Open AccessArticle
A Theoretical Study of Love Wave Sensors Based on ZnO–Glass Layered Structures for Application to Liquid Environments
Biosensors 2016, 6(4), 59; doi:10.3390/bios6040059 -
Abstract
The propagation of surface acoustic Love modes along ZnO/glass-based structures was modeled and analysed with the goal of designing a sensor able to detect changes in the environmental parameters, such as liquid viscosity changes and minute amounts of mass supported in the viscous
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The propagation of surface acoustic Love modes along ZnO/glass-based structures was modeled and analysed with the goal of designing a sensor able to detect changes in the environmental parameters, such as liquid viscosity changes and minute amounts of mass supported in the viscous liquid medium. Love mode propagation was modeled by numerically solving the system of coupled electro-mechanical field equations and Navier–Stokes equations. The phase and group velocities and the attenuation of the acoustic wave propagating along the 30° tilted c-axis ZnO/glass structure contacting a viscous non-conductive liquid were calculated for different ZnO guiding layer thicknesses, added mass thicknesses, and liquid viscosity and density. The three sensor responses, i.e., the wave phase and group velocity, and attenuation changes are calculated for different environmental parameters and related to the sensor velocity and attenuation sensitivities. The resulted sensitivities to liquid viscosity and added mass were optimized by adjusting the ZnO guiding layer thickness corresponding to a sensitivity peak. The present analysis is valuable for the manufacture and application of the ZnO-glass structure Love wave sensors for the detection of liquid properties, such as viscosity, density and mass anchored to the sensor surface. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Real-Time Classification of Patients with Balance Disorders vs. Normal Subjects Using a Low-Cost Small Wireless Wearable Gait Sensor
Biosensors 2016, 6(4), 58; doi:10.3390/bios6040058 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Gait analysis using wearable wireless sensors can be an economical, convenient and effective way to provide diagnostic and clinical information for various health-related issues. In this work, our custom designed low-cost wireless gait analysis sensor that contains a basic inertial measurement unit (IMU)
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Gait analysis using wearable wireless sensors can be an economical, convenient and effective way to provide diagnostic and clinical information for various health-related issues. In this work, our custom designed low-cost wireless gait analysis sensor that contains a basic inertial measurement unit (IMU) was used to collect the gait data for four patients diagnosed with balance disorders and additionally three normal subjects, each performing the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) tests while wearing the custom wireless gait analysis sensor (WGAS). The small WGAS includes a tri-axial accelerometer integrated circuit (IC), two gyroscopes ICs and a Texas Instruments (TI) MSP430 microcontroller and is worn by each subject at the T4 position during the DGI tests. The raw gait data are wirelessly transmitted from the WGAS to a near-by PC for real-time gait data collection and analysis. In order to perform successful classification of patients vs. normal subjects, we used several different classification algorithms, such as the back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN), support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbors (KNN) and binary decision trees (BDT), based on features extracted from the raw gait data of the gyroscopes and accelerometers. When the range was used as the input feature, the overall classification accuracy obtained is 100% with BP-ANN, 98% with SVM, 96% with KNN and 94% using BDT. Similar high classification accuracy results were also achieved when the standard deviation or other values were used as input features to these classifiers. These results show that gait data collected from our very low-cost wearable wireless gait sensor can effectively differentiate patients with balance disorders from normal subjects in real time using various classifiers, the success of which may eventually lead to accurate and objective diagnosis of abnormal human gaits and their underlying etiologies in the future, as more patient data are being collected. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Different Phases of Breast Cancer Cells: Raman Study of Immortalized, Transformed, and Invasive Cells
Biosensors 2016, 6(4), 57; doi:10.3390/bios6040057 -
Abstract
Breast cancer is the most prevalent cause of cancer-associated death in women the world over, but if detected early it can be treated successfully. Therefore, it is important to diagnose this disease at an early stage and to understand the biochemical changes associated
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Breast cancer is the most prevalent cause of cancer-associated death in women the world over, but if detected early it can be treated successfully. Therefore, it is important to diagnose this disease at an early stage and to understand the biochemical changes associated with cellular transformation and cancer progression. Deregulated lipid metabolism has been shown to contribute to cell transformation as well as cancer progression. In this study, we monitored the biomolecular changes associated with the transformation of a normal cell into an invasive cell associated with breast cancer using Raman microspectroscopy. We have utilized primary normal breast cells, and immortalized, transformed, non-invasive, and invasive breast cancer cells. The Raman spectra were acquired from all these cell lines under physiological conditions. The higher wavenumber (2800–3000 cm−1) and lower wavenumber (700–1800 cm−1) range of the Raman spectrum were analyzed and we observed increased lipid levels for invasive cells. The Raman spectral data were analyzed by principal component–linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA), which