Open AccessArticle
Bottled vs. Canned Beer: Do They Really Taste Different?
Beverages 2016, 2(4), 25; doi:10.3390/beverages2040025 -
Abstract
People often say that beer tastes better from a bottle than from a can. However, one can ask how reliable this perceived difference is across consumers. And, if reliable, one can further ask whether it is a purely psychological phenomenon (associated with [...] Read more.
People often say that beer tastes better from a bottle than from a can. However, one can ask how reliable this perceived difference is across consumers. And, if reliable, one can further ask whether it is a purely psychological phenomenon (associated with the influence of packaging on taste perception), or whether instead it reflects some more mundane physico-chemical interaction between the packaging material (or packing procedure/process) and the contents. Two experiments were conducted in order to address these questions. In the main experiment, 151 participants at the 2016 Edinburgh Science Festival were served a special ‘craft beer’ in a plastic cup. The beer was either poured from a bottle or can (a between-participants experimental design was used). The participants were encouraged to pick up the packaging in order to inspect the label before tasting the beer. The participants rated the perceived taste, quality, and freshness of the beer, as well as their likelihood of purchase, and estimated the price. All of the beer came from the same batch (specifically a Session IPA from Barney’s Brewery in Edinburgh). None of the participants were familiar with this particular craft brew. Nevertheless, those who evaluated the beer from the bottle rated it as tasting better than those who rated the beer served from the can. Having demonstrated such a perceptual difference (in terms of taste), we then went on to investigate whether people would prefer one packaging format over the other when the beer from bottle and can was served blind to a new group of participants (i.e., when the participants did not know the packaging material). The participants in this control study (n = 29) were asked which beer they preferred. Alternatively, they could state that the two samples tasted the same. No sign of a consistent preference was obtained under such blind tasting conditions. Explanations for the psychological impact of the packaging format, in terms of differences in packaging weight (between tin and glass), and/or prior associations of quality with specific packaging materials/formats (what some have chosen to call ‘image molds’), are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Physicochemical Optimization and Acceptability of a Cashew Nut-Based Beverage Varying in Mango Juice and Sugar: A Pilot Study
Beverages 2016, 2(3), 23; doi:10.3390/beverages2030023 -
Abstract
The development of a lactose-free beverage comes as a new feeding alternative to a product with excellent nutritional and functional characteristics to individuals with food restrictions related to milk. Thus, this study aimed to develop a cashew nut beverage with added mango [...] Read more.
The development of a lactose-free beverage comes as a new feeding alternative to a product with excellent nutritional and functional characteristics to individuals with food restrictions related to milk. Thus, this study aimed to develop a cashew nut beverage with added mango juice and prebiotic substances by means of evaluating its sensory characteristics and physicochemical optimization. A 22 central composite rotatable design with five repetitions at the central point was applied to evaluate the effect of sugar and juice contents on the analyzed parameters. Data were evaluated by means of the response surface methodology, analysis of variance, and the means comparison test. Formulations with greater combined concentrations of juice and sugar obtained satisfactory acceptance. The means comparison test showed that the formulation that allows for the beverage’s greatest acceptance must contain 40% mango juice and 8% sugar. Soluble solids content was influenced only by the addition of sugar, where the formulations that presented greater solids concentration were the ones which obtained greater sensory acceptance. The beverage’s acidity was influenced only by the juice content, which, besides making formulations significantly more acid, did not affect their acceptance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Colorimetric Method for the Determination of the Exhaustion Level of Granular Activated Carbons Used in Rum Production
Beverages 2016, 2(3), 24; doi:10.3390/beverages2030024 -
Abstract
Spectrophotometric measurement applied on saturated granular activated carbon (GAC) is not yet explored. A colorimetric method in the visible range has been developed in order to determine the exhaustion level of GAC used in rum production. Aqueous ammonia solution has been used [...] Read more.
