Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Mycotoxins in Peruvian Evaporated Cow Milk
Beverages 2018, 4(2), 34; doi:10.3390/beverages4020034 -
Abstract
Mycotoxins—toxic secondary fungi metabolites—reach humans through food, producing several effects on their health and economic losses. Mycotoxin co-occurrence is common in food due to the co-presence of different fungi species, each of which may produce different toxins. A survey regarding the presence of
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Mycotoxins—toxic secondary fungi metabolites—reach humans through food, producing several effects on their health and economic losses. Mycotoxin co-occurrence is common in food due to the co-presence of different fungi species, each of which may produce different toxins. A survey regarding the presence of 22 mycotoxins (aflatoxins M1, B1, B2, G1, G2; ochratoxins A and B; fumonisins B1, B2 and B3; HT-2 and T-2 toxins; nivalenol; deoxynivalenol; deepoxy-deoxynivalenol; 3 and 15 acetyl-deoxynivalenol; diacetoxyscirpenol; fusarenon X; neosolaniol; sterigmatocystin; and zearalenone) in 30 Peruvian evaporated cow milk samples is presented for the first time. Analysis was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, which was based on two previously validated methods for quantification of these toxic compounds in liquid cow milk, and further validated for the new matrix. The only detected mycotoxin was ochratoxin A, which was found in four samples, although at levels below its limit of quantification (0.2 ng/mL). This initial study indicates that the presence of mycotoxins in evaporated milk is low in Peru. However, we recommend the analysis of more samples and more milk types obtained from urban and rural areas, in order to obtain more data that will allow further risk assessments to be carried out. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Potential Safety Issues Surrounding the Use of Benzoate Preservatives
Beverages 2018, 4(2), 33; doi:10.3390/beverages4020033 -
Abstract
Sodium benzoate (E211) and potassium sorbate (E202) have long been used for large-scale beverage preservation, yet it is potassium sorbate that is now the preferred option for most soft drink manufacturers. Partly this is a reaction to the discovery that benzoate can cause
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Sodium benzoate (E211) and potassium sorbate (E202) have long been used for large-scale beverage preservation, yet it is potassium sorbate that is now the preferred option for most soft drink manufacturers. Partly this is a reaction to the discovery that benzoate can cause drinks to contain traces of the carcinogen benzene. This benzene is thought to have its origins in a free-radical catalysed reaction of the benzoate with ascorbic acid. However, there may be additional benefits to using potassium sorbate rather than the benzoate preservatives in beverages. In children, a high dietary intake of sodium benzoate may be associated with asthma, allergy, or attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder. Benzoate is now known to influence cognitive functioning. By acting as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO), thereby reducing the DAAO-catalysed degradation of D-serine, it can upregulate the activity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in the brain. A high benzoate intake might also generate glycine deficiency, lack of glycine generally exerting a negative impact on brain neurochemistry. There are therefore strong grounds for suspecting that dietary benzoate can have neuromodulatory (mood, learning, and personality) effects and influence child hyperactivity disorders. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Two Decades of “Horse Sweat” Taint and Brettanomyces Yeasts in Wine: Where do We Stand Now?
