Abstract: As the boundaries and population of urban areas expand, beverage distributors may seek to expand the capacity in their distribution centers. As a result, they may need to add new locations or increase the utilization of their existing center. This paper investigates the facility location problem through network space, considering traversable truck roads, thereby providing a strategic decision for identifying a depot location in consideration of vehicle routings from a real application. For the analysis, a geospatial tool, which is embedded in the commercial software ArcMap®, was used for routing and calibrating the model. Ten candidates from commercial and industrial zones in the cities of Fargo, West Fargo, and Moorhead were considered for future distribution centers. The candidate locations were analyzed to determine which site minimizes the total transportation costs and travel miles in consideration of time window, vehicle capacity, heterogeneous vehicle types, land use plan, and hours-of-service. Most attractive candidates are close to the intersections of major highways. From the analysis, the study recommends locating a distribution center at three alternatives based on the average ranking method. This study can be used by distributors as they consider new locations and extra depots to support strategic planning to deal with mid-term and long-term growth of demand in beverage markets. This study provides a ready-to-use example of how to adopt state-of-the-art spatial technology and operations research using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and bring it to state-of-practice.
Abstract: Alcohol-free beer is increasingly marketed with the claim “isotonic”. According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), isotonic beverages should have an osmolality in a range of 270–330 mOsmol/kg. A method to determine osmolality in beer using an automatic cryoscope was applied and validated in this study. Isotonic and hypotonic beers can be measured directly, while hypertonic beers have to be diluted into the linear range of the instrument. As proven in several different beer matrices, the assay was linear with an average correlation coefficient of 0.998. The limits of detection and quantitation were 2 and 10 mOsmol/kg, so that the sensitivity of the method was judged sufficient to control the isotonic range. The measurement uncertainty expressed as coefficient of variation was less than 1% interday. The applicability of the method was proven by measurement of 86 beer samples. Our study has shown that the cryoscopic method is fit for the purpose to validate claims of isotonicity in food control.
Abstract: Pomegranate juice has gained a high reputation for its health properties and consequently is now a highly demanded product. However, there is an interest in knowing if there are differences between conventional and organic agricultural practices. For that reason, total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, punicalagin isomers and sensory analysis of pomegranate juices from Mollar de Elche cultivar were studied. A comparison between fresh and commercial pomegranate juice obtained by conventional and organic agricultural practices was conducted. The total phenolic content values ranged from 2285 to 2457 mg GAE L−1; however, there was no significant difference among conventional and organic juices. The antioxidant capacity evaluated by DPPH and ABTS methods showed significant differences (p < 0.05) among conventional and organic juices. The antioxidant capacity values ranged from 17.7 to 35.9 mmol Trolox L−1 for DPPH and from 5.09 to 27.9 mmol Trolox L-1 for ABTS. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among conventional and organic juices in punicalagin isomer, with the highest value found in conventional fresh pomegranate juice (0.48 g L−1). Descriptive sensory analysis showed that fresh pomegranate, fresh rind, earthy, vegetal, bitter, and astringent notes were higher in conventional fresh pomegranate juice. Cooked and mushroom notes predominated in conventional commercial pomegranate juice; while the organic juice was characterized by fresh pomegranate, fresh rind, earthy and sweet notes.
Abstract: Five commercial juices, representing the five clusters of this juice, were characterized before and after maceration with 10% pomegranate albedo (control- and albedo treated (AT)-juices, respectively). Commercial juices were macerated with albedo homogenate for 24 h, and then the albedo was removed. Total soluble solids, titratable acidity, maturity index (MI), total phenolic content (TPC), volatile composition, and flavor profile were evaluate in control- and AT-juices. From all physico-chemical characteristics, only the TPC was significantly affected by the treatment and ranged from 846 to 3784 mg gallic acid L−1 and from 2163 to 5072 mg gallic acid L−1 in control- and AT-juices, respectively; the increment in TPC was more than 1.3-fold in all AT-juices. No clear pattern was found when studying the volatile composition; only significant increases were observed in the contents of hexanal, 2-hexenal, and 3-hexenal in all AT-samples. The flavor profile study indicated that three of the five samples increased their bitterness and/or astringency. In addition, new attributes, which were not present in the control juices, appeared after maceration with albedo in some samples: green-bean, brown-sweet, and green-viney. This information will be useful in developing and promoting new “healthy” products based on pomegranate.
Abstract: Increasing evidence of their health benefits has boosted the popularity of pomegranates. The effects of processing (e.g., pasteurization, drying) on pomegranate juice characteristics (e.g., color, phenolic content) and sensory attributes have been studied by several authors. The objectives of this study were to (1) understand if processing, such as pasteurization or drying, has an effect on pomegranate juice acceptance, and (2) if acceptance is related to healthy eating habits or variety seeking tendencies. Arils were removed from fresh Wonderful pomegranates for juicing or drying. Four treatments were prepared: fresh, fresh frozen, pasteurized, and reconstituted juice from dried arils. Fresh frozen, pasteurized, and reconstituted juices were evaluated by consumers for acceptance. Cluster analysis was conducted and four consumer clusters were found from evaluation of these juice treatments. Each juice was individually disliked by one of three clusters, demonstrating the effect of processing on acceptance. The fourth and largest cluster liked all three treatments. In addition, the consumers were asked to fill in Stage of Change and Variety Seeking scales. Liking scores were not found to be highly associated with healthy eating habits or variety seeking tendencies. This information is beneficial for the fruit processing industry, showing that processing can influence consumer acceptance.
Abstract: Imagine a product that is used everyday by everyone around the world. In fact, imagine a product that must be usedmultiple times a day by everyone. That product is a beverage. Without beverages we cannot live. Many health practitioners recommend that adults consume approximately 2 liters of liquid daily and most of that consumption comes from beverages. Those beverages range from water to alcoholic beverages, soft drinks to coffee, tea to juice, and milk to so-called energy drinks or functional beverages. This enormous variety and consumption of beverages provides an unlimited opportunity to study product development and manufacturing, human consumption behavior, physical health and happiness, sensory impacts, public policy and a host of other important topics.[...]