Spectrophotometric measurement applied on saturated granular activated carbon (GAC) is not yet explored. A colorimetric method in the visible range has been developed in order to determine the exhaustion level of GAC used in rum production. Aqueous ammonia solution has been used as an indicative agent to determine the extraction rate of taste compounds within the rum production process and the exhaustion degree of the GAC. The colorimetric results showed excellent correlation with the iodine number and the contact pH. The proposed colorimetric method opens possibilities for rum producers to improve the management and economical use of the activated carbon at the industrial scale. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Fruit Juice Production Using Ultraviolet Pasteurization: A Review
Beverages 2016, 2(3), 22; doi:10.3390/beverages2030022 -
Abstract
Ultraviolet (UV-C at 253.7 nm) technology has been the go-to alternative pasteurization and shelf-life extension treatment for beverages for the last two decades. It has been the focal point of non-thermal methods for fruit juice processing and has been studied extensively. UV-C [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet (UV-C at 253.7 nm) technology has been the go-to alternative pasteurization and shelf-life extension treatment for beverages for the last two decades. It has been the focal point of non-thermal methods for fruit juice processing and has been studied extensively. UV-C technology has been proven to produce microbiologically safe products with minimal negative impact towards quality of the products. However, due to the physicochemical characteristics of fruit juice, application of UV-C does have certain limitations and thus, there is a need to further study the effects of UV-C-treatment and equipment design. Critical decisions on the type of fruit product, juice color, juice composition, and juice physical characteristics, among other variables, are imperative to produce a safe and wholesome juice. Therefore, this paper serves as a source for development of UV-C technology for pasteurization and shelf-life extension of fruit juice to successfully obtain a final product with minimal changes of its nutritional component without neglecting the microbial safety. It reviews previous literatures involving ultraviolet-treated fruit juices, ranging from popular apple and orange juice to lesser-known pummelo and pitaya juice. The review also covers the aspect of microbiological and chemical safety, quality, and sensory characteristics as well as hurdle technology involving UV-C as the main method and the market potential with its cost implication of UV-C technology. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Brewing Technique of Mbege, a Banana Beer Produced in Northeastern Tanzania
Beverages 2016, 2(3), 21; doi:10.3390/beverages2030021 -
Abstract
Mbege is a beer made of banana (Musa spp.) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana). It is the most popular indigenous alcoholic beverage in northeastern Tanzania, and plays an important role in the economy of the region. In this study, [...] Read more.
Mbege is a beer made of banana (Musa spp.) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana). It is the most popular indigenous alcoholic beverage in northeastern Tanzania, and plays an important role in the economy of the region. In this study, we observed and recorded a detailed traditional technique for brewing mbege. We observed that mbege production was divided into three major steps: nyalu preparation, mso preparation, and mixing. Fermented porridge made of ripened banana, called nyalu, was used as a source of yeasts. As a source of fermentable sugars, a sweet porridge made of germinated finger millet called mso was used. In mso preparation, a brewing technique to enhance the effectiveness of saccharification was used. After the preparation, these two types of porridge were mixed. The ethanol concentration of the mixture increased when it was fermented for 6 h, and it then became mbege. It was supposed that yeasts in the nyalu converted fermentable sugars in the mso into ethanol. We found that the brewing technique used in the production of mbege in northeast Tanzania was similar to that used in southern Tanzania. We also demonstrated that the stem bark of Rauvolfia caffra, which was called msesewe and used as an additive in mbege production, accelerated the fermentation of nyalu and therefore increased the rate of ethanol production in the brewing of mbege. This result was consistent with the traditional knowledge in the field about the effect of msesewe on mbege production. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Microbial Glycosidases for Wine Production
Beverages 2016, 2(3), 20; doi:10.3390/beverages2030020 -
Abstract
Winemaking is a complex process involving the interaction of different microbes. The two main groups of microorganisms involved are yeasts and bacteria. The yeasts present in spontaneous fermentation may be divided into two groups: the Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. cerevisiae; and [...] Read more.
