Biosensors2014, 4(4), 370-386; doi:10.3390/bios4040370 - published 22 October 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Polymer-multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanohybrids, which differ in surface charge have been synthesized to study the bioelectrocatalysis of adsorbed cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) from Phanerochaete sordida on gold electrodes. To obtain negatively charged nanohybrids, poly(3-amino-4-methoxybenzoic acid-co-aniline) (P(AMB-A)) was covalently linked to the surface of MWCNTs while modification with p-phenylenediamine (PDA) converted the COOH-groups to positively charged amino groups. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements verified the p-phenylenediamine (PDA) modification of the polymer-CNT nanohybrids. The positively charged nanohybrid MWCNT-P(AMB-A)-PDA promoted direct electron transfer (DET) of CDH to the electrode and bioelectrocatalysis of lactose was observed. Amperometric measurements gave an electrochemical response with KMapp = 8.89 mM and a current density of 410 nA/cm2 (15 mM lactose). The catalytic response was tested at pH 3.5 and 4.5. Interference by ascorbic acid was not observed. The study proves that DET between the MWCNT-P(AMB-A)-PDA nanohybrids and CDH is efficient and allows the sensorial detection of lactose.
Biosensors2014, 4(4), 358-369; doi:10.3390/bios4040358 - published 3 October 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Label-free methods for evaluating lectin–cell binding have been developed to determine the lectin–carbohydrate interactions in the context of cell-surface oligosaccharides. In the present study, mass loading and electrochemical transducer signals were compared to characterize the interaction between lectin and cellular membranes by measuring the equilibrium association constant, , between ArtinM lectin and the carbohydrate sites of NB4 leukemia cells. By functionalizing sensor interfaces with ArtinM, it was possible to determine over a range of leukemia cell concentrations to construct analytical curves from impedimetric and/or mass-associated frequency shifts with analytical signals following a Langmuir pattern. Using the Langmuir isotherm-binding model, the obtained were (8.9 ± 1.0) × 10−5 mL/cell and (1.05 ± 0.09) × 10−6 mL/cell with the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) methods, respectively. The observed differences were attributed to the intrinsic characteristic sensitivity of each method in following Langmuir isotherm premises.
Biosensors2014, 4(4), 340-357; doi:10.3390/bios4040340 - published 3 October 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The development of an electrochemical immunosensor for the biomarker, C-reactive protein (CRP), is reported in this work. CRP has been used to assess inflammation and is also used in a multi-biomarker system as a predictive biomarker for cardiovascular disease risk. A gold-based working electrode sensor was developed, and the types of electrode printing inks and ink curing techniques were then optimized. The electrodes with the best performance parameters were then employed for the construction of an immunosensor for CRP by immobilizing anti-human CRP antibody on the working electrode surface. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was then constructed after sample addition by using anti-human CRP antibody labelled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The signal was generated by the addition of a mediator/substrate system comprised of 3,3,5',5'-Tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Measurements were conducted using chronoamperometry at −200 mV against an integrated Ag/AgCl reference electrode. A CRP limit of detection (LOD) of 2.2 ng·mL−1 was achieved in spiked serum samples, and performance agreement was obtained with reference to a commercial ELISA kit. The developed CRP immunosensor was able to detect a diagnostically relevant range of the biomarker in serum without the need for signal amplification using nanoparticles, paving the way for future development on a cardiac panel electrochemical point-of-care diagnostic device.
Biosensors2014, 4(4), 329-339; doi:10.3390/bios4040329 - published 3 October 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) is a thin film deposition technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for deposition of delicate (polymers, complex biological molecules, etc.) materials in undamaged form. The main difference of MAPLE technique with respect to PLD is the target: it is a frozen solution or suspension of the (guest) molecules to be deposited in a volatile substance (matrix). Since laser beam energy is mainly absorbed by the matrix, damages to the delicate guest molecules are avoided, or at least reduced. Lipase, an enzyme catalyzing reactions borne by triglycerides, has been used in biosensors for detection of β-hydroxyacid esters and triglycerides in blood serum. Enzymes immobilization on a substrate is therefore required. In this paper we show that it is possible, using MAPLE technique, to deposit lipase on a substrate, as shown by AFM observation, preserving its conformational structure, as shown by FTIR analysis.
Biosensors2014, 4(3), 318-328; doi:10.3390/bios4030318 - published 11 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: PEG-modified diblock copolymer surfaces have been examined for their compatibility with microelectrode array based analytical methods. The use of PEG-modified polymer surfaces on the arrays was initially problematic because the redox couples used in the experiments were adsorbed by the polymer. This led the current measured by cyclic voltammetry for the redox couple to be unstable and increase with time. However, two key findings allow the experiments to be successful. First, after multiple cyclic voltammograms the current associated with the redox couple does stabilize so that a good baseline current can be established. Second, the rate at which the current stabilizes is consistent every time a particular coated array is used. Hence, multiple analytical experiments can be conducted on an array coated with a PEG-modified diblock copolymer and the data obtained is comparable as long as the data for each experiment is collected at a consistent time point.
Biosensors2014, 4(3), 301-317; doi:10.3390/bios4030301 - published 9 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Due to the great amount of pesticides currently being used, there is an increased interest for developing biosensors for their detection. Among all the physical transducers, piezoelectric systems have emerged as the most attractive due to their simplicity, low instrumentation costs, possibility for real-time and label-free detection and generally high sensitivity. This paper presents an overview of biosensors based on the quartz crystal microbalance, which have been reported in the literature for organophosphate and carbamate pesticide analysis.