Beverages 2018, 4(2), 32; doi:10.3390/beverages4020032 -
Abstract
The unwanted modification of wine sensory attributes by yeasts of the species Brettanomyces bruxellensis due to the production of volatile phenols is presently the main microbiological threat to red wine quality. The effects of ethylphenols and other metabolites on wine flavor is now
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The unwanted modification of wine sensory attributes by yeasts of the species Brettanomyces bruxellensis due to the production of volatile phenols is presently the main microbiological threat to red wine quality. The effects of ethylphenols and other metabolites on wine flavor is now recognized worldwide and the object of lively debate. The focus of this review is to provide an update of the present knowledge and practice on the prevention of this problem in the wine industry. Brettanomyces bruxellensis, or its teleomorph, Dekkera bruxellensis, are rarely found in the natural environment and, although frequently isolated from fermenting substrates, their numbers are relatively low when compared with other fermenting species. Despite this rarity, they have long been studied for their unusual metabolical features (e.g., the Custers effect). Rising interest over the last decades is mostly due to volatile phenol production affecting high quality red wines worldwide. The challenges have been dealt with together by researchers and winemakers in an effective way and this has enabled a state where, presently, knowledge and prevention of the problem at the winery level is readily accessible. Today, the main issues have shifted from technological to sensory science concerning the effects of metabolites other than ethylphenols and the over estimation of the detrimental impact by ethylphenols on flavor. Hopefully, these questions will continue to be tackled together by science and industry for the benefit of wine enjoyment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Soil Erosion as an Environmental Concern in Vineyards: The Case Study of Celler del Roure, Eastern Spain, by Means of Rainfall Simulation Experiments
Beverages 2018, 4(2), 31; doi:10.3390/beverages4020031 -
Abstract
Soil erosion in vineyards is considered as an environmental concern as it depletes soil fertility and causes damage in the fields and downstream. High soil and water losses decrease soil quality, and subsequently, this can reduce the quality of the grapes and wine.
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Soil erosion in vineyards is considered as an environmental concern as it depletes soil fertility and causes damage in the fields and downstream. High soil and water losses decrease soil quality, and subsequently, this can reduce the quality of the grapes and wine. However, in specialized journals of viticulture and enology, soil erosion studies are not present. This paper surveys the soil erosion losses in the vineyards of Celler del Roure, Eastern Spain, as an example of Mediterranean vineyards. We applied rainfall simulation experiments (10 plots) using a small portable rainfall simulator and 55 mm h−1 in one hour to characterize soil erodibility, runoff discharge, and soil erosion rates under low-frequency–high-magnitude rainfall events at different positions along the vine inter-row areas. We found that 30% of the rainfall was transformed into superficial runoff, the sediment concentration was 23 g L−1, and the soil erosion rates reached 4.1 Mg ha−1 h−1; these erosion rates are among the highest found in the existing literature. We suggest that the vineyard management should be improved to reduce land degradation, and also should be shifted to sustainable agricultural production, which could improve grape and wine quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of an In Vitro Digestion on the Antioxidant Capacity of a Microfiltrated Blackberry Juice (Rubus adenotrichos)
Beverages 2018, 4(2), 30; doi:10.3390/beverages4020030 -
Abstract
The health benefits attributed to berries are largely dependent on their bioavailability. This study evaluated the antioxidant activity for different samples of blackberry juice submitted to an in vitro digestion. The HPLC analysis demonstrated that gastric conditions had only a slight impact on
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The health benefits attributed to berries are largely dependent on their bioavailability. This study evaluated the antioxidant activity for different samples of blackberry juice submitted to an in vitro digestion. The HPLC analysis demonstrated that gastric conditions had only a slight impact on the phenolic composition, but the digestion simulating intestine conditions caused marked changes. The dialyzed fraction, which represents the serum available material, showed 33% and 35% less activity against nitrogen-derived radicals and a significant reduction of 46% in the inhibitory capacity against intracellular ROS. Other models used to evaluate the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation did not show significant differences in any of the digestion samples. Our results suggest that blackberry polyphenols could exert their antioxidant capacity after passage through the GIT. However, the dialyzed fraction suffers a partial depletion of its antioxidant ability, this could be attributed to the absence of ellagitannins. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Feasibility of a Novel Industrial-Scale Treatment of Green Cold-Pressed Juices by UV-C Light Exposure
Beverages 2018, 4(2), 29; doi:10.3390/beverages4020029 -
Abstract
A novel industrial-scale ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light processor from AseptoRay (MGT, Israel) was used to treat a raw cold-pressed green juice blend (GJB) consisting of kale, romaine, celery, apple, and lemon. The effect of UV-C light energies of 0.88 kJ L−1 and 2.93
