Biomolecules2014, 4(4), 1026-1044; doi:10.3390/biom4041026 (registering DOI) - published 21 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The proteasome is a large self-compartmentalized protease complex that recognizes, unfolds, and destroys ubiquitylated substrates. Proteasome activities are required for a host of cellular functions, and it has become clear in recent years that one set of critical actions of the proteasome occur on chromatin. In this review, we discuss some of the ways in which proteasomes directly regulate the structure and function of chromatin and chromatin regulatory proteins, and how this influences gene transcription. We discuss lingering controversies in the field, the relative importance of proteolytic versus non-proteolytic proteasome activities in this process, and highlight areas that require further investigation. Our intention is to show that proteasomes are involved in major steps controlling the expression of the genetic information, that proteasomes use both proteolytic mechanisms and ATP-dependent protein remodeling to accomplish this task, and that much is yet to be learned about the full spectrum of ways that proteasomes influence the genome.
Biomolecules2014, 4(4), 994-1025; doi:10.3390/biom4040994 - published 18 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The proteasome is responsible for the breakdown of cellular proteins. Proteins targeted for degradation are allowed inside the proteasome particle, where they are cleaved into small peptides and released in the cytosol to be degraded into amino acids. In vertebrates, some of these peptides escape degradation in the cytosol, are loaded onto class I molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and displayed at the cell surface for scrutiny by the immune system. The proteasome therefore plays a key role for the immune system: it provides a continued sampling of intracellular proteins, so that CD8-positive T-lymphocytes can kill cells expressing viral or tumoral proteins. Consequently, the repertoire of peptides displayed by MHC class I molecules at the cell surface depends on proteasome activity, which may vary according to the presence of proteasome subtypes and regulators. Besides standard proteasomes, cells may contain immunoproteasomes, intermediate proteasomes and thymoproteasomes. Cells may also contain regulators of proteasome activity, such as the 19S, PA28 and PA200 regulators. Here, we review the effects of these proteasome subtypes and regulators on the production of antigenic peptides. We also discuss an unexpected function of the proteasome discovered through the study of antigenic peptides: its ability to splice peptides.
Biomolecules2014, 4(4), 980-993; doi:10.3390/biom4040980 - published 6 November 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Flavonoids have shown promise as natural plant-based antioxidants for protecting lipids from oxidation. It was hypothesized that their applications in lipophilic food systems can be further enhanced by esterification of flavonoids with fatty acids. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) was esterified individually with six selected long chain fatty acids: stearic acid (STA), oleic acid (OLA), linoleic acid (LNA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and decosahexaenoic acid (DHA), using Candida antarctica B lipase as the biocatalyst. The antioxidant activity of esterified flavonoids was evaluated using lipid oxidation model systems of poly-unsaturated fatty acids-rich fish oil and human low density lipoprotein (LDL), in vitro. In the oil-in-water emulsion, Q3G esters exhibited 50% to 100% inhibition in primary oxidation and 30% to 75% inhibition in secondary oxidation. In bulk oil, Q3G esters did not provide considerable protection from lipid oxidation; however, Q3G demonstrated more than 50% inhibition in primary oxidation. EPA, DHA and ALA esters of Q3G showed significantly higher inhibition in Cu2+- and peroxyl radical-induced LDL oxidation in comparison to Q3G.
Biomolecules2014, 4(4), 956-979; doi:10.3390/biom4040956 - published 20 October 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Numerous human diseases are caused by protein folding defects where the protein may become more susceptible to degradation or aggregation. Aberrant protein folding can affect the kinetic stability of the proteins even if these proteins appear to be soluble in vivo. Experimental discrimination between functional properly folded and misfolded nonfunctional conformers is not always straightforward at near physiological conditions. The differences in the kinetic behavior of two initially folded frataxin clinical variants were examined using a high affinity chaperonin kinetic trap approach at 25 °C. The kinetically stable wild type frataxin (FXN) shows no visible partitioning onto the chaperonin. In contrast, the clinical variants FXN-p.Asp122Tyr and FXN-p.Ile154Phe kinetically populate partial folded forms that tightly bind the GroEL chaperonin platform. The initially soluble FXN-p.Ile154Phe variant partitions onto GroEL more rapidly and is more kinetically liable. These differences in kinetic stability were confirmed using differential scanning fluorimetry. The kinetic and aggregation stability differences of these variants may lead to the distinct functional impairments described in Friedreich’s ataxia, the neurodegenerative disease associated to frataxin functional deficiency. This chaperonin platform approach may be useful for identifying small molecule stabilizers since stabilizing ligands to frataxin variants should lead to a concomitant decrease in chaperonin binding.
Biomolecules2014, 4(4), 940-955; doi:10.3390/biom4040940 - published 20 October 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Proteasomes are conserved protease complexes enriched in the nuclei of dividing yeast cells, a major site for protein degradation. If yeast cells do not proliferate and transit to quiescence, metabolic changes result in the dissociation of proteasomes into proteolytic core and regulatory complexes and their sequestration into motile cytosolic proteasome storage granuli. These granuli rapidly clear with the resumption of growth, releasing the stored proteasomes, which relocalize back to the nucleus to promote cell cycle progression. Here, I report on three models of how proteasomes are transported from the cytoplasm into the nucleus of yeast cells. The first model applies for dividing yeast and is based on the canonical pathway using classical nuclear localization sequences of proteasomal subcomplexes and the classical import receptor importin/karyopherin αβ. The second model applies for quiescent yeast cells, which resume growth and use Blm10, a HEAT-like repeat protein structurally related to karyopherin β, for nuclear import of proteasome core particles. In the third model, the fully-assembled proteasome is imported into the nucleus. Our still marginal knowledge about proteasome dynamics will inspire the discussion on how protein degradation by proteasomes may be regulated in different cellular compartments of dividing and quiescent eukaryotic cells.
Biomolecules2014, 4(4), 931-939; doi:10.3390/biom4040931 - published 14 October 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The 26S proteasome is a cellular proteolytic complex containing 19S regulatory particles and the 20S core proteasome. It was reported that the small molecule b-AP15 targets the proteasome by inhibiting deubiquitination of the 19S regulatory particles of the proteasome complex. An investigation of b-AP15 on the 20S proteasome core suggested that this compound can also inhibit the 20S proteasome with a potency equivalent to that found to inhibit the 19S regulatory particles.