Open AccessArticle
Deubiquitinylase USP47 Promotes RelA Phosphorylation and Survival in Gastric Cancer Cells
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020062 -
Abstract
Every year, gastric cancer causes around 819,000 deaths worldwide. The incidence of gastric cancer in the western world is slowly declining, but the prognosis is unpromising. In Germany, the 5-year-survival rate is around 32%, and the average life span after diagnosis is 6
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Every year, gastric cancer causes around 819,000 deaths worldwide. The incidence of gastric cancer in the western world is slowly declining, but the prognosis is unpromising. In Germany, the 5-year-survival rate is around 32%, and the average life span after diagnosis is 6 to 9 months. Therapy of gastric cancer patients comprises a gastrectomy and perioperative or adjuvant chemotherapy. However, resistance of gastric cancer cells to these agents is widespread; thus, improved chemotherapeutic approaches are required. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factors are associated with anti-apoptosis, carcinogenesis, and chemoresistance, and thus, constitute attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. In immunoblots, we show that ubiquitin specific protease 47 (USP47) promotes β-transducin repeat-containing protein (βTrCP) stability and phosphorylation of RelA. Furthermore, after knockdown of USP47 by RNA interference, we analyzed in gastric cancer cell lines metabolic activity/viability in an MTT assay, and apoptotic cell death by Annexin V staining and poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, caspase 3, and caspase 8 cleavage, respectively. We found that USP47 contributes to cell viability and chemoresistance in NCI-N87 gastric carcinoma cells treated with etoposide and camptothecin. Inhibition of USP47 might be a suitable strategy to downregulate NF-κB activity, and to overcome chemoresistance in gastric cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Osteocytes Specific GSK3 Inhibition Affects In Vitro Osteogenic Differentiation
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020061 -
Abstract
Osteocytes, the most important regulators of bone processes, are producers of molecules (usually proteins) that act as signals in order to communicate with nearby cells. These factors control cell division (proliferation), differentiation, and survival. Substantial evidence showed different signaling pathways activated by osteocytes
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Osteocytes, the most important regulators of bone processes, are producers of molecules (usually proteins) that act as signals in order to communicate with nearby cells. These factors control cell division (proliferation), differentiation, and survival. Substantial evidence showed different signaling pathways activated by osteocytes and involved in osteoblast differentiation, in particular in the last decade, when the Wingless-related integration site (WNT) pathway assumed a critical large importance. WNT activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism, making GSK3 a potential therapeutic target for bone diseases. In our study, we hypothesized an important role of the osteocyte MLO-Y4 conditioned medium in controlling the differentiation process of osteoblast cell line 2T3. We found an effect of diminished differentiation capability of 2T3 upon conditioning with medium from murine long bone osteocyte-Y4 cells (MLO-Y4) pre-treated with GSK3 inhibitor CHIR2201. The novel observations of this study provide knowledge about the inhibition of GSK3 in MLO-Y4 cells. This strategy could be used as a plausible target in osteocytes in order to regulate bone resorption mediated by a loss of osteoblasts activity through a paracrine loop. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Metabolic Regulation of Hypoxia-Inducible Transcription Factors: The Role of Small Molecule Metabolites and Iron
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020060 -
Abstract
Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) facilitate cellular adaptations to low-oxygen environments. However, it is increasingly recognised that HIFs may be activated in response to metabolic stimuli, even when oxygen is present. Understanding the mechanisms for the crosstalk that exists between HIF signalling and metabolic
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Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) facilitate cellular adaptations to low-oxygen environments. However, it is increasingly recognised that HIFs may be activated in response to metabolic stimuli, even when oxygen is present. Understanding the mechanisms for the crosstalk that exists between HIF signalling and metabolic pathways is therefore important. This review focuses on the metabolic regulation of HIFs by small molecule metabolites and iron, highlighting the latest studies that explore how tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) and intracellular iron levels influence the HIF response through modulating the activity of prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs). We also discuss the relevance of these metabolic pathways in physiological and disease contexts. Lastly, as PHDs are members of a large family of 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) dependent dioxygenases that can all respond to metabolic stimuli, we explore the broader role of TCA cycle metabolites and 2-HG in the regulation of 2-OG dependent dioxygenases, focusing on the enzymes involved in chromatin remodelling. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The NF-κB Activating Pathways in Multiple Myeloma