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A novel industrial-scale ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light processor from AseptoRay (MGT, Israel) was used to treat a raw cold-pressed green juice blend (GJB) consisting of kale, romaine, celery, apple, and lemon. The effect of UV-C light energies of 0.88 kJ L−1 and 2.93 kJ L−1 on microbial, enzymatic, nutritional, quality, and sensory parameters of the GJB was studied. Using 2.93 kJ L−1, 3.7 log reduction in aciduric bacteria and 3.9 logs in aerobic colony count were achieved, while lactic acid bacteria, coliforms, yeasts, and moulds were reduced by >3, >2, 2.1, and 2.1 logs, respectively. A minor increase in polyphenoloxidase (PPO) enzyme activity was seen with 0.88 kJ L−1 and a slight change in colour (not visually observed) was detected using 2.93 kJ L−1. No other significant change in nutritional and quality parameters or enzyme activities was detected. Further, the stability of the GJB was explored. Kale and romaine contributed the most significant source of spoilage enzyme activity, cloud loss, and browning in the GJB. These stability parameters were shown to be affected by pressing temperature and pH. The commercial UV-C treatment process explored in this study is a viable alternative to high pressure processing (HPP) for improved microbial safety of fresh green juice blends. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Temporal Profiles among Sucrose, Sucralose, and Acesulfame Potassium after Swallowing Sweetened Coffee Beverages and Sweetened Water Solutions
Beverages 2018, 4(2), 28; doi:10.3390/beverages4020028 -
Abstract
Non-nutritive sweeteners have been used as substitutes for nutritive sweeteners with the goal of preventing obesity and dental caries. The main factor responsible for the difference in taste between beverages containing a nutritive sweetener and those containing a non-nutritive sweetener is the temporal
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Non-nutritive sweeteners have been used as substitutes for nutritive sweeteners with the goal of preventing obesity and dental caries. The main factor responsible for the difference in taste between beverages containing a nutritive sweetener and those containing a non-nutritive sweetener is the temporal profile of sensory attributes. In this study, untrained panelists performed a time–intensity evaluation of sweetness, using one coffee beverage containing a nutritive sweetener (sucrose) and two coffee beverages containing non-nutritive sweeteners (sucralose or acesulfame potassium (acesulfame K)). They evaluated continuously perceived intensity of sweetness for 150 s after swallowing each coffee beverage. We did not detect a significant difference in temporal profiles among the three coffee beverages. To investigate why the temporal profiles of the three coffee beverages followed similar traces, all untrained participants who had participated in the coffee beverage session also performed a time–intensity evaluation of sweetness using three water solutions (sucrose-sweetened, sucralose-sweetened, and acesulfame K–sweetened deionized water). We observed a significant difference in temporal profiles among the three water solutions. These results indicate that differences in the temporal profiles of coffee beverages might be masked by factors other than the sweetness of the sweetener. Full article
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Open AccessTechnical Note
Effect of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Added at the Dosage Stage on the Foamability of a Bottle-Fermented Sparkling Wine
Beverages 2018, 4(2), 27; doi:10.3390/beverages4020027 -
Abstract
Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is used in winemaking to prevent potassium bitartrate or potassium hydrogen tartrate deposits from forming. These deposits are particularly detrimental when occurring in bottle-fermented sparkling wine ahead of disgorging or in the finished product as they can cause gushing of
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Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is used in winemaking to prevent potassium bitartrate or potassium hydrogen tartrate deposits from forming. These deposits are particularly detrimental when occurring in bottle-fermented sparkling wine ahead of disgorging or in the finished product as they can cause gushing of the wine when bottles are opened. Despite CMC being used by several sparkling winemaking producers both on the base wine and after disgorging, its effect on the behavior of foam, a key indicator of sparkling wine quality, has not been systematically tested. In this work the effect on wine composition and foam attributes of CMC additions to an English sparkling wine at the dosage stage was assessed. Results showed that CMC did not cause major changes on wine parameters, with the exception of wine viscosity, and did not result in major modification of the foamability of a wine, especially when analyzed in real serving conditions. These results suggest that, at least for the wine analyzed in this work, CMC could be added at the dosage stage without compromising its foam quality attributes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Method for the Identification of the Variety of Grape Using Their Capability to Form Gold Nanoparticles
Beverages 2018, 4(2), 26; doi:10.3390/beverages4020026 -
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been obtained using musts (freshly prepared grape juices where solid peels and seeds have been removed) as the reducing and capping agent. Transmission Electron Microscope images show that the formed AuNPs are spherical and their size increases with the
