Open AccessReview
Unlocking the NF-κB Conundrum: Embracing Complexity to Achieve Specificity
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 50; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5030050 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Transcription factors of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) family are central coordinating regulators of the host defence responses to stress, injury and infection. Aberrant NF-κB activation also contributes to the pathogenesis of some of the most common current threats to global human health,
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Transcription factors of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) family are central coordinating regulators of the host defence responses to stress, injury and infection. Aberrant NF-κB activation also contributes to the pathogenesis of some of the most common current threats to global human health, including chronic inflammatory diseases, autoimmune disorders, diabetes, vascular diseases and the majority of cancers. Accordingly, the NF-κB pathway is widely considered an attractive therapeutic target in a broad range of malignant and non-malignant diseases. Yet, despite the aggressive efforts by the pharmaceutical industry to develop a specific NF-κB inhibitor, none has been clinically approved, due to the dose-limiting toxicities associated with the global suppression of NF-κB. In this review, we summarise the main strategies historically adopted to therapeutically target the NF-κB pathway with an emphasis on oncology, and some of the emerging strategies and newer agents being developed to pharmacologically inhibit this pathway. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Estrogen Repression of MicroRNAs Is Associated with High Guanine Content in the Terminal Loop Sequences of Their Precursors
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 47; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5030047 -
Abstract
Widespread microRNA (miRNA) repression is a phenomenon observed in mammals after exposure to cigarette smoke and in many types of cancer. A comprehensive reduction in miRNA expression after treatment with the hormone estrogen has also previously been described. Here, we reveal a conserved
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Widespread microRNA (miRNA) repression is a phenomenon observed in mammals after exposure to cigarette smoke and in many types of cancer. A comprehensive reduction in miRNA expression after treatment with the hormone estrogen has also previously been described. Here, we reveal a conserved association of miRNA downregulation after estrogen exposure in zebrafish, mouse, and human breast cancer cell line, with a high guanine content in the terminal loop sequences of their precursors, and offer a possible link between estrogen-related miRNA-adducts formation and carcinogenesis. We also show common gene expression patterns shared by breast cancer tumors and estrogen-treated zebrafish, suggesting that this organism can be used as a powerful model system for the study of human breast cancer. Full article
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Open AccessCommentary
Hitting the Holy Grail of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with Naive T-Cell Depleted Allografts—Graft Engineered Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 48; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5030048 -
Abstract
Hematopoietic cell transplant is a potentially curative procedure for many benign and malignant conditions. The efficacy of allogeneic transplant relies in part on the cytotoxicity of the conditioning regimen and the graft versus tumor effect mediated by alloreactive donor T cells; the same
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Hematopoietic cell transplant is a potentially curative procedure for many benign and malignant conditions. The efficacy of allogeneic transplant relies in part on the cytotoxicity of the conditioning regimen and the graft versus tumor effect mediated by alloreactive donor T cells; the same cells are also implicated in the development of graft versus host disease (GVHD). Selective identification and depletion of the T cells implicated in GVHD, while preserving the T cells responsible for graft versus tumor effect has been the focus of many research groups in the recent years. Here we briefly review the physiology of T cells in transplantation, and comment on a recent clinical trial published by Bleakly et al. using a novel way of graft engineered allograft via naïve T cell depletion. Full article
Open AccessReview
Aptamer Cell-Based Selection: Overview and Advances
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 49; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5030049 -
Abstract
Aptamers are high affinity single-stranded DNA/RNA molecules, produced by a combinatorial procedure named SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment), that are emerging as promising diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Among selection strategies, procedures using living cells as complex targets (referred as “cell-SELEX”)
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Aptamers are high affinity single-stranded DNA/RNA molecules, produced by a combinatorial procedure named SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment), that are emerging as promising diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Among selection strategies, procedures using living cells as complex targets (referred as “cell-SELEX”) have been developed as an effective mean to generate aptamers for heavily modified cell surface proteins, assuring the binding of the target in its native conformation. Here we give an up-to-date overview on cell-SELEX technology, discussing the most recent advances with a particular focus on cancer cell targeting. Examples of the different protocol applications and post-SELEX strategies will be briefly outlined. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Liver Detargeting Strategies for Systemic Therapy with Oncolytic Adenovirus Serotype 5
