Open AccessReview
The Process and Regulatory Components of Inflammation in Brain Oncogenesis
Biomolecules 2017, 7(2), 34; doi:10.3390/biom7020034 -
Abstract
Central nervous system tumors comprising the primary cancers and brain metastases remain the most lethal neoplasms and challenging to treat. Substantial evidence points to a paramount role for inflammation in the pathology leading to gliomagenesis, malignant progression and tumor aggressiveness in the central
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Central nervous system tumors comprising the primary cancers and brain metastases remain the most lethal neoplasms and challenging to treat. Substantial evidence points to a paramount role for inflammation in the pathology leading to gliomagenesis, malignant progression and tumor aggressiveness in the central nervous system (CNS) microenvironment. This review summarizes the salient contributions of oxidative stress, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenases, and transcription factors such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB) and the associated cross-talks to the inflammatory signaling in CNS cancers. The roles of reactive astrocytes, tumor associated microglia and macrophages, metabolic alterations, microsatellite instability, O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) DNA repair and epigenetic alterations mediated by the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations have been discussed. The inflammatory pathways with relevance to the brain cancer treatments have been highlighted. Full article
Open AccessReview
Diverse Mechanisms of Sulfur Decoration in Bacterial tRNA and Their Cellular Functions
Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 33; doi:10.3390/biom7010033 -
Abstract
Sulfur-containing transfer ribonucleic acids (tRNAs) are ubiquitous biomolecules found in all organisms that possess a variety of functions. For decades, their roles in processes such as translation, structural stability, and cellular protection have been elucidated and appreciated. These thionucleosides are found in all
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Sulfur-containing transfer ribonucleic acids (tRNAs) are ubiquitous biomolecules found in all organisms that possess a variety of functions. For decades, their roles in processes such as translation, structural stability, and cellular protection have been elucidated and appreciated. These thionucleosides are found in all types of bacteria; however, their biosynthetic pathways are distinct among different groups of bacteria. Considering that many of the thio-tRNA biosynthetic enzymes are absent in Gram-positive bacteria, recent studies have addressed how sulfur trafficking is regulated in these prokaryotic species. Interestingly, a novel proposal has been given for interplay among thionucleosides and the biosynthesis of other thiocofactors, through participation of shared-enzyme intermediates, the functions of which are impacted by the availability of substrate as well as metabolic demand of thiocofactors. This review describes the occurrence of thio-modifications in bacterial tRNA and current methods for detection of these modifications that have enabled studies on the biosynthesis and functions of S-containing tRNA across bacteria. It provides insight into potential modes of regulation and potential evolutionary events responsible for divergence in sulfur metabolism among prokaryotes. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Trm5 and TrmD: Two Enzymes from Distinct Origins Catalyze the Identical tRNA Modification, m1G37
Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 32; doi:10.3390/biom7010032 -
Abstract
The N1-atom of guanosine at position 37 in transfer RNA (tRNA) is methylated by tRNA methyltransferase 5 (Trm5) in eukaryotes and archaea, and by tRNA methyltransferase D (TrmD) in bacteria. The resultant modified nucleotide m1G37 positively regulates the aminoacylation
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The N1-atom of guanosine at position 37 in transfer RNA (tRNA) is methylated by tRNA methyltransferase 5 (Trm5) in eukaryotes and archaea, and by tRNA methyltransferase D (TrmD) in bacteria. The resultant modified nucleotide m1G37 positively regulates the aminoacylation of the tRNA, and simultaneously functions to prevent the +1 frameshift on the ribosome. Interestingly, Trm5 and TrmD have completely distinct origins, and therefore bear different tertiary folds. In this review, we describe the different strategies utilized by Trm5 and TrmD to recognize their substrate tRNAs, mainly based on their crystal structures complexed with substrate tRNAs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Differential Degradation and Detoxification of an Aromatic Pollutant by Two Different Peroxidases
Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 31; doi:10.3390/biom7010031 -
Abstract
Enzymatic degradation of organic pollutants is a new and promising remediation approach. Peroxidases are one of the most commonly used classes of enzymes to degrade organic pollutants. However, it is generally assumed that all peroxidases behave similarly and produce similar degradation products. In
