Open AccessArticle
Reappraising the Visionary Work of Arata Isozaki: Six Decades and Four Phases
Arts 2017, 6(3), 10; doi:10.3390/arts6030010 -
Abstract
This article analyses the work and presents a portrait of Japanese architect Arata Isozaki. His designs and buildings span six decades and it is suggested that these can be categorised into four distinctively different phases. As a former collaborator of Isozaki during the
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This article analyses the work and presents a portrait of Japanese architect Arata Isozaki. His designs and buildings span six decades and it is suggested that these can be categorised into four distinctively different phases. As a former collaborator of Isozaki during the 1990s, the author is able to draw from first-hand observations and knowledge to explain relevant projects. As the discussion points out, Isozaki’s work is highly unusual, original, complex and personal in its absorption of a multitude of influences and its interdisciplinary approach; thus, one could say that he has created ideas and concepts for spaces that defy characterisation as belonging to any single school of thought. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sites with Paintings in Morocco and the Atlantic Sahara
Arts 2017, 6(3), 9; doi:10.3390/arts6030009 -
Abstract
This article lists the rock art sites in Morocco with painted images so far published. It updates and includes the inventory of such sites published over 15 years ago. Short descriptions of the situation and contents of both new and old sites are
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This article lists the rock art sites in Morocco with painted images so far published. It updates and includes the inventory of such sites published over 15 years ago. Short descriptions of the situation and contents of both new and old sites are given. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Visual Language and ‘Paintaglios’ of Gerald Chukwuma: A Critical Analysis
Arts 2017, 6(2), 8; doi:10.3390/arts6020008 -
Abstract
Gerald Chukwuma is a prolific Nigerian artist whose creative adaptation and use of media tend to deviate from common practice. This essay draws on his several avant-garde works on display at the Nnamdi Azikiwe Library and at the administrative building of the University
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Gerald Chukwuma is a prolific Nigerian artist whose creative adaptation and use of media tend to deviate from common practice. This essay draws on his several avant-garde works on display at the Nnamdi Azikiwe Library and at the administrative building of the University of Nigeria Nsukka. These artworks are referred to as ‘paintaglio’ in this essay owing to the convergence of painting, and engraving (or intaglio) processes. This study therefore identifies, critically interprets and analyzes Chukwuma’s artistic inclinations—style, spirit, forms, materials, and techniques. This is in order to lay bare the formal and conceptual properties that foreground the artist’s recent paintaglio experiments. The study relies on personal interviews, literature, and images of Chukwuma’s works as data. Such experimental works which clearly express influences of ‘natural synthesis’ ideology are here examined against the backdrop of their epistemic themes. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Incarnation of Eddie Burrup: A Review of Elizabeth Durack, Art & Life, Selected Writings, Perpetua Durack Clancy (Editor), Brisbane: Connor Court
Arts 2017, 6(2), 7; doi:10.3390/arts6020007 -
Abstract
Elizabeth Durack (1915–2000) was a prolific Australian artist. She spent much of her life in Western Australia. Her subject of choice was most often aboriginal life. The book, Elizabeth Durack, Art & Life, Selected Writings (2016, edited by Perpetua Durack Clancy, Brisbane: Connor
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Elizabeth Durack (1915–2000) was a prolific Australian artist. She spent much of her life in Western Australia. Her subject of choice was most often aboriginal life. The book, Elizabeth Durack, Art & Life, Selected Writings (2016, edited by Perpetua Durack Clancy, Brisbane: Connor Court, 276 pp., A$29.95) presents a chronological selection of her writings in nine chapters, one decade per chapter. There are personal letters and extracts from her diaries, along with some published and unpublished essays. The style is frank, sometimes irreverent, and she rails against political correctness. In her 80th year, Elizabeth was gripped with a manic burst of creativity. She produced a remarkable suite of works in the thrall of her new muse, Eddie Burrup. The book throws light on her relationship with Eddie Burrup and the unfolding controversy. The presenting of art works of a white woman as those of an aboriginal man caused grief for some of the local artocrats. The first 80 years of Elizabeth Durack can be regarded as a long art apprenticeship and at the culmination of which she graduated to be Eddie Burrup. In this guise and in the twilight of her life, she produced the masterworks of her career, scores of remarkable paintings. The Eddie Burrup suite of paintings are big and bold, fresh and expansive, and uniquely Australian. They reveal Australia’s ancient landscape as a playground for the spirits and totems of the land. This book reveals some of the story of Elizabeth Durack and Eddie Burrup. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring Natural Stone and Building a National Identity: The Geological Exploration of Natural Stone Deposits in the Nordic Countries and the Development of a National-Romantic Architecture
Arts 2017, 6(2), 6; doi:10.3390/arts6020006 -
Abstract
In the second half of the 19th century, new methods for quarrying and processing natural stone were developed. In the Nordic countries Sweden, Norway, and Finland, this technological progress went hand in hand with a systematic geological mapping and large-scale exploitation of natural
