Open AccessArticle
Persistent Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Some Selected Cocoa Beverages in Nigeria
Beverages 2017, 3(4), 60; doi:10.3390/beverages3040060 -
Abstract
This study evaluates the quality of the cocoa beverages produced in Nigeria with respect to the occurrence and levels of organochlorine pesticides OCPs residues in order to ascertain the potential health risks to the general public. Seven cocoa-based beverages were analysed for 17
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This study evaluates the quality of the cocoa beverages produced in Nigeria with respect to the occurrence and levels of organochlorine pesticides OCPs residues in order to ascertain the potential health risks to the general public. Seven cocoa-based beverages were analysed for 17 OCP residues using gas chromatography coupled with an Electron Captured Detector (GC-ECD) after extraction and silica-gel clean-up. The study reveals the presence of ten OCP residues in the cocoa beverages, with a concentration range from not detected ND—0.256 mg/kg, while α-BHC, β-BHC, methoxychlor, p,p′-DDE, dieldrin, endrin aldehyde, and endosulfan sulphate were not detected in any of the analysed samples. The contamination pattern of OCPs in the beverages was in the following order: Ovaltine > Milo > Cadbury-choco > Bournvita > Cowbell-coffee > Richoco > Oluji, with p,p′-DDT being the most frequently found pesticide. Heptachlor and endosulfan II showeda residual level above the European Union (EU) Maximum Residual Limits (MRLs) in only one sample. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Elaboration and Characterization of Apple Nectars Supplemented with Araçá-boi (Eugenia stipitata Mac Vaugh—Myrtaceae)
Beverages 2017, 3(4), 59; doi:10.3390/beverages3040059 -
Abstract
Fruits and vegetables are known as sources of nutritionally important phytochemicals, such as phenolic compounds, and Brazilian biodiversity may be hiding many underexplored fruits with potential health benefits. In this study, we formulated a fruit-based beverage by supplementing known amounts of freeze-dried araçá-boi
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Fruits and vegetables are known as sources of nutritionally important phytochemicals, such as phenolic compounds, and Brazilian biodiversity may be hiding many underexplored fruits with potential health benefits. In this study, we formulated a fruit-based beverage by supplementing known amounts of freeze-dried araçá-boi (Eugenia stipitata) (FD) to a commercial apple nectar in order to evaluate the impact in terms of nutritional (level of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity) and sensory parameters. The best acceptance was evidenced for the apple nectar supplemented with 1 g/L of FD, while no statistically significant changes were obtained for non-supplemented apple nectar and apple nectar supplemented with 5 or 10 g/L FD. Lower acceptances for apple nectars supplemented with 15, 20 or 30 g/L FD were suggested to be caused by an increase in acidity. In general, total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity (DPPH, TEAC and ORAC) increased with the supplementation level, although not always a statistically significant difference was observed. When compared to control (non-supplemented), the apple nectar supplemented with 10 g/L FD presented a significant increase in total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity (except for ORAC assay), and therefore this level of supplementation was considered ideal, considering both nutritional and sensory properties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vino Veritas? An Alternative Story of European Convergence
Beverages 2017, 3(4), 58; doi:10.3390/beverages3040058 -
Abstract
While some European antagonists claim that united Europe is a utopia, grounded on mental and cultural discrepancies as well as aversion to changes of any kind, this paper challenges this cultural heterogeneity by looking at the history of the EU from the perspective
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While some European antagonists claim that united Europe is a utopia, grounded on mental and cultural discrepancies as well as aversion to changes of any kind, this paper challenges this cultural heterogeneity by looking at the history of the EU from the perspective of alcohol consumption and its development. By using WHO data over the last 50 years I show how consumption patterns of European countries evolved over time, in terms of volumes and composition of alcohol intake per-capita, outlining the major tendencies of the (converging) European market. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Australian Beers Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Beverages 2017, 3(4), 57; doi:10.3390/beverages3040057 -
Abstract
Classification of a series of Australian beers was performed using synchronous scanning fluorescence spectroscopy and emission-excitation matrices based on the IR fingerprint regions. The results indicate that synchronous scanning fluorescence spectroscopy is a robust and valuable method to discriminate between Australian lager beers
