Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Impact of Legislation on the Development of Craft Beer
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 18; doi:10.3390/beverages3020018 -
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ways in which federal and state legislation has impacted the growth of the US craft beer industry. In order to achieve this purpose, the city of Charlotte in North Carolina (N.C.) will be used
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The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ways in which federal and state legislation has impacted the growth of the US craft beer industry. In order to achieve this purpose, the city of Charlotte in North Carolina (N.C.) will be used as a case study. The research is conceptual in nature, a preferred choice as it allows a researcher to break down the issue into its constituent parts in order to gain a broader understanding. The research demonstrates that the legal framework in place for the production and distribution of alcoholic beverages in the U.S.A., which is a legacy of the Prohibition movement of the last century, continues to have a significant impact on the development of the craft beer industry. The growth in the number of breweries across the U.S.A. has been driven by the craft brewing industry and has provided consumers with a vastly increased array of choices (Burgdorf, 2016). The growth in the craft beer industry has not been proportional across all states, however. While many factors influence the growth of craft breweries (Carroll and Swaminathan, 2000), regulations such as those that restrict how brewers can distribute and retail beer have inhibited growth in many states, limiting consumer choice. The research demonstrates that change can be effected, as it has in N.C., through consumer pressure at the grassroots level. This paper provides an original perspective to the consideration of the growth of this important industry, arguing that future growth in the sector will continue to be impacted by the legislative frameworks in place. This in turn impacts on the ability of entrepreneurs to grow their businesses, and on aspects of consumer choice. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Green Tea and Its Extracts in Cancer Prevention and Treatment
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 17; doi:10.3390/beverages3010017 -
Abstract
Green tea (GT) and green tea extracts (GTE) have been postulated to decrease cancer incidence. In vitro results indicate a possible effect; however, epidemiological data do not support cancer chemoprevention. We have performed a PubMED literature search for green tea consumption and the
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Green tea (GT) and green tea extracts (GTE) have been postulated to decrease cancer incidence. In vitro results indicate a possible effect; however, epidemiological data do not support cancer chemoprevention. We have performed a PubMED literature search for green tea consumption and the correlation to the common tumor types lung, colorectal, breast, prostate, esophageal and gastric cancer, with cohorts from both Western and Asian countries. We additionally included selected mechanistical studies for a possible mode of action. The comparability between studies was limited due to major differences in study outlines; a meta analysis was thus not possible and studies were evaluated individually. Only for breast cancer could a possible small protective effect be seen in Asian and Western cohorts, whereas for esophagus and stomach cancer, green tea increased the cancer incidence, possibly due to heat stress. No effect was found for colonic/colorectal and prostatic cancer in any country, for lung cancer Chinese studies found a protective effect, but not studies from outside China. Epidemiological studies thus do not support a cancer protective effect. GT as an indicator of as yet undefined parameters in lifestyle, environment and/or ethnicity may explain some of the observed differences between China and other countries. Full article
Open AccessReview
Chemical Contaminants Associated with Palm Wine from Nigeria Are Potential Food Safety Hazards
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 16; doi:10.3390/beverages3010016 -
Abstract
Recent analysis of palm wine, a traditional drink fermented mainly by yeasts, revealed the presence of several chemicals that were not products of yeast fermentation. The chemicals included styrene, benzene, trimethyldioxolane, dichloromethane, methylene fluoride, dichloroethanol, benzylisoquinoline and tetraacetyl-d-xylonic nitrile. A review
