Abstract: Aluminum laminates are among the main components of beverage packaging. These layered material systems are coupled to paperboard plies except in the cap opening area, where the human force limit sets a requirement on the material properties to allow open-ability and the mechanical characteristics are of particular interest. Experimental investigations have been carried out on this composite and on its components by either traditional or full-field measurement techniques. The interpretation of the collected data has been supported by the simulation of the performed tests considering either a homogenized material model or the individual laminate layers. However, different results may be recovered from similar samples due to physical factors like the material processing route and the embedded defectiveness. In turn, the conclusions may vary depending on the model assumptions. This contribution focuses on the physical effects and on the modeling of the large localized deformation induced by material singularities. This topic is discussed at the light of some experimental results.
Abstract: The study examined the comparative rutin contents and antioxidant potentials of the two closely related Moringa species: the Ethiopian (Moringa stenopetala) and Indian Moringa (M. oleifera). It is demonstrated that M. stenopetala leaves extract was a far superior (more than five-fold better) antioxidant than M. oleifera. Rutin was the principal constituent of M. stenopetala leaves while the compound was not detected in the leaves of M. oleifera. Quantitative HPLC-based analysis of M. stenopetala leaves revealed the rutin level at a respectable 2.34% ± 0.02% (on dry weight basis), which is equivalent to many commercial natural sources of this highly sought-after bioactive compound. Comparative analysis of rutin in some common herbal tea preparations of M. stenopetala leaves revealed that it is readily extractible with the highest amount obtained (98.8% ± 2.4%) when the leaves (1 g) were boiled in water (200 mL). For a large-scale exploitation of rutin, a fast and economically-viable isolation approach using solid phase extraction followed by crystallization or flash chromatography is outlined. Overall, the Ethiopian Moringa is distinctively different from the Indian Moringa and could be exploited as an industrial source of rutin for nutritional and/or medical uses.
Abstract: In the present work, the migration of three chemicals, benzophenone, 1,4-diphenylbutadiene and Uvitex® OB from low-density polyethylene samples into the food simulant, 50% ethanol (v/v), was studied. The key parameters of the diffusion process, the partition and diffusion coefficients, were calculated by using a mathematical model based on Fick’s Second Law. As expected, the diffusion coefficients increased with temperature and the values obtained ranged between 3.87 × 10−11 and 1.00 × 10−8 cm2/s. Furthermore, the migration in different fruit juices was also evaluated and the results indicated that benzophenone migrated to a greater extent in comparison with the other two migrants in all beverages analyzed. To quantify the migrants, a high-performance liquid chromatographic method with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was used. The separation was performed on an Ace 3 C18-HL column (30 × 3 mm, 3 μm particle size) and using a gradient elution system consisting of Milli-Q water and acetonitrile. The total analysis time did not exceed 8 min.
Abstract: Package labels play a critical role in communicating product benefits to consumers. On a package, labels are used to provide useful information about the product as well branding for the company. Labels need to not only be eye catching to the consumer, but must also communicate information concerning what is being sold. This is possible through various printing technologies available in today’s market. With technology steadily advancing, companies need to determine an optimal print method for packaging that satisfies budgetary, environmental, demand and consumer requirements. Through the collection of quantitative data, consumer attention and purchase preference were evaluated. Two different printing methods (digital and flexographic) were tested on fruit drink labels. A total of 248 participants completed this study, which took place at Pack Expo 2014 in Chicago, Illinois. Three eye tracking metrics were evaluated using eye tracking technology to investigate if the different printing methods had an effect on the consumer when shopping. Statistical analysis yielded no significant difference for participant’s attention when shopping for fruit drinks with digital or flexographic labels. It was also concluded that the position on the shelf made no significant difference for either label type. This study illustrates that consumers cannot significantly determine a difference between the two printing methods tested.
Abstract: In Brazil, mineral water is widely consumed and as of yet there have been no studies done in the country that aim to detect enteric viruses in this water source. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of the human adenovirus (HAdV), the human rotavirus genogroup A (GARV) and the human enterovirus (hEV) in mineral water samples from six different brands that are commercialized in southern Brazil, using molecular techniques and comparing the results with bacterial indicators. Samples of 1.5 L and 500 mL were analyzed for viruses through PCR and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Additionally, heterotrophic bacteria were assayed using a commercial kit. The most prevalent virus was adenovirus (32.5%) followed by rotavirus (25%) and enterovirus (17.5%). Total and thermotolerant coliforms were absent in all samples and only three samples out of the 60 analyzed presented heterotrophic bacteria contamination. We conclude that, following the example taken into consideration regarding the public supply of drinking water, stricter measures for microbiological control should also be applied to mineral water so that this actually becomes a safer alternative.
Abstract: Coffeaarabica (arabica) and Coffeacanephora (robusta) are the most important coffee species. Arabica has higher commercial value and, in general, more favorable sensory characteristics. After roasting, analytical methods are required to differentiate species. Blends with different proportions of arabica/robusta coffees, roasted at three degrees were studied. Color parameters and the levels of chlorogenic (5-CQA) and nicotinic acids, caffeine, and trigonelline were evaluated. Hydrosoluble compounds were analyzed by their efficiency to discriminate coffee species, considering different roast degrees. Caffeine was a good discriminator, regardless of roast degree. The roast degree influenced the efficiency of discrimination of the other hydrosoluble compounds. A model using color parameters and the variables Ratio (5-CQA/caffeine contents ratio) and Sum (sum of nicotinic acid and trigonelline contents) was proposed to the estimation of roasting degree. Considering the use of heat-labile compounds, the discrimination among coffee species should be carried out in two steps: first, the characterization of roasting degree, and subsequently the appropriate parameters are defined for each roasting degree. Thus, the combined use of color parameters and hydrosoluble compounds could be useful to help the differentiation of coffee species in blends of roasted samples.