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Classification of a series of Australian beers was performed using synchronous scanning fluorescence spectroscopy and emission-excitation matrices based on the IR fingerprint regions. The results indicate that synchronous scanning fluorescence spectroscopy is a robust and valuable method to discriminate between Australian lager beers based on their brand name. In addition, a subsequent spoiling study revealed that when beers are opened and stored at 4 °C for 4 weeks, the results demonstrated that the beers were not statistically different. The methods and techniques outlined may be of interest to brewing companies and microbrewers to determine the unique beer spectrum. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
LC–MS/MS and UPLC–UV Evaluation of Anthocyanins and Anthocyanidins during Rabbiteye Blueberry Juice Processing
Beverages 2017, 3(4), 56; doi:10.3390/beverages3040056 -
Abstract
Blueberry juice processing includes multiple steps and each one affects the chemical composition of the berries, including thermal degradation of anthocyanins. Not-from-concentrate juice was made by heating and enzyme processing blueberries before pressing, followed by ultrafiltration and pasteurization. Using LC–MS/MS, major and minor
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Blueberry juice processing includes multiple steps and each one affects the chemical composition of the berries, including thermal degradation of anthocyanins. Not-from-concentrate juice was made by heating and enzyme processing blueberries before pressing, followed by ultrafiltration and pasteurization. Using LC–MS/MS, major and minor anthocyanins were identified and semi-quantified at various steps through the process. Ten anthocyanins were identified, including 5 arabinoside and 5 pyrannoside anthocyanins. Three minor anthocyanins were also identified, which apparently have not been previously reported in rabbiteye blueberries. These were delphinidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-glucoside), cyanidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-glucoside), and petunidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-glucoside). Delphinidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-glucoside) significantly increased 50% after pressing. The five known anthocyanidins—cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, peonidin, and petunidin—were also quantitated using UPLC–UV. Raw berries and press cake contained the highest anthocyanidin contents and contribute to the value and interest of press cake for use in other food and non-food products. Losses of 75.7% after pressing and 12% after pasteurization were determined for anthocyanidins during not-from-concentrate juice processing. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Phenolic Composition and Related Properties of Aged Wine Spirits: Influence of Barrel Characteristics. A Review
Beverages 2017, 3(4), 55; doi:10.3390/beverages3040055 -
Abstract
The freshly distilled wine spirit has a high concentration of ethanol and many volatile compounds, but is devoid of phenolic compounds other than volatile phenols. Therefore, an ageing period in the wooden barrel is required to attain sensory fullness and high quality. During
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The freshly distilled wine spirit has a high concentration of ethanol and many volatile compounds, but is devoid of phenolic compounds other than volatile phenols. Therefore, an ageing period in the wooden barrel is required to attain sensory fullness and high quality. During this process, several phenomena take place, namely the release of low molecular weight phenolic compounds and tannins from the wood into the wine spirit. Research conducted over the last decades shows that they play a decisive role on the physicochemical characteristics and relevant sensory properties of the beverage. Their contribution to the antioxidant activity has also been emphasized. Besides, some studies show the modulating effect of the ageing technology, involving different factors such as the barrel features (including the wood botanical species, those imparted by the cooperage technology, and the barrel size), the cellar conditions, and the operations performed, on the phenolic composition and related properties of the aged wine spirit. This review aims to summarize the main findings on this topic, taking into account two featured barrel characteristics—the botanical species of the wood and the toasting level. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Raw and Heat-Treated Milk: From Public Health Risks to Nutritional Quality
Beverages 2017, 3(4), 54; doi:10.3390/beverages3040054 -
Abstract
Consumers have recently shown a preference for natural food products and ingredients and within that framework, their interest in consuming raw drinking milk has been highlighted, claiming nutritional, organoleptic and health benefits. However, a public debate has simultaneously emerged about the actual risks
