Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Activity of Commercial Soluble Coffees
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 27; doi:10.3390/beverages3020027 -
Abstract
A product of easy preparation and high added value, soluble/instant coffee is obtained by drying the aqueous extract of roasted coffee and presents a high amount of bioactive compounds. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of 33 Brazilian
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A product of easy preparation and high added value, soluble/instant coffee is obtained by drying the aqueous extract of roasted coffee and presents a high amount of bioactive compounds. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of 33 Brazilian commercial soluble coffees considering the radical scavenging activity (via the ABTS method) and the reducing capacity (via the Folin–Ciocalteu method). Soluble coffees of several brands and types (regular, gourmet, and decaffeinated), subjected to different drying processes (agglomeration, atomization, and freeze-drying) (n = 85), were evaluated. In general, regular and decaffeinated soluble coffees presented high antioxidant activity. The reducing capacity ranged from 9.9 to 15.4 g of gallic acid per 100 g, while the radical scavenging activity ranged from 20.4 to 37.0 g of Trolox per 100 g. Good repeatability—with coefficients of variation of 2.4% for Folin–Ciocalteu and of 5.2% for ABTS—and high correlations between the values of antioxidant activity obtained by both methods (r = 0.66) were observed. Gourmet coffees presented less antioxidant activity compared to the regular samples. No correlation was verified between drying processes and antioxidant activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Impact of Finings on the Perception of Beer
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 26; doi:10.3390/beverages3020026 -
Abstract
In recent years, a number of commentators have suggested that the use of finings to clarify beer can impair the flavour, because of the removal of key volatile aromatic molecules from the drink. However, are such claims necessarily correct? Unaware of any previous
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In recent years, a number of commentators have suggested that the use of finings to clarify beer can impair the flavour, because of the removal of key volatile aromatic molecules from the drink. However, are such claims necessarily correct? Unaware of any previous attempt to address this question empirically, we conducted both a blind and a sighted taste test. The test made use of two beers from the same batch, one made using finings and the other made without. In neither experiment did the use of finings affect flavour or liking ratings amongst the social drinkers (N = 235) tested. Thus, the present results clearly suggest that the use of finings does not necessarily impact either the sensory-discriminative or hedonic ratings of beer, despite its influence on the clarity of the finished product. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Overview of the Utilisation of Brewery By-Products as Generated by British Craft Breweries
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 24; doi:10.3390/beverages3020024 -
Abstract
There is a wide range of information available on by-product disposal methods used by large national breweries. However, little information is available on the methods of by-product disposal used by craft breweries. An investigation was carried out in which 200+ British craft brewers
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There is a wide range of information available on by-product disposal methods used by large national breweries. However, little information is available on the methods of by-product disposal used by craft breweries. An investigation was carried out in which 200+ British craft brewers were contacted, of which 90 craft brewers provided basic information about their brewery operations and by-product disposal. Representatives of eleven breweries were interviewed to provide an in-depth case study of their by-product disposal methods. The research found that urban craft brewers use a wider range of disposal methods compared to rural craft brewers; urban brewers dispose of more waste through sewage and landfill, as well as using external companies, such as bio-recycling and anaerobic digester plants, whereas rural brewers have relationships with farmers who dispose of the by-products in various ways. Craft brewers tend to have a direct relationship with the by-product users. Even though they do not have all disposal options available to them which the large industrial breweries have, due to their small scale of by-product production, craft brewers appear to find alternative means of sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Gushing Experience—A Quick Overview
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 25; doi:10.3390/beverages3020025 -
Abstract
Beer lovers all over the world like to get their drink with a certain volume of stabile foam, which mainly depends on the beer style. However, sometimes this foam comes in form of a sudden, eruptive, and uncontrolled over-foaming (gushing) of beer. Gushing