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Enzymatic degradation of organic pollutants is a new and promising remediation approach. Peroxidases are one of the most commonly used classes of enzymes to degrade organic pollutants. However, it is generally assumed that all peroxidases behave similarly and produce similar degradation products. In this study, we conducted detailed studies of the degradation of a model aromatic pollutant, Sulforhodamine B dye (SRB dye), using two peroxidases—soybean peroxidase (SBP) and chloroperoxidase (CPO). Our results show that these two related enzymes had different optimum conditions (pH, temperature, H2O2 concentration, etc.) for efficiently degrading SRB dye. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography –mass spectrometry analyses confirmed that both SBP and CPO transformed the SRB dye into low molecular weight intermediates. While most of the intermediates produced by the two enzymes were the same, the CPO treatment produced at least one different intermediate. Furthermore, toxicological evaluation using lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds demonstrated that the SBP-based treatment was able to eliminate the phytotoxicity of SRB dye, but the CPO-based treatment did not. Our results show, for the first time, that while both of these related enzymes can be used to efficiently degrade organic pollutants, they have different optimum reaction conditions and may not be equally efficient in detoxification of organic pollutants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Protection of the Queuosine Biosynthesis Enzyme QueF from Irreversible Oxidation by a Conserved Intramolecular Disulfide
Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 30; doi:10.3390/biom7010030 -
Abstract
QueF enzymes catalyze the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent reduction of the nitrile group of 7-cyano-7-deazaguanine (preQ0) to 7-aminomethyl-7-deazaguanine (preQ1) in the biosynthetic pathway to the tRNA modified nucleoside queuosine. The QueF-catalyzed reaction includes formation of a covalent thioimide
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QueF enzymes catalyze the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent reduction of the nitrile group of 7-cyano-7-deazaguanine (preQ0) to 7-aminomethyl-7-deazaguanine (preQ1) in the biosynthetic pathway to the tRNA modified nucleoside queuosine. The QueF-catalyzed reaction includes formation of a covalent thioimide intermediate with a conserved active site cysteine that is prone to oxidation in vivo. Here, we report the crystal structure of a mutant of Bacillus subtilis QueF, which reveals an unanticipated intramolecular disulfide formed between the catalytic Cys55 and a conserved Cys99 located near the active site. This structure is more symmetric than the substrate-bound structure and exhibits major rearrangement of the loops responsible for substrate binding. Mutation of Cys99 to Ala/Ser does not compromise enzyme activity, indicating that the disulfide does not play a catalytic role. Peroxide-induced inactivation of the wild-type enzyme is reversible with thioredoxin, while such inactivation of the Cys99Ala/Ser mutants is irreversible, consistent with protection of Cys55 from irreversible oxidation by disulfide formation with Cys99. Conservation of the cysteine pair, and the reported in vivo interaction of QueF with the thioredoxin-like hydroperoxide reductase AhpC in Escherichia coli suggest that regulation by the thioredoxin disulfide-thiol exchange system may constitute a general mechanism for protection of QueF from oxidative stress in vivo. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Chemical and Conformational Diversity of Modified Nucleosides Affects tRNA Structure and Function
Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 29; doi:10.3390/biom7010029 -
Abstract
RNAs are central to all gene expression through the control of protein synthesis. Four major nucleosides, adenosine, guanosine, cytidine and uridine, compose RNAs and provide sequence variation, but are limited in contributions to structural variation as well as distinct chemical properties. The ability
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RNAs are central to all gene expression through the control of protein synthesis. Four major nucleosides, adenosine, guanosine, cytidine and uridine, compose RNAs and provide sequence variation, but are limited in contributions to structural variation as well as distinct chemical properties. The ability of RNAs to play multiple roles in cellular metabolism is made possible by extensive variation in length, conformational dynamics, and the over 100 post-transcriptional modifications. There are several reviews of the biochemical pathways leading to RNA modification, but the physicochemical nature of modified nucleosides and how they facilitate RNA function is of keen interest, particularly with regard to the contributions of modified nucleosides. Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are the most extensively modified RNAs. The diversity of modifications provide versatility to the chemical and structural environments. The added chemistry, conformation and dynamics of modified nucleosides occurring at the termini of stems in tRNA’s cloverleaf secondary structure affect the global three-dimensional conformation, produce unique recognition determinants for macromolecules to recognize tRNAs, and affect the accurate and efficient decoding ability of tRNAs. This review will discuss the impact of specific chemical moieties on the structure, stability, electrochemical properties, and function of tRNAs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Stability of Amylose Inclusion Complexes Depending on Guest Polymers and Their Application to Supramolecular Polymeric Materials
Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 28; doi:10.3390/biom7010028 -
Abstract
This paper describes the evaluation of the stability of amylose–polymer inclusion complexes under solution state in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) depending on guest polymers. The three complexes were prepared by the vine-twining polymerization method using polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), and poly(l-lactide) (PLLA)
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This paper describes the evaluation of the stability of amylose–polymer inclusion complexes under solution state in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) depending on guest polymers. The three complexes were prepared by the vine-twining polymerization method using polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), and poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) as guest polymers. The stability investigation was conducted at desired temperatures (25, 30, 40, 60 °C) in DMSO solutions of the complexes. Consequently, the amylose–PTHF inclusion complex was dissociated at 25 °C, while the other complexes were stable under the same conditions. When the temperatures were elevated, the amylose–PCL and amylose–PLLA complexes were dissociated at 40 and 60 °C, respectively. We also found that amylose inclusion supramolecular polymers which were prepared by the vine-twining polymerization using primer-guest conjugates formed films by the acetylation of amylose segments. The film from acetylated amylose–PLLA supramolecular polymer had higher storage modulus than that from acetylated amylose–PTHF supramolecular polymer, as a function of temperature. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Biosynthesis of Sulfur-Containing tRNA Modifications: A Comparison of Bacterial, Archaeal, and Eukaryotic Pathways
Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 27; doi:10.3390/biom7010027 -
Abstract
Post-translational tRNA modifications have very broad diversity and are present in all domains of life. They are important for proper tRNA functions. In this review, we emphasize the recent advances on the biosynthesis of sulfur-containing tRNA nucleosides including the 2-thiouridine (s2U)
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Post-translational tRNA modifications have very broad diversity and are present in all domains of life. They are important for proper tRNA functions. In this review, we emphasize the recent advances on the biosynthesis of sulfur-containing tRNA nucleosides including the 2-thiouridine (s2U) derivatives, 4-thiouridine (s4U), 2-thiocytidine (s2C), and 2-methylthioadenosine (ms2A). Their biosynthetic pathways have two major types depending on the requirement of iron–sulfur (Fe–S) clusters. In all cases, the first step in bacteria and eukaryotes is to activate the sulfur atom of free l-cysteine by cysteine desulfurases, generating a persulfide (R-S-SH) group. In some archaea, a cysteine desulfurase is missing. The following steps of the bacterial s2U and s4U formation are Fe–S cluster independent, and the activated sulfur is transferred by persulfide-carrier proteins. By contrast, the biosynthesis of bacterial s2C and ms2A require Fe–S cluster dependent enzymes. A recent study shows that the archaeal s4U synthetase (ThiI) and the eukaryotic cytosolic 2-thiouridine synthetase (Ncs6) are Fe–S enzymes; this expands the role of Fe–S enzymes in tRNA thiolation to the Archaea and Eukarya domains. The detailed reaction mechanisms of Fe–S cluster depend s2U and s4U formation await further investigations. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Factors That Shape Eukaryotic tRNAomes:  Processing, Modification and Anticodon–Codon Use
Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 26; doi:10.3390/biom7010026 -
Abstract
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) contain sequence diversity beyond their anticodons and the large variety of nucleotide modifications found in all kingdoms of life. Some modifications stabilize structure and fit in the ribosome whereas those to the anticodon loop modulate messenger RNA (mRNA) decoding activity
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Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) contain sequence diversity beyond their anticodons and the large variety of nucleotide modifications found in all kingdoms of life. Some modifications stabilize structure and fit in the ribosome whereas those to the anticodon loop modulate messenger RNA (mRNA) decoding activity more directly. The identities of tRNAs with some universal anticodon loop modifications vary among distant and parallel species, likely to accommodate fine tuning for their translation systems. This plasticity in positions 34 (wobble) and 37 is reflected in codon use bias. Here, we review convergent evidence that suggest that expansion of the eukaryotic tRNAome was supported by its dedicated RNA polymerase III transcription system and coupling to the precursor‐tRNA chaperone, La protein. We also review aspects of eukaryotic tRNAome evolution involving G34/A34 anticodon‐sparing, relation to A34 modification to inosine, biased codon use and regulatory information in the redundancy (synonymous) component of the genetic code. We then review interdependent anticodon loop modifications involving position 37 in eukaryotes. This includes the eukaryote‐specific tRNA modification, 3‐methylcytidine‐32 (m3C32) and the responsible gene, TRM140 and homologs which were duplicated and subspecialized for isoacceptor‐specific substrates and dependence on i6A37 or t6A37. The genetics of tRNA function is relevant to health directly and as disease modifiers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modulation of the Proteostasis Machinery to  Overcome Stress Caused by Diminished Levels of  t6A‐Modified tRNAs in Drosophila
Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 25; doi:10.3390/biom7010025 -
Abstract
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) harbor a subset of post‐transcriptional modifications required for structural stability or decoding function. N6‐threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t6A) is a universally conserved modification found at position 37 in tRNA that pair A‐starting codons (ANN) and is required for proper translation initiation and to
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Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) harbor a subset of post‐transcriptional modifications required for structural stability or decoding function. N6‐threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t6A) is a universally conserved modification found at position 37 in tRNA that pair A‐starting codons (ANN) and is required for proper translation initiation and to prevent frame shift during elongation. In its absence, the synthesis of aberrant proteins is likely, evidenced by the formation of protein aggregates. In this work, our aim was to study the relationship between t6A‐modified tRNAs and protein synthesis homeostasis machinery using Drosophila melanogaster. We used the Gal4/UAS system to knockdown genes required for t6A synthesis in a tissue and time specific manner and in vivo reporters of unfolded protein response (UPR) activation. Our results suggest that t6A‐modified tRNAs, synthetized by the threonyl‐carbamoyl transferase complex (TCTC), are required for organismal growth and imaginal cell survival, and is most likely to support proper protein synthesis. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Dealing with an Unconventional Genetic Code in  Mitochondria: The Biogenesis and Pathogenic  Defects of the 5‐Formylcytosine Modification in  Mitochondrial tRNAMet
Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 24; doi:10.3390/biom7010024 -
Abstract
Human mitochondria contain their own genome, which uses an unconventional genetic code. In addition to the standard AUG methionine codon, the single mitochondrial tRNA Methionine (mt‐tRNAMet) also recognises AUA during translation initiation and elongation. Post‐transcriptional modifications of tRNAs are important for structure, stability,
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Human mitochondria contain their own genome, which uses an unconventional genetic code. In addition to the standard AUG methionine codon, the single mitochondrial tRNA Methionine (mt‐tRNAMet) also recognises AUA during translation initiation and elongation. Post‐transcriptional modifications of tRNAs are important for structure, stability, correct folding and aminoacylation as well as decoding. The unique 5‐formylcytosine (f5C) modification of position 34 in mt‐tRNAMet has been long postulated to be crucial for decoding of unconventional methionine codons and efficient mitochondrial translation. However, the enzymes responsible for the formation of mitochondrial f5C have been identified only recently. The first step of the f5C pathway consists of methylation of cytosine by NSUN3. This is followed by further oxidation by ABH1. Here, we review the role of f5C, the latest breakthroughs in our understanding of the biogenesis of this unique mitochondrial tRNA modification and its involvement in human disease. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Functional Regulation of the Plasma Protein Histidine-Rich Glycoprotein by Zn2+ in Settings of Tissue Injury
Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 22; doi:10.3390/biom7010022 -
Abstract
Divalent metal ions are essential nutrients for all living organisms and are commonly protein-bound where they perform important roles in protein structure and function. This regulatory control from metals is observed in the relatively abundant plasma protein histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), which displays preferential