Winemaking is a complex process involving the interaction of different microbes. The two main groups of microorganisms involved are yeasts and bacteria. The yeasts present in spontaneous fermentation may be divided into two groups: the Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. cerevisiae; and the non-Saccharomyces yeasts, which include members of the genera Rhodotorula, Pichia, Candida, Debaryomyces, Metschtnikowia, Hansenula, and Hanseniaspora. S. cerevisiae yeasts are able to convert sugar into ethanol and CO2 via fermentation. They have been used by humans for thousands of years for the production of fermented beverages and foods, including wine. Their enzymes provide interesting organoleptic characteristics in wine. Glycosidases with oenological implications have been widely reported in yeasts, bacteria, and fungi. β-Glucosidase activity is involved in the release of terpenes to wine, thus contributing to varietal aroma. α-Rhamnosidase, α-arabinosidase, or β-apiosidase activities have also been reported to contribute to the wine production process. Oenococcus oeni (a lactic acid bacteria present in wine) also has numerous glycosidases, and their activities contribute to the liberation of several aromatic compounds which contribute to floral and fruity wine characteristics. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Understanding Consumer Preferences for Australian Sparkling Wine vs. French Champagne
Beverages 2016, 2(3), 19; doi:10.3390/beverages2030019 -
Abstract
Sparkling wine represents a small but significant proportion of the Australian wine industry’s total production. Yet, Australia remains a significant importer of French Champagne. This study investigated consumer preferences for Australian sparkling wine vs. French Champagne and any compositional and/or sensorial bases [...] Read more.
Sparkling wine represents a small but significant proportion of the Australian wine industry’s total production. Yet, Australia remains a significant importer of French Champagne. This study investigated consumer preferences for Australian sparkling wine vs. French Champagne and any compositional and/or sensorial bases for these preferences. A range of French and Australian sparkling wines were analyzed by MIR spectroscopy to determine if sparkling wines could be differentiated according to country of origin. A subset of wines, comprising two French Champagnes, a French sparkling wine and three Australian sparkling wines, were selected for (i) descriptive analysis to characterize their sensory profiles and (ii) acceptance tests to determine consumer liking (n = 95 Australian wine consumers). Significant differences were observed between liking scores; on average, the $70 French Champagne was liked least and the $12 Australian sparkling wine liked most, but segmentation (based on individual liking scores) identified clusters comprising consumers with distinct wine preferences. Interestingly, when consumers were shown wine bottle labels, they considered French wines to be more expensive than Australian wines, demonstrating a clear country of origin influence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Phenolic Composition and Color of Single Cultivar Young Red Wines Made with Mencia and Alicante-Bouschet Grapes in AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain)
Beverages 2016, 2(3), 18; doi:10.3390/beverages2030018 -
Abstract
Single cultivar wines made with two different red grape cultivars from AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain), Mencia and Alicante Bouschet, were studied with the aim of determining their color and phenolic composition. Two sets of analyses were made on 30 wine samples [...] Read more.
Single cultivar wines made with two different red grape cultivars from AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain), Mencia and Alicante Bouschet, were studied with the aim of determining their color and phenolic composition. Two sets of analyses were made on 30 wine samples of 2014 vintage, after malolactic fermentation took place, to evaluate several physicochemical characteristics from these wines related to color and polyphenols. Several parameters related with color and the general phenolic composition of wines (total phenols index, color intensity, hue, total anthocyans, total anthocyanins, colored anthocyanins, chemical age index, and total tannins) were determined by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Those analyses revealed that Alicante Bouschet wines presented, in general, a higher content of polyphenols and a more intense color than Mencia wines. Using HPLC-DAD, five anthocyanin monoglucosides and nine acylated anthocyanins were identified in both types of wine; each type of wine showed a distinctive anthocyanin fingerprint, as Alicante Bouschet wines contained a higher proportion of cyanidin-derived anthocyanins. Multivariate statistic studies were performed to both datasets to explore relationships among variables and among samples. These studies revealed relationships among several variables considered, and were capable to group the samples in two different classes using principal component analysis (PCA). Full article
Open AccessArticle
Influence of Steep Time on Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Black, Green, Rooibos, and Herbal Teas
Beverages 2016, 2(3), 17; doi:10.3390/beverages2030017 -
Abstract
Potential health benefits of tea consumption are often attributed to the antioxidant activity of polyphenols. Whether steep time, often variable in a real-life situation, makes a biological difference in terms of polyphenol content and antioxidant activity is uncertain. The study objective was [...] Read more.