resulted in the formation of distinct clusters for different cell types with a high degree of sensitivity. The subsequent testing of the PC-LDA analysis via the leave-one-out cross validation approach (LOOCV) yielded relatively high identification sensitivity. Additionally, the Raman spectroscopic results were confirmed through fluorescence staining tests with BODIPY and Nile Red biochemical assays. Furthermore, Raman maps from the above mentioned cells under fixed conditions were also acquired to visualize the distribution of biomolecules throughout the cell. The present study shows the suitability of Raman spectroscopy as a non-invasive, label-free, microspectroscopic technique, having the potential of probing changes in the biomolecular composition of living cells as well as fixed cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Disposable Amperometric Immunosensor for the Determination of Human P53 Protein in Cell Lysates Using Magnetic Micro-Carriers
Biosensors 2016, 6(4), 56; doi:10.3390/bios6040056 -
Abstract
An amperometric magnetoimmunosensor for the determination of human p53 protein is described in this work using a sandwich configuration involving the covalent immobilization of a specific capture antibody onto activated carboxylic-modified magnetic beads (HOOC-MBs) and incubation of the modified MBs with a mixture
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An amperometric magnetoimmunosensor for the determination of human p53 protein is described in this work using a sandwich configuration involving the covalent immobilization of a specific capture antibody onto activated carboxylic-modified magnetic beads (HOOC-MBs) and incubation of the modified MBs with a mixture of the target protein and horseradish peroxidase-labeled antibody (HRP-anti-p53). The resulting modified MBs are captured by a magnet placed under the surface of a disposable carbon screen-printed electrode (SPCE) and the amperometric responses are measured at −0.20 V (vs. an Ag pseudo-reference electrode), upon addition of hydroquinone (HQ) as a redox mediator and H2O2 as the enzyme substrate. The magnetoimmunosensing platform was successfully applied for the detection of p53 protein in different cell lysates without any matrix effect after a simple sample dilution. The results correlated accurately with those provided by a commercial ELISA kit, thus confirming the immunosensor as an attractive alternative for rapid and simple determination of this protein using portable and affordable instrumentation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
TERMA Framework for Biomedical Signal Analysis: An Economic-Inspired Approach
Biosensors 2016, 6(4), 55; doi:10.3390/bios6040055 -
Abstract
Biomedical signals contain features that represent physiological events, and each of these events has peaks. The analysis of biomedical signals for monitoring or diagnosing diseases requires the detection of these peaks, making event detection a crucial step in biomedical signal processing. Many researchers
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Biomedical signals contain features that represent physiological events, and each of these events has peaks. The analysis of biomedical signals for monitoring or diagnosing diseases requires the detection of these peaks, making event detection a crucial step in biomedical signal processing. Many researchers have difficulty detecting these peaks to investigate, interpret and analyze their corresponding events. To date, there is no generic framework that captures these events in a robust, efficient and consistent manner. A new method referred to for the first time as two event-related moving averages (“TERMA”) involves event-related moving averages and detects events in biomedical signals. The TERMA framework is flexible and universal and consists of six independent LEGO building bricks to achieve high accuracy detection of biomedical events. Results recommend that the window sizes for the two moving averages (W1 and W2) have to follow the inequality (8×W1)W2(2×W1). Moreover, TERMA is a simple yet efficient event detector that is suitable for wearable devices, point-of-care devices, fitness trackers and smart watches, compared to more complex machine learning solutions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Wrist Pulse Rate Monitor Using Self-Injection-Locked Radar Technology
Biosensors 2016, 6(4), 54; doi:10.3390/bios6040054 -
Abstract
To achieve sensitivity, comfort, and durability in vital sign monitoring, this study explores the use of radar technologies in wearable devices. The study first detected the respiratory rates and heart rates of a subject at a one-meter distance using a self-injection-locked (SIL) radar
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To achieve sensitivity, comfort, and durability in vital sign monitoring, this study explores the use of radar technologies in wearable devices. The study first detected the respiratory rates and heart rates of a subject at a one-meter distance using a self-injection-locked (SIL) radar and a conventional continuous-wave (CW) radar to compare the sensitivity versus power consumption between the two radars. Then, a pulse rate monitor was constructed based on a bistatic SIL radar architecture. This monitor uses an active antenna that is composed of a SIL oscillator (SILO) and a patch antenna. When attached to a band worn on the subject’s wrist, the active antenna can monitor the pulse on the subject’s wrist by modulating the SILO with the associated Doppler signal. Subsequently, the SILO’s output signal is received and demodulated by a remote frequency discriminator to obtain the pulse rate information. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biofouling-Resistant Impedimetric Sensor for Array High-Resolution Extracellular Potassium Monitoring in the Brain
Biosensors 2016, 6(4), 53; doi:10.3390/bios6040053 -
Abstract
Extracellular potassium concentration, [K+]o, plays a fundamental role in the physiological functions of the brain. Studies investigating changes in [K+]o have predominantly relied upon glass capillary electrodes with K+-sensitive solution gradients for their measurements.