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020059 -
Abstract
Multiple myeloma(MM), an incurable plasma cell cancer, represents the second most prevalent hematological malignancy. Deregulated activity of the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) family of transcription factors has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. Tumor microenvironment-derived cytokines and cancer-associated genetic mutations signal
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Multiple myeloma(MM), an incurable plasma cell cancer, represents the second most prevalent hematological malignancy. Deregulated activity of the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) family of transcription factors has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. Tumor microenvironment-derived cytokines and cancer-associated genetic mutations signal through the canonical as well as the non-canonical arms to activate the NF-κB system in myeloma cells. In fact, frequent engagement of both the NF-κB pathways constitutes a distinguishing characteristic of myeloma. In turn, NF-κB signaling promotes proliferation, survival and drug-resistance of myeloma cells. In this review article, we catalog NF-κB activating genetic mutations and microenvironmental cues associated with multiple myeloma. We then describe how the individual canonical and non-canonical pathways transduce signals and contribute towards NF-κB -driven gene-expressions in healthy and malignant cells. Furthermore, we discuss signaling crosstalk between concomitantly triggered NF-κB pathways, and its plausible implication for anomalous NF-κB activation and NF-κB driven pro-survival gene-expressions in multiple myeloma. Finally, we propose that mechanistic understanding of NF-κB deregulations may provide for improved therapeutic and prognostic tools in multiple myeloma. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Crosstalk of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress Pathways with NF-κB: Complex Mechanisms Relevant for Cancer, Inflammation and Infection
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020058 -
Abstract
Stressful conditions occuring during cancer, inflammation or infection activate adaptive responses that are controlled by the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway. These systems can be triggered by chemical compounds
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Stressful conditions occuring during cancer, inflammation or infection activate adaptive responses that are controlled by the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway. These systems can be triggered by chemical compounds but also by cytokines, toll-like receptor ligands, nucleic acids, lipids, bacteria and viruses. Despite representing unique signaling cascades, new data indicate that the UPR and NF-κB pathways converge within the nucleus through ten major transcription factors (TFs), namely activating transcription factor (ATF)4, ATF3, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP) homologous protein (CHOP), X-box-binding protein (XBP)1, ATF6α and the five NF-κB subunits. The combinatorial occupancy of numerous genomic regions (enhancers and promoters) coordinates the transcriptional activation or repression of hundreds of genes that collectively determine the balance between metabolic and inflammatory phenotypes and the extent of apoptosis and autophagy or repair of cell damage and survival. Here, we also discuss results from genetic experiments and chemical activators of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that suggest a link to the cytosolic inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB)α degradation pathway. These data show that the UPR affects this major control point of NF-κB activation through several mechanisms. Taken together, available evidence indicates that the UPR and NF-κB interact at multiple levels. This crosstalk provides ample opportunities to fine-tune cellular stress responses and could also be exploited therapeutically in the future. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Riedlinger, T. et al. The Direct and Indirect Roles of NF-κB in Cancer: Lessons from Oncogenic Fusion Proteins and Knock-In Mice. Biomedicines, 2018, 6, 36
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020057 -
Abstract
We would like to report an error in a previously published paper[...] Full article
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Open AccessReview
Hypoxia, Metabolism and Immune Cell Function
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020056 -
Abstract
Hypoxia is a hallmark of inflamed, infected or damaged tissue, and the adaptation to inadequate tissue oxygenation is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs are key mediators of the cellular response to hypoxia, but they are also associated with pathological stress such as
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Hypoxia is a hallmark of inflamed, infected or damaged tissue, and the adaptation to inadequate tissue oxygenation is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs are key mediators of the cellular response to hypoxia, but they are also associated with pathological stress such as inflammation, bacteriological infection or cancer. In addition, HIFs are central regulators of many innate and adaptive immunological functions, including migration, antigen presentation, production of cytokines and antimicrobial peptides, phagocytosis as well as cellular metabolic reprogramming. A characteristic feature of immune cells is their ability to infiltrate and operate in tissues with low level of nutrients and oxygen. The objective of this article is to discuss the role of HIFs in the function of innate and adaptive immune cells in hypoxia, with a focus on how hypoxia modulates immunometabolism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Short-Term Soy Protein Isolate Feeding Prevents Liver Steatosis and Reduces Serum ALT and AST Levels in Obese Female Zucker Rats
