Open AccessArticle
A Mark along the Way: Schematic Rock Art and Communication Routes
Arts 2016, 5(3), 6; doi:10.3390/arts5030006 -
Abstract
On the Iberian Peninsula, during the Neolithic age, there was a new cycle of post-Palaeolithic rock art: schematic rock art. This rock art style is said to date from the 6th millennium BCE until the end of the Bronze Age (around the [...] Read more.
On the Iberian Peninsula, during the Neolithic age, there was a new cycle of post-Palaeolithic rock art: schematic rock art. This rock art style is said to date from the 6th millennium BCE until the end of the Bronze Age (around the transition between the 2nd and 1st millennium BCE). Schematic rock art has been interpreted from different approaches (religious, semiological, social) according to the different lines of research followed in Spain for more than 100 years. In this article, based on the studies linked to “landscape archeology”, we are proposing an interpretative approach of schematic rock art. For us, this rock art style would have a functional character, landscape marker, reflecting close connections between the places chosen as a support for schematic depictions and ones with survival resources or communication routes between territories. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Archaeology and Art in War Zones: Methods, Media, Technology, and Aesthetics
Arts 2016, 5(3), 5; doi:10.3390/arts5030005 -
Abstract Convergence between the work of the historian or archaeologist and that of writers or artists was a given for a long time.[...] Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Cinematic Bodies
Arts 2016, 5(2), 4; doi:10.3390/arts5020004 -
Abstract It is difficult to imagine a cinema without bodies.[...] Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Brutalism Now: Rethinking Brutalism in Contemporary World Architecture
Arts 2016, 5(2), 3; doi:10.3390/arts5020003 -
Abstract Brutalism has a privileged role in the history of modern architecture.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Authenticity and Restoration: The Benefits of Historical Studies on Re-Examining the Implemented Restorations in Persepolis
Arts 2016, 5(1), 2; doi:10.3390/arts5010002 -
Abstract
Preserving the authenticity of historical monuments is an inseparable part of restoration activities that has always been asserted by the international principles of historical preservation. However, the local condition of historical sites may influence such a primitive intention of restorers. While historical [...] Read more.
Preserving the authenticity of historical monuments is an inseparable part of restoration activities that has always been asserted by the international principles of historical preservation. However, the local condition of historical sites may influence such a primitive intention of restorers. While historical documents are appropriate sources which can provide restorers with the real condition of ancient structures in the course of time, investigation through these precious materials is a time-consuming process and the reliability of these old evidences is, itself, a challenging issue. The Italian Institute for Middle and Far East (IsMEO) missioned long-term restoration activities in Persepolis between 1964 and the Islamic Revolution in Iran. Generally, this institute is praised for this series of projects. In this paper, the author questions the historical authenticity of restoration activities missioned by this institute in a structure so-called The Gate of All Nations. Indeed, the restoration of this structure was influenced by the 2500th anniversary of the Persian Empire, which was held in Persepolis in 1971. By tracing the context of historical evidences and presenting a method for obtaining the authenticity of these documents, this paper demonstrates a new perspective towards the arrangement of a stone-made capital, which ornaments the uppermost part of a re-erected ancient column. Full article
Open AccessOpinion
Participative Mindscapes
Arts 2016, 5(1), 1; doi:10.3390/arts5010001 -
Abstract
In parallel with my social activism, I introduced architecture into my kinetic art and participatory activism into my architecture. Flexibility and participation in architectural design has been a permanent feature of my practice, bringing new opportunities for self-expression in urban living. To [...] Read more.
In parallel with my social activism, I introduced architecture into my kinetic art and participatory activism into my architecture. Flexibility and participation in architectural design has been a permanent feature of my practice, bringing new opportunities for self-expression in urban living. To form follows function I opposed form follows movement because it is man oriented while function is object oriented. After my 1962–1964 Mecanographs, machine-made images based on an interaction between the movement, the artist and the machine, I joined forces with Len Lye to determine what kind of positive attributes a Museum of Kinetic Art should have, defining three aspects of kinetic movement: illumination, sound, and physical movement. Vasarely and other kinetic artists put their mark on their time by promoting a form of social art, accessible to all, suggesting movement without actual movement. Walking through my medieval village can be a kinetic experience. The sense of wonder you feel at every corner compares with that of optical art. In the past decade, I moved toward a new form of participatory kinetic expression using state-of-the-art technology (plastics, LED, wireless devices). I view my kinetic work as an architectural experience and architecture as a stimulating kinetic experience. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Sounding Science: Exploring Music in Science and Science in Music
Arts 2015, 4(4), 121-122; doi:10.3390/arts4040121 -
Open AccessArticle
Manual of Cupule Replication Technology
Arts 2015, 4(3), 101-120; doi:10.3390/arts4030101 -
Abstract
Throughout the world, iconic rock art is preceded by non-iconic rock art. Cupules (manmade, roughly semi-hemispherical depressions on rocks) form the major bulk of the early non-iconic rock art globally. The antiquity of cupules extends back to the Lower Paleolithic in Asia [...] Read more.