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Recent analysis of palm wine, a traditional drink fermented mainly by yeasts, revealed the presence of several chemicals that were not products of yeast fermentation. The chemicals included styrene, benzene, trimethyldioxolane, dichloromethane, methylene fluoride, dichloroethanol, benzylisoquinoline and tetraacetyl-d-xylonic nitrile. A review of the concentrations of these compounds in palm wine found that the benzene concentrations in all samples reviewed ranged from 56–343 ppm and were within permissible limits, whereas the styrene values (1505–5614 ppm) in all the palm wine samples evaluated were well over the recommended concentration that is immediately dangerous to life or health. Other chemical compounds evaluated varied according to location or sample source. The concentrations obtained are estimates only and a quantitative study needs to be carried out before the impact of these chemicals on health is evaluated. A search on The PubChem Project, the open chemical database, showed the description, properties and uses of these chemicals. Further searches carried out within other databases like PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar, using each chemical’s name as a search term, showed possible hazards and adverse health conditions caused by these chemicals, especially styrene, benzene and dichloromethane. The point at which the chemicals are introduced into the drink is still not clear and requires further investigation. The chemicals can be hazardous to humans and there is need to establish and maintain a system that can guarantee permissible levels in the drink. This can be carried out using concentrations of the chemicals that are already known to be immediately dangerous to life or health as a reference point. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ricotta Cheese Whey-Fruit-Based Beverages: Pasteurization Effects on Antioxidant Composition and Color
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 15; doi:10.3390/beverages3010015 -
Abstract
In order to minimize the precipitate formation upon pasteurization for whey-fruit juice-based beverages, a novel type of functional beverage was prepared, in which whey was replaced with Ricotta-cheese whey (RCW). Aiming at evaluating the influence of fruit juice type (yellow: apple, pear; red:
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In order to minimize the precipitate formation upon pasteurization for whey-fruit juice-based beverages, a novel type of functional beverage was prepared, in which whey was replaced with Ricotta-cheese whey (RCW). Aiming at evaluating the influence of fruit juice type (yellow: apple, pear; red: blueberry, strawberry) and pasteurization conditions on color and antioxidants, four fruit-RCW-based beverages (juice/RCW ratio: 80/20, 14% soluble solids content) were prepared and divided into two lots, and each lot was pasteurized according to different times/temperatures. After pasteurization, no formation of precipitate was observed in the bottles, even if some turbidity, ranging from 25 NTU (pear-RCW) to 190 NTU (blueberry-RCW), was observed. The blending of juices with RCW caused color darkening in apple, pear, and strawberry blends, and brightening in the blueberry one. The pasteurization conditions had a greater impact on the color changes of ‘yellow’ beverages than those of the ‘red’ ones. With a lethal rate F10010=14, there was a greater decrease in the total phenolic content (TPC) in blueberry-, strawberry-, and apple-RCW beverages, and a greater decrease in the monomeric anthocyanin pigment (MAP) and a smaller increase in the percent of polymeric color, in the blueberry-RCW beverage. Results on the antioxidant activity suggested that the Maillard reaction products formed in response to thermal treatment and/or the formation of anthocyanin polymers, likely compensate for the loss of antioxidant activity due to TPC and MAP degradations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Small Prizes Increased Plain Milk and Vegetable Selection by Elementary School Children without Adversely Affecting Total Milk Purchase
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 14; doi:10.3390/beverages3010014 -
Abstract
(1) Background: Pediatric obesity continues to be a major public health issue. Poor food selection in the school cafeteria is a risk factor. Chocolate or strawberry flavored milk is favored by the majority of elementary school students. Previous health promotion efforts have led
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(1) Background: Pediatric obesity continues to be a major public health issue. Poor food selection in the school cafeteria is a risk factor. Chocolate or strawberry flavored milk is favored by the majority of elementary school students. Previous health promotion efforts have led to increased selection of plain milk, but may compromise total milk purchased. In our study, we examined the effectiveness of small prizes as incentives to improve healthy food and beverage selection by elementary school students; (2) Methods: In a small Midwestern school district, small prizes were given to elementary school students who selected a “Power Plate” (PP), the healthful combination of a plain milk, a fruit, a vegetable and an entrée with whole grain over two academic school years; (3) Results: PP selection increased from 0.05 per student to 0.19, a 271% increase (p < 0.001). All healthful foods had increased selection with plain milk having the greatest increase, 0.098 per student to 0.255, a 159% increase (p < 0.001); (4) Total milk purchased increased modestly from 0.916 to 0.956 per student (p = 0.000331). Conclusion: Giving small prizes as a reward for healthful food selection substantially improves healthful food selection and the effect is sustainable over two academic years. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Mini-Review: The Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Production of Gin and Vodka