Potential health benefits of tea consumption are often attributed to the antioxidant activity of polyphenols. Whether steep time, often variable in a real-life situation, makes a biological difference in terms of polyphenol content and antioxidant activity is uncertain. The study objective was to characterize eight popular and commercially available teas for total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity in relation to steep time. Dragonwell (DW), Sencha (S), English Breakfast (EB), Golden Monkey (GM), Green Rooibos (GR), Red Rooibos (RR), Chamomile (C), and Peppermint (P) loose leaf teas were individually steeped in water for 1–10 min at 1 min intervals. TPC increased with longer durations of steep time; however, the majority of polyphenols observed after 10 minutes were extracted in the first 5 min regardless of tea type. After 5 min of steeping, differences (p < 0.05) in TPC were observed across teas (JS~EB~P > DW > GM~GR~RR > C). Different teas also varied in their ability to inhibit the free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) when normalized for polyphenol concentration (1 µg/mL) and there was no effect due to steep time. Predicted antioxidant capacity of teas also demonstrated significant differences among teas after 5 and 10 min. In conclusion, steep time modulates TPC but not the antioxidative capacity of tea polyphenols. Full article
Open AccessReview
The Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Green Tea Catechins on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Markers in Humans: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials
Beverages 2016, 2(2), 16; doi:10.3390/beverages2020016 -
Abstract
Green tea catechins (GTCs) are secondary plant metabolites that have been associated with health benefits in human trials. As such, they have the potential to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; however, results are not consistent. This systematic review of the published data [...] Read more.
Green tea catechins (GTCs) are secondary plant metabolites that have been associated with health benefits in human trials. As such, they have the potential to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; however, results are not consistent. This systematic review of the published data assessed the putative effect of GTCs supplementation on anthropometric, blood pressure, and biochemical measures associated with CVD risk. It was conducted in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines exploring four major electronic databases (MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Scopus). Studies were included if they were published in peer-reviewed journals in English from 1990 until October 2015, and were human double-blind randomized and placebo-controlled trials (RCTs). From 122,428 articles initially identified, after two levels of screening, seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The review revealed consistent and significant (p ≤ 0.05) reductions in body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and plasma lipids; however, this effect would have been less if between-group effects had been considered. The current evidence base also has considerable methodological limitations due to suboptimal statistical methods used in data analyses. Future research efforts must aim to rectify this paucity of evidence with well-designed and well-reported prospective studies. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Ultra High Pressure Homogenization of Soy Milk: Effect on Quality Attributes during Storage
Beverages 2016, 2(2), 15; doi:10.3390/beverages2020015 -
Abstract
The present work analyzed soy milk prepared from whole dehulled soybeans. The traditional method of soy milk preparation leads to wastage of about 35% of soybean solids in the form of okara, which gets filtered out. In the current study, soy milk [...] Read more.
The present work analyzed soy milk prepared from whole dehulled soybeans. The traditional method of soy milk preparation leads to wastage of about 35% of soybean solids in the form of okara, which gets filtered out. In the current study, soy milk was prepared with practically 100% recovery of soybean solids and treated with continuous flow high pressure processing (207 and 276 MPa pressure, 121 and 145 °C exit temperatures, and 0.75 and 1.25 L/min flow rates), and the changes in the physical, chemical, microbial, and sensory properties during 28 days of storage at 4 °C were analyzed. The treated soy milk remained stable for 28 days. There was a significant reduction in the particle size of soybean solids which did not change during storage. The pH of the treated soy milk was significantly lower than the untreated soy milk and it reduced further upon storage. The soy milk was pasteurized with high pressure processing coupled with preheating. No lipoxygenase activity was detected. Compared to commercial samples, there was no significant difference in the astringency, bitterness, or chalkiness of soy milk prepared in the study. Full article
Open AccessReview
Application of Novel Processing Methods for Greater Retention of Functional Compounds in Fruit-Based Beverages
Beverages 2016, 2(2), 14; doi:10.3390/beverages2020014 -
Abstract
Eating habits of western populations are changing due to modern lifestyles. As a result, people are becoming more susceptible to chronic and degenerative diseases. This fact has motivated the food industry to develop functional products that could decrease the incidence of those [...] Read more.