Throughout the world, iconic rock art is preceded by non-iconic rock art. Cupules (manmade, roughly semi-hemispherical depressions on rocks) form the major bulk of the early non-iconic rock art globally. The antiquity of cupules extends back to the Lower Paleolithic in Asia and Africa, hundreds of thousand years ago. When one observes these cupules, the inquisitive mind poses so many questions with regard to understanding their technology, reasons for selecting the site, which rocks were used to make the hammer stones used, the skill and cognitive abilities employed to create the different types of cupules, the objective of their creation, their age, and so on. Replication of the cupules can provide satisfactory answers to some of these questions. Comparison of the hammer stones and cupules produced by the replication process with those obtained from excavation can provide support to observations. This paper presents a manual of cupule replication technology based on our experience of cupule replication on hard quartzite rock near Daraki-Chattan in the Chambal Basin, India. Full article
Open AccessCreative
The Development of Public Art and its Future Passive, Active and Interactive Past, Present and Future
Arts 2015, 4(3), 93-100; doi:10.3390/arts4030093 -
Abstract Never in the history of mankind have fundamental relationships changed so dramatically fast and with such far reaching consequences as in our time—now. [...] Full article
Open AccessEssay
Swing Low, Sweet Chariot: Kinetic Sculpture and the Crisis of Western Technocentrism
Arts 2015, 4(3), 75-92; doi:10.3390/arts4030075 -
Abstract
Beginning with the chariot as an ancient and pan-cultural example of the way in which art has humanized technology, this essay explores the limited role which modern art has thus far played in dealing with the current crisis of technocentrism. It does [...] Read more.
Beginning with the chariot as an ancient and pan-cultural example of the way in which art has humanized technology, this essay explores the limited role which modern art has thus far played in dealing with the current crisis of technocentrism. It does so by bringing to bear on the subject a newly-promulgated theory of the development of modern art which focuses on the absence therein of an evolved kinetic sculpture. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Is It Art or Knowledge? Deconstructing Australian Aboriginal Creative Making
Arts 2015, 4(2), 68-74; doi:10.3390/arts4020068 -
Abstract
Australian Aboriginal symbols are visual forms of knowledge that express cultural intellect. Being classified by a Western interpretation of “art” devalues thousands of years of generational knowledge systems, where visual information has been respected, appreciated and valued. This article highlights how Aboriginal [...] Read more.
Australian Aboriginal symbols are visual forms of knowledge that express cultural intellect. Being classified by a Western interpretation of “art” devalues thousands of years of generational knowledge systems, where visual information has been respected, appreciated and valued. This article highlights how Aboriginal creativity has little concept of aesthetical value, but is a cultural display of meaning relating to Creational periods, often labelled as The Dreamings. With over 350 different Aboriginal Nations in Australia, this article focuses of the Dharug Nation, located around the northern Sydney area of New South Wales. The Dharug term for the Creational period is Gunyalungalung—traditional ritualized customary lores (laws). These symbols are permanently located within the environment on open rock surfaces, caves and markings on trees. Whilst some symbols are manmade, others are made by Creational ancestral beings and contain deep story lines of information in sacredness. Therefore, creative imagery engraved or painted on rock surfaces are forms of conscious narratives that emphasise deep insight. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Discovering New Rock Paintings at Shmsali and Gorgali Rock Shelters in Kohgiluye and Bouier Ahmad Province, Southern Iran
Arts 2015, 4(2), 61-67; doi:10.3390/arts4020061 -
Abstract
TheShamsali and Gorgali rock shelters were discovered during an archaeological survey in 2009 at Kohgiluye Bouier Ahmad province, west of Iran. In total, 50 paintings occur at both rock shelters; 21 at Shamsali, and 29 remains at Gorgali rock shelter. The [...] Read more.
