Open AccessArticle
What Is Body, What Is Space? Performance and the Cinematic Body in a Non-Anthropocentric Cinema
Arts 2017, 6(4), 19; doi:10.3390/arts6040019 -
Abstract
The assumption of a clear demarcation and hierarchy between figure and ground has long informed key approaches in film studies to bodies and space. However, many filmmakers working in both animation and live cinema have confounded this hierarchy, working with an integration of
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The assumption of a clear demarcation and hierarchy between figure and ground has long informed key approaches in film studies to bodies and space. However, many filmmakers working in both animation and live cinema have confounded this hierarchy, working with an integration of figure and ground on equal terms to explore the full performative potential of the cinematic body. In the animation work of Einar Baldvin, this strategy is an Expressionist one, blurring the boundaries between figure and ground in order to project affective and psychic states onto the space around the body. In Wong Kar-wai’s The Grandmaster, this blurring of boundaries between figure and ground eschews an Expressionist mode, working instead to render, in aesthetic form, a biophilosophy that emphasizes the continuity between bodies and environment to explore the possibilities of non-anthropocentric cinematic modes. An experimental writing style here serves to trace the energetic unfolding of these strategies across both films in order to frame the question, ‘what is body here, what is space’, and to ask how we as viewers engage with this embodied mode. Full article
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Open AccessEssay
Art in the Age of Machine Intelligence
Arts 2017, 6(4), 18; doi:10.3390/arts6040018 -
Abstract
In this wide‐ranging essay, the leader of Google’s Seattle AI group and founder of the Artists and Machine Intelligence program discusses the long‐standing and complex relationship between art and technology. The transformation of artistic practice and theory that attended the 19th century photographic
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In this wide‐ranging essay, the leader of Google’s Seattle AI group and founder of the Artists and Machine Intelligence program discusses the long‐standing and complex relationship between art and technology. The transformation of artistic practice and theory that attended the 19th century photographic revolution is explored as a parallel for the current revolution in machine intelligence, which promises not only to mechanize (or democratize) the means of reproduction, but also of production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Oval Engravings of Nabara 2 (Ennedi, Chad)
Arts 2017, 6(4), 16; doi:10.3390/arts6040016 -
Abstract
By revisiting the Nabara 2 shelter in the southern Ennedi (Chad), some previously unreported paintings and a whole set of unexpected oval engravings were surveyed. These engravings, internally decorated with patterns of lines, some featured by a single longitudinal element or a sort
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By revisiting the Nabara 2 shelter in the southern Ennedi (Chad), some previously unreported paintings and a whole set of unexpected oval engravings were surveyed. These engravings, internally decorated with patterns of lines, some featured by a single longitudinal element or a sort of reticular structure, make Nabara 2 an unparalleled site among the hundreds known in the region. Comparison with similar motifs associated to human depictions found at the western termination of the Ennedi Highland suggests these engravings could be depictions of shields, attributable to the pastoral period. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Model of Triadic Post-Tonality for a Neoconservative Postmodern String Quartet by Sky Macklay
Arts 2017, 6(4), 15; doi:10.3390/arts6040015 -
Abstract
This article proposes a non-plural perspective on the analysis of triadic music, offering Sky Macklay’s Many Many Cadences as a case study. Part one is a discussion of the work’s harmony-voice leading nexus, followed by a discussion of the five conditions of correspondence
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This article proposes a non-plural perspective on the analysis of triadic music, offering Sky Macklay’s Many Many Cadences as a case study. Part one is a discussion of the work’s harmony-voice leading nexus, followed by a discussion of the five conditions of correspondence as implied by this string quartet that articulate a single tonal identity. Part three focuses on a strictly kinematic analysis of the work’s harmonic progressions that evinces this identity and establishes its general applicability. In the final section, the data generated by this analysis conveys the inherent possibility of a single, all-encompassing kinematic, thereby pointing beyond the particularities of Many Many Cadences while informing my formal interpretation of the work. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Prescriptive Methodology as a Generative Tool: A Case Study Conducted at Introductory Interior Design Studio Level in the United Arab Emirates
Arts 2017, 6(4), 17; doi:10.3390/arts6040017 -
Abstract
In the U.A.E. (United Arab Emirates), interior design education is often misunderstood as interior decoration, wherein the former is a more comprehensive design approach to spaces formed by structural boundaries and curation of human interaction. The conducted case study addressed a small number
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In the U.A.E. (United Arab Emirates), interior design education is often misunderstood as interior decoration, wherein the former is a more comprehensive design approach to spaces formed by structural boundaries and curation of human interaction. The conducted case study addressed a small number of students enrolled in Interior Design Studio I at Zayed University, Abu Dhabi campus. In addition to traditional teaching methods compromised of individual desk critique sessions, group pin-ups and presentations, three innovative methods were implemented as a means of guiding students through the process: direct sequential instruction executed within an assigned time frame, reflection on the surfaced result and use of flat photography or panoramas as means of space communication. Throughout the three implemented stages of the project, and through utilizing the above-described generative methodology, students achieved complex representation and revealed higher spatial order related to human occupation and space inhabitation. This methodology allowed students to channel their work through complex sets of interconnected information and derived an outcome from an accumulative multi-layered resolution. The article presents the process and analyses the achieved outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pop-Up, Liquid Architecture for a Liquid World
Arts 2017, 6(3), 14; doi:10.3390/arts6030014 -
Abstract
The present paper will translate the term liquid modernity into architecture: What is liquid architecture? In the contemporary world, particularly in big cities, we are observing the spread of a wide range of events that generates sudden demands for transitory and short-term lodgings.