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Consumers have recently shown a preference for natural food products and ingredients and within that framework, their interest in consuming raw drinking milk has been highlighted, claiming nutritional, organoleptic and health benefits. However, a public debate has simultaneously emerged about the actual risks and benefits of direct human consumption of raw milk. This paper compares the microbiological, nutritional and sensory profile of raw and heat-treated milk, to evaluate the real risks and benefits of its consumption. In detail, it provides an updated overview of the main microbiological risks of raw milk consumption, especially related to the presence of pathogens and the main outputs of risk assessment models are reported. After introducing the key aspects of most commonly used milk heat-treatments, the paper also discusses the effects such technologies have on the microbiological, nutritional and sensory profile of milk. An insight into the scientific evidence behind the claimed protective effects of raw milk consumption in lactose-intolerant subjects and against the onset of asthma and allergy disorders in children is provided. The emergence of novel milk processing technologies, such as ohmic heating, microwave heating, high pressure processing, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound and microfiltration is also presented as an alternative to common thermal treatments. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Guidelines for Assessing Enological and Statistical Significance of Wine Tasters’ Binary Judgments
Beverages 2017, 3(4), 53; doi:10.3390/beverages3040053 -
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to assess the reliability and accuracy (validity) of hypothetical binary tasting judgments in an oenological framework. The model that is utilized allows for the control of a wide array of variables that would be exceedingly difficult to
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The purpose of this article is to assess the reliability and accuracy (validity) of hypothetical binary tasting judgments in an oenological framework. The model that is utilized allows for the control of a wide array of variables that would be exceedingly difficult to fully control in the typical oenological investigation. It is shown that results that are judged to be oenologically significant are uniformly judged to be statistically significant as well, whether the level of Wine Taster agreement is set at 70% (Fair); 80% (Good), or 90% (Excellent). However, in a number of instances, results that were statistically significant were not enologically significant by standards that are widely accepted and utilized. This finding is consistent with the bio-statistical fact that given a sufficiently large sample size, even the most trivial of results will prove to be statistically significant. Consistent with expectations, multiple patterns of 80% (Good) and 90% (Excellent) agreement tended to be both statistically and enologically significant. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Impact of Closure Type on Wine Ratings and Mood
Beverages 2017, 3(4), 52; doi:10.3390/beverages3040052 -
Abstract
We report on a preliminary study designed to assess the impact of the sound of the closure on the taste of wine. Given that people hold certain beliefs around the taste/quality of wines presented in bottles having different closure types, we expected that
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We report on a preliminary study designed to assess the impact of the sound of the closure on the taste of wine. Given that people hold certain beliefs around the taste/quality of wines presented in bottles having different closure types, we expected that the sound of opening might influence people’s wine ratings. In particular, if participants hear a cork being pulled vs. the sound of a screw-cap bottle being opened then these two sounds will likely set different expectations that may then affect people’s judgment of the taste/quality of the wine that they are rating. In order to test this hypothesis, 140 people based in the UK (and of varying degrees of wine expertise) rated two wine samples along four scales, three relating to the wine and one relating to celebratory mood. The results demonstrated that the sound of a bottle being opened did indeed impact ratings. In particular, the quality of the wine was rated as higher, its appropriateness for a celebratory occasion, and the celebratory mood of the participant was also higher following the sound of the cork pop. These results add to the literature demonstrating that the sounds of opening/preparation of food and beverage products can exert a significant influence over the sensory and hedonic aspects of people’s subsequent tasting experience. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Acid and Volatiles of Commercially-Available Lambic Beers
Beverages 2017, 3(4), 51; doi:10.3390/beverages3040051 -
Abstract
Lambic beer is the oldest style of beer still being produced in the Western world using spontaneous fermentation. Gueuze is a style of lambic beer prepared by mixing young (one year) and older (two to three years) beers. Little is known about the
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Lambic beer is the oldest style of beer still being produced in the Western world using spontaneous fermentation. Gueuze is a style of lambic beer prepared by mixing young (one year) and older (two to three years) beers. Little is known about the volatiles and semi-volatiles found in commercial samples of gueuze lambic beers. SPME was used to extract the volatiles from nine different brands of lambic beer. GC-MS was used for the separation and identification of the compounds extracted with SPME. The pH and color were measured using standard procedures. A total of 50 compounds were identified in the nine brands. Seventeen of the 50 compounds identified have been previously identified. The compounds identified included a number of different chemical groups such as acids, alcohols, phenols, ketones, aldehydes, and esters. Ethyl acetate, 4-ethylphenol, and 4-ethylguaiacol are known by-products of the yeast, Brettanomyces, which is normally a spoilage microorganism in beer and wine, but important for the flavor characteristics of lambic beer. There were no differences in pH, but there were differences in color between the beer samples. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Optimization of the Different Variables for the Development of a Cucumber-Based Blended Herbal Beverage
