Biosensors2014, 4(4), 472-493; doi:10.3390/bios4040472 (registering DOI) - published 21 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Antibiotic resistance is emerging as a potential threat in the next decades. This is a global phenomenon whereby globalization is acting as a catalyst. Presently, the most common techniques used for the detection of antibiotics are biosensors, ELISA and liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry. Each of these techniques has its benefits as well as drawbacks. This review aims to evaluate different biosensing techniques and their working principles in order to accurately, quickly and practically detect antibiotics in chicken muscle and blood serum. The review is divided into three main sections, namely: a biosensors overview, a section on biosensor recognition and a section on biosensor transducing elements. The first segment provides a detailed overview on the different techniques available and their respective advantages and disadvantages. The second section consists of an evaluation of several analyte systems and their mechanisms. The last section of this review studies the working principles of biosensing transducing elements, focusing mainly on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology and its applications in industries.
Biosensors2014, 4(4), 461-471; doi:10.3390/bios4040461 - published 19 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Bimetallic nanostructured core-shell structures are commonly used as catalysts in a wide variety of reactions. We surmised that the addition of an additional metal would potentially allow catalytic tailoring with the possibility of an increase in activity. Here a tri-metallic catalytic structure, consisting of clustered catalytic Pt on the surface of a Pd shell supported on a rod shaped Au core was fabricated. The significance of the additional metallic component is shown by comparative electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) analysis results for the trimetallic Aurod-Pdshell-Ptcluster, bimetallic Aurod-Ptcluster and monometallic JM-Pt (used as a reference), which have respective ECSA values (cm2/mgPt) of 1883.0, 1371.7 and 879. The potential utility of the trimetallic catalysts was shown in a hydrogen peroxide sensing protocol, which showed the catalyst to have a sensitivity of 604 ìA/mMcm2 within a linear range of 0.0013–6.191 mM.
Biosensors2014, 4(4), 449-460; doi:10.3390/bios4040449 - published 11 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A highly sensitive glucose detection method was developed using functionalized carbon nanotube buckypaper as a free standing electrode in an electrochemical biosensor. Glucose oxidase was immobilized onto various buckypaper samples in order to oxidize glucose resulting in a measureable current/voltage signal output of the biosensor. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry were utilized to determine the sensitivity of these buckypaper electrodes. Sensors of three different types of buckypaper were prepared and compared. These modified buckypaper electrode-based sensors showed much higher sensitivity to glucose compared to other electrochemical glucose sensors.
Biosensors2014, 4(4), 422-448; doi:10.3390/bios4040422 - published 3 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: During the last decades, tactile sensors based on different sensing principles have been developed due to the growing interest in robotics and, mainly, in medical applications. Several technological solutions have been employed to design tactile sensors; in particular, solutions based on microfabrication present several attractive features. Microfabrication technologies allow for developing miniaturized sensors with good performance in terms of metrological properties (e.g., accuracy, sensitivity, low power consumption, and frequency response). Small size and good metrological properties heighten the potential role of tactile sensors in medicine, making them especially attractive to be integrated in smart interfaces and microsurgical tools. This paper provides an overview of microfabricated tactile sensors, focusing on the mean principles of sensing, i.e., piezoresistive, piezoelectric and capacitive sensors. These sensors are employed for measuring contact properties, in particular force and pressure, in three main medical fields, i.e., prosthetics and artificial skin, minimal access surgery and smart interfaces for biomechanical analysis. The working principles and the metrological properties of the most promising tactile, microfabricated sensors are analyzed, together with their application in medicine. Finally, the new emerging technologies in these fields are briefly described.
Biosensors2014, 4(4), 403-421; doi:10.3390/bios4040403 - published 3 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Biosensors for the detection of benzaldehyde and g-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are reported using aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC from Escherichia coli immobilized in a polymer containing bound low potential osmium redox complexes. The electrically connected enzyme already electrooxidizes benzaldehyde at potentials below −0.15 V (vs. Ag|AgCl, 1 M KCl). The pH-dependence of benzaldehyde oxidation can be strongly influenced by the ionic strength. The effect is similar with the soluble osmium redox complex and therefore indicates a clear electrostatic effect on the bioelectrocatalytic efficiency of PaoABC in the osmium containing redox polymer. At lower ionic strength, the pH-optimum is high and can be switched to low pH-values at high ionic strength. This offers biosensing at high and low pH-values. A “reagentless” biosensor has been formed with enzyme wired onto a screen-printed electrode in a flow cell device. The response time to addition of benzaldehyde is 30 s, and the measuring range is between 10–150 µM and the detection limit of 5 µM (signal to noise ratio 3:1) of benzaldehyde. The relative standard deviation in a series (n = 13) for 200 µM benzaldehyde is 1.9%. For the biosensor, a response to succinic semialdehyde was also identified. Based on this response and the ability to work at high pH a biosensor for GABA is proposed by coimmobilizing GABA-aminotransferase (GABA-T) and PaoABC in the osmium containing redox polymer.
Biosensors2014, 4(4), 387-402; doi:10.3390/bios4040387 - published 29 October 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, is an important intermediary in polyamine production for many prokaryotes, but serves higher functions in eukaryotes such as nitric oxide inhibition and roles in neurotransmission. Pseudomonas aeruginosa relies on the arginine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase pathways to convert arginine into putrescine. One of the two known agmatine deiminase operons, aguBA, contains an agmatine sensitive TetR promoter controlled by AguR. We have discovered that this promoter element can produce a titratable induction of its gene products in response to agmatine, and utilized this discovery to make a luminescent agmatine biosensor in P. aeruginosa. The genome of the P. aeruginosa lab strain UCBPP-PA14 was altered to remove both its ability to synthesize or destroy agmatine, and insertion of the luminescent reporter construct allows it to produce light in proportion to the amount of exogenous agmatine applied from ~100 nM to 1mM. Furthermore it does not respond to related compounds including arginine or putrescine. To demonstrate potential applications the biosensor was used to detect agmatine in spent supernatants, to monitor the development of arginine decarboxylase over time, and to detect agmatine in the spinal cords of live mice.