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The present paper will translate the term liquid modernity into architecture: What is liquid architecture? In the contemporary world, particularly in big cities, we are observing the spread of a wide range of events that generates sudden demands for transitory and short-term lodgings. International fairs and expos, cultural festivals and sport meets all share the factor of having a strong impact on their urban context with temporary and unstable buildings (forms). These buildings are not just designed by architects but also by artists, graphic designers, musicians, photographers, and even cooks. Therefore, can we call them buildings? How is this liquid architecture? Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Screen in Fresco Paintings: A Study of the ‘Screen-Style Frescoes’ in the Temples of Gaoping County in China
Arts 2017, 6(3), 13; doi:10.3390/arts6030013 -
Abstract
Screen-style frescoes, found in the temples of Gaoping County, Shanxi Province, China, and originating mostly from the Qing Dynasty, present a unique painting form. Folk artists not only painted the screen, a common object in everyday life in ancient China, on the wall
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Screen-style frescoes, found in the temples of Gaoping County, Shanxi Province, China, and originating mostly from the Qing Dynasty, present a unique painting form. Folk artists not only painted the screen, a common object in everyday life in ancient China, on the wall surfaces, but also created a variety of paintings inside the screen panels, whereby the viewer sees a painting within a painting. This article, based on multiple field trips, aims to analyze screen-style frescoes in terms of their locations, styles, and unique artistic characteristics such as subject matter, color usage, and brushwork. By studying the influence of literati paintings from the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the author also reveals the aesthetic transition from religious scenes to secular life as presented in the temple frescoes in ancient Gaoping County. Full article
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Open AccessProject Report
Mobility, Mood and Place—Co-Designing Age-Friendly Cities: A Report on Collaborations between Older People and Students of Architecture
Arts 2017, 6(3), 12; doi:10.3390/arts6030012 -
Abstract
Mobility, Mood and Place explores how places can be designed collaboratively to make pedestrian mobility easy, enjoyable and meaningful for older people. The built environment often excludes marginalised groups such as older people, single mothers and others with special needs. ‘Co-design’ is emerging
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Mobility, Mood and Place explores how places can be designed collaboratively to make pedestrian mobility easy, enjoyable and meaningful for older people. The built environment often excludes marginalised groups such as older people, single mothers and others with special needs. ‘Co-design’ is emerging as an important approach in architectural and urban design, which diversifies stakeholder participation and representation. Participatory co-design approaches can include such stakeholders so as to address their priorities and ensure that other stakeholders empathise with their perspective. This can enhance students’ methodological flexibility and empathy. This paper critically reflects on architecture students’ experiences, together with older adults (including stroke-survivors and those with dementia), in producing co-design research on age-friendly environments and offers some methodological insights. It also discusses competing objectives between a co-design research project that involved students of architecture and landscape design on post-graduate academic programmes. Finally, the paper will offer contributions to architects interested in designing places that take into account the needs of older people. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Features of Vernacular Architecture: Housing of Eastern Black Sea Region as a Case Study
Arts 2017, 6(3), 11; doi:10.3390/arts6030011 -
Abstract
The contributions of sustainability to architectural designs are steadily increasing in parallel with developments in technology. Although sustainability seems to be a new concept in today’s architecture, in reality, it is not. This is because, much of sustainable architectural design principles depend on
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The contributions of sustainability to architectural designs are steadily increasing in parallel with developments in technology. Although sustainability seems to be a new concept in today’s architecture, in reality, it is not. This is because, much of sustainable architectural design principles depend on references to vernacular architecture, and there are many examples found in different parts of the world to which architects can refer. When the world seeks for more sustainable buildings, it is acceptable to revisit the past in order to understand sustainable features of vernacular architecture. It is clear that vernacular architecture has a knowledge that matters to be studied and classified from a sustainability point of view. This work aims to demonstrate that vernacular architecture can contribute to improving sustainability in construction. In this sense, the paper evaluates specific vernacular housing in Eastern Black Sea Region in Turkey and their response to nature and ecology. In order to explain this response, field work was carried out and the vernacular architectural accumulation of the region was examined on site. The features of the examples have been identified and debated in today’s sustainable architectural concept. This work holistically evaluates this architectural manifestation, in the light of current knowledge, in order to find scientific justification for its knowledge to verify and promote its application in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reappraising the Visionary Work of Arata Isozaki: Six Decades and Four Phases