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Extracellular potassium concentration, [K+]o, plays a fundamental role in the physiological functions of the brain. Studies investigating changes in [K+]o have predominantly relied upon glass capillary electrodes with K+-sensitive solution gradients for their measurements. However, such electrodes are unsuitable for taking spatio-temporal measurements and are limited by the surface area of their tips. We illustrate seizures invoked chemically and in optogenetically modified mice using blue light exposure while impedimetrically measuring the response. A sharp decrease of 1–2 mM in [K+]o before each spike has shown new physiological events not witnessed previously when measuring extracellular potassium concentrations during seizures in mice. We propose a novel approach that uses multichannel monolayer coated gold microelectrodes for in vivo spatio-temporal measurements of [K+]o in a mouse brain as an improvement to the conventional glass capillary electrode. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Kinetics of Antibody Binding to Membranes of Living Bacteria Measured by a Photonic Crystal-Based Biosensor
Biosensors 2016, 6(4), 52; doi:10.3390/bios6040052 -
Abstract
Optical biosensors based on photonic crystal surface waves (PC SWs) offer a possibility to study binding interactions with living cells, overcoming the limitation of rather small evanescent field penetration depth into a sample medium that is characteristic for typical optical biosensors. Besides this,
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Optical biosensors based on photonic crystal surface waves (PC SWs) offer a possibility to study binding interactions with living cells, overcoming the limitation of rather small evanescent field penetration depth into a sample medium that is characteristic for typical optical biosensors. Besides this, simultaneous excitation of s- and p-polarized surface waves with different penetration depths is realized here, permitting unambiguous separation of surface and volume contributions to the measured signal. PC-based biosensors do not require a bulk signal correction, compared to widely used surface plasmon resonance-based devices. We developed a chitosan-based protocol of PC chip functionalization for bacterial attachment and performed experiments on antibody binding to living bacteria measured in real time by the PCSW-based biosensor. Data analysis reveals specific binding and gives the value of the dissociation constant for monoclonal antibodies (IgG2b) against bacterial lipopolysaccharides equal to KD = 6.2 ± 3.4 nM. To our knowledge, this is a first demonstration of antibody-binding kinetics to living bacteria by a label-free optical biosensor. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in the Fabrication and Application of Screen-Printed Electrochemical (Bio)Sensors Based on Carbon Materials for Biomedical, Agri-Food and Environmental Analyses
Biosensors 2016, 6(4), 50; doi:10.3390/bios6040050 -
Abstract
This review describes recent advances in the fabrication of electrochemical (bio)sensors based on screen-printing technology involving carbon materials and their application in biomedical, agri-food and environmental analyses. It will focus on the various strategies employed in the fabrication of screen-printed (bio)sensors, together with
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This review describes recent advances in the fabrication of electrochemical (bio)sensors based on screen-printing technology involving carbon materials and their application in biomedical, agri-food and environmental analyses. It will focus on the various strategies employed in the fabrication of screen-printed (bio)sensors, together with their performance characteristics; the application of these devices for the measurement of selected naturally occurring biomolecules, environmental pollutants and toxins will be discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Biosensing with Paper-Based Miniaturized Printed Electrodes–A Modern Trend
Biosensors 2016, 6(4), 51; doi:10.3390/bios6040051 -
Abstract
From the bench-mark work on microfluidics from the Whitesides’s group in 2007, paper technology has experienced significant growth, particularly regarding applications in biomedical research and clinical diagnostics. Besides the structural properties supporting microfluidics, other advantageous features of paper materials, including their versatility, disposability
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From the bench-mark work on microfluidics from the Whitesides’s group in 2007, paper technology has experienced significant growth, particularly regarding applications in biomedical research and clinical diagnostics. Besides the structural properties supporting microfluidics, other advantageous features of paper materials, including their versatility, disposability and low cost, show off the great potential for the development of advanced and eco-friendly analytical tools. Consequently, paper was quickly employed in the field of electrochemical sensors, being an ideal material for producing custom, tailored and miniaturized devices. Stencil-, inkjet-, or screen-printing are the preferential techniques for electrode manufacturing. Not surprisingly, we witnessed a rapid increase in the number of publications on paper based screen-printed sensors at the turn of the past decade. Among the sensing strategies, various biosensors, coupling electrochemical detectors with biomolecules, have been proposed. This work provides a critical review and a discussion on the future progress of paper technology in the context of miniaturized printed electrochemical biosensors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rapid, Portable, Multiplexed Detection of Bacterial Pathogens Directly from Clinical Sample Matrices