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Beer lovers all over the world like to get their drink with a certain volume of stabile foam, which mainly depends on the beer style. However, sometimes this foam comes in form of a sudden, eruptive, and uncontrolled over-foaming (gushing) of beer. Gushing occurs after the bottle has been opened, without previously being treated inappropriately (exposure to high temperatures, shaking, or any other kind of agitation). According to recent scientific and professional literature, gushing may be induced by many factors, but fungal proteins are directly connected to this phenomenon. Gushing caused by fungal proteins—hydrophobins—is called primary gushing, and depends solely on raw material quality. Other reasons for extensive foaming after the bottle has been opened can be of chemical or technological nature in the course of the brewing process. This is called secondary gushing, which can be influenced and reduced by applying good manufacturing practice protocols. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Soybean–Navy Bean Emulsions Using Different Processing Technologies
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 23; doi:10.3390/beverages3020023 -
Abstract
In this study, an innovative emulsion made from soybean and navy bean blends of different proportionalities was developed. In addition, two processing methods were used: traditional cooking and jet-cooking. The physical attributes and storage stability were measured and compared. This study found that
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In this study, an innovative emulsion made from soybean and navy bean blends of different proportionalities was developed. In addition, two processing methods were used: traditional cooking and jet-cooking. The physical attributes and storage stability were measured and compared. This study found that the high content of starch and fiber in navy bean flour contributes to the increase in viscosity of the emulsions, at both room and refrigeration temperatures, as the proportion of navy bean flour in the blends increased. The steam jet-cooked emulsions with higher soybean content has better shelf life stability, smaller particle size, higher fat, lower starch, and lower viscosity, whereas the traditional kettle cooking method is better in reducing anti-nutritional components. No significant difference was found between the two cooking methods in terms of nutritional contents in the emulsions, such as protein, crude fat, and total starch. The traditional kettle cooking, with its longer cooking time, seems to reduce more trypsin inhibitor in the emulsions than those prepared with the steam jet-cooking. This exploratory study is the first to report soybean–navy bean beverage prototypes having desirable nutritional value and the potential for functional beverage market. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Automated Bioanalyzer Based on Amperometric Enzymatic Biosensors for the Determination of Ethanol in Low-Alcohol Beers
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 22; doi:10.3390/beverages3020022 -
Abstract
In this work, a new automated bioanalyzer based on the use of enzymatic biosensors as amperometric detectors is reported. This automatic bioanalyzer is configurable both as continuous flow and flow injection analysis systems and enables both on-line and off-line monitoring of ethanol in
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In this work, a new automated bioanalyzer based on the use of enzymatic biosensors as amperometric detectors is reported. This automatic bioanalyzer is configurable both as continuous flow and flow injection analysis systems and enables both on-line and off-line monitoring of ethanol in low-alcohol beer to be performed. The attractive analytical and operational characteristics demonstrated by the automated bioanalyzer make it a promising, simple, rapid, and reliable tool for quality control of this beverage in the beer industry, either during the manufacturing process or in the final product. Moreover its applicability to the analysis of the ethanol content in different non-alcoholic beers working at different modes was successfully demonstrated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography as Complementary Methods for the Analysis of Beer Samples
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 21; doi:10.3390/beverages3020021 -
Abstract
Chemical analysis of the organic components in beer has applications to quality control, authenticity and improvements to the flavor characteristics and brewing process. This study aims to show the complementary nature of two instrumental techniques which, in combination, can identify and quantify a