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020055 -
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a common liver disorder worldwide and is associated with obesity. We investigated effects of obesity and short-term intake of soy protein with isoflavones (SPI) on body weight change, energy intake, liver steatosis, and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a common liver disorder worldwide and is associated with obesity. We investigated effects of obesity and short-term intake of soy protein with isoflavones (SPI) on body weight change, energy intake, liver steatosis, and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and leptin levels. Seventeen lean and seventeen obese (fa/fa) female Zucker rats were randomly assigned to either casein or SPI diet for 8 weeks. Body weight was recorded twice weekly; feed intake was measured weekly. Livers were examined histologically, and serum AST, ALT, and leptin levels were measured. Obese soy-fed (OS) rats gained more weight but had lower liver steatosis than obese casein-fed (OC) rats. Energy intake for OS versus OC rats were only different at weeks 2 and 3. Serum AST and ALT levels were lower in OS versus OC rats. Obesity increased serum leptin levels for both diets. In summary, short-term SPI intake reduced liver steatosis, and the only time points at which the mean energy intakes of OS and OC rats differed were at weeks 2 and 3, where OS rats had a higher mean energy intake, which may have accounted for the increased body weight in OS rats. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Comparison of Synthetic Media Designed for Expansion of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020054 -
Abstract
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into various cell types, such as osteoblasts, myocytes, and adipocytes. This characteristic makes the cells a useful tool in developing new therapies for a number of common maladies and diseases. The utilization of
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Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into various cell types, such as osteoblasts, myocytes, and adipocytes. This characteristic makes the cells a useful tool in developing new therapies for a number of common maladies and diseases. The utilization of animal-derived growth serum, such as fetal bovine serum (FBS), for the expansion of MSCs has traditionally been used for cell culture. However, in clinical applications, animal-derived products present limitations and safety concerns for the recipient, as exposure to animal (xeno-) antigens and infectious agents is possible. Multiple synthetic, xeno-free media have been developed to combat these limitations of animal-derived growth serum and have the potential to be used in ex vivo MSC expansion for clinical use. The goal of this study was to determine if xeno-free media are adequate to significantly and efficiently expand MSCs derived from adipose tissue. MSCs were cultured in both standard FBS-containing as well as xeno-free media. The media were compared for cell yield, viability, and phenotypic expression via flow cytometry and directed differentiation. The xeno-free media that were tested were StemMACS MSC Expansion Media (Miltenyi Biotec, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany), PLTMax Human Platelet Lysate (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA), and MesenCult-hPL media (Stemcell Technologies, Vancouver, BC, Canada). All xeno-free media showed promise as a feasible replacement for animal-derived growth serums. The xeno-free media expanded MSCs more quickly than the FBS-containing medium and also showed great similarity in cell viability and phenotypic expression. In fact, each xeno-free media produced a greater viable cell yield than the standard FBS-containing medium. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Artificially Expanded Genetic Information Systems for New Aptamer Technologies
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020053 -
Abstract
Directed evolution was first applied to diverse libraries of DNA and RNA molecules a quarter century ago in the hope of gaining technology that would allow the creation of receptors, ligands, and catalysts on demand. Despite isolated successes, the outputs of this technology
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Directed evolution was first applied to diverse libraries of DNA and RNA molecules a quarter century ago in the hope of gaining technology that would allow the creation of receptors, ligands, and catalysts on demand. Despite isolated successes, the outputs of this technology have been somewhat disappointing, perhaps because the four building blocks of standard DNA and RNA have too little functionality to have versatile binding properties, and offer too little information density to fold unambiguously. This review covers the recent literature that seeks to create an improved platform to support laboratory Darwinism, one based on an artificially expanded genetic information system (AEGIS) that adds independently replicating nucleotide “letters” to the evolving “alphabet”. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Adiponectin Signaling Pathways in Liver Diseases
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020052 -
Abstract
