Atmosphere2016, 7(7), 89; doi:10.3390/atmos7070089 (registering DOI) - published 30 June 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: To obtain a better understanding of carbon cycle and accurate climate prediction models, highly accurate and temporal resolution observation of atmospheric CO2 is necessary. Differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL) remote sensing is a promising technology to detect atmospheric CO2. However, the traditional DIAL system is the dual-wavelength DIAL (DW-DIAL), which has strict requirements for wavelength accuracy and stability. Moreover, for on-line and off-line wavelengths, the system’s optical efficiency and the change of atmospheric parameters are assumed to be the same in the DW-DIAL system. This assumption inevitably produces measurement errors, especially under rapid aerosol changes. In this study, a multi-wavelength DIAL (MW-DIAL) is proposed to map atmospheric CO2 concentration. The MW-DIAL conducts inversion with one on-line and multiple off-line wavelengths. Multiple concentrations of CO2 are then obtained through difference processing between the single on-line and each of the off-line wavelengths. In addition, the least square method is adopted to optimize inversion results. Consequently, the inversion concentration of CO2 in the MW-DIAL system is found to be the weighted average of the multiple concentrations. Simulation analysis and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the inversion precision of MW-DIAL. For comparison, traditional DW-DIAL simulations were also conducted. Simulation analysis demonstrated that, given the drifting wavelengths of the laser, the detection accuracy of CO2 when using MW-DIAL is higher than that when using DW-DIAL, especially when the drift is large. A laboratory experiment was also performed to verify the simulation analysis.
Abstract: Both research-grade and operational numerical weather prediction models perform simulations with horizontal grid spacings as fine as 1 km, and their multi-scale terrain data have become increasingly important for high-resolution model forecasting. This study focused on the influence of multi-scale surface databases of topographical height and land use on the modeling of atmospheric circulation in a megacity. The default data were the global 30S United States Geographic Survey terrain data set and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer land-use data. The capacity for topographical expression under the combined scale effect was evaluated against observational data. The experiments showed that surface input data using finer resolutions for the Weather Research and Forecasting model with 1-km resolution gave better topographical expression and meteorological reproduction in a megacity and agreed with observational data in the fields of temperature and relative humidity, but precipitation values were not sensitive to the surface input data when verified against a suite of observational data including, but not limited to, ground-based instruments. The results indicated that the use of high-resolution databases improved the local atmospheric circulation in a megacity and that a fine-scale model was sensitive to the resolution of the surface input data whereas a coarse-scale model was less sensitive to it.
Abstract: The estimation of ambient particulate matter with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) at high spatial resolution is currently quite limited in China. In order to make the distribution of PM10 more accessible to relevant departments and scientific research institutions, a semi-physical geographically weighted regression (GWR) model was established in this study to estimate nationwide mass concentrations of PM10 using easily available MODIS AOD and NCEP Reanalysis meteorological parameters. The results demonstrated that applying physics-based corrections could remarkably improve the quality of the dataset for better model performance with the adjusted R2 between PM10 and AOD increasing from 0.08 to 0.43, and the fitted results explained approximately 81% of the variability in the corresponding PM10 mass concentrations. Annual average PM10 concentrations estimated by the semi-physical GWR model indicated that many residential regions suffer from severe particle pollution. Moreover, the deviation in estimation, which primarily results from the frequent changes in elevation, the spatially heterogeneous distribution of monitoring sites, and the limitations of AOD retrieval algorithm, was acceptable. Therefore, the semi-physical GWR model provides us with an effective and efficient method to estimate PM10 at large scale. The results could offer reasonable estimations of health impacts and provide guidance on emission control strategies in China.
Abstract: The atmospheric seasonal cycle of the North Atlantic region is dominated by meridional movements of the circulation systems: from the tropics, where the West African Monsoon and extreme tropical weather events take place, to the extratropics, where the circulation is dominated by seasonal changes in the jetstream and extratropical cyclones. Climate variability over the North Atlantic is controlled by various mechanisms. Atmospheric internal variability plays a crucial role in the mid-latitudes. However, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is still the main source of predictability in this region situated far away from the Pacific. Although the ENSO influence over tropical and extra-tropical areas is related to different physical mechanisms, in both regions this teleconnection seems to be non-stationary in time and modulated by multidecadal changes of the mean flow. Nowadays, long observational records (greater than 100 years) and modeling projects (e.g., CMIP) permit detecting non-stationarities in the influence of ENSO over the Atlantic basin, and further analyzing its potential mechanisms. The present article reviews the ENSO influence over the Atlantic region, paying special attention to the stability of this teleconnection over time and the possible modulators. Evidence is given that the ENSO–Atlantic teleconnection is weak over the North Atlantic. In this regard, the multidecadal ocean variability seems to modulate the presence of teleconnections, which can lead to important impacts of ENSO and to open windows of opportunity for seasonal predictability.
Abstract: SO2 and H2S are the two most important gas-phase sulfur species emitted by volcanoes, with a global amount from non-explosive emissions of the order 10 Tg-S/yr. These gases are readily oxidized forming SO42− aerosols, which effectively scatter the incoming solar radiation and cool the surface. They also perturb atmospheric chemistry by enhancing the NOx to HNO3 heterogeneous conversion via hydrolysis on the aerosol surface of N2O5 and Br-Cl nitrates. This reduces formation of tropospheric O3 and the OH to HO2 ratio, thus limiting the oxidation of CH4 and increasing its lifetime. In addition to this tropospheric chemistry perturbation, there is also an impact on the NOx heterogeneous chemistry in the lower stratosphere, due to vertical transport of volcanic SO2 up to the tropical tropopause layer. Furthermore, the stratospheric O3 formation and loss, as well as the NOx budget, may be slightly affected by the additional amount of upward diffused solar radiation and consequent increase of photolysis rates. Two multi-decadal time-slice runs of a climate-chemistry-aerosol model have been designed for studying these chemical-radiative effects. A tropopause mean global net radiative flux change (RF) of −0.23 W·m−2 is calculated (including direct and indirect aerosol effects) with a 14% increase of the global mean sulfate aerosol optical depth. A 5–15 ppt NOx decrease is found in the mid-troposphere subtropics and mid-latitudes and also from pole to pole in the lower stratosphere. The tropospheric NOx perturbation triggers a column O3 decrease of 0.5–1.5 DU and a 1.1% increase of the CH4 lifetime. The surface cooling induced by solar radiation scattering by the volcanic aerosols induces a tropospheric stabilization with reduced updraft velocities that produce ice supersaturation conditions in the upper troposphere. A global mean 0.9% decrease of the cirrus ice optical depth is calculated with an indirect RF of −0.08 W·m−2.
Abstract: The aim of this study is to understand the inter-annual hydrological variability (precipitation and streamflow) in the basins of the High Atlas in Morocco and to determine how climate fluctuations (represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) climate index) are expressed in the hydrological system. To reach this objective, time series of precipitation and streamflow are processed as standardized anomalies and studied by continuous wavelet analysis and wavelet coherence analysis, which are particularly suitable for the study of unsteady processes. Wet and dry periods vary from one basin to another between three and five years. The wavelet analysis shows the existence of many bands of energy in most of the sub-basins, from annual to inter-annual scales regarding the precipitation and streamflow time series. These bands correspond to intervals of one year, 2–4 years, 4–8 years and 8–12 years. The wavelet coherence analysis shows a strong coherence between NAO/streamflow and precipitation/NAO identified at the inter-annual scale. Non-stationarity can be observed in the late 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. The contribution of the NAO is different from one basin to another ranging between 67% and 77%.