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Chemical analysis of the organic components in beer has applications to quality control, authenticity and improvements to the flavor characteristics and brewing process. This study aims to show the complementary nature of two instrumental techniques which, in combination, can identify and quantify a number of organic components in a beer sample. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was used to provide concentrations of 26 different organic compounds including alcohols, organic acids, carbohydrates, and amino acids. Calorie content was also estimated for the samples. NMR data for ethanol concentrations were validated by comparison to a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) method. Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) was used to identify a range of volatile compounds such as alcohols, esters and hop-derived aroma compounds. A simple and inexpensive conversion of a Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC FID) instrument to allow the use of Solid-Phase Microextraction was found to be useful for the quantification of volatile esters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Process Parameters Affecting the Synthesis of Natural Flavors by Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) during the Production of a Non-Alcoholic Beverage
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 20; doi:10.3390/beverages3020020 -
Abstract
A novel alcohol-free beverage with a fruity, slightly sour, sweetish, fresh, and plum-like flavor was produced by incorporating the edible mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes) into the fermentation process. Shiitake pellets were used as a biocatalyst to promote the synthesis of the
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A novel alcohol-free beverage with a fruity, slightly sour, sweetish, fresh, and plum-like flavor was produced by incorporating the edible mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes) into the fermentation process. Shiitake pellets were used as a biocatalyst to promote the synthesis of the fruity esters methyl 2-methylbutanoate and 2-phenylethanol from amino acids and an organic acid present in the wort. We investigated the impact of two critical process parameters (volumetric power input and inoculum concentration) on the morphology of, and flavor production by, the shiitake pellets in a 1 L stirred bioreactor. Increasing the volumetric power input and biomass concentration influenced the morphology of the pellets and promoted the production of the most important flavor compound methyl 2-methylbutanoate in the beverage. Furthermore the worty off-flavor methional was degraded during the cultivation in stirred bioreactor by shiitake pellets. These findings provide useful information to facilitate the scale-up of the biotransformation and fermentation process in bioreactors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of the Juice Extraction Process and Investigation on Must Fermentation of Overripe Giant Horn Plantains
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 19; doi:10.3390/beverages3020019 -
Abstract
The study was initiated to optimize the enzymabtic extraction process of plantain pulp using response surface methodology. Weight loss of plantain decreased until it became stable at an over-ripe stage. The significant regression model describing the changes of extraction yield and Brix with
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The study was initiated to optimize the enzymabtic extraction process of plantain pulp using response surface methodology. Weight loss of plantain decreased until it became stable at an over-ripe stage. The significant regression model describing the changes of extraction yield and Brix with respect to hydrolysis parameters was established. Temperature contributed to reducing the yield from 53.52% down to 49.43%, and the dilution factor increased the yield from 53.52% to 92.97%. On the contrary, the dilution factor significantly reduced Brix from 21.74 °Bx down to 0.15 °Bx, while the enzyme concentration increased Brix from 21.73 °Bx to 26.16 °Bx. The optimum conditions for juice extraction from plantain pulp were: temperature: 25 °C; enzyme concentration: 5%; dilution ratio: 1.10; and extraction time: 24 h. The implementation of these conditions led to (resulted in obtaining) obtaining a must yield of more than 70% and Brix between 10 °Bx and 15 °Bx. The total polyphenols and flavonoids were 7.70 ± 0.99 mg GAE /100 g and 0.4 ± 0.01 µg rutin/g for must and 17.01 ± 0.34 mg GAE/100 g and 4 ± 0.12 µg rutin/g and 7.70 ± 0.99 for wine, indicated the presence of antioxidant activity in the produced wine. On the other hand, the total soluble solids were between 16.06 ± 0.58 °Bx and 1.5 ± 0.10 °Bx, which permitted obtaining a wine with low alcohol content. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Impact of Legislation on the Development of Craft Beer
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 18; doi:10.3390/beverages3020018 -
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ways in which federal and state legislation has impacted the growth of the US craft beer industry. In order to achieve this purpose, the city of Charlotte in North Carolina (N.C.) will be used