Eating habits of western populations are changing due to modern lifestyles. As a result, people are becoming more susceptible to chronic and degenerative diseases. This fact has motivated the food industry to develop functional products that could decrease the incidence of those disorders. It is well known that fruit juices, milk and soymilk possess high concentrations of antioxidant and bioactive substances. Hence, the development of these functional beverages is a potential way to take advantage of their nutritional properties and exotic flavors that could attract the interest of consumers. At the same time, application of the right preservation treatment is of high relevance in order to obtain safe products with convenient shelf life and high concentration of health-related compounds. This fact represents a great challenge that scientists and technologists are currently facing. Today, novel preservation processes such as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), high intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) and ultrasound (US), among others, are being evaluated as an alternative to heat pasteurization, obtaining promising results. Hence, this review gathers the most relevant information about the development of mixed beverages containing fruit juices and milk or soymilk. Furthermore, the advantages and drawbacks of the application of non-thermal treatments for functional beverages’ preservation with high content of bioactive compounds are also mentioned. Full article
Open AccessReview
l-Theanine as a Functional Food Additive: Its Role in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
Beverages 2016, 2(2), 13; doi:10.3390/beverages2020013 -
Abstract
Tea has been consumed for thousands of years and is an integral part of people’s daily routine, as an everyday drink and a therapeutic aid for health promotion. Consumption of tea has been linked to a sense of relaxation commonly associated with [...] Read more.
Tea has been consumed for thousands of years and is an integral part of people’s daily routine, as an everyday drink and a therapeutic aid for health promotion. Consumption of tea has been linked to a sense of relaxation commonly associated with the content of the non-proteinogenic amino acid theanine, which is found within the tea leaves. The aim of this review article is to outline the current methods for synthesis, extraction and purification of theanine, as well as to examine its potential benefits related to human health. These include improvements in cognitive and immune function, cancer prevention, reduced cardiovascular risk and its potential usefulness as a functional food product. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Drivers of Acceptance of a New Beverage in Europe
Beverages 2016, 2(2), 12; doi:10.3390/beverages2020012 -
Abstract
One of the challenges of studying food consumption behavior is to identify the drivers of choice for a food product. This is particularly important to design and develop new foods for which no previous information is available. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Bissap) is [...] Read more.
One of the challenges of studying food consumption behavior is to identify the drivers of choice for a food product. This is particularly important to design and develop new foods for which no previous information is available. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Bissap) is an herbaceous plant and an important source of vitamins, minerals, and bioactive compounds, which confer a number of potential health benefits to derived products. The consumption of Bissap in beverage form is widespread in Africa and Asia, but not yet in Europe. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the main drivers of consumer acceptance of a traditional African beverage made from Bissap to which they had not been previously exposed. First, three focus groups (n = 22) were performed in Portugal to characterize the sensory profile of four Bissap beverages, to reveal perceptions and attitudes towards Bissap beverages, and to identify potential choice attributes. Subsequently, a full-profile conjoint analysis (n = 99) was performed, where consumers evaluated 37 Bissap beverage profiles, aiming to estimate choice attribute importance and to identify relevant market segments. Focus group findings showed that consumers would choose Bissap because they perceived as a healthy choice, and due to its novelty. The conjoint study showed an ideal profile for a Bissap beverage costing €0.99/L, <18 kcal/100 mL, packaged in Tetra-pack, light red color, and containing labeling information about antioxidants and Bissap. Four clusters of consumers were identified: price sensitive, body concerned, packaging attracted, and demanding, highlighting the most influential choice attributes: price, calories, and packaging. Findings provide useful guidance for new product development of an African product in the European lifestyle. Results might be useful from a nutraceutical point of view and to the food/beverages industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Scotch Whisky: History, Heritage and the Stock Cycle
Beverages 2016, 2(2), 11; doi:10.3390/beverages2020011 -
Abstract
This article is concerned with one of the UK’s major export successes of the last century, Scotch whisky. The economics of the production process place considerable onus on firms to forecast demand for up to a decade ahead. History reveals the difficulty [...] Read more.