In the liver, adiponectin regulates both glucose and lipid metabolism and exerts an insulin-sensitizing effect. The binding of adiponectin with its specific receptors induces the activation of a proper signaling cascade that becomes altered in liver pathologies. This review describes the different signaling
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In the liver, adiponectin regulates both glucose and lipid metabolism and exerts an insulin-sensitizing effect. The binding of adiponectin with its specific receptors induces the activation of a proper signaling cascade that becomes altered in liver pathologies. This review describes the different signaling pathways in healthy and diseased hepatocytes, also highlighting the beneficial role of adiponectin in autophagy activation and hepatic regeneration. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Cell-Penetrating Peptides to Enhance Delivery of Oligonucleotide-Based Therapeutics
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020051 -
Abstract
The promise of nucleic acid based oligonucleotides as effective genetic therapies has been held back by their low bioavailability and poor cellular uptake to target tissues upon systemic administration. One such strategy to improve upon delivery is the use of short cell-penetrating peptides
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The promise of nucleic acid based oligonucleotides as effective genetic therapies has been held back by their low bioavailability and poor cellular uptake to target tissues upon systemic administration. One such strategy to improve upon delivery is the use of short cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) that can be either directly attached to their cargo through covalent linkages or through the formation of noncovalent nanoparticle complexes that can facilitate cellular uptake. In this review, we will highlight recent proof-of-principle studies that have utilized both of these strategies to improve nucleic acid delivery and discuss the prospects for translation of this approach for clinical application. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Mammary Stem Cells and Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Molecular Connections and Clinical Implications
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020050 -
Abstract
Cancer arises from subpopulations of transformed cells with high tumor initiation and repopulation ability, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which share many similarities with their normal counterparts. In the mammary gland, several studies have shown common molecular regulators between adult mammary stem
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Cancer arises from subpopulations of transformed cells with high tumor initiation and repopulation ability, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which share many similarities with their normal counterparts. In the mammary gland, several studies have shown common molecular regulators between adult mammary stem cells (MaSCs) and breast cancer stem cells (bCSCs). Cell plasticity and self-renewal are essential abilities for MaSCs to maintain tissue homeostasis and regenerate the gland after pregnancy. Intriguingly, these properties are similarly executed in breast cancer stem cells to drive tumor initiation, tumor heterogeneity and recurrence after chemotherapy. In addition, both stem cell phenotypes are strongly influenced by external signals from the microenvironment, immune cells and supportive specific niches. This review focuses on the intrinsic and extrinsic connections of MaSC and bCSCs with clinical implications for breast cancer progression and their possible therapeutic applications. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Neural Oscillatory Correlates for Conditioning and Extinction of Fear
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020049 -
Abstract
The extinction of conditioned-fear represents a hallmark of current exposure therapies as it has been found to be impaired in people suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety. A large body of knowledge focusing on psychophysiological animal and human studies suggests the
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The extinction of conditioned-fear represents a hallmark of current exposure therapies as it has been found to be impaired in people suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety. A large body of knowledge focusing on psychophysiological animal and human studies suggests the involvement of key brain structures that interact via neural oscillations during the acquisition and extinction of fear. Consequently, neural oscillatory correlates of such mechanisms appear relevant regarding the development of novel therapeutic approaches to counterbalance abnormal activity in fear-related brain circuits, which, in turn, could alleviate fear and anxiety symptoms. Here, we provide an account of state-of-the-art neural oscillatory correlates for the conditioning and extinction of fear, and also deal with recent translational efforts aimed at fear extinction by neural oscillatory modulation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Rhus coriaria Extract in a Mouse Model of Ischemic Optic Neuropathy
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020048 -
Abstract
Modulating oxidative stresses and inflammation can potentially prevent or alleviate the pathological conditions of diseases associated with the nervous system, including ischemic optic neuropathy. In this study we evaluated the anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective activities of Rhus coriaria (R. coriaria) extract in vivo.