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The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ways in which federal and state legislation has impacted the growth of the US craft beer industry. In order to achieve this purpose, the city of Charlotte in North Carolina (N.C.) will be used as a case study. The research is conceptual in nature, a preferred choice as it allows a researcher to break down the issue into its constituent parts in order to gain a broader understanding. The research demonstrates that the legal framework in place for the production and distribution of alcoholic beverages in the U.S.A., which is a legacy of the Prohibition movement of the last century, continues to have a significant impact on the development of the craft beer industry. The growth in the number of breweries across the U.S.A. has been driven by the craft brewing industry and has provided consumers with a vastly increased array of choices (Burgdorf, 2016). The growth in the craft beer industry has not been proportional across all states, however. While many factors influence the growth of craft breweries (Carroll and Swaminathan, 2000), regulations such as those that restrict how brewers can distribute and retail beer have inhibited growth in many states, limiting consumer choice. The research demonstrates that change can be effected, as it has in N.C., through consumer pressure at the grassroots level. This paper provides an original perspective to the consideration of the growth of this important industry, arguing that future growth in the sector will continue to be impacted by the legislative frameworks in place. This in turn impacts on the ability of entrepreneurs to grow their businesses, and on aspects of consumer choice. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Green Tea and Its Extracts in Cancer Prevention and Treatment
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 17; doi:10.3390/beverages3010017 -
Abstract
Green tea (GT) and green tea extracts (GTE) have been postulated to decrease cancer incidence. In vitro results indicate a possible effect; however, epidemiological data do not support cancer chemoprevention. We have performed a PubMED literature search for green tea consumption and the
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Green tea (GT) and green tea extracts (GTE) have been postulated to decrease cancer incidence. In vitro results indicate a possible effect; however, epidemiological data do not support cancer chemoprevention. We have performed a PubMED literature search for green tea consumption and the correlation to the common tumor types lung, colorectal, breast, prostate, esophageal and gastric cancer, with cohorts from both Western and Asian countries. We additionally included selected mechanistical studies for a possible mode of action. The comparability between studies was limited due to major differences in study outlines; a meta analysis was thus not possible and studies were evaluated individually. Only for breast cancer could a possible small protective effect be seen in Asian and Western cohorts, whereas for esophagus and stomach cancer, green tea increased the cancer incidence, possibly due to heat stress. No effect was found for colonic/colorectal and prostatic cancer in any country, for lung cancer Chinese studies found a protective effect, but not studies from outside China. Epidemiological studies thus do not support a cancer protective effect. GT as an indicator of as yet undefined parameters in lifestyle, environment and/or ethnicity may explain some of the observed differences between China and other countries. Full article
Open AccessReview
Chemical Contaminants Associated with Palm Wine from Nigeria Are Potential Food Safety Hazards
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 16; doi:10.3390/beverages3010016 -
Abstract
Recent analysis of palm wine, a traditional drink fermented mainly by yeasts, revealed the presence of several chemicals that were not products of yeast fermentation. The chemicals included styrene, benzene, trimethyldioxolane, dichloromethane, methylene fluoride, dichloroethanol, benzylisoquinoline and tetraacetyl-d-xylonic nitrile. A review
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Recent analysis of palm wine, a traditional drink fermented mainly by yeasts, revealed the presence of several chemicals that were not products of yeast fermentation. The chemicals included styrene, benzene, trimethyldioxolane, dichloromethane, methylene fluoride, dichloroethanol, benzylisoquinoline and tetraacetyl-d-xylonic nitrile. A review of the concentrations of these compounds in palm wine found that the benzene concentrations in all samples reviewed ranged from 56–343 ppm and were within permissible limits, whereas the styrene values (1505–5614 ppm) in all the palm wine samples evaluated were well over the recommended concentration that is immediately dangerous to life or health. Other chemical compounds evaluated varied according to location or sample source. The concentrations obtained are estimates only and a quantitative study needs to be carried out before the impact of these chemicals on health is evaluated. A search on The PubChem Project, the open chemical database, showed the description, properties and uses of these chemicals. Further searches carried out within other databases like PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar, using each chemical’s name as a search term, showed possible hazards and adverse health conditions caused by these chemicals, especially styrene, benzene and dichloromethane. The point at which the chemicals are introduced into the drink is still not clear and requires further investigation. The chemicals can be hazardous to humans and there is need to establish and maintain a system that can guarantee permissible levels in the drink. This can be carried out using concentrations of the chemicals that are already known to be immediately dangerous to life or health as a reference point. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ricotta Cheese Whey-Fruit-Based Beverages: Pasteurization Effects on Antioxidant Composition and Color
