Abstract: Coffeaarabica (arabica) and Coffeacanephora (robusta) are the most important coffee species. Arabica has higher commercial value and, in general, more favorable sensory characteristics. After roasting, analytical methods are required to differentiate species. Blends with different proportions of arabica/robusta coffees, roasted at three degrees were studied. Color parameters and the levels of chlorogenic (5-CQA) and nicotinic acids, caffeine, and trigonelline were evaluated. Hydrosoluble compounds were analyzed by their efficiency to discriminate coffee species, considering different roast degrees. Caffeine was a good discriminator, regardless of roast degree. The roast degree influenced the efficiency of discrimination of the other hydrosoluble compounds. A model using color parameters and the variables Ratio (5-CQA/caffeine contents ratio) and Sum (sum of nicotinic acid and trigonelline contents) was proposed to the estimation of roasting degree. Considering the use of heat-labile compounds, the discrimination among coffee species should be carried out in two steps: first, the characterization of roasting degree, and subsequently the appropriate parameters are defined for each roasting degree. Thus, the combined use of color parameters and hydrosoluble compounds could be useful to help the differentiation of coffee species in blends of roasted samples.
Abstract: Energy drinks (EDs) are gaining popularity every year with a broad consumer base including athletes, amateur competitors, and even those experiencing work-related fatigue. Evidence indicates that a significant number of individuals who consume EDs experience resultant morbidity and/or mortality, with a preponderance of cases involving teenagers and young adults. Adverse effects of ED consumption may occur in healthy persons, however certain individuals may be particularly susceptible to complications. At-risk populations include those of young age, the caffeine-naïve, or caffeine-sensitive, pregnant women, competitive athletes, and those with underlying cardiovascular disease. This paper summarizes the cardiovascular complications associated with ED use and provides suggestions on consumption of these drinks in various populations.
Abstract: Fruit juices represent a promising carrier for probiotic bacteria; however, there are some drawbacks and limits that could preclude their production at the industrial level, namely the survival of probiotics throughout storage, and the possible impact of bacteria on the sensory traits and overall acceptance. This review addresses the inoculation of probiotics in juices; with a special focus on the possibilities and challenges for future; i.e., why probiotics in juices and which kind of microorganisms; some drawbacks and how to improve the viability of probiotics; and some ideas on the sensory impact.
Abstract: Pigmented oranges are a high value typical product, used for the production of healthy juice-based drinks due to the peculiar presence of anthocyanins as dietary antioxidants. A qualitative HPLC/PDA/MS analytical method for verifying presence/absence of blood orange anthocyanins was validated in accordance with Eurachem guide in terms of accordance (100%), specificity/selectivity, repeatability of retention time (CV < 0.5%), limit of detection (0.36 mg/L) and limit of decision (0.41 mg/L). Fifty commercial red orange juice beverages were collected on the market and analyzed to assess the occurrence of blood orange anthocyanins. The results showed that only 60% of analyzed products have a minimum content of anthocyanins of blood orange, guaranteeing the specifications of the product they publicize and sell until the expiration date. Therefore, it is possible to envisage a gradual degradation of the specific parameter (anthocyanins) or willful misconduct of producers (non-use of blood orange juice). In both cases, the consumer buys a product with high added value without such value being guaranteed. This information will be useful to revise the expiration date of these products, the percentage of blood orange juice used in the preparation and/or the storage conditions of the products.
Abstract: A method for the identification and quantification of citrus limonoid glucosides in juices, based upon high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation coupled to post-column reaction with Ehrlich’s reagent, has been developed. This method utilizes a phenyl stationary phase and an isocratic mobile phase. Limit of detection for the method was determined to be 50 ng of limonin glucoside. Limonin glucoside and the other limonoid glucosides tested responded equivalently to the post-column reaction with Ehrlich’s reagent suggesting that limonin glucoside may be used as a surrogate for the quantification of other limonoid glucosides, including nomilin, deacetyl nomilin, nomilinic acid, deacetyl nomilinic acid, and obacunone glucosides. For most juice samples, no sample treatment is required to determine limonin glucoside content. Concentration by solid phase extraction is recommended for juices with low levels of limonin glucoside and to facilitate the detection and quantification of other limonoid glucosides present at low concentrations. With the exception of blood oranges, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of juices from a variety of citrus varieties.
Abstract: As the boundaries and population of urban areas expand, beverage distributors may seek to expand the capacity in their distribution centers. As a result, they may need to add new locations or increase the utilization of their existing center. This paper investigates the facility location problem through network space, considering traversable truck roads, thereby providing a strategic decision for identifying a depot location in consideration of vehicle routings from a real application. For the analysis, a geospatial tool, which is embedded in the commercial software ArcMap®, was used for routing and calibrating the model. Ten candidates from commercial and industrial zones in the cities of Fargo, West Fargo, and Moorhead were considered for future distribution centers. The candidate locations were analyzed to determine which site minimizes the total transportation costs and travel miles in consideration of time window, vehicle capacity, heterogeneous vehicle types, land use plan, and hours-of-service. Most attractive candidates are close to the intersections of major highways. From the analysis, the study recommends locating a distribution center at three alternatives based on the average ranking method. This study can be used by distributors as they consider new locations and extra depots to support strategic planning to deal with mid-term and long-term growth of demand in beverage markets. This study provides a ready-to-use example of how to adopt state-of-the-art spatial technology and operations research using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and bring it to state-of-practice.