TheShamsali and Gorgali rock shelters were discovered during an archaeological survey in 2009 at Kohgiluye Bouier Ahmad province, west of Iran. In total, 50 paintings occur at both rock shelters; 21 at Shamsali, and 29 remains at Gorgali rock shelter. The paintings consist of “ibex”, “Predators”, and “riders” in red and black. They are depicted stylistically in singular or plural subjects in profile. In addition, the most numerous images in the Shamsali and Gorgali rock shelters represent “ibex”, comparable with a large numbers of such motifs identified in other regions of Iran. There is no certainty in attributed dates, because we are lacking absolute dating methods. Full article
Open AccessArticle
New Representations of “Chariots” in the Rock Art of Extremadura and Some Considerations of the Archaeological Context
Arts 2015, 4(2), 49-60; doi:10.3390/arts4020049 -
Abstract Depictions of “chariots” could be considered almost exceptional in the field of schematic rock art of the Iberian Peninsula. Their presence usually generates some discussions among researchers who are dedicated to the study of this artistic cycle to some extent. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Framing the Field: The Award for Sustainable Architecture
Arts 2015, 4(2), 34-48; doi:10.3390/arts4020034 -
Abstract
In this paper, we explore the effect that the increasingly powerful discourse of sustainability is having on the field of architecture. The term “field” derives from Bourdieu’s conceptualization of fields as dynamic spaces of social relations tending towards transformation or conservation. While [...] Read more.
In this paper, we explore the effect that the increasingly powerful discourse of sustainability is having on the field of architecture. The term “field” derives from Bourdieu’s conceptualization of fields as dynamic spaces of social relations tending towards transformation or conservation. While the overlapping fields of sustainability and architecture have historically been characterized by resistance, shifts in environmental discourse towards complexity and systems thinking and the inclusion of cultural, social, political and economic concerns within the broader mandate of sustainability signal a more synergistic ideological terrain. We use methods of narrative analysis to explore these shifts through the localized discourse of the award for sustainable architecture within the Australian context and offer a brief comparative analysis of the sustainable architecture awards discourse in Britain and North America. As arguably the most public elucidations of the profession’s ideology, architecture awards are a productive place in which to explore constructions of “sustainable architecture”. The narrative analysis reveals a trajectory towards assimilation supported by the positioning of sustainability as fundamentally a social, as well as an environmental practice. Contentions surrounding the ultimate disappearance of the award, however, reveal a more perverse relationship between sustainability and architecture. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Newly Found Petroglyphs in the Western Kermanshah
Arts 2015, 4(1), 24-33; doi:10.3390/arts4010024 -
Abstract
Recent field works have shown a great potential of rock art in western Iran, particularly in Kermanshah province. This paper has been prepared based on recent fieldwork, which has resulted in identifying new clusters of petroglyphs at the western part of Kermanshah [...] Read more.
Recent field works have shown a great potential of rock art in western Iran, particularly in Kermanshah province. This paper has been prepared based on recent fieldwork, which has resulted in identifying new clusters of petroglyphs at the western part of Kermanshah province. Several rock art sites have been identified in Bi-Ravas, Havar Poinrhis in north of Paveh, the rock art to the west of Paveh and the petroglyphs of Ryjab or Ryjav village. The depictions include anthropomorphs, zoomorphs, geometric forms and cupules. A remarkable characteristic of the rock art in the region is the considerable number of cupules, which were identified in Bi-Ravas, North of Paveh and Ryjab village. Only one specimen of a purported hunting scene has been recognized in Biravas, where a primary chronology could be made with regard to the depiction of a horse-like animal, which has been illustrated with a harness. More fieldwork will be required in order to shed more light on the rock art of western Kermanshah. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Arts in 2014
Arts 2015, 4(1), 23; doi:10.3390/arts4010023 -
Abstract The editors of Arts would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2014:[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Literature and Philosophy: Intersection and Boundaries
Arts 2015, 4(1), 1-22; doi:10.3390/arts4010001 -
Abstract
This paper is inspired by the manuscript of Philip Kitcher’s forthcoming book Deaths in Venice: The Cases of Gustav von Aschenbach, in which he offers a brilliant, philosophically inspired reading of Thomas Mann’s novel, as well as his views on the relationship [...] Read more.