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 15; doi:10.3390/beverages3010015 -
Abstract
In order to minimize the precipitate formation upon pasteurization for whey-fruit juice-based beverages, a novel type of functional beverage was prepared, in which whey was replaced with Ricotta-cheese whey (RCW). Aiming at evaluating the influence of fruit juice type (yellow: apple, pear; red:
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In order to minimize the precipitate formation upon pasteurization for whey-fruit juice-based beverages, a novel type of functional beverage was prepared, in which whey was replaced with Ricotta-cheese whey (RCW). Aiming at evaluating the influence of fruit juice type (yellow: apple, pear; red: blueberry, strawberry) and pasteurization conditions on color and antioxidants, four fruit-RCW-based beverages (juice/RCW ratio: 80/20, 14% soluble solids content) were prepared and divided into two lots, and each lot was pasteurized according to different times/temperatures. After pasteurization, no formation of precipitate was observed in the bottles, even if some turbidity, ranging from 25 NTU (pear-RCW) to 190 NTU (blueberry-RCW), was observed. The blending of juices with RCW caused color darkening in apple, pear, and strawberry blends, and brightening in the blueberry one. The pasteurization conditions had a greater impact on the color changes of ‘yellow’ beverages than those of the ‘red’ ones. With a lethal rate F10010=14, there was a greater decrease in the total phenolic content (TPC) in blueberry-, strawberry-, and apple-RCW beverages, and a greater decrease in the monomeric anthocyanin pigment (MAP) and a smaller increase in the percent of polymeric color, in the blueberry-RCW beverage. Results on the antioxidant activity suggested that the Maillard reaction products formed in response to thermal treatment and/or the formation of anthocyanin polymers, likely compensate for the loss of antioxidant activity due to TPC and MAP degradations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Small Prizes Increased Plain Milk and Vegetable Selection by Elementary School Children without Adversely Affecting Total Milk Purchase
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 14; doi:10.3390/beverages3010014 -
Abstract
(1) Background: Pediatric obesity continues to be a major public health issue. Poor food selection in the school cafeteria is a risk factor. Chocolate or strawberry flavored milk is favored by the majority of elementary school students. Previous health promotion efforts have led
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(1) Background: Pediatric obesity continues to be a major public health issue. Poor food selection in the school cafeteria is a risk factor. Chocolate or strawberry flavored milk is favored by the majority of elementary school students. Previous health promotion efforts have led to increased selection of plain milk, but may compromise total milk purchased. In our study, we examined the effectiveness of small prizes as incentives to improve healthy food and beverage selection by elementary school students; (2) Methods: In a small Midwestern school district, small prizes were given to elementary school students who selected a “Power Plate” (PP), the healthful combination of a plain milk, a fruit, a vegetable and an entrée with whole grain over two academic school years; (3) Results: PP selection increased from 0.05 per student to 0.19, a 271% increase (p < 0.001). All healthful foods had increased selection with plain milk having the greatest increase, 0.098 per student to 0.255, a 159% increase (p < 0.001); (4) Total milk purchased increased modestly from 0.916 to 0.956 per student (p = 0.000331). Conclusion: Giving small prizes as a reward for healthful food selection substantially improves healthful food selection and the effect is sustainable over two academic years. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Mini-Review: The Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Production of Gin and Vodka
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 13; doi:10.3390/beverages3010013 -
Abstract
The spirit beverages of vodka and gin are often produced from a neutral spirits base. These neutral spirits are derived from the distillation of fermented carbohydrates of agricultural origin. The fermentations in the production of these beverages are not often reported in great