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 13; doi:10.3390/beverages3010013 -
Abstract
The spirit beverages of vodka and gin are often produced from a neutral spirits base. These neutral spirits are derived from the distillation of fermented carbohydrates of agricultural origin. The fermentations in the production of these beverages are not often reported in great
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The spirit beverages of vodka and gin are often produced from a neutral spirits base. These neutral spirits are derived from the distillation of fermented carbohydrates of agricultural origin. The fermentations in the production of these beverages are not often reported in great detail and to some extent are shrouded in mystery. The roles of fermentation and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are essential to the complete process, and without fermentation there would not be alcohol to distil. Nevertheless, it is not the yeast that is perceived to contribute to the distinctive consumer experiences, which are associated with these beverages. However, there are opportunities for the development of new strains of S. cerevisiae for the production of neutral spirits, which have a high ethanol yield, are tolerant of ethanol stress, and produce low levels of congeners. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Study between Acoustic Emission Analysis and Immersion Bubble-Metric Technique, TGA and TD-GC/MS in View of the Characterization of Granular Activated Carbons Used in Rum Production
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 12; doi:10.3390/beverages3010012 -
Abstract
Microscopic and acoustic emission analysis and sound patterns recognition techniques were applied for the characterization of granular activated carbon (GAC). A new and improved methodology has been developed to characterize the exhaustion degree of GAC used in rum production: (1) based on the
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Microscopic and acoustic emission analysis and sound patterns recognition techniques were applied for the characterization of granular activated carbon (GAC). A new and improved methodology has been developed to characterize the exhaustion degree of GAC used in rum production: (1) based on the acoustic emission analysis of the sound produced by water flooded on GAC; and (2) based on the microscopic analysis of bubbles formed by immersion into glycerol. Acoustic measurements are made in a specific set-up, bubble detection and analysis is performed using dedicated software developed in MATLAB® for circular shape pattern detection based on the Hough transform. Both have been correlated with data of GAC characteristics based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC/MS). Eight samples of GAC used in the rum production, obtained at different depths within the fixed-bed filter, have been evaluated. Good correlations are found between the immersion “bubble-metric” technique and the acoustic measurement data from the original signal processed by Band-Pass (BP) filtering at 1.3 kHz and weight loss amounts of adsorbed compounds on the GAC. The found relationship gives the possibility to determine the exhaustion degree of GAC applying these methods and to evaluate high-porosity materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Job-Sorting Assignment to Assess Cream Liqueur Brand Image
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 11; doi:10.3390/beverages3010011 -
Abstract
Projective techniques rely on a stimulus to elicit from respondents projections of their beliefs onto other people or objects, thus reflecting their own perceptions, feelings and motivations. In this work, the job-sorting technique, in combination with Aaker’s personality scale, was applied to the
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Projective techniques rely on a stimulus to elicit from respondents projections of their beliefs onto other people or objects, thus reflecting their own perceptions, feelings and motivations. In this work, the job-sorting technique, in combination with Aaker’s personality scale, was applied to the study of cream liqueur brand image in Uruguay and Costa Rica. Eight jobs with different levels of intellectual complexity, salary and physical demands were selected. In each of the two countries, three (two imported and one locally made) liqueurs were presented to 90 consumers with similar socio-demographic characteristics. Respondents were told to select the job, profession or occupation (JPO) that best fitted each brand. After JPO selection, respondents were asked to select from a list of 88 personality traits all the words that they considered applicable to each JPO selected. The JPOs associated with the different brands showed no similarity between Uruguayan and Costa Rican respondents, but the personality traits associated with the two imported brands were similar in both countries, supporting the use of JPOs as metaphors in the study of brand images. The brand image of locally made liqueurs was associated with traits that differed clearly from those of the imported brands. These results provide relevant information for the design of marketing strategies. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Food and Wine Pairing in Burgundy: The Case of Grands Crus