This article is concerned with one of the UK’s major export successes of the last century, Scotch whisky. The economics of the production process place considerable onus on firms to forecast demand for up to a decade ahead. History reveals the difficulty in achieving this, with clear cycles of over-production and under-production as firms attempt to adjust their stock portfolios. No sooner has leadership emerged to encourage a more strategic approach to the stock cycle than market forces encourage some firms to break ranks in pursuit of alternative objectives. With the industry having consolidated further following the large mergers of the late 1990s and 2000s, it is tempting to assume the vagaries of the past are over. Current record production and stock levels, however, are set to test this proposition as Scotch sales are now below the peak level of 2011. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Water Quality in Selected Small Drinking Water Systems of Missouri Rural Communities
Beverages 2016, 2(2), 10; doi:10.3390/beverages2020010 -
Abstract
Small drinking water treatment systems (serving <10,000 population) in rural communities frequently encounter multiple challenges in water quality and federal regulatory compliance, especially the disinfection byproduct (DBP) regulations, due to source water variations, limited resources, and aging infrastructures. Unlike most studies on [...] Read more.
Small drinking water treatment systems (serving <10,000 population) in rural communities frequently encounter multiple challenges in water quality and federal regulatory compliance, especially the disinfection byproduct (DBP) regulations, due to source water variations, limited resources, and aging infrastructures. Unlike most studies on the DBP control using synthetic water in laboratory settings, this research aimed to identify the major water quality issues confronting small systems in the state of Missouri (MO), the United States of America (USA). Three small systems were selected based on source water and geographic locations. Water samples were collected quarterly from each major treatment process during the period of May 2012 to March 2013 and analyzed to identify the treatment effectiveness and potential water quality issues in each small system. Results of water quality characterization showed that the major water quality issue in the selected small systems was the low efficiency of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, especially the DOC species that are considered as the DBP precursors. Most collected water samples had a higher trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) than the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant limit (MCL) (80 μg/L). Based on the analysis of the treatment efficiency in each system, several strategies for water quality improvement were recommended, and a few of which have been implemented in the small systems, leading to improved drinking water quality and compliance with the USEPA DBP regulations. This study would provide a valuable aid to small system operators and local water authority in context of water quality improvement and the regulatory compliance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Fermentation Products of Palm Wine Yeasts and Role of Sacoglottis gabonensis Supplement on Products Abundance
Beverages 2016, 2(2), 9; doi:10.3390/beverages2020009 -
Abstract
A preliminary evaluation of yeast fermented palm wine sourced from Imo State in Nigeria was carried out to establish compounds that contribute to the distinct flavor of the beverage and to determine if the product abundance is affected when the drink is [...] Read more.
A preliminary evaluation of yeast fermented palm wine sourced from Imo State in Nigeria was carried out to establish compounds that contribute to the distinct flavor of the beverage and to determine if the product abundance is affected when the drink is supplemented with Sacoglottis gabonensis. Palm wine samples from two different trees Elaeis sp. and Raphia sp. (pH less than 5) that contain Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeast species identified by sequencing the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA genes were used. Evaluation was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples contained 5.9–11.6, 2.2–7.1, 4.2–43.0, and 4.4–43.7 g/L of acetic acid, lactic acid, ethanol and glucose, respectively. Ethyl acetate, acetic acid and ethanol had the most aroma intensity and an assessment on the yeast metabolome database showed that 23 out of the 31 products detected were present in the database. Addition of Sacoglottis gabonensis supplement to a Raphia sp. palm wine sample showed lower abundance of acetoin, acetic acid, methylpropyl lactate, ethyl octanoate and propyl acetate. We conclude that Sacoglottis gabonensis supplementation could suppress specific compounds during palm wine fermentation. This knowledge could be applied in new product development for the beverage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Different Conditions of Growth and Storage on the Cell Counts of Two Lactic Acid Bacteria after Spray Drying in Orange Juice
Beverages 2016, 2(2), 8; doi:10.3390/beverages2020008 -
Abstract
Consumers increasingly require innovative food products with health benefits. Thus, a dried orange juice incorporating probiotics could be a novel challenge. In this context, we investigated whether different sugars added to the culture media used for growth of two lactic acid bacteria [...] Read more.