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Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been obtained using musts (freshly prepared grape juices where solid peels and seeds have been removed) as the reducing and capping agent. Transmission Electron Microscope images show that the formed AuNPs are spherical and their size increases with the amount of must used. The size of the AuNPs increases with the Total Polyphenol Index (TPI) of the variety of grape. The kinetics of the reaction monitored using UV-Vis shows that the reaction rates are related to the chemical composition of the musts and specifically to the phenols that can act as reducing and capping agents during the synthesis process. Since the particular composition of each must produces AuNPs of different sizes and at different rates, color changes can be used to discriminate the variety of grape. This new technology can be used to avoid fraud. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Emulsions, Foams, and Suspensions: The Microscience of the Beverage Industry
Beverages 2018, 4(2), 25; doi:10.3390/beverages4020025 -
Abstract
Emulsions and foams form the basis of an extensive variety of materials used in the beverage industry. One of the characteristics of beverage emulsions is that they are rather diluted, contain little amounts of a dispersed oil phase in the finished product, and
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Emulsions and foams form the basis of an extensive variety of materials used in the beverage industry. One of the characteristics of beverage emulsions is that they are rather diluted, contain little amounts of a dispersed oil phase in the finished product, and must remain physically stable for long periods of time. Nowadays, the consumers ask for more than a drink. Thus, in the market, we can find a vast variety of beverages, where emulsion science seems to be the main factor for controlling flavor, color, the presence of constituents of technological or nutritional value, nutraceutical/bioactive components and, also, turbidity. This work intends to make an overview of the recent advances in beverage-emulsions technology. Some examples are given within the very large world of the beverage industry, from cream liqueurs, soft drinks, and functional beverages, to bottled water, fruit drinks, sparkling wine, and beer. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Biosensor-Based Approaches for Detecting Ochratoxin A and 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole in Beverages
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 24; doi:10.3390/beverages4010024 -
Abstract
Mycotoxins and haloanisoles are secondary metabolites produced under special conditions of temperature and humidity by fungi colonizing a variety of commodities from preharvest up to consumer use. Ochratoxin A and 2,4,6-trichloanisole are produced mainly by species of the genus Aspergillus and Penicillium.
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Mycotoxins and haloanisoles are secondary metabolites produced under special conditions of temperature and humidity by fungi colonizing a variety of commodities from preharvest up to consumer use. Ochratoxin A and 2,4,6-trichloanisole are produced mainly by species of the genus Aspergillus and Penicillium. Ochratoxin A exhibits nephrotic effects and can, potentially, be associated with human carcinogenesis, whereas 2,4,6-trichloanisole is primarily responsible for cork taint in wines. This review provides an overview of recent advances in biosensor technology for the determination of the aforementioned compounds in wine, beer and other beverages, as well as cork stoppers, which help in establishing and carrying out proper product quality-management strategies. Such a detailed investigation of biosensor-based detection methods of these toxic compounds in beverages could lead to the provision of safe-to-consume products, and allow the prioritization of future research efforts. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Wine Traceability with Rare Earth Elements
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 23; doi:10.3390/beverages4010023 -
Abstract
The traceability of foodstuffs is now a relevant aspect of the food market. Scientific research has been devoted to addressing this issue by developing analytical protocols in order to find the link between soil and food items. In this view, chemical parameters that
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The traceability of foodstuffs is now a relevant aspect of the food market. Scientific research has been devoted to addressing this issue by developing analytical protocols in order to find the link between soil and food items. In this view, chemical parameters that can act as soil markers are being sought. In this work, the role of rare earth elements (REEs) as geochemical markers in the traceability of red wine is discussed. The REE distribution in samples from each step of the wine making process of Primitivo wine (produced in Southern Italy) was determined using the highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique. Samples analyzed include grapes, must, and wine samples after every step in the vinification process. The resulting data were compared to the REE distribution in the soil, revealing that the soil fingerprint is maintained in the intermediate products up to and including grape must. Fractionation occurs thereafter as a consequence of further external interventions, which tends to modify the REE profile. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Grape Juices: A Chemical and Sensory View
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 22; doi:10.3390/beverages4010022 -
Abstract
The search for food products that promote health has grown over the years. Phenolic compounds present in grapes and in their derivatives, such as grape juices, represent today a broad area of research, given the benefits that they have on the human health.