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Modulating oxidative stresses and inflammation can potentially prevent or alleviate the pathological conditions of diseases associated with the nervous system, including ischemic optic neuropathy. In this study we evaluated the anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective activities of Rhus coriaria (R. coriaria) extract in vivo. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for DPPH, ABTS and β–carotene were 6.79 ± 0.009 µg/mL, 10.94 ± 0.09 µg/mL, and 6.25 ± 0.06 µg/mL, respectively. Retinal ischemia was induced by optic nerve crush injury in albino Balb/c mice. The anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of R. coriaria (ERC) and linoleic acid (LA) on ocular ischemia was monitored using Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (FMT). Following optic nerve crush injury, the mice treated with 400 mg/kg of ERC and LA exhibited an 84.87% and 86.71% reduction of fluorescent signal (cathepsin activity) respectively. The results of this study provide strong scientific evidence for the neuroprotective activity of the ERC, identifying LA as one of the main components responsible for the effect. ERC may be useful and worthy of further development for its adjunctive utilization in the treatment of optic neuropathy. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Hypoxia and Chromatin: A Focus on Transcriptional Repression Mechanisms
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020047 -
Abstract
Hypoxia or reduced oxygen availability has been studied extensively for its ability to activate specific genes. Hypoxia-induced gene expression is mediated by the HIF transcription factors, but not exclusively so. Despite the extensive knowledge about how hypoxia activates genes, much less is known
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Hypoxia or reduced oxygen availability has been studied extensively for its ability to activate specific genes. Hypoxia-induced gene expression is mediated by the HIF transcription factors, but not exclusively so. Despite the extensive knowledge about how hypoxia activates genes, much less is known about how hypoxia promotes gene repression. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms underlying hypoxia-induced transcriptional repression responses. We highlight HIF-dependent and independent mechanisms as well as the potential roles of dioxygenases with functions at the nucleosome and DNA level. Lastly, we discuss recent evidence regarding the involvement of transcriptional repressor complexes in hypoxia. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Tumor Molecular Profiling for an Individualized Approach to the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Patient Case Study
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020046 -
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in incidence, and the associated mortality rate remains among the highest. For advanced HCC, sorafenib has been shown to slightly prolong survival, and regorafenib and nivolumab, both recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA),
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in incidence, and the associated mortality rate remains among the highest. For advanced HCC, sorafenib has been shown to slightly prolong survival, and regorafenib and nivolumab, both recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), may produce clinical benefits to a limited extent. Systemic chemotherapy has been shown to produce a modest response, but there is no clinically valid biomarker that can be used to predict which patients may benefit. In this case study, we present two patients with metastatic HCC, they received systemic treatment using capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and either bevacizumab or sorafenib. The tumor response to treatment was determined by the progression-free survival (PFS). Molecular profiling of the tumors showed differential expression of biochemical markers and different mutational status of the TP53 and β-catenin (CTNNB1) genes. We hypothesize that the PFS correlates with the tumor molecular profiles, which may be predictive of the therapeutic response to systemic chemotherapy. Further investigation is indicated to correlate tumor biomarkers and treatment responses, with the objective of personalizing the therapies for patients with advanced HCC. Full article
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Open AccessReview
NF-κB, the Importance of Being Dynamic: Role and Insights in Cancer
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020045 -
Abstract
In this review, we aim at describing the results obtained in the past years on dynamics features defining NF-κB regulatory functions, as we believe that these developments might have a transformative effect on the way in which NF-κB involvement in cancer is studied.