This paper is inspired by the manuscript of Philip Kitcher’s forthcoming book Deaths in Venice: The Cases of Gustav von Aschenbach, in which he offers a brilliant, philosophically inspired reading of Thomas Mann’s novel, as well as his views on the relationship between literature and philosophy. One of Kitcher’s claims, which is my starting point, is that philosophy can be done not only by philosophers but also within some art forms, such as literature and music. Within the literary text, Kitcher claims, philosophy lies in the showing and the text can influence the way readers think and perceive the world. Due to this claim, I see Kitcher as pertaining to the group of literary cognitivists. He offers some powerful arguments in support of the cognitive value of literature, although his approach is substantially different from the arguments usually put forward in defence of literary cognitivism. In this paper, my aim is twofold: firstly, I want to analyse the relationship between philosophy and literature with the aim of showing that despite some overlap between the two disciplines, we have to keep them separate. Secondly, I want to explore what ramifications this has for literary cognitivism. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Movement and Time in the Nexus between Technological Modes with Jean Tinguely’s Kineticism
Arts 2014, 3(4), 394-406; doi:10.3390/arts3040394 -
Abstract
This paper addresses auto-destructive artworks by Jean Tinguely, Homage to New York (1960) and Study for an End of the World No. 2 (1962), to explore a changing consciousness of time in a period of technological transition from modern industrial machines towards [...] Read more.
This paper addresses auto-destructive artworks by Jean Tinguely, Homage to New York (1960) and Study for an End of the World No. 2 (1962), to explore a changing consciousness of time in a period of technological transition from modern industrial machines towards the domestication of televisual devices. One effect of these is works is a contribution to a turbulent consciousness of time by orchestrating new perceptions of temporality with mechanical and tele-communicational media. Tinguely’s kineticism is useful for articulating how different technologies can be used to rationalize time in different ways and highlight an incompatibility between the expression of time as an unfolding duration with mechanical media, and the temporal demands of televisual broadcast media. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Hand Traces: Technical Aspects of Positive and Negative Hand-Marking in Rock Art
Arts 2014, 3(4), 367-393; doi:10.3390/arts3040367 -
Abstract
Affordances necessary for the making of hand traces in the form of stencils and prints—primarily the availability of pigment and a suitable surface—bear on our understanding of their emergence as early exograms. Matters relating to the question of how pigment was/is applied, [...] Read more.
Affordances necessary for the making of hand traces in the form of stencils and prints—primarily the availability of pigment and a suitable surface—bear on our understanding of their emergence as early exograms. Matters relating to the question of how pigment was/is applied, the placement and embellishment of images, the procurement and preparation of ochre, and the selecting and priming of surfaces, are discussed here—as well as the intriguing occurrence of variant hands. Advantage is taken of Australia’s position as a zone of ongoing hand-marking practice to suggest what can be learned from ethnography. Finally, avenues for future research are proposed with a view to opening out a discussion of external information storage possibilities in relation to hand traces. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Development, Architecture and Modernism: Aspects of an Ongoing Controversy
Arts 2014, 3(4), 350-366; doi:10.3390/arts3040350 -
Abstract
In some discourses on sustainability, modernism in architecture is blamed for its technocratic beliefs that supposedly generated a lot of the social and environmental problems the world is facing today. At the same time, many architectural critics seem to be convinced that [...] Read more.
In some discourses on sustainability, modernism in architecture is blamed for its technocratic beliefs that supposedly generated a lot of the social and environmental problems the world is facing today. At the same time, many architectural critics seem to be convinced that the present call for sustainability with its “green buildings”, is but another screen behind which well-known old power structures hide. In this paper, we react to these viewpoints in different ways. First we clarify the issues that are haunting current architectural discourses by unraveling the logics behind the viewpoints of the critics of the “environmental doctrine” on the one hand and the technical environmentalists on the other hand. We will offer, secondly, a new framing to these debates by relying upon the modal sphere theory of the Dutch philosopher Herman Dooyeweerd. This new framing will allow us to reconnect, thirdly, with the discourse of modernism, which, we will argue, is all too often conflated with a technocratic paradigm—a partial, incomplete and even misleading representation. In conclusion, we present a different framing of modernism, which allows understanding of it as a multilayered and multifaceted response to the challenges of modernity, a response that formulated a series of ideals that are not so far removed from the ideals formulated today by many advocates of sustainability. We are, thus, suggesting that the sustainability discourse should be conceived as a more mature and revised version of the paradigm of modernism, rather than its absolute counterpoint. Full article