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The search for food products that promote health has grown over the years. Phenolic compounds present in grapes and in their derivatives, such as grape juices, represent today a broad area of research, given the benefits that they have on the human health. Grape juice can be produced from any grape variety once it has attained appropriate maturity. However, only in traditional wine producing regions, grape juices are produced from Vitis vinifera grape varieties. For example, Brazilian grape juices are essentially produced from Vitis labrusca grape varieties, known as American or hybrid, as they preserve their characteristics such as the natural flavour after pasteurisation. Grapes are one of the richest sources of phenolic compounds among fruits. Therefore, grape juices have been broadly studied due to their composition in phenolic compounds and their potential beneficial effects on human health, specifically the ability to prevent various diseases associated with oxidative stress, including cancers, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, this review will address grape juices phenolic composition, with a special focus on the potential beneficial effects on human health and on the grape juice sensory impact. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Beverages of Yerba-Mate and Soy: Bioactive Compounds and Functional Properties
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 21; doi:10.3390/beverages4010021 -
Abstract
In this paper, two high-nutrition commodities that are produced in great amounts in Brazil were joined in a single functional product. Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is rich in bioactive compounds, while soybean is a high-quality protein source. The objective of this
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In this paper, two high-nutrition commodities that are produced in great amounts in Brazil were joined in a single functional product. Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is rich in bioactive compounds, while soybean is a high-quality protein source. The objective of this paper was to assess the psychochemical characteristics of two yerba-mate progenies (planted–PL and native–NT leaves) and then confirm whether the functional and nutritional properties of the main ingredients were conveyed to the beverage produced. The main raw material, yerba-mate leaves, and the drinks were assessed for bioactive compounds, antioxidant capacity, physicochemical properties, and nutritional value. Planted leaves showed higher concentration of 5-CQA, caffeic acid and rutin than the native plant, whereas caffeine and theobromine were detected in larger amounts in native leaves. The nutritional profile of the drinks was compared to commercial beverages–either yerba-mate-based or soy-based. They indeed provide more protein, fiber, and fats than traditional yerba-mate beverages (chimarrão, tererê, and mate tea). Soy drinks currently marketed, for their turn, have similar caloric value and higher contents of lipid and protein as compared to our product, but are poor in fibers. NT drink (DPPH—IC50 92.83 and ABTS—8.18 μM Trolox/mL) had higher antioxidant activity than PL (IC50 147.06 and 5.63 μM Trolox/mL) due to the greater volume fraction of yerba-mate extract. NT beverage has more 5-CQA and caffeine in the same intake of tererê and traditional mate tea. This healthy beverage contributes to an increasing income to the food industry and yerba-mate producers, and environmental gains that are related to the exploration of natural resources. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Some Popular Energy Shots and Their Ingredients: Are They Safe and Should They Be Used? A Literature Review
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 20; doi:10.3390/beverages4010020 -
Abstract
The current demanding and busy lifestyle has spawned the development of supplements that are marketed as energy and concentration boosters. Energy shots are one of the most popular such supplements due to their small volume and efficient packaging. The components of energy shots
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The current demanding and busy lifestyle has spawned the development of supplements that are marketed as energy and concentration boosters. Energy shots are one of the most popular such supplements due to their small volume and efficient packaging. The components of energy shots have very limited evidence supporting their effects, and their efficacy is not consistently proven. This literature review from the past 40 years utilized PubMed, MEDLINE, SCOPUS and EMBASE, using the following keywords: ‘energy beverage’, ‘energy drink’, ‘energy shot’, ‘power shot’, ‘power energy’, ‘exercise’, ‘caffeine’, ‘glucose’, ‘ginseng’, ‘guarana’, ‘l-tyrosine’, ‘green tea extract’, ‘quercetin’, ‘garcinia cambogia extract’, ‘yerba mate’, and ‘taurine’. The effects of each ingredient individually, as well as of energy shots in general, were summarized, and recommendations on use and safety of energy shots are provided. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sensory Impact of Polyphenolic Composition on the Oxidative Notes of Chardonnay Wines