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 10; doi:10.3390/beverages3010010 -
Abstract
Burgundy is known both for its wines and its food products but they developed independently from each other. This paper examines the long march towards maximal wine quality which started before the beginning of the Christian era. In the Middle‐Ages, the Cistercian monks
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Burgundy is known both for its wines and its food products but they developed independently from each other. This paper examines the long march towards maximal wine quality which started before the beginning of the Christian era. In the Middle‐Ages, the Cistercian monks brought up the notion of terroir which eventually led to the AOC system (Protected Designation of origin) in 1935. Burgundy is also blessed with good farming land. Furthermore, the production of quality vegetables, fruits and meat contributed to the birth of its regional cuisine. However, it was not until the beginning of the 20th century that Burgundy’s original gastronomy gained recognition. It should be noted that this process was rather laborious. The advent of tourism introduced French and foreign visitors to the region’s lifestyle. With UNESCO’s listing of the vineyards of Côte de Beaune and Côte de Nuits as part of the world’s heritage and the development of wine tourism, Burgundy intends, at long last, to capitalize on its assets. An inventory of wine and food pairing complements this paper. Finally, a brief description of the term terroir will introduce the key contribution of this paper: how and why Burgundy Grand Cru wines pair so well with foods. For each of the 33 Grands Crus, a review of the best wine–food matches will be discussed on the basis of the specificities of each Grand Cru wine. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Production of Nigella sativa Beverage Powder under Foam Mat Drying Using Egg Albumen as a Foaming Agent
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 9; doi:10.3390/beverages3010009 -
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of producing Nigella sativa powder under a foam mat drying technique. A central, composite design of experiments was used to optimize the drying condition and compare the solubility, the antioxidant and mineral content
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The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of producing Nigella sativa powder under a foam mat drying technique. A central, composite design of experiments was used to optimize the drying condition and compare the solubility, the antioxidant and mineral content of roasted Nigella sativa, and the foam mat dried Nigella sativa powder. Foams were prepared from Nigella sativa solution by adding different concentrations of egg albumen (2.5%, 8.75%, and 15% w/w) and methyl cellulose (0, 0.5% and 1% w/w), using whipping times of 2, 5, and 8 min. The drying temperature was set at 50–70 °C, with a foam thickness of 1, 2, and 3 mm. The optimum recorded conditions for the foaming process were 15% of egg albumen concentration, 0.69% of methyl cellulose concentration, and a whipping time of 8 min. Thus, the optimum conditions for the drying process were 60 °C, with 2 mm of foam thickness. The results showed that there were significant differences in DPPH inhibition, the total phenolic content, and mineral content, whereas no significant differences were recorded in the water solubility index between the roasted Nigella sativa and the foam mat dried Nigella sativa powder. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Elemental Profiles of Whisk(e)y Allow Differentiation by Type and Region
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 8; doi:10.3390/beverages3010008 -
Abstract
Elemental fingerprints could provide an analytical approach to product differentiation and authentication, and have been used in the past for various distilled spirits, including brandy, gin, bourbon and tequila. However, a comparison of elemental differences between different whisk(e)y types, such as Bourbon and
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Elemental fingerprints could provide an analytical approach to product differentiation and authentication, and have been used in the past for various distilled spirits, including brandy, gin, bourbon and tequila. However, a comparison of elemental differences between different whisk(e)y types, such as Bourbon and Scotch, is still missing. In this study we compare the elemental fingerprints of 68 commercial whiskies for differentiation by type (Bourbon, Tennessee, Scotch, Irish, Japanese) and region. Concentrations from sub-μg/L to mid-mg/L of 53 different elements were determined with inductively-coupled plasma—mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and microwave plasma—atomic emission spectroscopy (MP-AES), and used in subsequent statistical analyses. Significant differences in several elements were found for type, and allowed a classification according to whisk(e)y type. Elemental differences were also found for different production areas within Scotland, thus, providing further evidence that Scotch whiskies could be differentiated by elemental analysis. Major sources of elemental differences seem to be processing equipment (Cu, Fe, Ni, Cd, Sn, Mo, V) and raw materials, such as water (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Sr). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Wine Style and Sugar Addition in liqueur d’expedition (dosage) Solutions on Traditional Method Sparkling Wine Composition