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 46; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5030046 -
Abstract
Oncolytic viruses would ideally be of use for systemic therapy to treat disseminated cancer. To do this safely, this may require multiple layers of cancer specificity. The pharmacology and specificity of oncolytic adenoviruses can be modified by (1) physical retargeting, (2) physical detargeting,
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Oncolytic viruses would ideally be of use for systemic therapy to treat disseminated cancer. To do this safely, this may require multiple layers of cancer specificity. The pharmacology and specificity of oncolytic adenoviruses can be modified by (1) physical retargeting, (2) physical detargeting, (3) chemical shielding, or (4) by modifying the ability of viral early gene products to selectively activate in cancer versus normal cells. We explored the utility of these approaches with oncolytic adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) in immunocompetent Syrian hamsters bearing subcutaneous HaK tumors. After a single intravenous injection to reach the distant tumors, the physically hepatocyte-detargeted virus Ad5-hexon-BAP was more effective than conditionally replicating Ad5-dl1101/07 with mutations in its E1A protein. When these control or Ad5 treated animals were treated a second time by intratumoral injection, prior exposure to Ad5 did not affect tumor growth, suggesting that anti-Ad immunity neither prevented treatment nor amplified anti-tumor immune responses. Ad5-dl1101/07 was next chemically shielded with polyethylene glycol (PEG). While 5 kDa of PEG blunted pro-inflammatory IL-6 production induced by Ad5-dl1101/07, this shielding reduced Ad oncolytic activity. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Aptamer-siRNA Chimeras: Discovery, Progress, and Future Prospects
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 45; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5030045 -
Abstract
Synthetic nucleic acid ligands (aptamers) have emerged as effective delivery tools for many therapeutic oligonucleotide-based drugs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). In this review, we summarize recent progress in the aptamer selection technology that has made possible the identification of cell-specific, cell-internalizing aptamers
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Synthetic nucleic acid ligands (aptamers) have emerged as effective delivery tools for many therapeutic oligonucleotide-based drugs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). In this review, we summarize recent progress in the aptamer selection technology that has made possible the identification of cell-specific, cell-internalizing aptamers for the cell-targeted delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. In addition, we review the original, proof-of-concept aptamer-siRNA delivery studies and discuss recent advances in aptamer-siRNA conjugate designs for applications ranging from cancer therapy to the development of targeted antivirals. Challenges and prospects of aptamer-targeted siRNA drugs for clinical development are further highlighted. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Plant Virus Expression Vectors: A Powerhouse for Global Health
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 44; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5030044 -
Abstract
Plant-made biopharmaceuticals have long been considered a promising technology for providing inexpensive and efficacious medicines for developing countries, as well as for combating pandemic infectious diseases and for use in personalized medicine. Plant virus expression vectors produce high levels of pharmaceutical proteins within
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Plant-made biopharmaceuticals have long been considered a promising technology for providing inexpensive and efficacious medicines for developing countries, as well as for combating pandemic infectious diseases and for use in personalized medicine. Plant virus expression vectors produce high levels of pharmaceutical proteins within a very short time period. Recently, plant viruses have been employed as nanoparticles for novel forms of cancer treatment. This review provides a glimpse into the development of plant virus expression systems both for pharmaceutical production as well as for immunotherapy. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Aspirin Prevention of Colorectal Cancer: Focus on NF-κB Signalling and the Nucleolus
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 43; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5030043 -
Abstract
Overwhelming evidence indicates that aspirin and related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have anti-tumour activity and the potential to prevent cancer, particularly colorectal cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain hypothetical. Dysregulation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) transcription factor is a common event