Biosensors 2016, 6(4), 49; doi:10.3390/bios6040049 -
Abstract
Enteric and diarrheal diseases are a major cause of childhood illness and death in countries with developing economies. Each year, more than half of a million children under the age of five die from these diseases. We have developed a portable, microfluidic platform
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Enteric and diarrheal diseases are a major cause of childhood illness and death in countries with developing economies. Each year, more than half of a million children under the age of five die from these diseases. We have developed a portable, microfluidic platform capable of simultaneous, multiplexed detection of several of the bacterial pathogens that cause these diseases. This platform can perform fast, sensitive immunoassays directly from relevant, complex clinical matrices such as stool without extensive sample cleanup or preparation. Using only 1 µL of sample per assay, we demonstrate simultaneous multiplexed detection of four bacterial pathogens implicated in diarrheal and enteric diseases in less than 20 min. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lactate Sensors on Flexible Substrates
Biosensors 2016, 6(3), 48; doi:10.3390/bios6030048 -
Abstract
Lactate detection by an in situ sensor is of great need in clinical medicine, food processing, and athletic performance monitoring. In this paper, a flexible, easy to fabricate, and low-cost biosensor base on lactate oxidase is presented. The fabrication processes, including metal deposition,
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Lactate detection by an in situ sensor is of great need in clinical medicine, food processing, and athletic performance monitoring. In this paper, a flexible, easy to fabricate, and low-cost biosensor base on lactate oxidase is presented. The fabrication processes, including metal deposition, sol-gel IrOx deposition, and drop-dry enzyme loading method, are described in detail. The loaded enzyme was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the sensors. Durability, sensibility, and selectivity of the biosensors were examined. The comparison for different electrode sizes and different sensing film materials was conducted. The sensor could last for four weeks with an average surface area normalized sensitivity of 950 nA/(cm2 mM) and 9250 nA/(cm2 mM) for Au-based electrodes, and IrOx-modified electrodes respectively, both with an electrode size of 100 × 50 μm. The self-referencing method to record noises simultaneously with the working electrode greatly improved sensor sensitivity and selectivity. The sensor showed little response to interference chemicals, such as glutamate and dopamine. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Potential of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM). A Critical Review
Biosensors 2016, 6(3), 47; doi:10.3390/bios6030047 -
Abstract
Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a label-free technique that enables quick monitoring of substances at low concentrations in biological matrices. These advantages make it an attractive tool for the development of point-of-care tests suitable for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of drugs with a
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Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a label-free technique that enables quick monitoring of substances at low concentrations in biological matrices. These advantages make it an attractive tool for the development of point-of-care tests suitable for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of drugs with a narrow therapeutic window, such as chemotherapeutic drugs, immunosuppressants, and various anticonvulsants. In this article, the current applications of SERS in the field of TDM for cancer therapy are discussed in detail and illustrated according to the different strategies and substrates. In particular, future perspectives are provided and special concerns regarding the standardization of self-assembly methods and nanofabrication procedures, quality assurance, and technology readiness are critically evaluated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Sensors Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes: The Use of Phthalocyanine Derivatives for Application in VFA Detection
Biosensors 2016, 6(3), 46; doi:10.3390/bios6030046 -
Abstract
Here, we report on the use of electrochemical methods for the detection of volatiles fatty acids (VFAs), namely acetic acid. We used tetra-tert-butyl phthalocyanine (PcH2-tBu) as the sensing material and investigated its electroanalytical properties by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and