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 7; doi:10.3390/beverages3010007 -
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of wine style and cane sugar addition in the liqueur d’expedition (dosage) solution on volatile aroma compounds (VOCs) in traditional method sparkling wine. There were 24 bottles of each treatment produced.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of wine style and cane sugar addition in the liqueur d’expedition (dosage) solution on volatile aroma compounds (VOCs) in traditional method sparkling wine. There were 24 bottles of each treatment produced. Treatments were sparkling wine zero dosage (ZD); NV sparkling wine + sugar (BS); unoaked still Chardonnay wine + sugar (UC); Pinot noir 2009 sparkling wine + sugar (PN); Niagara produced Brandy + sugar (B) and Icewine (IW). The control treatment in the sensory analysis was an oaked still Chardonnay wine + sugar (OC) because the zero-dosage wine was not suitable for a difference test that compared wines with sugar to one without. Standard wine chemical parameters were analysed before disgorging and after liqueur d’expedition was added and included; pH, titratable acidity (TA g/L), alcohol (v/v %), residual sugar (RS g/L), free and total SO2 and total phenolics (A.U.). Volatile aroma compounds (VOCs) analysed by Headspace Solid- Phase Micro-Extraction Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) included two alcohols, and six ethyl esters. ZD wines had the highest foam height and highest dissolved oxygen level. Sugar affected VOC concentrations in all treatments at five weeks post-disgorging, but by 15 weeks after liqueur d’expedition addition, the wine with added sugar had similar VOC concentrations to the ZD wines. The type of wines used in the dosage solutions had more influence on VOC concentrations than sugar addition. Full article
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Open AccessReview
An Update on the Health Benefits of Green Tea
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 6; doi:10.3390/beverages3010006 -
Abstract
Green tea, which is produced from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. Over the past 30 years or more, scientists have studied this plant in respect to potential health benefits. Research has shown that
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Green tea, which is produced from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. Over the past 30 years or more, scientists have studied this plant in respect to potential health benefits. Research has shown that the main components of green tea that are associated with health benefits are the catechins. The four main catechins found in green tea are: (−)-epicatechin (EC), (−)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), (−)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Of these four, EGCG is present in the largest quantity, and so has been used in much of the research. Among the health benefits of green tea are: anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, and benefits in cardiovascular disease and oral health. Research has been carried out using various animal models and cells lines, and is now more and more being carried out in humans. This type of research will help us to better understand the direct benefits of green tea. This review will focus primarily on research conducted using human subjects to investigate the health benefits of green tea. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Accelerated Aging of the Traditional Greek Distillate Tsipouro Using Wooden Chips. Part I: Effect of Static Maceration vs. Ultrasonication on the Polyphenol Extraction and Antioxidant Activity
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 5; doi:10.3390/beverages3010005 -
Abstract
The Greek traditional grape marc distillate Tsipouro was subjected to accelerated aging, using wooden chips from acacia, cherry, chestnut and oak wood. The processes included treatments under static maceration and ultrasonication and the evolution of the total polyphenol concentration was monitored over a
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The Greek traditional grape marc distillate Tsipouro was subjected to accelerated aging, using wooden chips from acacia, cherry, chestnut and oak wood. The processes included treatments under static maceration and ultrasonication and the evolution of the total polyphenol concentration was monitored over a period of 30 days. During this period, leaching of polyphenols from the chips into the distillate was found to obey first-order kinetics, but no statistical differences were shown between the two treatments regarding the enrichment of the liquid in polyphenolic substances. The determination of the antioxidant activity demonstrated that aging with chestnut chips may provide Tsipouro with particularly strong radical scavenging and reducing effects, highlighting its importance as a material that could be used to turn distillates into foods with functional properties. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Beverages in 2016