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 19; doi:10.3390/beverages4010019 -
Abstract
Chardonnay wines have a long-standing reputation regarding their aging potential. However, in some cases, they face premature oxidation a few years after bottling. Scientific reports are, for now, multiparametric and unclear. Polyphenols seem to be an important factor involved in the oxidative stability
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Chardonnay wines have a long-standing reputation regarding their aging potential. However, in some cases, they face premature oxidation a few years after bottling. Scientific reports are, for now, multiparametric and unclear. Polyphenols seem to be an important factor involved in the oxidative stability of white wines, but their role has not yet been completely characterized. The present study aimed to investigate the link between polyphenol content and the emergence of oxidative odors of bottle-aged Chardonnay wines. In order to obtain samples with noticeable differences in polyphenol content, as well as in sensory oxidative notes, wines from two different vintages were used. For each vintage, three levels of must clarification and two wine closures were implemented. Polyphenol content was analyzed chemically, and the oxidative character was assessed sensorially by a trained panel using a specific intensity scale. The results showed significant effects for closure type and turbidity. However, these effects were strongly affected by vintage. Concerning the polyphenol content, a clear difference was also found between vintages, closures and turbidity levels. Significant linear regression models for REDOX scores pointed out Flavon-3-ols as the main negative predictor, and grape reaction product (GRP) as the main positive predictor. The enological implications are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances and Applications of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) to Improve Polyphenol Extraction and Color Release during Red Winemaking
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 18; doi:10.3390/beverages4010018 -
Abstract
Pulsed electric fields (PEF) technology is an innovative food processing system and it has been introduced in relatively recent times as a pre-treatment of liquid and semi-solid food. Low cost-equipment and short processing time, coupled to the effectiveness in assisting the extraction of
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Pulsed electric fields (PEF) technology is an innovative food processing system and it has been introduced in relatively recent times as a pre-treatment of liquid and semi-solid food. Low cost-equipment and short processing time, coupled to the effectiveness in assisting the extraction of valuable compounds from vegetable tissues, makes PEF a challenging solution for the industrial red winemaking; a tailored PEF-assisted maceration was demonstrated to promote an increase in wine color quality and an improvement in the polyphenolic profile. Despite the application of PEF has been studied and the positive effects in selected wine varieties were demonstrated on batch and pilot-scale systems, there is a need for a more detailed characterization of the impact in different grapes, and for a better understanding of potential undesirable side-effects. This review aims to summarize the state of the art in view of a detailed feasibility study, to promote the introduction of PEF technology in the oenological industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Fining Agents, Reverse Osmosis and Wine Age on Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys) Taint in Wine
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 17; doi:10.3390/beverages4010017 -
Abstract
Trans-2-decenal and tridecane are compounds found in wine made from brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB)-contaminated grapes. The effectiveness of post-fermentation processes on reducing their concentration in finished wine and their longevity during wine aging was evaluated. Red wines containing trans-2-decenal were