Arts 2017, 6(3), 10; doi:10.3390/arts6030010 -
Abstract
This article analyses the work and presents a portrait of Japanese architect Arata Isozaki. His designs and buildings span six decades and it is suggested that these can be categorised into four distinctively different phases. As a former collaborator of Isozaki during the
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This article analyses the work and presents a portrait of Japanese architect Arata Isozaki. His designs and buildings span six decades and it is suggested that these can be categorised into four distinctively different phases. As a former collaborator of Isozaki during the 1990s, the author is able to draw from first-hand observations and knowledge to explain relevant projects. As the discussion points out, Isozaki’s work is highly unusual, original, complex and personal in its absorption of a multitude of influences and its interdisciplinary approach; thus, one could say that he has created ideas and concepts for spaces that defy characterisation as belonging to any single school of thought. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sites with Paintings in Morocco and the Atlantic Sahara
Arts 2017, 6(3), 9; doi:10.3390/arts6030009 -
Abstract
This article lists the rock art sites in Morocco with painted images so far published. It updates and includes the inventory of such sites published over 15 years ago. Short descriptions of the situation and contents of both new and old sites are
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This article lists the rock art sites in Morocco with painted images so far published. It updates and includes the inventory of such sites published over 15 years ago. Short descriptions of the situation and contents of both new and old sites are given. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Visual Language and ‘Paintaglios’ of Gerald Chukwuma: A Critical Analysis
Arts 2017, 6(2), 8; doi:10.3390/arts6020008 -
Abstract
Gerald Chukwuma is a prolific Nigerian artist whose creative adaptation and use of media tend to deviate from common practice. This essay draws on his several avant-garde works on display at the Nnamdi Azikiwe Library and at the administrative building of the University
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Gerald Chukwuma is a prolific Nigerian artist whose creative adaptation and use of media tend to deviate from common practice. This essay draws on his several avant-garde works on display at the Nnamdi Azikiwe Library and at the administrative building of the University of Nigeria Nsukka. These artworks are referred to as ‘paintaglio’ in this essay owing to the convergence of painting, and engraving (or intaglio) processes. This study therefore identifies, critically interprets and analyzes Chukwuma’s artistic inclinations—style, spirit, forms, materials, and techniques. This is in order to lay bare the formal and conceptual properties that foreground the artist’s recent paintaglio experiments. The study relies on personal interviews, literature, and images of Chukwuma’s works as data. Such experimental works which clearly express influences of ‘natural synthesis’ ideology are here examined against the backdrop of their epistemic themes. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Incarnation of Eddie Burrup: A Review of Elizabeth Durack, Art & Life, Selected Writings, Perpetua Durack Clancy (Editor), Brisbane: Connor Court
Arts 2017, 6(2), 7; doi:10.3390/arts6020007 -
Abstract
Elizabeth Durack (1915–2000) was a prolific Australian artist. She spent much of her life in Western Australia. Her subject of choice was most often aboriginal life. The book, Elizabeth Durack, Art & Life, Selected Writings (2016, edited by Perpetua Durack Clancy, Brisbane: Connor
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Elizabeth Durack (1915–2000) was a prolific Australian artist. She spent much of her life in Western Australia. Her subject of choice was most often aboriginal life. The book, Elizabeth Durack, Art & Life, Selected Writings (2016, edited by Perpetua Durack Clancy, Brisbane: Connor Court, 276 pp., A$29.95) presents a chronological selection of her writings in nine chapters, one decade per chapter. There are personal letters and extracts from her diaries, along with some published and unpublished essays. The style is frank, sometimes irreverent, and she rails against political correctness. In her 80th year, Elizabeth was gripped with a manic burst of creativity. She produced a remarkable suite of works in the thrall of her new muse, Eddie Burrup. The book throws light on her relationship with Eddie Burrup and the unfolding controversy. The presenting of art works of a white woman as those of an aboriginal man caused grief for some of the local artocrats. The first 80 years of Elizabeth Durack can be regarded as a long art apprenticeship and at the culmination of which she graduated to be Eddie Burrup. In this guise and in the twilight of her life, she produced the masterworks of her career, scores of remarkable paintings. The Eddie Burrup suite of paintings are big and bold, fresh and expansive, and uniquely Australian. They reveal Australia’s ancient landscape as a playground for the spirits and totems of the land. This book reveals some of the story of Elizabeth Durack and Eddie Burrup. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring Natural Stone and Building a National Identity: The Geological Exploration of Natural Stone Deposits in the Nordic Countries and the Development of a National-Romantic Architecture