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 4; doi:10.3390/beverages3010004 -
Abstract
The editors of Beverages would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016. We greatly appreciate the contribution of expert reviewers, which is crucial to the journal’s editorial process. We aim to recognize reviewer contributions through
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The editors of Beverages would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016. We greatly appreciate the contribution of expert reviewers, which is crucial to the journal’s editorial process. We aim to recognize reviewer contributions through several mechanisms, of which the annual publication of reviewer names is one. Reviewers receive a voucher entitling them to a discount on their next MDPI publication and can download a certificate of recognition directly from our submission system. Additionally, reviewers can sign up to the service Publons (https://publons.com) to receive recognition. Of course, in these initiatives we are careful not to compromise reviewer confidentiality. Many reviewers see their work as a voluntary and often unseen part of their role as researchers. We are grateful to the time reviewers donate to our journals and the contribution they make. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Is Binge Drinking Prevalent in Greece after the Emergence of the Economic Crisis? Assessment of This Idea Using the Theory of Planned Behavior
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 3; doi:10.3390/beverages3010003 -
Abstract
This paper aims to evaluate the impact of the ongoing economic crisis in Greece on alcohol consumption and binge drinking. For this reason, the Theory of Planned Behavior is being applied by using a sample of nearly 900 questionnaires. The questionnaire consists of
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This paper aims to evaluate the impact of the ongoing economic crisis in Greece on alcohol consumption and binge drinking. For this reason, the Theory of Planned Behavior is being applied by using a sample of nearly 900 questionnaires. The questionnaire consists of parts trying to identify the attitude of the interviewees towards alcohol, their subjective norms of social environment, and the perceived behavioral control. This research has been implemented on a national level. The most important finding is the considerable difference in alcohol consumption compared with other countries faced similar negative economic situations. Drinking is considered as a source of pleasure and socializing. The participants’ perception is that family environment and friends are not considering drinking as a non-desirable way of entertainment. As one of the major results of the survey, drinking was found to not be driven by a necessity to overcome problems related to it, which is the main difference with previous studies in others countries, like Argentina, Russia, USA, etc. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
Assessing the Role of Emotional Associations in Mediating Crossmodal Correspondences between Classical Music and Red Wine
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 1; doi:10.3390/beverages3010001 -
Abstract
Several recent studies have demonstrated that people intuitively make consistent matches between classical music and specific wines. It is not clear, however, what governs such crossmodal mappings. Here, we assess the role of emotion—specifically different dimensional aspects of valence, arousal, and dominance—in mediating
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Several recent studies have demonstrated that people intuitively make consistent matches between classical music and specific wines. It is not clear, however, what governs such crossmodal mappings. Here, we assess the role of emotion—specifically different dimensional aspects of valence, arousal, and dominance—in mediating such mappings. Participants matched three different red wines to three different pieces of classical music. Subsequently, they made emotion ratings separately for each wine and each musical selection. The results revealed that certain wine–music pairings were rated as being significantly better matches than others. More importantly, there was evidence that the participants’ dominance and arousal ratings for the wines and the music predicted their matching rating for each wine–music pairing. These results therefore support the view that wine–music associations are not arbitrary but can be explained, at least in part, by common emotional associations. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Traditional Turkish Fermented Non-Alcoholic Grape-Based Beverage, “Hardaliye”
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 2; doi:10.3390/beverages3010002 -
Abstract
Hardaliye is a non-alcoholic fermented beverage produced in a traditional way in Thrace, the European part of Turkey. The nutritional value of hardaliye is derived from the grapes and the fermentation process. Health benefits of hardaliye are also related to etheric oils present