Beverages 2017, 3(4), 50; doi:10.3390/beverages3040050 -
Abstract
Cucumber is a nutritious vegetable containing a large amount of nutrients. Due to its numerous health benefits, and even after the blind taste test, it can be used as a beverage by blending it with other suitable juices. Therefore, an attempt has been
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Cucumber is a nutritious vegetable containing a large amount of nutrients. Due to its numerous health benefits, and even after the blind taste test, it can be used as a beverage by blending it with other suitable juices. Therefore, an attempt has been made in the present study for the development of a cucumber-based blended herbal beverage using sugarcane juice, citric acid, mint and coriander extract (30:30:30) along with salt (white salt:black salt 1:1) at varying concentrations using the response surface methodology. The physicochemical (TSS, titratable acidity, pH, reducing sugars, total sugars, total proteins, total phenols, ascorbic acid, tannins and antioxidant activity) and sensory analysis revealed that the best blend was obtained with a sugarcane juice concentration (of 30.14%, a salt concentration of 1.5%, citric acid, mint and a coriander extract concentration of 1%. It is apparent from the study that cucumber juice can be successfully blended with sugarcane juice to enhance its sensory properties, as well as the phytochemical potential with 0.953 desirability, which will open a new door in the beverage industry. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Traditional Turkish Fermented Non-Alcoholic Beverage, “Shalgam”
Beverages 2017, 3(4), 49; doi:10.3390/beverages3040049 -
Abstract
Shalgam is a traditional Turkish beverage produced by lactic acid fermentation. Shalgam is also sold in markets in some European cities. In shalgam production, bulgur flour (formed during the crushing process, it is the part that remains under the sieve after breaking the
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Shalgam is a traditional Turkish beverage produced by lactic acid fermentation. Shalgam is also sold in markets in some European cities. In shalgam production, bulgur flour (formed during the crushing process, it is the part that remains under the sieve after breaking the outer shells of boiled dried wheat for processing), salt, water, purple carrot, turnip, and sometimes red beet is used. The traditional method of production can take 10–12 days. Commercial production takes 4–5 days. Shalgam is a probiotic food and a good source of nutrients. It helps regulate the pH of the digestive system. It contains β-carotene, group B vitamins, calcium, potassium, and iron. People also use it as a medicine because of its antiseptic agents. Shalgam consumption should be increased and become worldwide. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Probiotic L. rhamnosus GG as a Protective Culture in Sea Buckthorn-Based Beverage
Beverages 2017, 3(4), 48; doi:10.3390/beverages3040048 -
Abstract
The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficiency of probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) as a protective culture when present in a food system. A non-fermented sea buckthorn-based beverage was developed. To meet the required criteria for probiotic
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The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficiency of probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) as a protective culture when present in a food system. A non-fermented sea buckthorn-based beverage was developed. To meet the required criteria for probiotic beverage (viable count of 8 log CFU mL−1), the acidic juice had to be supplemented with whey protein concentrate (WPC). The obtained beverage had a shelf life of two weeks. Furthermore, the inhibitory potential of Lactobacillus-fortified-WPC-supplemented juice matrix was evaluated against E. coli (ATCC 25922) which is a major agent responsible for food contamination and shelf spoilage. Results indicated that the fortification of beverage with L. rhamnosus GG appeared to create an effective hurdle for multiplication of E. coli in the sea buckthorn-WPC system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reactions to a Low-Fat Milk Social Media Intervention in the US: The Choose 1% Milk Campaign
Beverages 2017, 3(4), 47; doi:10.3390/beverages3040047 -
Abstract
(1) Background: Social media has increased in importance as a primary source of health communication but has received little academic attention. The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of Facebook comments made in response to a five-week statewide social