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Overwhelming evidence indicates that aspirin and related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have anti-tumour activity and the potential to prevent cancer, particularly colorectal cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain hypothetical. Dysregulation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) transcription factor is a common event in many cancer types which contributes to tumour initiation and progression by driving expression of pro-proliferative/anti-apoptotic genes. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge regarding NSAID effects on the NF-κB signalling pathway in pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions, and the evidence that these effects contribute to the anti-tumour activity of the agents. The nuclear organelle, the nucleolus, is emerging as a central regulator of transcription factor activity and cell growth and death. Nucleolar function is dysregulated in the majority of cancers which promotes cancer growth through direct and indirect mechanisms. Hence, this organelle is emerging as a promising target for novel therapeutic agents. Here, we will also discuss evidence for crosstalk between the NF-κB pathway and nucleoli, the role that this cross-talk has in the anti-tumour effects of NSAIDs and ways forward to exploit this crosstalk for therapeutic purpose. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Targeting of Tumor Neovasculature with GrB/VEGF121, a Novel Cytotoxic Fusion Protein
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 42; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5030042 -
Abstract
Angiogenesis is a critical process in numerous diseases, and intervention in neovascularization has therapeutic value in several disease settings, including ocular diseases, arthritis, and in tumor progression and metastatic spread. Various vascular targeting agents have been developed, including those that inhibit growth factor
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Angiogenesis is a critical process in numerous diseases, and intervention in neovascularization has therapeutic value in several disease settings, including ocular diseases, arthritis, and in tumor progression and metastatic spread. Various vascular targeting agents have been developed, including those that inhibit growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, blocking antibodies that interfere with receptor signal transduction, and strategies that trap growth factor ligands. Limited anti-tumor efficacy studies have suggested that the targeted delivery of the human pro-apoptotic molecule Granzyme B to tumor cells has significant potential for cancer treatment. Here, we review biological vascular targeting agents, and describe a unique vascular targeting agent composed of Granzyme B and the VEGF receptor ligand VEGF121. The fusion protein GrB/VEGF121 demonstrates cytotoxicity at nanomolar or sub-nanomolar levels, excellent pharmacokinetic and efficacy profiles, and has significant therapeutic potential targeting tumor vasculature. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Development of Phosphorothioate DNA and DNA Thioaptamers
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 41; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5030041 -
Abstract
Nucleic acid aptamers are short RNA- or DNA-based affinity reagents typically selected from combinatorial libraries to bind to a specific target such as a protein, a small molecule, whole cells or even animals. Aptamers have utility in the development of diagnostic, imaging and
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Nucleic acid aptamers are short RNA- or DNA-based affinity reagents typically selected from combinatorial libraries to bind to a specific target such as a protein, a small molecule, whole cells or even animals. Aptamers have utility in the development of diagnostic, imaging and therapeutic applications due to their size, physico-chemical nature and ease of synthesis and modification to suit the application. A variety of oligonucleotide modifications have been used to enhance the stability of aptamers from nuclease degradation in vivo. The non-bridging oxygen atoms of the phosphodiester backbones of RNA and DNA aptamers can be substituted with one or two sulfur atoms, resulting in thioaptamers with phosphorothioate or phosphorodithioate linkages, respectively. Such thioaptamers are known to have increased binding affinity towards their target, as well as enhanced resistance to nuclease degradation. In this review, we discuss the development of phosphorothioate chemistry and thioaptamers, with a brief review of selection methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Testing of Crude Natural Plant Extracts from Costa Rica for Their Ability to Boost Innate Immune Cells against Staphylococcus aureus
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 40; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5030040 -
Abstract
The increasing occurrence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus (S.) aureus tremendously limits the antibiotic-based treatment options; therefore, an open discussion of alternative treatment strategies is urgently needed. The use of naturally derived materials might become a more promising concept, not only as directly
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The increasing occurrence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus (S.) aureus tremendously limits the antibiotic-based treatment options; therefore, an open discussion of alternative treatment strategies is urgently needed. The use of naturally derived materials might become a more promising concept, not only as directly acting antimicrobials, but also for stimulation of the immune system. Costa Rican plant extracts were screened for their ability to enhance the antimicrobial activity of human blood-derived cells against S. aureus infections. We identified three plant extracts which significantly reduced the growth of S. aureus in the presence of human blood without directly acting as antibacterials: Byrsonima crassifolia acetone bark extract, Mandevilla veraguasensis acetone vine extract and Verbesina oerstediana acetone bark extract (VEOEBA). The effect of VEOEBA was studied in more detail, and revealed that VEOEBA increases the antimicrobial activity of neutrophils by enhancing the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: What Is the Mechanism in Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease?