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In the second half of the 19th century, new methods for quarrying and processing natural stone were developed. In the Nordic countries Sweden, Norway, and Finland, this technological progress went hand in hand with a systematic geological mapping and large-scale exploitation of natural stone deposits. As a result, new constructions were developed, changing the building practice in these countries. With the end of historicism, a new architecture arose that, particularly in Norway and Finland, acquired a national-romantic character. This paper examines the interaction between geological exploration, commercial development, technical inventions, and the development of national-romantic architecture. Full article
Open AccessEssay
The Machine as Artist: An Introduction
Arts 2017, 6(2), 5; doi:10.3390/arts6020005 -
Abstract
With the understanding that art and technology are continuing to experience an historic and rapidly intensifying rapprochement—but with the understanding as well that accounts thereof have tended to be constrained by scientific/engineering rigor on the one hand, or have tended to swing to
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With the understanding that art and technology are continuing to experience an historic and rapidly intensifying rapprochement—but with the understanding as well that accounts thereof have tended to be constrained by scientific/engineering rigor on the one hand, or have tended to swing to the opposite extreme—it is the goal of this special issue of Arts to provide an opportunity for artists, humanists, scientists, and engineers to consider this development from the broader perspective which it deserves, while at the same time retaining a focus on what must surely be the emerging core of our subject: the state of the art in mechatronics and computation is such that we can now begin to speak comfortably of the machine as artist—and we can begin to hope, as well, that an aesthetic sensitivity on the part of the machine might help lead to a friendlier and more sensitive machine intelligence in general. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reaching for Success: Picasso’s Rise in the Market (The First Two Decades)
Arts 2017, 6(2), 4; doi:10.3390/arts6020004 -
Abstract
This article explores the exhibitions of Picasso’s works in the first two decades of his artistic career, as well as the dealers and collectors who came into contact with them. It describes the relationship between Picasso and his first dealers, Pere Manyach, Berthe
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This article explores the exhibitions of Picasso’s works in the first two decades of his artistic career, as well as the dealers and collectors who came into contact with them. It describes the relationship between Picasso and his first dealers, Pere Manyach, Berthe Weill, Clovis Sagot, Père Soulier, Ambroise Vollard, Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, Georg Caspari, L. W. Guthier, Hans Goltz, Heinrich Thannhauser, Otto Feldmann, Alfred Flechtheim, Emil Richter, Gottfried Tanner, Michael Brenner, R. J. Coady, Léonce Rosenberg, Paul Rosenberg, etc.; as well as his first collectors, Leo and Gertrude Stein, Olivier Sainsère, Joachim Gasquet, Wilhelm Uhde, Herman Rupf, Vincenc Kramář, Frank Stoop, Hugo Perls, Edwin Suermondt, Dr. Paul Ferdinand Schmidt, Princess Mechtilde Lichnowsky, Henry Simms, Ludwig and Rosy Fischer, Professor Wilhelm Kreis, Adolf Erblösch, Justin K. Thannhauser, Sergei Ivanovich Shchukin, Ivan A. Morosov, etc. It also identifies all important Picasso expositions in this time period and how those dealers and collectors were involved in their arrangement. The information provided here has been excerpted from an exhaustive study of the critical literature on Pablo Picasso, as well as from published exhibition catalogues. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Symbolism of the Goat and Its Presence in Picasso’s Work
Arts 2017, 6(2), 3; doi:10.3390/arts6020003 -
Abstract
To ancient men, goats, and all that was related to them, were associated with a burning sexuality, even with lasciviousness and lust, and connected with the deities Venus and Bacchus. In this case, this connection occurs through mythological creatures, like fauns and satyrs,
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To ancient men, goats, and all that was related to them, were associated with a burning sexuality, even with lasciviousness and lust, and connected with the deities Venus and Bacchus. In this case, this connection occurs through mythological creatures, like fauns and satyrs, all of them representations of an unbridled sexuality. On the other hand, goats were also considered as whimsical and unstable animals, whose behavior was very changeable, and in some contexts, as a symbol of Christ. This paper will show how many of these symbols are repeated in the representations of this animal in Picasso’s works. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Journalism, Caricature and Satirical Drawings in Early Picasso (1891–1895): The Awakening of Pablo Ruiz’s Critical Consciousness
Arts 2017, 6(1), 2; doi:10.3390/arts6010002 -
Abstract
In Pablo Picasso’s formative period in A Coruña (1891–1895), where he was born as an artist, the child and pre-adolescent who at that time signed himself as Pablo Ruiz, already knowing he was a genius, pursued an intense programme of creative activity while
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In Pablo Picasso’s formative period in A Coruña (1891–1895), where he was born as an artist, the child and pre-adolescent who at that time signed himself as Pablo Ruiz, already knowing he was a genius, pursued an intense programme of creative activity while devoting himself to drawing and painting. Making use of his facility for reproducing the world around him in images, he also proved to be an incipient devotee of journalism as an instrument of communication and social awareness, a satirical draughtsman and caricaturist, seeking to give his version of events, in line with the magazines and newspapers of the period, and displaying a critical ability unusual in a child, a committed gaze, not devoid of humour and sarcasm, which prefigures the later Picasso with his progressive views, acute intelligence, meta-ironic approach and support for great causes.
Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Function and Form: Shifts in Modernist Architects’ Design Thinking
Arts 2017, 6(1), 1; doi:10.3390/arts6010001 -
Abstract
Since the so-called “type-debate” at the 1914 Werkbund Exhibition in Cologne—on individual versus standardized types—the discussion about turning Function into Form has been an important topic in Architectural Theory. The aim of this article is to trace the historic shifts in the relationship
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Since the so-called “type-debate” at the 1914 Werkbund Exhibition in Cologne—on individual versus standardized types—the discussion about turning Function into Form has been an important topic in Architectural Theory. The aim of this article is to trace the historic shifts in the relationship between Function and Form: First, how Functional Thinking was turned into an Art Form; this orginates in the Werkbund concept of artistic refinement of industrial production. Second, how Functional Analysis was applied to design and production processes, focused on certain aspects, such as economic management or floor plan design. Third, how Architectural Function was used as a social or political argument; this is of particular interest during the interwar years. A comparison of theses different aspects of the relationship between Function and Form reveals that it has undergone fundamental shifts—from Art to Science and Politics—that are tied to historic developments. It is interesting to note that this happens in a short period of time in the first half of the 20th Century. Looking at these historic shifts not only sheds new light on the creative process in Modern Architecture, this may also serve as a stepstone towards a new rethinking of Function and Form. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sandals as Icons: Representations in Ancestral Pueblo Rock Art and Effigies in Stone and Wood
Arts 2016, 5(4), 7; doi:10.3390/arts5040007 -
Abstract
Dating the late 1000s to the mid-1200s CE, petroglyphs of sandal images are among others that distinguish ancient Pueblo rock art in the San Juan and Little Colorado River drainages on the Colorado Plateau from Ancestral Pueblo rock art elsewhere across the Southwest.
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Dating the late 1000s to the mid-1200s CE, petroglyphs of sandal images are among others that distinguish ancient Pueblo rock art in the San Juan and Little Colorado River drainages on the Colorado Plateau from Ancestral Pueblo rock art elsewhere across the Southwest. The sandal “track” also has counterparts as effigies in stone and wood often found in ceremonial contexts in Pueblo sites. These representations reflect the sandal styles of the times, both plain in contour and the jog-toed variety, the latter characterized by a projection where the little toe is positioned. These representations are both plain and patterned, as are their material sandal counterparts. Their significance as symbolic icons is their dominant aspect, and a ritual meaning is implicit. As a component of a symbol system that was radically altered after 1300 CE, however, there is no ethnographic information that provides clues as to the sandal icon’s meaning. While there is no significant pattern of its associations with other symbolic content in the petroglyph panels, in some western San Juan sites cases a relationship to the hunt can be inferred. It is suggested that the track itself could refer to a deity, a mythological hero, or the carver ’s social identity. In conclusion, however, no clear meaning of the images themselves is forthcoming, and further research beckons. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Mark along the Way: Schematic Rock Art and Communication Routes
Arts 2016, 5(3), 6; doi:10.3390/arts5030006 -
Abstract
On the Iberian Peninsula, during the Neolithic age, there was a new cycle of post-Palaeolithic rock art: schematic rock art. This rock art style is said to date from the 6th millennium BCE until the end of the Bronze Age (around the transition
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On the Iberian Peninsula, during the Neolithic age, there was a new cycle of post-Palaeolithic rock art: schematic rock art. This rock art style is said to date from the 6th millennium BCE until the end of the Bronze Age (around the transition between the 2nd and 1st millennium BCE). Schematic rock art has been interpreted from different approaches (religious, semiological, social) according to the different lines of research followed in Spain for more than 100 years. In this article, based on the studies linked to “landscape archeology”, we are proposing an interpretative approach of schematic rock art. For us, this rock art style would have a functional character, landscape marker, reflecting close connections between the places chosen as a support for schematic depictions and ones with survival resources or communication routes between territories. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Archaeology and Art in War Zones: Methods, Media, Technology, and Aesthetics
Arts 2016, 5(3), 5; doi:10.3390/arts5030005 -
Abstract Convergence between the work of the historian or archaeologist and that of writers or artists was a given for a long time.[...] Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Cinematic Bodies
Arts 2016, 5(2), 4; doi:10.3390/arts5020004 -
Abstract It is difficult to imagine a cinema without bodies.[...] Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Brutalism Now: Rethinking Brutalism in Contemporary World Architecture
Arts 2016, 5(2), 3; doi:10.3390/arts5020003 -
Abstract Brutalism has a privileged role in the history of modern architecture.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Authenticity and Restoration: The Benefits of Historical Studies on Re-Examining the Implemented Restorations in Persepolis