Consumers increasingly require innovative food products with health benefits. Thus, a dried orange juice incorporating probiotics could be a novel challenge. In this context, we investigated whether different sugars added to the culture media used for growth of two lactic acid bacteria contributed to their protection during spray drying in orange juice and subsequent storage under different conditions of temperature, light exposure and water activity. Cell viability during passage through simulated gastro-intestinal conditions was also investigated. Cells grown in culture medium containing fructose resulted in the worst survival rates during storage. High survival was observed for cells grown in the presence of lactose, followed by glucose. The survival of dried bacteria was enhanced at 4 °C, water activity of 0.03 and absence of daylight. For cells grown in standard culture medium and after 12 months of storage at 4 °C in orange juice powder (about 109 cfu/mL), there was a reduction of approximately 2 log-units for both lactic acid bacteria after gastro-intestinal tract passage simulation. Using the conditions of growth and storage investigated, it is possible to improve the survival rate of lactic acid bacteria and produce an orange juice powder with probiotic characteristics with shelf life of at least 12 months. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring Retro-Nasal Aroma’s Influence on Mouthfeel Perception of Chardonnay Wines
Beverages 2016, 2(1), 7; doi:10.3390/beverages2010007 -
Abstract
There are many interactions that occur between taste and aroma that may impact perception. The main objective of this study was to ascertain whether the aroma fraction of wine should be considered when investigating relationships between chemical composition and sensory perception of [...] Read more.
There are many interactions that occur between taste and aroma that may impact perception. The main objective of this study was to ascertain whether the aroma fraction of wine should be considered when investigating relationships between chemical composition and sensory perception of mouthfeel. Chardonnay wines with different mouthfeels were produced by altering the fermentation temperature (15 °C and 21 °C) of the alcoholic and malolactic fermentations (MLF) as well as the timing of MLF and the presence of a non-Saccharomyces yeast during alcoholic fermentation. Napping® and Ultra-flash-profiling were conducted using a panel of white winemakers. Each procedure was conducted twice: once with retro-nasal aroma (+R) and once without retronasal aroma (−R). Napping® results showed that retronasal aroma impacted mouthfeel perception. Ultra-flash profiling of +R and −R displayed similar descriptive terms used. Several terms appear to be related to retronasal aroma as they were used in +R and not in −R. It is unclear if these terms are due to interactions or due to associated learning. These results suggest that for some mouthfeel terms the volatile fraction plays a role and, to establish relationships between chemical composition and mouthfeel perception, it is important to consider both the volatile and nonvolatile wine fractions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A New Wine Tasting Approach Based on Emotional Responses to Rapidly Recognize Classic European Wine Styles
Beverages 2016, 2(1), 6; doi:10.3390/beverages2010006 -
Abstract
Conventional tasting sheets are widely used to evaluate wine quality in wine tasting competitions. However, the higher scores are mostly obtained by international commercial wines, resulting in lower scores being awarded to the classic European wines. We hypothesize that this is due [...] Read more.
Conventional tasting sheets are widely used to evaluate wine quality in wine tasting competitions. However, the higher scores are mostly obtained by international commercial wines, resulting in lower scores being awarded to the classic European wines. We hypothesize that this is due to the tasting methodology that fails to recognize this wine style. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to show the implementation of a new wine tasting approach to overcome this drawback. The proposed training technique is based on the emotional responses of the taster after smelling two wines of clearly opposite styles. The first wine is characterized by high aromatic intensity but low in-mouth intensity, perceived as disappointing to the taster, here defined as an “easy” wine. The second wine is characterized as a wine with low aromatic intensity but that provides an unexpectedly positive in-mouth experience, here defined as a “difficult” wine. These emotions are explained by the wine sensorial characteristics. The “easy” wine has an intense, simple smell with short persistence while the “difficult” wine has a low intensity, complex aroma, and long persistence. The first style corresponds to the international commercial wines most prized in international wine challenges. The second, frequently rejected by untrained tasters, is consistent with the “so called” classic European wines, and is characterized by light red or yellow straw colors, weak smell intensity, and aggressive mouth-feel. After no more than four training sessions and using the OIV tasting sheet, inexperienced tasters were able to score “difficult” wines equally as “easy” wines and understand their different attributes. In conclusion, this new tasting approach may be used by wine professionals to explain the characteristics of high quality wines that are not easily recognized by untrained consumers. Full article
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