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Divalent metal ions are essential nutrients for all living organisms and are commonly protein-bound where they perform important roles in protein structure and function. This regulatory control from metals is observed in the relatively abundant plasma protein histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), which displays preferential binding to the second most abundant transition element in human systems, Zinc (Zn2+). HRG has been proposed to interact with a large number of protein ligands and has been implicated in the regulation of various physiological and pathological processes including the formation of immune complexes, apoptotic/necrotic and pathogen clearance, cell adhesion, antimicrobial activity, angiogenesis, coagulation and fibrinolysis. Interestingly, these processes are often associated with sites of tissue injury or tumour growth, where the concentration and distribution of Zn2+ is known to vary. Changes in Zn2+ levels have been shown to modify HRG function by altering its affinity for certain ligands and/or providing protection against proteolytic disassembly by serine proteases. This review focuses on the molecular interplay between HRG and Zn2+, and how Zn2+ binding modifies HRG-ligand interactions to regulate function in different settings of tissue injury. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Transfer RNA methyltransferases with a SpoU‐TrmD  (SPOUT) fold and their modified nucleosides in  tRNA
Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 23; doi:10.3390/biom7010023 -
Abstract
The existence of SpoU‐TrmD (SPOUT) RNA methyltransferase superfamily was first predicted by bioinformatics. SpoU is the previous name of TrmH, which catalyzes the 2’‐Omethylation of ribose of G18 in tRNA; TrmD catalyzes the formation of N1‐methylguanosine at position 37 in tRNA. Although SpoU
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The existence of SpoU‐TrmD (SPOUT) RNA methyltransferase superfamily was first predicted by bioinformatics. SpoU is the previous name of TrmH, which catalyzes the 2’‐Omethylation of ribose of G18 in tRNA; TrmD catalyzes the formation of N1‐methylguanosine at position 37 in tRNA. Although SpoU (TrmH) and TrmD were originally considered to be unrelated, the bioinformatics study suggested that they might share a common evolution origin and form a single superfamily. The common feature of SPOUT RNA methyltransferases is the formation of a deep trefoil knot in the catalytic domain. In the past decade, the SPOUT RNA methyltransferase superfamily has grown; furthermore, knowledge concerning the functions of their modified nucleosides in tRNA has also increased. Some enzymes are potential targets in the design of antibacterial drugs. In humans, defects in some genes may be related to carcinogenesis. In this review, recent findings on the tRNA methyltransferases with a SPOUT fold and their methylated nucleosides in tRNA, including classification of tRNA methyltransferases with a SPOUT fold; knot structures, domain arrangements, subunit structures and reaction mechanisms; tRNA recognition mechanisms, and functions of modified nucleosides synthesized by this superfamily, are summarized. Lastly, the future perspective for studies on tRNA modification enzymes are considered. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Mapping Post‐Transcriptional Modifications onto Transfer Ribonucleic Acid Sequences by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 21; doi:10.3390/biom7010021 -
Abstract
Liquid chromatography, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, has become one of the most popular methods for the analysis of post‐transcriptionally modified transfer ribonucleic acids (tRNAs). Given that the information collected using this platform is entirely determined by the mass of the analyte, it
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Liquid chromatography, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, has become one of the most popular methods for the analysis of post‐transcriptionally modified transfer ribonucleic acids (tRNAs). Given that the information collected using this platform is entirely determined by the mass of the analyte, it has proven to be the gold standard for accurately assigning nucleobases to the sequence. For the past few decades many labs have worked to improve the analysis, contiguous to instrumentation manufacturers developing faster and more sensitive instruments. With biological discoveries relating to ribonucleic acid happening more frequently, mass spectrometry has been invaluable in helping to understand what is happening at the molecular level. Here we present a brief overview of the methods that have been developed and refined for the analysis of modified tRNAs by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Reduction of Redox Modifications of Cys-Residues in the Na,K-ATPase α1-Subunit on Its Activity
Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 18; doi:10.3390/biom7010018 -
Abstract
Sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) creates a gradient of sodium and potassium ions necessary for the viability of animal cells, and it is extremely sensitive to intracellular redox status. Earlier we found that regulatory glutathionylation determines Na,K-ATPase redox sensitivity but the role of basal
