Abstract: Fundamental properties of multiply charged molecular ions, such as energetics, structure, stability, lifetime and fragmentation dynamics, are relevant to understand and model the behavior of gaseous plasmas as well as ionosphere and astrophysical environments. Experimental determinations of the Kinetic Energy Released (KER) for ions originating from dissociations reactions, induced by Coulomb explosion of doubly charged molecular ions (molecular dications) produced by double photoionization of CO2, N2O and C2H2 molecules of interest in planetary atmospheres, are reported. The KER measurement as a function of the ultraviolet (UV) photon energy in the range of 28–65 eV was extracted from the electron-ion-ion coincidence spectra obtained by using tunable synchrotron radiation coupled with ion imaging techniques at the ELETTRA Synchrotron Light Laboratory Trieste, Italy. These experiments, coupled with a computational analysis based on a Monte Carlo trajectory simulation, allow assessing the probability of escape for simple ionic species in the upper atmosphere of Mars, Venus and Titan. The measured KER in the case of H+, C+, CH+, CH2+, N+, O+, CO+, N2+ and NO+ fragment ions range between 1.0 and 5.5 eV, being large enough to allow these ionic species to participate in the atmospheric escape from such planets into space. In the case of Mars, we suggest a possible explanation for the observed behavior of the O+ and CO22+ ion density profiles.
Abstract: This paper discusses the aerosol radiative effects involved in the accuracy of shortwave net radiation, , with (400–900) nm, retrieved by the Operational Land Imager (OLI), the new generation sensor of the Landsat mission. Net radiation is a key parameter for the energy exchange between the land and atmosphere; thus, retrieval from space is under investigation by exploiting the increased spatial resolution of the visible and near-infrared OLI data. We adopted the latest version of the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6SV) atmospheric radiative transfer model implemented in the atmospheric correction algorithm (OLI Atmospherically-Corrected Reflectance Imagery (OLI@CRI)) developed specifically for OLI data. The values of were obtained by varying the microphysical properties of the aerosol during the OLI@CRI retrieval of both the OLI surface reflectance, , and the incoming solar irradiance at the surface. The analysis of the aerosol effects on the was carried out on a spectrally-homogeneous desert area located in the southwestern Nile Delta. The results reveal that the available for energy exchange between the land and atmosphere reduces the accuracy (NRMSE ≃ 14%) when the local aerosol microphysical properties are not considered during the processing of space data. Consequently, these findings suggest that the aerosol type should be considered for variables retrieved by satellite observations concerning the energy exchange in the natural ecosystems, such as Photosynthetically-Active Radiation (PAR). This will also improve the accuracy of land monitoring and of solar energy for power generation when space data are used.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to increase our understanding of the gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, Hg°) fluxes between the atmosphere and soils. Moreover, we wanted to quantify the annual GEM flux, identify the controls, and compare the GEM flux to annual rates of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition and wet deposition of total mercury. We measured GEM fluxes using the modified Bowen ratio (MBR) technique from 6 July 2009 to 6 July 2010 in western Maryland. The annual hourly mean (±std. dev.) GEM flux was −0.63 ± 31.0 ng·m−2·h−1. Hourly mean GEM fluxes were not strongly correlated with atmospheric trace gases, aerosols, or meteorology. However, hourly mean GEM emissions (15.3 ± 27.9 ng·m−2·h−1) and deposition (−14.6 ± 26.6 ng·m−2·h−1) were correlated with ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B), wind speed (WS), ozone (O3), and relative humidity (RH). The annual net GEM flux was −3.33 µg· m−2·year−1 and was similar to the annual dry deposition rate of GOM (2.5 to 3.2 µg·m−2·year−1), and 40% less than the annual mean wet deposition (8 µg·m−2·year−1) of total mercury. Thus, dry deposition of GEM accounted for approximately 25% of the total annual mercury deposition (~14 ug·m−2·year−1) measured at our study site.
Abstract: This paper presents the comparison of two CO2 datasets from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan and the Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space (ACOS) of NASA for three years (2010 to 2012). Both CO2 datasets are retrieved from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) short-wavelength infrared spectra over High gain surface land. In this three-year period, the yield of the NIES CO2 column averaged dry air mole fractions (XCO2) is about 71% of ACOS retrievals. The overall bias is 0.21 ± 1.85 ppm and −0.69 ± 2.13 ppm for ACOS and NIES XCO2, respectively, when compared with ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) observations from twelve Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) sites. The differences in XCO2 three-year means and seasonal means are within about 1 to 2 ppm. Strong consistency is obtained for the ACOS and NIES XCO2 monthly averages time series over different regions, with the greatest mean difference of ACOS to NIES monthly means over China (1.43 ± 0.60 ppm) and the least over Brazil (−0.03 ± 0.64 ppm). The intercomparison between the two XCO2 datasets indicates that the ACOS XCO2 is globally higher than NIES by about 1 ppm and has smaller bias and better consistency than NIES data.
Abstract: This study evaluates source attribution of ozone (O3) in the southeast United States (US) within O3 lamina observed by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) system during June 2013. This research applies surface-level and airborne in situ data and chemical transport model simulations (GEOS-Chem) in order to quantify the impact of North American anthropogenic emissions, wildfires, lightning NOx, and long-range/stratospheric transport on the observed O3 lamina. During the summer of 2013, two anomalous O3 layers were observed: (1) a nocturnal near-surface enhancement and (2) a late evening elevated (3–6 km above ground level) O3 lamina. A “brute force” zeroing method was applied to quantify the impact of individual emission sources and transport pathways on the vertical distribution of O3 during the two observed lamina. Results show that the nocturnal O3 enhancement on 12 June 2013 below 3 km was primarily due to wildfire emissions and the fact that daily maximum anthropogenic emission contributions occurred during these night-time hours. During the second case study it was predicted that above average contributions from long-range/stratospheric transport was largely contributing to the O3 lamina observed between 3 and 6 km on 29 June 2013. Other models, remote-sensing observations, and ground-based/airborne in situ data agree with the source attribution predicted by GEOS-Chem simulations. Overall, this study demonstrates the dynamic atmospheric chemistry occurring in the southeast US and displays the various emission sources and transport processes impacting O3 enhancements at different vertical levels of the troposphere.
Abstract: Surface energy balance (SEB) is a basic principle for all of the atmospheric circulation models, and surface soil heat flux (G0) is an important component of energy balance. Plastic mulch is widely used in arid regions and alters land surface processes. In this study, hourly/daily G0 and SEB over a mulched cotton field were analyzed in Northwest China. The net radiation beneath the mulch was simulated using transmitted down short-wave and down long-wave radiation through the mulch and up short-wave and up long-wave radiation from the soil beneath mulch. The results show that: (1) on the hourly time scale, G0 in mulched soil is much smaller than that in non-mulched soil, day and night. This implies that mulch prevents energy going into the soil during the daytime and reduces soil heat loss at night. On the daily time scale, G0 is similar in mulched and non-mulched soil. (2) During the seedling emergence period when the cotton is small, the energy balance closure over mulched soil (0.79) is slightly smaller than that over non-mulched soil (0.81). (3) Comparing to soil temperature in non-mulched soil, there’s a time offset on soil temperature in mulched soil at the same depth, which will bring a hysteresis on G0 and SEB.