Abstract: Pigmented oranges are a high value typical product, used for the production of healthy juice-based drinks due to the peculiar presence of anthocyanins as dietary antioxidants. A qualitative HPLC/PDA/MS analytical method for verifying presence/absence of blood orange anthocyanins was validated in accordance with Eurachem guide in terms of accordance (100%), specificity/selectivity, repeatability of retention time (CV < 0.5%), limit of detection (0.36 mg/L) and limit of decision (0.41 mg/L). Fifty commercial red orange juice beverages were collected on the market and analyzed to assess the occurrence of blood orange anthocyanins. The results showed that only 60% of analyzed products have a minimum content of anthocyanins of blood orange, guaranteeing the specifications of the product they publicize and sell until the expiration date. Therefore, it is possible to envisage a gradual degradation of the specific parameter (anthocyanins) or willful misconduct of producers (non-use of blood orange juice). In both cases, the consumer buys a product with high added value without such value being guaranteed. This information will be useful to revise the expiration date of these products, the percentage of blood orange juice used in the preparation and/or the storage conditions of the products.
Abstract: A method for the identification and quantification of citrus limonoid glucosides in juices, based upon high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation coupled to post-column reaction with Ehrlich’s reagent, has been developed. This method utilizes a phenyl stationary phase and an isocratic mobile phase. Limit of detection for the method was determined to be 50 ng of limonin glucoside. Limonin glucoside and the other limonoid glucosides tested responded equivalently to the post-column reaction with Ehrlich’s reagent suggesting that limonin glucoside may be used as a surrogate for the quantification of other limonoid glucosides, including nomilin, deacetyl nomilin, nomilinic acid, deacetyl nomilinic acid, and obacunone glucosides. For most juice samples, no sample treatment is required to determine limonin glucoside content. Concentration by solid phase extraction is recommended for juices with low levels of limonin glucoside and to facilitate the detection and quantification of other limonoid glucosides present at low concentrations. With the exception of blood oranges, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of juices from a variety of citrus varieties.
Abstract: As the boundaries and population of urban areas expand, beverage distributors may seek to expand the capacity in their distribution centers. As a result, they may need to add new locations or increase the utilization of their existing center. This paper investigates the facility location problem through network space, considering traversable truck roads, thereby providing a strategic decision for identifying a depot location in consideration of vehicle routings from a real application. For the analysis, a geospatial tool, which is embedded in the commercial software ArcMap®, was used for routing and calibrating the model. Ten candidates from commercial and industrial zones in the cities of Fargo, West Fargo, and Moorhead were considered for future distribution centers. The candidate locations were analyzed to determine which site minimizes the total transportation costs and travel miles in consideration of time window, vehicle capacity, heterogeneous vehicle types, land use plan, and hours-of-service. Most attractive candidates are close to the intersections of major highways. From the analysis, the study recommends locating a distribution center at three alternatives based on the average ranking method. This study can be used by distributors as they consider new locations and extra depots to support strategic planning to deal with mid-term and long-term growth of demand in beverage markets. This study provides a ready-to-use example of how to adopt state-of-the-art spatial technology and operations research using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and bring it to state-of-practice.
Abstract: Alcohol-free beer is increasingly marketed with the claim “isotonic”. According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), isotonic beverages should have an osmolality in a range of 270–330 mOsmol/kg. A method to determine osmolality in beer using an automatic cryoscope was applied and validated in this study. Isotonic and hypotonic beers can be measured directly, while hypertonic beers have to be diluted into the linear range of the instrument. As proven in several different beer matrices, the assay was linear with an average correlation coefficient of 0.998. The limits of detection and quantitation were 2 and 10 mOsmol/kg, so that the sensitivity of the method was judged sufficient to control the isotonic range. The measurement uncertainty expressed as coefficient of variation was less than 1% interday. The applicability of the method was proven by measurement of 86 beer samples. Our study has shown that the cryoscopic method is fit for the purpose to validate claims of isotonicity in food control.
Abstract: Pomegranate juice has gained a high reputation for its health properties and consequently is now a highly demanded product. However, there is an interest in knowing if there are differences between conventional and organic agricultural practices. For that reason, total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, punicalagin isomers and sensory analysis of pomegranate juices from Mollar de Elche cultivar were studied. A comparison between fresh and commercial pomegranate juice obtained by conventional and organic agricultural practices was conducted. The total phenolic content values ranged from 2285 to 2457 mg GAE L−1; however, there was no significant difference among conventional and organic juices. The antioxidant capacity evaluated by DPPH and ABTS methods showed significant differences (p < 0.05) among conventional and organic juices. The antioxidant capacity values ranged from 17.7 to 35.9 mmol Trolox L−1 for DPPH and from 5.09 to 27.9 mmol Trolox L-1 for ABTS. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among conventional and organic juices in punicalagin isomer, with the highest value found in conventional fresh pomegranate juice (0.48 g L−1). Descriptive sensory analysis showed that fresh pomegranate, fresh rind, earthy, vegetal, bitter, and astringent notes were higher in conventional fresh pomegranate juice. Cooked and mushroom notes predominated in conventional commercial pomegranate juice; while the organic juice was characterized by fresh pomegranate, fresh rind, earthy and sweet notes.
Abstract: Five commercial juices, representing the five clusters of this juice, were characterized before and after maceration with 10% pomegranate albedo (control- and albedo treated (AT)-juices, respectively). Commercial juices were macerated with albedo homogenate for 24 h, and then the albedo was removed. Total soluble solids, titratable acidity, maturity index (MI), total phenolic content (TPC), volatile composition, and flavor profile were evaluate in control- and AT-juices. From all physico-chemical characteristics, only the TPC was significantly affected by the treatment and ranged from 846 to 3784 mg gallic acid L−1 and from 2163 to 5072 mg gallic acid L−1 in control- and AT-juices, respectively; the increment in TPC was more than 1.3-fold in all AT-juices. No clear pattern was found when studying the volatile composition; only significant increases were observed in the contents of hexanal, 2-hexenal, and 3-hexenal in all AT-samples. The flavor profile study indicated that three of the five samples increased their bitterness and/or astringency. In addition, new attributes, which were not present in the control juices, appeared after maceration with albedo in some samples: green-bean, brown-sweet, and green-viney. This information will be useful in developing and promoting new “healthy” products based on pomegranate.