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Here, we report on the use of electrochemical methods for the detection of volatiles fatty acids (VFAs), namely acetic acid. We used tetra-tert-butyl phthalocyanine (PcH2-tBu) as the sensing material and investigated its electroanalytical properties by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). To realize the electrochemical sensing system, the PcH2-tBu has been dropcast-deposited on carbon (C) orgold (Au)screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) and characterized by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM analysis reveals that the PcH2-tBu forms mainly aggregates on the SPEs. The modified electrodes are used for the detection of acetic acid and present a linear current increase when the acetic acid concentration increases. The Cmodified electrode presents a limit of detection (LOD) of 25.77 mM in the range of 100 mM–400 mM, while the Aumodified electrode presents an LOD averaging 40.89 mM in the range of 50 mM–300 mM. When the experiment is realized in a buffered condition, theCmodified electrode presents a lower LOD, which averagesthe 7.76 mM. A pronounced signal decay attributed to an electrode alteration is observed in the case of the gold electrode. This electrode alteration severely affects the coating stability. This alteration is less perceptible in the case of the carbon electrode. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pencil It in: Exploring the Feasibility of Hand-Drawn Pencil Electrochemical Sensors and Their Direct Comparison to Screen-Printed Electrodes
Biosensors 2016, 6(3), 45; doi:10.3390/bios6030045 -
Abstract
We explore the fabrication, physicochemical characterisation (SEM, Raman, EDX and XPS) and electrochemical application of hand-drawn pencil electrodes (PDEs) upon an ultra-flexible polyester substrate; investigating the number of draws (used for their fabrication), the pencil grade utilised (HB to 9B) and the electrochemical
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We explore the fabrication, physicochemical characterisation (SEM, Raman, EDX and XPS) and electrochemical application of hand-drawn pencil electrodes (PDEs) upon an ultra-flexible polyester substrate; investigating the number of draws (used for their fabrication), the pencil grade utilised (HB to 9B) and the electrochemical properties of an array of batches (i.e, pencil boxes). Electrochemical characterisation of the PDEs, using different batches of HB grade pencils, is undertaken using several inner- and outer-sphere redox probes and is critically compared to screen-printed electrodes (SPEs). Proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the electrochemical sensing of dopamine and acetaminophen using PDEs, which are found to exhibit competitive limits of detection (3σ) upon comparison to SPEs. Nonetheless, it is important to note that a clear lack of reproducibility was demonstrated when utilising these PDEs fabricated using the HB pencils from different batches. We also explore the suitability and feasibility of a pencil-drawn reference electrode compared to screen-printed alternatives, to see if one can draw the entire sensing platform. This article reports a critical assessment of these PDEs against that of its screen-printed competitors, questioning the overall feasibility of PDEs’ implementation as a sensing platform. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Cytochrome P450 3A4 Biosensor Based on Generation 4.0 PAMAM Dendrimers for the Detection of Caffeine
Biosensors 2016, 6(3), 44; doi:10.3390/bios6030044 -
Abstract
Cytochromes P450 (CYP, P450) are a large family of heme-active-site proteins involved in many catalytic processes, including steroidogenesis. In humans, four primary enzymes are involved in the metabolism of almost all xenobiotics. Among these enzymes, CYP3A4 is responsible for the inactivation of the
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Cytochromes P450 (CYP, P450) are a large family of heme-active-site proteins involved in many catalytic processes, including steroidogenesis. In humans, four primary enzymes are involved in the metabolism of almost all xenobiotics. Among these enzymes, CYP3A4 is responsible for the inactivation of the majority of used drugs which makes this enzyme an interesting target for many fields of research, especially pharmaceutical research. Since the late 1970s, attempts have been made to construct and develop electrochemical sensors for the determination of substrates. This paper is concerned with the establishment of such a CYP3A4-containing biosensor. The sensor was constructed by adsorption of alternating layers of sub-nanometer gold particle-modified PAMAM (poly-amido-amine) dendrimers of generation 4.0, along with the enzyme by a layer-by-layer assembly technique. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to elucidate the sensor assembly. Additionally, the biosensor was tested by cyclic voltammetry using caffeine as a substrate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Surface Epitope Coverage on the Sensitivity of Displacement Assays that Employ Modified Nanoparticles: Using Bisphenol A as a Model Analyte
Biosensors 2016, 6(3), 43; doi:10.3390/bios6030043 -
Abstract
With the ever-increasing use of nanoparticles in immunosensors, a fundamental study on the effect of epitope density is presented herein, with a small molecule epitope, on the performance of the displacement assay format in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thiolated bisphenol A (BPA)