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Hardaliye is a non-alcoholic fermented beverage produced in a traditional way in Thrace, the European part of Turkey. The nutritional value of hardaliye is derived from the grapes and the fermentation process. Health benefits of hardaliye are also related to etheric oils present in mustard seeds. Hardaliye is a lactic acid fermented traditional beverage produced from grape juice and crushed grapes with the addition of different concentrations of whole/ground or heat-treated mustard seeds and sour cherry leaves. The color of hardaliye reflects the original color of the grapes and has a characteristic aroma. Dark red grape is preferred. Benzoic acid is used as preservative during production. Benzoic acid inhibits or decreases alcohol production by affecting the yeast. Fermentation occurs at room temperature for 7–10 days. If the ambient temperature is low, fermentation process can be extended until 20 days. Once fermented, the hardaliye is stored at 4 °C for three to four months. The hardaliye is consumed either fresh or aged. If it is aged, hardaliye may contain alcohol. The industrial production is just in small-scale and it must be developed. More studies are required to determine characteristic properties of hardaliye. Identification of the product properties will supply improvement for industrial production. Full article
Open AccessReview
Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Production of Whisk(e)y
Beverages 2016, 2(4), 38; doi:10.3390/beverages2040038 -
Abstract
Whisk(e)y is a major global distilled spirit beverage. Whiskies are produced from cereal starches that are saccharified, fermented and distilled prior to spirit maturation. The strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae employed in whisky fermentations is crucially important not only in terms of ethanol yields,
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Whisk(e)y is a major global distilled spirit beverage. Whiskies are produced from cereal starches that are saccharified, fermented and distilled prior to spirit maturation. The strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae employed in whisky fermentations is crucially important not only in terms of ethanol yields, but also for production of minor yeast metabolites which collectively contribute to development of spirit flavour and aroma characteristics. Distillers must therefore pay very careful attention to the strain of yeast exploited to ensure consistency of fermentation performance and spirit congener profiles. In the Scotch whisky industry, initiatives to address sustainability issues facing the industry (for example, reduced energy and water usage) have resulted in a growing awareness regarding criteria for selecting new distilling yeasts with improved efficiency. For example, there is now a desire for Scotch whisky distilling yeasts to perform under more challenging conditions such as high gravity wort fermentations. This article highlights the important roles of S. cerevisiae strains in whisky production (with particular emphasis on Scotch) and describes key fermentation performance attributes sought in distiller’s yeast, such as high alcohol yields, stress tolerance and desirable congener profiles. We hope that the information herein will be useful for whisky producers and yeast suppliers in selecting new distilling strains of S. cerevisiae, and for the scientific community to stimulate further research in this area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Blueberry and Carrot Juice Blend Fermented by Lactobacillus reuteri LR92
Beverages 2016, 2(4), 37; doi:10.3390/beverages2040037 -
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the blueberry and carrot juice blend as a fermentable substrate for Lactobacillus reuteri LR92, in order to develop a fermented non-dairy functional beverage. Analysis of cell viability, pH, and acidity were performed during the fermentation process. The resistance
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This study aimed to evaluate the blueberry and carrot juice blend as a fermentable substrate for Lactobacillus reuteri LR92, in order to develop a fermented non-dairy functional beverage. Analysis of cell viability, pH, and acidity were performed during the fermentation process. The resistance of the microorganism in the blend, under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and in storage at 4 °C for 28 days, was evaluated at the same time as the antioxidant potential of the fermented juice. After 40 h of fermentation, the L. reuteri population presented a logarithmic growth of three cycles, reaching count records of 10.26 ± 0.23 log CFU/mL and after 28 days of storage at 4 °C, the bacterial population maintained elevated numbers of viable cell (8.96 ± 0.08 log CFU/mL), with increase in the antioxidant capacity of the fermented blend. However, in the test of gastric simulation, the L. reuteri population had a logarithmic reduction of five cycles. In the presence of bile salts, the viability was maintained even after 150 min of incubation. This way, the results suggested that the blueberry and carrot blend juice can be considered as a good medium for the growth of L. reuteri, providing microbiological stability during refrigerated storage with elevated antioxidant capacity, which allows for the development of a non-dairy probiotic beverage. Full article
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