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 39; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5030039 -
Abstract
After more than a decade of preclinical and clinical development, therapeutic infusion of mesenchymal stromal cells is now a leading investigational strategy for the treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). While their clinical use continues to expand, it is still unknown which of
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After more than a decade of preclinical and clinical development, therapeutic infusion of mesenchymal stromal cells is now a leading investigational strategy for the treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). While their clinical use continues to expand, it is still unknown which of their immunomodulatory properties contributes most to their therapeutic activity. Herein we describe the proposed mechanisms, focusing on the inhibitory activity of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) at immunologic checkpoints. A deeper understanding of the mechanism of action will allow us to design more effective treatment strategies. Full article
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Open AccessReview
New Paradigm for a Targeted Cancer Therapeutic Approach: A Short Review on Potential Synergy of Gold Nanoparticles and Cold Atmospheric Plasma
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 38; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5030038 -
Abstract
Application of Gold nanoparticles and Cold Atmospheric plasma as a targeted therapeutic adjunct has been widely investigated separately in cancer therapy. Gold nanoparticles, with their biocompatibility, lower cytotoxicity and superior efficacy, are becoming substantially more significant in modern cancer therapy. Likewise, cold atmospheric
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Application of Gold nanoparticles and Cold Atmospheric plasma as a targeted therapeutic adjunct has been widely investigated separately in cancer therapy. Gold nanoparticles, with their biocompatibility, lower cytotoxicity and superior efficacy, are becoming substantially more significant in modern cancer therapy. Likewise, cold atmospheric plasma, with rich reactive species including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), is being explored to selectively target and kill cancer cells, making them a promising anticancer agent. Recent scientific studies have shown that there is a potential synergy between these two aspects. Induction of apoptosis/necrosis due to oxidative stress may be a probable mechanism of their cytotoxic effect. The synergetic effect of the two therapeutic approaches could be tantamount to maximized targeted efficacy on the treatment of diseases like cancer. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
CSPG4: A Target for Selective Delivery of Human Cytolytic Fusion Proteins and TRAIL
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 37; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5030037 -
Abstract
Chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is a transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed on malignant cells in several cancer types with only limited expression on normal cells. CSPG4 is implicated in several signaling pathways believed to drive cancer progression, particularly proliferation, motility and metastatic spread. Expression may
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Chondroitin-sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is a transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed on malignant cells in several cancer types with only limited expression on normal cells. CSPG4 is implicated in several signaling pathways believed to drive cancer progression, particularly proliferation, motility and metastatic spread. Expression may serve as a prognostic marker for survival and risk of relapse in treatment-resistant malignancies including melanoma, triple negative breast cancer, rhabdomyosarcoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This tumor-associated overexpression of CSPG4 points towards a highly promising therapeutic target for antibody-guided cancer therapy. Monoclonal αCSPG4 antibodies have been shown to inhibit cancer progression by blocking ligand access to the CSPG4 extracellular binding sites. Moreover, CSPG4-directed antibody conjugates have been shown to be selectively internalized by CSPG4-expressing cancer cells via endocytosis. CSPG4-directed immunotherapy may be approached in several ways, including: (1) antibody-based fusion proteins for the selective delivery of a pro-apoptotic factors such as tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand to agonistic death receptors 4 and 5 on the cell surface; and (2) CSPG4-specific immunotoxins which bind selectively to diseased cells expressing CSPG4, are internalized by them and induce arrest of biosynthesis, closely followed by initiation of apoptotic signaling. Here we review various methods of exploiting tumor-associated CSPG4 expression to improve targeted cancer therapy. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Human MAP Tau Based Targeted Cytolytic Fusion Proteins
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 36; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5030036 -
Abstract
Some of the most promising small molecule toxins used to generate antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) include anti-mitotic agents (e.g., auristatin and its derivatives) which are designed to attack cancerous cells at their most vulnerable state during mitosis. We were interested in identifying a