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(1) Background: Social media has increased in importance as a primary source of health communication but has received little academic attention. The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of Facebook comments made in response to a five-week statewide social media intervention promoting use of 1% low-fat milk. Formative research identified health messages to promote, and 16 health messages consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans were posted. During the intervention, 454 Facebook users posted 489 relevant comments; (2) Methods: The themes of user comments were identified using mixed-methods with qualitative identification of themes supplemented by cluster analysis; (3) Results: Six broad themes with 19 sub-themes are identified: (a) sugar, fat, and nutrients, (b) defiant, (c) watery milk, (d) personal preference, (e) evidence and logic, and (f) pure and natural; (4) The subject of milk is surprisingly controversial, a contested terrain in the mind of the consumer with a variety of competing perspectives that influence consumption. Public reactions to a social media nutrition education intervention are useful in understanding audience psychographics toward the desired behavior, require continual efforts to monitor and manage the social media campaign, but provide an opportunity to maximize the utility of real-time interactions with your audience. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Research to Understand Milk Consumption Behaviors in a Food-Insecure Low-Income SNAP Population in the US
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 46; doi:10.3390/beverages3030046 -
Abstract
Milk, due to its affordability and nutritional value, can fortify the diets of families that experience food insecurity or find a high-quality diet cost-prohibitive. However, it can also be a leading source of excess calories and saturated fat. Yet, little is known about
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Milk, due to its affordability and nutritional value, can fortify the diets of families that experience food insecurity or find a high-quality diet cost-prohibitive. However, it can also be a leading source of excess calories and saturated fat. Yet, little is known about what influences consumer behavior of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recipients toward the type of milk used or the prevalence of low-fat milk use among this population. This cross-sectional telephone survey of SNAP recipients (n = 520) documented that 7.5% of this population usually consumes low-fat milk, a prevalence that lags behind national figures (34.4%) for the same time-period. There was a weak association between sociodemographic characteristics of SNAP recipients and low-fat milk use. Instead, less low-fat milk consumption was associated with a knowledge gap and misperceptions of the nutritional properties of the different types of milk. Promoting low-fat milk use by correcting these misperceptions can improve the diet of America’s low-income population and reduce food insecurity by maximizing the nutritional value of the foods consumed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Detection of Intra-Varietal Diversity Based on Differences in the Accumulation of Secondary Metabolites for Winemaking Management of High-Quality Red Wines
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 45; doi:10.3390/beverages3030045 -
Abstract
The goal of biodiversity preservation is the conservation and enhancement of diversity, which is often stored in different clones of the same grape variety. Fourteen different autochthonous accessions of Aglianico grown in the same area (Vulture, Italy) have been investigated to evaluate the
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The goal of biodiversity preservation is the conservation and enhancement of diversity, which is often stored in different clones of the same grape variety. Fourteen different autochthonous accessions of Aglianico grown in the same area (Vulture, Italy) have been investigated to evaluate the possible significant differences in terms of secondary metabolites belonging to the polyphenolic class, compounds which show a number of beneficial health related properties. During winemaking, grape polyphenols are extracted into wine, therefore the knowledge of the polyphenolic composition of grape is important for the appropriate design of the winemaking process, especially in winemaking management of high-quality red wines. The results of this study are useful tools for the individuation of the most promising candidates in the perspective of Aglianico del Vulture clonal selections from a winemaking point of view. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Cross-Flow Filtration Technique in Purification and Concentration of Juice from Vietnamese Fruits
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 44; doi:10.3390/beverages3030044 -
Abstract
This study is to offer a 1st insight in the use of membrane process for the purification and concentration of Vietnamese fruit juices: cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Line.), dragon fruit (Cactus hémiépiphytes), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pomelo (Citrus