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Sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) creates a gradient of sodium and potassium ions necessary for the viability of animal cells, and it is extremely sensitive to intracellular redox status. Earlier we found that regulatory glutathionylation determines Na,K-ATPase redox sensitivity but the role of basal glutathionylation and other redox modifications of cysteine residues is not clear. The purpose of this study was to detect oxidized, nitrosylated, or glutathionylated cysteine residues in Na,K-ATPase, evaluate the possibility of removing these modifications and assess their influence on the enzyme activity. To this aim, we have detected such modifications in the Na,K-ATPase α1-subunit purified from duck salt glands and tried to eliminate them by chemical reducing agents and the glutaredoxin1/glutathione reductase enzyme system. Detection of cysteine modifications was performed using mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis. We have found that purified Na,K-ATPase α1-subunit contains glutathionylated, nitrosylated, and oxidized cysteines. Chemical reducing agents partially eliminate these modifications that leads to the slight increase of the enzyme activity. Enzyme system glutaredoxin/glutathione reductase, unlike chemical reducing agents, produces significant increase of the enzyme activity. At the same time, the enzyme system deglutathionylates native Na,K-ATPase to a lesser degree than chemical reducing agents. This suggests that the enzymatic reducing system glutaredoxin/glutathione reductase specifically affects glutathionylation of the regulatory cysteine residues of Na,K-ATPase α1-subunit. Full article
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Open AccessReview
m1A Post‐Transcriptional Modification in tRNAs
Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 20; doi:10.3390/biom7010020 -
Abstract
To date, about 90 post‐transcriptional modifications have been reported in tRNA expanding their chemical and functional diversity. Methylation is the most frequent post‐transcriptional tRNA modification that can occur on almost all nitrogen sites of the nucleobases, on the C5 atom of pyrimidines, on
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To date, about 90 post‐transcriptional modifications have been reported in tRNA expanding their chemical and functional diversity. Methylation is the most frequent post‐transcriptional tRNA modification that can occur on almost all nitrogen sites of the nucleobases, on the C5 atom of pyrimidines, on the C2 and C8 atoms of adenosine and, additionally, on the oxygen of the ribose 2′-OH. The methylation on the N1 atom of adenosine to form 1‐methyladenosine (m1A) has been identified at nucleotide position 9, 14, 22, 57, and 58 in different tRNAs. In some cases, these modifications have been shown to increase tRNA structural stability and induce correct tRNA folding. This review provides an overview of the currently known m1A modifications, the different m1A modification sites, the biological role of each modification, and the enzyme responsible for each methylation in different species. The review further describes, in detail, two enzyme families responsible for formation of m1A at nucleotide position 9 and 58 in tRNA with a focus on the tRNA binding, m1A mechanism, protein domain organisation and overall structures. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Common Chemical Inductors of Replication Stress: Focus on Cell‐Based Studies
Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 19; doi:10.3390/biom7010019 -
Abstract
DNA replication is a highly demanding process regarding the energy and material supply and must be precisely regulated, involving multiple cellular feedbacks. The slowing down or stalling of DNA synthesis and/or replication forks is referred to as replication stress (RS). Owing to the
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DNA replication is a highly demanding process regarding the energy and material supply and must be precisely regulated, involving multiple cellular feedbacks. The slowing down or stalling of DNA synthesis and/or replication forks is referred to as replication stress (RS). Owing to the complexity and requirements of replication, a plethora of factors may interfere and challenge the genome stability, cell survival or affect the whole organism. This review outlines chemical compounds that are known inducers of RS and commonly used in laboratory research. These compounds act on replication by direct interaction with DNA causing DNA crosslinks and bulky lesions (cisplatin), chemical interference with the metabolism of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (hydroxyurea), direct inhibition of the activity of replicative DNA polymerases (aphidicolin) and interference with enzymes dealing with topological DNA stress (camptothecin, etoposide). As a variety of mechanisms can induce RS, the responses of mammalian cells also vary. Here, we review the activity and mechanism of action of these compounds based on recent knowledge, accompanied by examples of induced phenotypes, cellular readouts and commonly used doses. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Sulfur Modifications of the Wobble U34 in tRNAs and their Intracellular Localization in Eukaryotic Cells
Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 17; doi:10.3390/biom7010017 -
Abstract
The wobble uridine (U34) of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) for two-box codon recognition, i.e., tRNALysUUU, tRNAGluUUC, and tRNAGlnUUG, harbor a sulfur- (thio-) and a methyl-derivative structure at the second and fifth positions of