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Some of the most promising small molecule toxins used to generate antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) include anti-mitotic agents (e.g., auristatin and its derivatives) which are designed to attack cancerous cells at their most vulnerable state during mitosis. We were interested in identifying a human cystostatic protein eventually showing comparable activities and allowing the generation of corresponding targeted fully human cytolytic fusion proteins. Recently, we identified the human microtubule associated protein tau (MAP tau), which binds specifically to tubulin and modulates the stability of microtubules, thereby blocking mitosis and presumably vesicular transport. By binding and stabilizing polymerized microtubule filaments, MAP tau-based fusion proteins skew microtubule dynamics towards cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. This biological activity makes rapidly proliferating cells (e.g., cancer and inflammatory cells) an excellent target for MAP tau-based targeted treatments. Their superior selectivity for proliferating cells confers additional selectivity towards upregulated tumor-associated antigens at their surface, thereby preventing off-target related toxicity against normal cells bearing tumor-associated antigens at physiologically normal to low levels. In this review, we highlight recent findings on MAP tau-based targeted cytolytic fusion proteins reported in preclinical immunotherapeutic studies. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Role of αβ T Cell Depletion in Prevention of Graft versus Host Disease
Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 35; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5030035 -
Abstract
Graft versus host disease (GVHD) represents a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo HCT). Graft cellular manipulation has been used to mitigate the risk of GVHD. The αβ T cells are considered the primary culprit for causing GVHD therefore depletion
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Graft versus host disease (GVHD) represents a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo HCT). Graft cellular manipulation has been used to mitigate the risk of GVHD. The αβ T cells are considered the primary culprit for causing GVHD therefore depletion of this T cell subset emerged as a promising cellular manipulation strategy to overcome the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) barrier of haploidentical (haplo) HCT. This approach is also being investigated in HLA-matched HCT. In several studies, αβ T cell depletion HCT has been performed without pharmacologic GVHD prophylaxis, thus unleashing favorable effect of donor’s natural killer cells (NK) and γδ T cells. This article will discuss the evolution of this method in clinical practice and the clinical outcome as described in different clinical trials. Full article
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Open AccessReview
T-Cell Manipulation Strategies to Prevent Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation
Biomedicines 2017, 5(2), 33; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5020033 -
Abstract
Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from an human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical donor can be curative for eligible patients with non-malignant and malignant haematological disorders. HSCT from alternative donor sources, such as HLA-mismatched haploidentical donors, is increasingly considered as a viable therapeutic option
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Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from an human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical donor can be curative for eligible patients with non-malignant and malignant haematological disorders. HSCT from alternative donor sources, such as HLA-mismatched haploidentical donors, is increasingly considered as a viable therapeutic option for patients lacking HLA-matched donors. Initial attempts at haploidentical HSCT were associated with vigorous bidirectional alloreactivity, leading to unacceptably high rates of graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). More recently, new approaches for mitigating harmful T-cell alloreactivity that mediates GVHD, while preserving the function of tumour-reactive natural killer (NK) cells and γδ T cells, have led to markedly improved clinical outcomes, and are successfully being implemented in the clinic. This article will provide an update on in vitro strategies and in vivo approaches aimed at preventing GVHD by selectively manipulating key components of the adaptive immune response, such as T-cell receptor (TCR)-αβ T cells and CD45RA-expressing naive T cells. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Angiogenesis in Cancer Treatment
Biomedicines 2017, 5(2), 34; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5020034 -
Abstract
A number of anti-angiogenesis drugs have been FDA-approved and are being used in cancer treatment, and a number of other agents are in different stages of clinical development or in preclinical evaluation. However, pharmacologic anti-angiogenesis strategies that arrest tumor progression might not be