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In this review, we aim at describing the results obtained in the past years on dynamics features defining NF-κB regulatory functions, as we believe that these developments might have a transformative effect on the way in which NF-κB involvement in cancer is studied. We will also describe technical aspects of the studies performed in this context, including the use of different cellular models, culture conditions, microscopy approaches and quantification of the imaging data, balancing their strengths and limitations and pointing out to common features and to some open questions. Our emphasis in the methodology will allow a critical overview of literature and will show how these cutting-edge approaches can contribute to shed light on the involvement of NF-κB deregulation in tumour onset and progression. We hypothesize that this “dynamic point of view” can be fruitfully applied to untangle the complex relationship between NF-κB and cancer and to find new targets to restrain cancer growth. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Subunit-Specific Role of NF-κB in Cancer
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020044 -
Abstract
The transcription factor NF-κB is a key player in inflammation, cancer development, and progression. NF-κB stimulates cell proliferation, prevents apoptosis, and could promote tumor angiogenesis as well as metastasis. Extending the commonly accepted role of NF-κB in cancer formation and progression, different NF-κB
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The transcription factor NF-κB is a key player in inflammation, cancer development, and progression. NF-κB stimulates cell proliferation, prevents apoptosis, and could promote tumor angiogenesis as well as metastasis. Extending the commonly accepted role of NF-κB in cancer formation and progression, different NF-κB subunits have been shown to be active and of particular importance in distinct types of cancer. Here, we summarize overexpression data of the NF-κB subunits RELA, RELB, and c-REL (referring to the v-REL, which is the oncogene of Reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T) as well as of their upstream kinase inhibitor, namely inhibitor of κB kinases (IKK), in different human cancers, assessed by database mining. These data argue against a universal mechanism of cancer-mediated activation of NF-κB, and suggest a much more elaborated mode of NF-κB regulation, indicating a tumor type-specific upregulation of the NF-κB subunits. We further discuss recent findings showing the diverse roles of NF-κB signaling in cancer development and metastasis in a subunit-specific manner, emphasizing their specific transcriptional activity and the role of autoregulation. While non-canonical NF-κB RELB signaling is described to be mostly present in hematological cancers, solid cancers reveal constitutive canonical NF-κB RELA or c-REL activity. Providing a linkage to cancer therapy, we discuss the recently described pivotal role of NF-κB c-REL in regulating cancer-targeting immune responses. In addition, current strategies and ongoing clinical trials are summarized, which utilize genome editing or drugs to inhibit the NF-κB subunits for cancer treatment. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Many Roles of Ubiquitin in NF-κB Signaling
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020043 -
Abstract
The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway ubiquitously controls cell growth and survival in basic conditions as well as rapid resetting of cellular functions following environment changes or pathogenic insults. Moreover, its deregulation is frequently observed during cell transformation, chronic inflammation or autoimmunity.
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The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway ubiquitously controls cell growth and survival in basic conditions as well as rapid resetting of cellular functions following environment changes or pathogenic insults. Moreover, its deregulation is frequently observed during cell transformation, chronic inflammation or autoimmunity. Understanding how it is properly regulated therefore is a prerequisite to managing these adverse situations. Over the last years evidence has accumulated showing that ubiquitination is a key process in NF-κB activation and its resolution. Here, we examine the various functions of ubiquitin in NF-κB signaling and more specifically, how it controls signal transduction at the molecular level and impacts in vivo on NF-κB regulated cellular processes. Full article
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