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This study is to offer a 1st insight in the use of membrane process for the purification and concentration of Vietnamese fruit juices: cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Line.), dragon fruit (Cactus hémiépiphytes), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pomelo (Citrus grandis L.), and gac aril oil (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.). On a laboratory scale, the effect of different operating parameters such as trans-membrane pressures (TMP), temperature and membrane pore sizes on permeate flux was determined in order to optimize process conditions that would ensure acceptable flux with adequate juice quality. The quality of the samples coming from the ultrafiltration (UF) process was evaluated in terms of: total soluble solids (TSS), suspended solids (SS), and vitamin C. For example, the purification process of cashew apple juice by cross-flow filtration was optimized at 0.5 μm membrane pore size, 2.5 bars TMP, and 60 min filtration time. Besides, this technique was applied to enhance carotenoids concentration from gac oil. Optimum conditions for a high permeate flux and a good carotenoids retention are 5 nm, 2 bars, and 40 °C of membrane pore size, TMP, and temperature, respectively. Carotenoids were concentrated higher than that in feeding oil. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biochemical and Microbiological Changes during the Ivorian Sorghum Beer Deterioration at Different Storage Temperatures
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 43; doi:10.3390/beverages3030043 -
Abstract
In order to extend shelf life of traditional sorghum beers, it is of importance to evaluate their spoilage characteristics. Therefore, the microbiological, biochemical, and sensory changes of the Ivorian sorghum beer tchapalo during storage at ambient temperature (28 to 30 °C) for four
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In order to extend shelf life of traditional sorghum beers, it is of importance to evaluate their spoilage characteristics. Therefore, the microbiological, biochemical, and sensory changes of the Ivorian sorghum beer tchapalo during storage at ambient temperature (28 to 30 °C) for four days and at 4 °C for six days were assessed. The aerobic mesophilic bacteria and the yeast counts remained stable during the storage time. However, variations were observed in the lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria counts. The deteriorating tchapalo acidity did not show significant variations. In contrast, the total soluble solids decreased at ambient temperature and remained stable at 4 °C. Lactic acid was a major compound during storage, and acetic acid was found at a detectable level of 1.26 mg/mL after the third day at ambient temperature. The ethanol contents increased significantly at ambient temperature after two days and then decreased but showed a fair decrease at 4 °C. Evaluating the beer’s appearance, odor, and taste, a panel considered the beers to be spoiled after two days when stored at 28 to 30 °C and after three days when stored at 4 °C. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Oenology in the Kitchen: The Sensory Experience Offered by Culinary Dishes Cooked with Alcoholic Drinks, Grapes and Grape Leaves
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 42; doi:10.3390/beverages3030042 -
Abstract
A good pairing is based on the complementary role of wine on the four important factors of food: components, textures, flavors and colors. Common wine and food examples of food preparation with wine or vine products, such as grapes or vine leaves, exemplify
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A good pairing is based on the complementary role of wine on the four important factors of food: components, textures, flavors and colors. Common wine and food examples of food preparation with wine or vine products, such as grapes or vine leaves, exemplify numerous similarities and contrasting characteristics in those four parameters, which we can find in an enjoyable meal. The knowledge of the internal anatomy and composition of both grape berries, which includes the skin, the mesocarp and the endocarp, and vine leaf, which includes the vascular system, parenchymatous mesophyll and epidermis, is essential to know how to develop new, tastier and healthier dishes. An understanding of these ideas is important when defining gastronomic tourism strategies and even local restaurant concepts and ideas. The aim of this review is to provide some insights about the sensory experiences offered by culinary dishes cooked with grapes, vine leaves and wines and other alcoholic beverages like distilled spirits and liqueurs, bearing in mind that wine will be the drink of elation for accompanying such dishes. Full article
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Open AccessShort Note
Bioactive Peptides in Milk: From Encrypted Sequences to Nutraceutical Aspects
Beverages 2017, 3(3), 41; doi:10.3390/beverages3030041 -
Abstract
Milk provides a wide range of biologically active compounds that protect humans against diseases and pathogens. The purpose of this work is to describe the main aspects and research lines concerning bioactive peptides: from their chemistry, bioavailability, and biochemical properties to their applications
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Milk provides a wide range of biologically active compounds that protect humans against diseases and pathogens. The purpose of this work is to describe the main aspects and research lines concerning bioactive peptides: from their chemistry, bioavailability, and biochemical properties to their applications in the healthcare sector. In this context, the uses of bioactive peptides in nutraceutical and functional foods have been highlighted, also taking into account the perspective of innovative applications in the field of circular bioeconomy. Full article
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