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A number of anti-angiogenesis drugs have been FDA-approved and are being used in cancer treatment, and a number of other agents are in different stages of clinical development or in preclinical evaluation. However, pharmacologic anti-angiogenesis strategies that arrest tumor progression might not be enough to eradicate tumors. Decreased anti-angiogenesis activity in single mechanism-based anti-angiogenic strategies is due to the redundancy, multiplicity, and development of compensatory mechanism by which blood vessels are remodeled. Improving anti-angiogenesis drug efficacy will require identification of broad-spectrum anti-angiogenesis targets. These strategies may have novel features, such as increased porosity, and are the result of complex interactions among endothelial cells, extracellular matrix proteins, growth factors, pericyte, and smooth muscle cells. Thus, combinations of anti-angiogenic drugs and other anticancer strategies such as chemotherapy appear essential for optimal outcome in cancer patients. This review will focus on the role of anti-angiogenesis strategies in cancer treatment. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Biocompatibility Analyses of Al2O3-Treated Titanium Plates Tested with Osteocyte and Fibroblast Cell Lines
Biomedicines 2017, 5(2), 32; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5020032 -
Abstract
Osseointegration of a titanium implant is still an issue in dental/orthopedic implants durable over time. The good integration of these implants is mainly due to their surface and topography. We obtained an innovative titanium surface by shooting different-in-size particles of Al2O
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Osseointegration of a titanium implant is still an issue in dental/orthopedic implants durable over time. The good integration of these implants is mainly due to their surface and topography. We obtained an innovative titanium surface by shooting different-in-size particles of Al2O3 against the titanium scaffolds which seems to be ideal for bone integration. To corroborate that, we used two different cell lines: MLO-Y4 (murine osteocytes) and 293 (human fibroblasts) and tested the titanium scaffolds untreated and treated (i.e., Al2O3 shot-peened titanium surfaces). Distribution, density, and expression of adhesion molecules (fibronectin and vitronectin) were evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal microscope (CM). DAPI and fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies were used to highlight nuclei, fibronectin, and vitronectin, under CM; cell distribution was analyzed after gold-palladium sputtering of samples by SEM. The engineered biomaterial surfaces showed under SEM irregular morphology displaying variously-shaped spicules. Both SEM and CM observations showed better outcome in terms of cell adhesion and distribution in treated titanium surfaces with respect to the untreated ones. The results obtained clearly showed that this kind of surface-treated titanium, used to manufacture devices for dental implantology: (i) is very suitable for cell colonization, essential prerequisite for the best osseointegration, and (ii) represents an excellent solution for the development of further engineered implants with the target to obtain recovery of stable dental function over time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Indigenous Probiotic Lactobacillus Isolates Presenting Antibiotic like Activity against Human Pathogenic Bacteria
Biomedicines 2017, 5(2), 31; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5020031 -
Abstract
Background: Indigenous lactic acid bacteria are well known probiotics having antibacterial activity against potentially pathogenic bacteria. This study aims to characterize the curd lactobacilli for their probiotic potentiality and antagonistic activity against clinical bacteria. Methods: Four curd samples were processed microbiologically for the
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Background: Indigenous lactic acid bacteria are well known probiotics having antibacterial activity against potentially pathogenic bacteria. This study aims to characterize the curd lactobacilli for their probiotic potentiality and antagonistic activity against clinical bacteria. Methods: Four curd samples were processed microbiologically for the isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The LAB strains obtained were identified by conventional methods: cultural aspect, gram-staining, biochemical and sugar fermentation tests. The probiotic properties were justified with tolerance to low-pH, bile salt and sodium chloride, and the antagonistic activity of the lactobacilli against human pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter baumannii and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi) was assessed. Hemolytic activity and antibiotic susceptibility were determined for the lactobacilli isolates, and the cumulative probiotic potential (CPP) values were recorded. Result: Four lactobacilli isolates, L. animalis LMEM6, L. plantarum LMEM7, L. acidophilus LMEM8 and L. rhamnosus LMEM9, procured from the curd samples, survived in low-pH and high bile salt conditions, and showed growth inhibitory activity against the indicator bacteria by agar-well (zone diameter of inhibition; ZDIs: 13.67 ± 0.58–29.50 ± 2.10 mm) and agar overlay (ZDIs: 11.33 ± 0.58–35.67 ± 2.52 mm) methods; the average growth inhibitory activity of lactobacilli ranged 233.34 ± 45.54–280.56 ± 83.67 AU/mL, against the test bacterial pathogens. All the lactobacilli were non-hemolytic and sensitive to most of the test antibiotics. The CPP values of the isolated LAB were recorded as 80–100%. Conclusion: The curd lactobacilli procured might be used as the valid candidates of probiotics, and bio-therapeutics against bacterial infection to humans. Full article
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