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The spirit beverages of vodka and gin are often produced from a neutral spirits base. These neutral spirits are derived from the distillation of fermented carbohydrates of agricultural origin. The fermentations in the production of these beverages are not often reported in great detail and to some extent are shrouded in mystery. The roles of fermentation and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are essential to the complete process, and without fermentation there would not be alcohol to distil. Nevertheless, it is not the yeast that is perceived to contribute to the distinctive consumer experiences, which are associated with these beverages. However, there are opportunities for the development of new strains of S. cerevisiae for the production of neutral spirits, which have a high ethanol yield, are tolerant of ethanol stress, and produce low levels of congeners. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Study between Acoustic Emission Analysis and Immersion Bubble-Metric Technique, TGA and TD-GC/MS in View of the Characterization of Granular Activated Carbons Used in Rum Production
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 12; doi:10.3390/beverages3010012 -
Abstract
Microscopic and acoustic emission analysis and sound patterns recognition techniques were applied for the characterization of granular activated carbon (GAC). A new and improved methodology has been developed to characterize the exhaustion degree of GAC used in rum production: (1) based on the
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Microscopic and acoustic emission analysis and sound patterns recognition techniques were applied for the characterization of granular activated carbon (GAC). A new and improved methodology has been developed to characterize the exhaustion degree of GAC used in rum production: (1) based on the acoustic emission analysis of the sound produced by water flooded on GAC; and (2) based on the microscopic analysis of bubbles formed by immersion into glycerol. Acoustic measurements are made in a specific set-up, bubble detection and analysis is performed using dedicated software developed in MATLAB® for circular shape pattern detection based on the Hough transform. Both have been correlated with data of GAC characteristics based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC/MS). Eight samples of GAC used in the rum production, obtained at different depths within the fixed-bed filter, have been evaluated. Good correlations are found between the immersion “bubble-metric” technique and the acoustic measurement data from the original signal processed by Band-Pass (BP) filtering at 1.3 kHz and weight loss amounts of adsorbed compounds on the GAC. The found relationship gives the possibility to determine the exhaustion degree of GAC applying these methods and to evaluate high-porosity materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Job-Sorting Assignment to Assess Cream Liqueur Brand Image
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 11; doi:10.3390/beverages3010011 -
Abstract
Projective techniques rely on a stimulus to elicit from respondents projections of their beliefs onto other people or objects, thus reflecting their own perceptions, feelings and motivations. In this work, the job-sorting technique, in combination with Aaker’s personality scale, was applied to the
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Projective techniques rely on a stimulus to elicit from respondents projections of their beliefs onto other people or objects, thus reflecting their own perceptions, feelings and motivations. In this work, the job-sorting technique, in combination with Aaker’s personality scale, was applied to the study of cream liqueur brand image in Uruguay and Costa Rica. Eight jobs with different levels of intellectual complexity, salary and physical demands were selected. In each of the two countries, three (two imported and one locally made) liqueurs were presented to 90 consumers with similar socio-demographic characteristics. Respondents were told to select the job, profession or occupation (JPO) that best fitted each brand. After JPO selection, respondents were asked to select from a list of 88 personality traits all the words that they considered applicable to each JPO selected. The JPOs associated with the different brands showed no similarity between Uruguayan and Costa Rican respondents, but the personality traits associated with the two imported brands were similar in both countries, supporting the use of JPOs as metaphors in the study of brand images. The brand image of locally made liqueurs was associated with traits that differed clearly from those of the imported brands. These results provide relevant information for the design of marketing strategies. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Food and Wine Pairing in Burgundy: The Case of Grands Crus
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 10; doi:10.3390/beverages3010010 -
Abstract
Burgundy is known both for its wines and its food products but they developed independently from each other. This paper examines the long march towards maximal wine quality which started before the beginning of the Christian era. In the Middle‐Ages, the Cistercian monks
