened to two lists of words (one list uttered in a disordered voice and the other list uttered in a normal voice). After each list, participants completed a free recall test, in which they tried to remember as many words as they could. While the total number of words recalled did not differ between the disordered voice condition and the normal voice condition, an investigation of the serial-position curve revealed a difference. In the normal voice condition, a parabolic (i.e., u-shaped) serial-position curve was observed, with a significant primacy effect (i.e., the beginning of the list was remembered better than the middle) and a significant recency effect (i.e., the end of the list was remembered better than the middle). In contrast, in the disordered voice condition, while there was a significant recency effect, no primacy effect was present. Thus, the increased ability to remember the first words uttered by a speaker (relative to subsequent words) may disappear when the speaker has a voice disorder. Explanations and implications of this finding are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Emerging Role of Tractography in Deep Brain Stimulation: Basic Principles and Current Applications
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 23; doi:10.3390/brainsci8020023 -
Abstract
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an MRI-based technique that delineates white matter tracts in the brain by tracking the diffusion of water in neural tissue. This methodology, known as “tractography”, has been extensively applied in clinical neuroscience to explore nervous system architecture and
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Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an MRI-based technique that delineates white matter tracts in the brain by tracking the diffusion of water in neural tissue. This methodology, known as “tractography”, has been extensively applied in clinical neuroscience to explore nervous system architecture and diseases. More recently, tractography has been used to assist with neurosurgical targeting in functional neurosurgery. This review provides an overview of DTI principles, and discusses current applications of tractography for improving and helping develop novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) targets. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Epilepsy: A Call for Help
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 22; doi:10.3390/brainsci8020022 -
Abstract
Epilepsy is a considerable individual and social economic burden. In properly selected patients, epilepsy surgery can provide significant relief from disease, including remission. However, the surgical treatment of epilepsy lags in terms of knowledge and technology. The problem arises due to its slow
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Epilepsy is a considerable individual and social economic burden. In properly selected patients, epilepsy surgery can provide significant relief from disease, including remission. However, the surgical treatment of epilepsy lags in terms of knowledge and technology. The problem arises due to its slow adaptation and dissemination. This article explores this issue of a wide treatment gap and its causes. It develops a framework for a rational decision-making process that is appropriate for extant circumstances and will result in the speedy delivery of surgical care for suitable patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Nucleus Accumbens Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients with Substance Use Disorders and Delay Discounting
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 21; doi:10.3390/brainsci8020021 -
Abstract
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shows first promising results in patients with severe substance use disorder (SUD), a patient group known to have deficits in self-control. One facet of self-control is the ability to forego smaller sooner rewards in
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Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shows first promising results in patients with severe substance use disorder (SUD), a patient group known to have deficits in self-control. One facet of self-control is the ability to forego smaller sooner rewards in favor of larger later rewards (delay discounting, DD). The NAc has been suggested to integrate motivational information to guide behavior while the consequences of NAc-DBS on DD are unknown. To this end, nine patients with SUD performed a DD task with DBS on and after a 24 h DBS off period. Furthermore, 18 healthy controls were measured to assess possible alterations in DD in patients with SUD. Our findings implicate that DD was not significantly modulated by NAc-DBS and also that patients with SUD did not differ from healthy controls. While null results must be interpreted with caution, the commonly observed association of impaired DD in SUD might suggest a long-term effect of NAc-DBS that was not sufficiently modulated by a 24 h DBS off period. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Neuroscience of Growth Mindset and Intrinsic Motivation
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(2), 20; doi:10.3390/brainsci8020020 -
Abstract
Our actions can be triggered by intentions, incentives or intrinsic values. Recent neuroscientific research has yielded some results about the growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. With the advances in neuroscience and motivational studies, there is a global need to utilize this information to
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Our actions can be triggered by intentions, incentives or intrinsic values. Recent neuroscientific research has yielded some results about the growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. With the advances in neuroscience and motivational studies, there is a global need to utilize this information to inform educational practice and research. Yet, little is known about the neuroscientific interplay between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. This paper attempts to draw on the theories of growth mindset and intrinsic motivation, together with contemporary ideas in neuroscience, outline the potential for neuroscientific research in education. It aims to shed light on the relationship between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation in terms of supporting a growth mindset to facilitate intrinsic motivation through neural responses. Recent empirical research from the educational neuroscience perspective that provides insights into the interplay between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation will also be discussed. Full article
Open AccessReview
Deep Brain Stimulation—Possible Treatment Strategy for Pathologically Altered Body Weight?
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(1), 19; doi:10.3390/brainsci8010019 -
Abstract
The treatment of obesity and eating disorders such as binge-eating disorder or anorexia nervosa is challenging. Besides lifestyle changes and pharmacological options, bariatric surgery represents a well-established and effective-albeit invasive-treatment of obesity, whereas for binge-eating disorder and anorexia nervosa mostly psychotherapy options exist.
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The treatment of obesity and eating disorders such as binge-eating disorder or anorexia nervosa is challenging. Besides lifestyle changes and pharmacological options, bariatric surgery represents a well-established and effective-albeit invasive-treatment of obesity, whereas for binge-eating disorder and anorexia nervosa mostly psychotherapy options exist. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), a method that influences the neuronal network, is by now known for its safe and effective applicability in patients with Parkinson’s disease. However, the use does not seem to be restricted to these patients. Recent preclinical and first clinical evidence points towards the use of DBS in patients with obesity and eating disorders as well. Depending on the targeted area in the brain, DBS can either inhibit food intake and body weight or stimulate energy intake and subsequently body weight. The current review focuses on preclinical and clinical evidence of DBS to modulate food intake and body weight and highlight the different brain areas targeted, stimulation protocols applied and downstream signaling modulated. Lastly, this review will also critically discuss potential safety issues and gaps in knowledge to promote further studies. Full article
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Open AccessReview
DBS in Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(1), 18; doi:10.3390/brainsci8010018 -
Abstract
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric condition for which pharmacological therapy is not always solvable. Various treatments have been suggested and deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently under investigation for patients affected by PTSD. We review the neurocircuitry and up-to-date clinical
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric condition for which pharmacological therapy is not always solvable. Various treatments have been suggested and deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently under investigation for patients affected by PTSD. We review the neurocircuitry and up-to-date clinical concepts which are behind the use of DBS in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The role of DBS in treatment-refractory PTSD patients has been investigated relying on both preclinical and clinical studies. DBS for PTSD is in its preliminary phases and likely to provide hope for patients with medical refractory PTSD following the results of randomized controlled studies. Full article