Arts 2016, 5(1), 2; doi:10.3390/arts5010002 -
Abstract
Preserving the authenticity of historical monuments is an inseparable part of restoration activities that has always been asserted by the international principles of historical preservation. However, the local condition of historical sites may influence such a primitive intention of restorers. While historical documents
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Preserving the authenticity of historical monuments is an inseparable part of restoration activities that has always been asserted by the international principles of historical preservation. However, the local condition of historical sites may influence such a primitive intention of restorers. While historical documents are appropriate sources which can provide restorers with the real condition of ancient structures in the course of time, investigation through these precious materials is a time-consuming process and the reliability of these old evidences is, itself, a challenging issue. The Italian Institute for Middle and Far East (IsMEO) missioned long-term restoration activities in Persepolis between 1964 and the Islamic Revolution in Iran. Generally, this institute is praised for this series of projects. In this paper, the author questions the historical authenticity of restoration activities missioned by this institute in a structure so-called The Gate of All Nations. Indeed, the restoration of this structure was influenced by the 2500th anniversary of the Persian Empire, which was held in Persepolis in 1971. By tracing the context of historical evidences and presenting a method for obtaining the authenticity of these documents, this paper demonstrates a new perspective towards the arrangement of a stone-made capital, which ornaments the uppermost part of a re-erected ancient column. Full article
Open AccessOpinion
Participative Mindscapes
Arts 2016, 5(1), 1; doi:10.3390/arts5010001 -
Abstract
In parallel with my social activism, I introduced architecture into my kinetic art and participatory activism into my architecture. Flexibility and participation in architectural design has been a permanent feature of my practice, bringing new opportunities for self-expression in urban living. To form
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In parallel with my social activism, I introduced architecture into my kinetic art and participatory activism into my architecture. Flexibility and participation in architectural design has been a permanent feature of my practice, bringing new opportunities for self-expression in urban living. To form follows function I opposed form follows movement because it is man oriented while function is object oriented. After my 1962–1964 Mecanographs, machine-made images based on an interaction between the movement, the artist and the machine, I joined forces with Len Lye to determine what kind of positive attributes a Museum of Kinetic Art should have, defining three aspects of kinetic movement: illumination, sound, and physical movement. Vasarely and other kinetic artists put their mark on their time by promoting a form of social art, accessible to all, suggesting movement without actual movement. Walking through my medieval village can be a kinetic experience. The sense of wonder you feel at every corner compares with that of optical art. In the past decade, I moved toward a new form of participatory kinetic expression using state-of-the-art technology (plastics, LED, wireless devices). I view my kinetic work as an architectural experience and architecture as a stimulating kinetic experience. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Sounding Science: Exploring Music in Science and Science in Music
Arts 2015, 4(4), 121-122; doi:10.3390/arts4040121 -
Open AccessArticle
Manual of Cupule Replication Technology
Arts 2015, 4(3), 101-120; doi:10.3390/arts4030101 -
Abstract
Throughout the world, iconic rock art is preceded by non-iconic rock art. Cupules (manmade, roughly semi-hemispherical depressions on rocks) form the major bulk of the early non-iconic rock art globally. The antiquity of cupules extends back to the Lower Paleolithic in Asia and
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Throughout the world, iconic rock art is preceded by non-iconic rock art. Cupules (manmade, roughly semi-hemispherical depressions on rocks) form the major bulk of the early non-iconic rock art globally. The antiquity of cupules extends back to the Lower Paleolithic in Asia and Africa, hundreds of thousand years ago. When one observes these cupules, the inquisitive mind poses so many questions with regard to understanding their technology, reasons for selecting the site, which rocks were used to make the hammer stones used, the skill and cognitive abilities employed to create the different types of cupules, the objective of their creation, their age, and so on. Replication of the cupules can provide satisfactory answers to some of these questions. Comparison of the hammer stones and cupules produced by the replication process with those obtained from excavation can provide support to observations. This paper presents a manual of cupule replication technology based on our experience of cupule replication on hard quartzite rock near Daraki-Chattan in the Chambal Basin, India. Full article
Open AccessCreative
The Development of Public Art and its Future Passive, Active and Interactive Past, Present and Future
Arts 2015, 4(3), 93-100; doi:10.3390/arts4030093 -
Abstract Never in the history of mankind have fundamental relationships changed so dramatically fast and with such far reaching consequences as in our time—now. [...] Full article