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With the ever-increasing use of nanoparticles in immunosensors, a fundamental study on the effect of epitope density is presented herein, with a small molecule epitope, on the performance of the displacement assay format in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thiolated bisphenol A (BPA) functionalized gold nanoparticles (cysBPAv-AuNPs) and specific anti-BPA antibodies are employed for this purpose. It is shown that the displacement of cysBPAv-AuNPs bound to the immobilized antibodies was influenced by both the avidity of bound cysBPAv-AuNPs and the concentration of free BPA to displace it. The importance of surface epitope density was that it changed the number of epitopes in close proximity to the antibody-binding site. This then influenced the avidity of cysBPAv-AuNPs bound to the immobilized antibody. Furthermore, the molar epitope concentration in an assay appears to affect the degree of antibody binding site saturation. Controlling surface epitope density of the functionalized nanoparticles and molar epitope concentration in an assay leads to a decrease of the concentration of free BPA required to displace the bound cysBPAv-AuNP, and hence better assay performance with regards to the D50 value and dynamic range in the displacement assay. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nanopore-CMOS Interfaces for DNA Sequencing
Biosensors 2016, 6(3), 42; doi:10.3390/bios6030042 -
Abstract
DNA sequencers based on nanopore sensors present an opportunity for a significant break from the template-based incumbents of the last forty years. Key advantages ushered by nanopore technology include a simplified chemistry and the ability to interface to CMOS technology. The latter opportunity
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DNA sequencers based on nanopore sensors present an opportunity for a significant break from the template-based incumbents of the last forty years. Key advantages ushered by nanopore technology include a simplified chemistry and the ability to interface to CMOS technology. The latter opportunity offers substantial promise for improvement in sequencing speed, size and cost. This paper reviews existing and emerging means of interfacing nanopores to CMOS technology with an emphasis on massively-arrayed structures. It presents this in the context of incumbent DNA sequencing techniques, reviews and quantifies nanopore characteristics and models and presents CMOS circuit methods for the amplification of low-current nanopore signals in such interfaces. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Microfluidic Devices for Forensic DNA Analysis: A Review
Biosensors 2016, 6(3), 41; doi:10.3390/bios6030041 -
Abstract
Microfluidic devices may offer various advantages for forensic DNA analysis, such as reduced risk of contamination, shorter analysis time and direct application at the crime scene. Microfluidic chip technology has already proven to be functional and effective within medical applications, such as for
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Microfluidic devices may offer various advantages for forensic DNA analysis, such as reduced risk of contamination, shorter analysis time and direct application at the crime scene. Microfluidic chip technology has already proven to be functional and effective within medical applications, such as for point-of-care use. In the forensic field, one may expect microfluidic technology to become particularly relevant for the analysis of biological traces containing human DNA. This would require a number of consecutive steps, including sample work up, DNA amplification and detection, as well as secure storage of the sample. This article provides an extensive overview of microfluidic devices for cell lysis, DNA extraction and purification, DNA amplification and detection and analysis techniques for DNA. Topics to be discussed are polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on-chip, digital PCR (dPCR), isothermal amplification on-chip, chip materials, integrated devices and commercially available techniques. A critical overview of the opportunities and challenges of the use of chips is discussed, and developments made in forensic DNA analysis over the past 10–20 years with microfluidic systems are described. Areas in which further research is needed are indicated in a future outlook. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Monitoring Intact Viruses Using Aptamers
Biosensors 2016, 6(3), 40; doi:10.3390/bios6030040 -
Abstract
Viral diagnosis and surveillance are necessary steps in containing the spread of viral diseases, and they help in the deployment of appropriate therapeutic interventions. In the past, the commonly employed viral detection methods were either cell-culture or molecule-level assays. Most of these assays
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Viral diagnosis and surveillance are necessary steps in containing the spread of viral diseases, and they help in the deployment of appropriate therapeutic interventions. In the past, the commonly employed viral detection methods were either cell-culture or molecule-level assays. Most of these assays are laborious and expensive, require special facilities, and provide a slow diagnosis. To circumvent these limitations, biosensor-based approaches are becoming attractive, especially after the successful commercialization of glucose and other biosensors. In the present article, I have reviewed the current progress using the biosensor approach for detecting intact viruses. At the time of writing this review, three types of bioreceptor surfaces (antibody-, glycan-, and aptamer-based) have been explored on different sensing platforms for detecting intact viruses. Among these bioreceptors, aptamer-based sensors have been increasingly explored for detecting intact viruses using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and other platforms. Special emphasis is placed on the aptamer-based SPR platform in the present review. Full article
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