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Trans-2-decenal and tridecane are compounds found in wine made from brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB)-contaminated grapes. The effectiveness of post-fermentation processes on reducing their concentration in finished wine and their longevity during wine aging was evaluated. Red wines containing trans-2-decenal were treated with fining agents and put through reverse osmosis filtration. The efficacy of these treatments was determined using chemical analysis (MDGC-MS) and sensory descriptive analysis. Tridecane and trans-2-decenal concentrations in red and white wine were determined at bottle aging durations of 0, 6, 12 and 24 months using MDGC-MS. Reverse osmosis was found to be partially successful in removing trans-2-decenal concentration from finished wine. While tridecane and trans-2-decenal concentrations decreased during bottle aging, post-fermentative fining treatments were not effective at removing these compounds. Although French oak did not alter the concentration of tridecane and trans-2-decenal in red wine, it did mask the expression of BMSB-related sensory characters. Because of the ineffectiveness of removing BMSB taint post-fermentation, BMSB densities in the grape clusters should be minimized so that the taint does not occur in the wine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Regression Models for Description of Roasted Ground Coffee Powder Color Change during Secondary Shelf-Life as Related to Storage Conditions and Packaging Material
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 16; doi:10.3390/beverages4010016 -
Abstract
Besides sensory attributes, color is a parameter affecting consumers’ perception of the powdered coffee product or brew. The aim of this study was to develop and compare non-linear and linear regression models for the description of experimentally determined color changes during 6 months
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Besides sensory attributes, color is a parameter affecting consumers’ perception of the powdered coffee product or brew. The aim of this study was to develop and compare non-linear and linear regression models for the description of experimentally determined color changes during 6 months of storage in two different packaging materials. Model parameters were estimated using two software packages: Eureqa Formulize (Nutonian, Inc., Boston, MA, USA) and Statistica 10.0 (StatSoft, Palo Alto, CA, USA) and compared based on their R2 goodness of fit. Both non-linear and linear models used in this study pointed to a significant influence of intrinsic (sample moisture content) and external (relative humidity (RH) and temperature) factors on ground roasted coffee color change. Non-linear model was the most suitable for description of color changes during storage. Based on lower moisture sorption of the sample packed in triplex bag, triplex packaging is proposed as the more suitable one. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Total Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Tea Bags: Comparison of Black, Green, Red Rooibos, Chamomile and Peppermint over Different Steep Times
Beverages 2018, 4(1), 15; doi:10.3390/beverages4010015 -
Abstract
Globally, traditional and herbal teas are a prominent dietary source of polyphenols, and represent a class of bioactive molecules that are closely associated with a variety of health benefits. Most consumers prepare tea using tea bags, although there is little information about whether
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Globally, traditional and herbal teas are a prominent dietary source of polyphenols, and represent a class of bioactive molecules that are closely associated with a variety of health benefits. Most consumers prepare tea using tea bags, although there is little information about whether this production step alters the content of the final product. The study purpose was to investigate the effect of steep time and tea type on the polyphenol content and predicted antioxidant capacity of commercially available tea bag products, including Green, Orange Pekoe, Red Roiboos, Peppermint, and Chamomile. Total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant capacity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibition), and total predicted antioxidant capacity were measured in aliquots sampled every minute for 10 min. Polyphenols were extracted into solution in a nonlinear fashion, with ~80–90% of the TPC appearing within 5 min of tea bag immersion. Moreover, a significant range in TPC values was observed between products, with true teas containing at least two-fold greater polyphenol content than the herbal varieties. Our results are consistent with previous work using loose-leaf tea products and demonstrates that tea bag products are an effective source of polyphenols that may offer health benefits relating to their constituent antioxidant activity. Full article
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