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The wobble uridine (U34) of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) for two-box codon recognition, i.e., tRNALysUUU, tRNAGluUUC, and tRNAGlnUUG, harbor a sulfur- (thio-) and a methyl-derivative structure at the second and fifth positions of U34, respectively. Both modifications are necessary to construct the proper anticodon loop structure and to enable them to exert their functions in translation. Thio-modification of U34 (s2U34) is found in both cytosolic tRNAs (cy-tRNAs) and mitochondrial tRNAs (mt-tRNAs). Although l-cysteine desulfurase is required in both cases, subsequent sulfur transfer pathways to cy-tRNAs and mt-tRNAs are different due to their distinct intracellular locations. The s2U34 formation in cy-tRNAs involves a sulfur delivery system required for the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters and certain resultant Fe/S proteins. This review addresses presumed sulfur delivery pathways for the s2U34 formation in distinct intracellular locations, especially that for cy-tRNAs in comparison with that for mt-tRNAs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Alcohol, Adipose Tissue and Lipid Dysregulation
Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 16; doi:10.3390/biom7010016 -
Abstract
Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs lipid metabolism as it increases adipose tissue lipolysis and leads to ectopic fat deposition within the liver and the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease. In addition to the recognition of the role of adipose tissue derived fatty acids
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Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs lipid metabolism as it increases adipose tissue lipolysis and leads to ectopic fat deposition within the liver and the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease. In addition to the recognition of the role of adipose tissue derived fatty acids in liver steatosis, alcohol also impacts other functions of adipose tissue and lipid metabolism. Lipid balance in response to long‐term alcohol intake favors adipose tissue loss and fatty acid efflux as lipolysis is upregulated and lipogenesis is either slightly decreased or unchanged. Study of the lipolytic and lipogenic pathways has identified several regulatory proteins modulated by alcohol that contribute to these effects. Glucose tolerance of adipose tissue is also impaired by chronic alcohol due to decreased glucose transporter‐4 availability at the membrane. As an endocrine organ, white adipose tissue (WAT) releases several adipokines that are negatively modulated following chronic alcohol consumption including adiponectin, leptin, and resistin. When these effects are combined with the enhanced expression of inflammatory mediators that are induced by chronic alcohol, a proinflammatory state develops within WAT, contributing to the observed lipodystrophy. Lastly, while chronic alcohol intake may enhance thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue (BAT), definitive mechanistic evidence is currently lacking. Overall, both WAT and BAT depots are impacted by chronic alcohol intake and the resulting lipodystrophy contributes to fat accumulation in peripheral organs, thereby enhancing the pathological state accompanying chronic alcohol use disorder. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Genomic Impact of DNA CpG Methylation on Gene Expression; Relationships in Prostate Cancer
Biomolecules 2017, 7(1), 15; doi:10.3390/biom7010015 -
Abstract
The process of DNA CpG methylation has been extensively investigated for over 50 years and revealed associations between changing methylation status of CpG islands and gene expression. As a result, DNA CpG methylation is implicated in the control of gene expression in developmental
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The process of DNA CpG methylation has been extensively investigated for over 50 years and revealed associations between changing methylation status of CpG islands and gene expression. As a result, DNA CpG methylation is implicated in the control of gene expression in developmental and homeostasis processes, as well as being a cancer-driver mechanism. The development of genome-wide technologies and sophisticated statistical analytical approaches has ushered in an era of widespread analyses, for example in the cancer arena, of the relationships between altered DNA CpG methylation, gene expression, and tumor status. The remarkable increase in the volume of such genomic data, for example, through investigators from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), has allowed dissection of the relationships between DNA CpG methylation density and distribution, gene expression, and tumor outcome. In this manner, it is now possible to test that the genome-wide correlations are measurable between changes in DNA CpG methylation and gene expression. Perhaps surprisingly is that these associations can only be detected for hundreds, but not thousands, of genes, and the direction of the correlations are both positive and negative. This, perhaps, suggests that CpG methylation events in cancer systems can act as disease drivers but the effects are possibly more restricted than suspected. Additionally, the positive and negative correlations suggest direct and indirect events and an incomplete understanding. Within the prostate cancer TCGA cohort, we examined the relationships between expression of genes that control DNA methylation, known targets of DNA methylation and tumor status. This revealed that genes that control the synthesis of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) associate with altered expression of DNA methylation targets in a subset of aggressive tumors. Full article
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