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Burgundy is known both for its wines and its food products but they developed independently from each other. This paper examines the long march towards maximal wine quality which started before the beginning of the Christian era. In the Middle‐Ages, the Cistercian monks brought up the notion of terroir which eventually led to the AOC system (Protected Designation of origin) in 1935. Burgundy is also blessed with good farming land. Furthermore, the production of quality vegetables, fruits and meat contributed to the birth of its regional cuisine. However, it was not until the beginning of the 20th century that Burgundy’s original gastronomy gained recognition. It should be noted that this process was rather laborious. The advent of tourism introduced French and foreign visitors to the region’s lifestyle. With UNESCO’s listing of the vineyards of Côte de Beaune and Côte de Nuits as part of the world’s heritage and the development of wine tourism, Burgundy intends, at long last, to capitalize on its assets. An inventory of wine and food pairing complements this paper. Finally, a brief description of the term terroir will introduce the key contribution of this paper: how and why Burgundy Grand Cru wines pair so well with foods. For each of the 33 Grands Crus, a review of the best wine–food matches will be discussed on the basis of the specificities of each Grand Cru wine. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Production of Nigella sativa Beverage Powder under Foam Mat Drying Using Egg Albumen as a Foaming Agent
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 9; doi:10.3390/beverages3010009 -
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of producing Nigella sativa powder under a foam mat drying technique. A central, composite design of experiments was used to optimize the drying condition and compare the solubility, the antioxidant and mineral content
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The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of producing Nigella sativa powder under a foam mat drying technique. A central, composite design of experiments was used to optimize the drying condition and compare the solubility, the antioxidant and mineral content of roasted Nigella sativa, and the foam mat dried Nigella sativa powder. Foams were prepared from Nigella sativa solution by adding different concentrations of egg albumen (2.5%, 8.75%, and 15% w/w) and methyl cellulose (0, 0.5% and 1% w/w), using whipping times of 2, 5, and 8 min. The drying temperature was set at 50–70 °C, with a foam thickness of 1, 2, and 3 mm. The optimum recorded conditions for the foaming process were 15% of egg albumen concentration, 0.69% of methyl cellulose concentration, and a whipping time of 8 min. Thus, the optimum conditions for the drying process were 60 °C, with 2 mm of foam thickness. The results showed that there were significant differences in DPPH inhibition, the total phenolic content, and mineral content, whereas no significant differences were recorded in the water solubility index between the roasted Nigella sativa and the foam mat dried Nigella sativa powder. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Elemental Profiles of Whisk(e)y Allow Differentiation by Type and Region
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 8; doi:10.3390/beverages3010008 -
Abstract
Elemental fingerprints could provide an analytical approach to product differentiation and authentication, and have been used in the past for various distilled spirits, including brandy, gin, bourbon and tequila. However, a comparison of elemental differences between different whisk(e)y types, such as Bourbon and
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Elemental fingerprints could provide an analytical approach to product differentiation and authentication, and have been used in the past for various distilled spirits, including brandy, gin, bourbon and tequila. However, a comparison of elemental differences between different whisk(e)y types, such as Bourbon and Scotch, is still missing. In this study we compare the elemental fingerprints of 68 commercial whiskies for differentiation by type (Bourbon, Tennessee, Scotch, Irish, Japanese) and region. Concentrations from sub-μg/L to mid-mg/L of 53 different elements were determined with inductively-coupled plasma—mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and microwave plasma—atomic emission spectroscopy (MP-AES), and used in subsequent statistical analyses. Significant differences in several elements were found for type, and allowed a classification according to whisk(e)y type. Elemental differences were also found for different production areas within Scotland, thus, providing further evidence that Scotch whiskies could be differentiated by elemental analysis. Major sources of elemental differences seem to be processing equipment (Cu, Fe, Ni, Cd, Sn, Mo, V) and raw materials, such as water (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Sr). Full article
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