Arts 2017, 6(2), 6; doi:10.3390/arts6020006 -
Abstract
In the second half of the 19th century, new methods for quarrying and processing natural stone were developed. In the Nordic countries Sweden, Norway, and Finland, this technological progress went hand in hand with a systematic geological mapping and large-scale exploitation of natural
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In the second half of the 19th century, new methods for quarrying and processing natural stone were developed. In the Nordic countries Sweden, Norway, and Finland, this technological progress went hand in hand with a systematic geological mapping and large-scale exploitation of natural stone deposits. As a result, new constructions were developed, changing the building practice in these countries. With the end of historicism, a new architecture arose that, particularly in Norway and Finland, acquired a national-romantic character. This paper examines the interaction between geological exploration, commercial development, technical inventions, and the development of national-romantic architecture. Full article
Open AccessEssay
The Machine as Artist: An Introduction
Arts 2017, 6(2), 5; doi:10.3390/arts6020005 -
Abstract
With the understanding that art and technology are continuing to experience an historic and rapidly intensifying rapprochement—but with the understanding as well that accounts thereof have tended to be constrained by scientific/engineering rigor on the one hand, or have tended to swing to
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With the understanding that art and technology are continuing to experience an historic and rapidly intensifying rapprochement—but with the understanding as well that accounts thereof have tended to be constrained by scientific/engineering rigor on the one hand, or have tended to swing to the opposite extreme—it is the goal of this special issue of Arts to provide an opportunity for artists, humanists, scientists, and engineers to consider this development from the broader perspective which it deserves, while at the same time retaining a focus on what must surely be the emerging core of our subject: the state of the art in mechatronics and computation is such that we can now begin to speak comfortably of the machine as artist—and we can begin to hope, as well, that an aesthetic sensitivity on the part of the machine might help lead to a friendlier and more sensitive machine intelligence in general. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reaching for Success: Picasso’s Rise in the Market (The First Two Decades)
Arts 2017, 6(2), 4; doi:10.3390/arts6020004 -
Abstract
This article explores the exhibitions of Picasso’s works in the first two decades of his artistic career, as well as the dealers and collectors who came into contact with them. It describes the relationship between Picasso and his first dealers, Pere Manyach, Berthe
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This article explores the exhibitions of Picasso’s works in the first two decades of his artistic career, as well as the dealers and collectors who came into contact with them. It describes the relationship between Picasso and his first dealers, Pere Manyach, Berthe Weill, Clovis Sagot, Père Soulier, Ambroise Vollard, Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, Georg Caspari, L. W. Guthier, Hans Goltz, Heinrich Thannhauser, Otto Feldmann, Alfred Flechtheim, Emil Richter, Gottfried Tanner, Michael Brenner, R. J. Coady, Léonce Rosenberg, Paul Rosenberg, etc.; as well as his first collectors, Leo and Gertrude Stein, Olivier Sainsère, Joachim Gasquet, Wilhelm Uhde, Herman Rupf, Vincenc Kramář, Frank Stoop, Hugo Perls, Edwin Suermondt, Dr. Paul Ferdinand Schmidt, Princess Mechtilde Lichnowsky, Henry Simms, Ludwig and Rosy Fischer, Professor Wilhelm Kreis, Adolf Erblösch, Justin K. Thannhauser, Sergei Ivanovich Shchukin, Ivan A. Morosov, etc. It also identifies all important Picasso expositions in this time period and how those dealers and collectors were involved in their arrangement. The information provided here has been excerpted from an exhaustive study of the critical literature on Pablo Picasso, as well as from published exhibition catalogues. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Symbolism of the Goat and Its Presence in Picasso’s Work
Arts 2017, 6(2), 3; doi:10.3390/arts6020003 -
Abstract
To ancient men, goats, and all that was related to them, were associated with a burning sexuality, even with lasciviousness and lust, and connected with the deities Venus and Bacchus. In this case, this connection occurs through mythological creatures, like fauns and satyrs,
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To ancient men, goats, and all that was related to them, were associated with a burning sexuality, even with lasciviousness and lust, and connected with the deities Venus and Bacchus. In this case, this connection occurs through mythological creatures, like fauns and satyrs, all of them representations of an unbridled sexuality. On the other hand, goats were also considered as whimsical and unstable animals, whose behavior was very changeable, and in some contexts, as a symbol of Christ. This paper will show how many of these symbols are repeated in the representations of this animal in Picasso’s works. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Journalism, Caricature and Satirical Drawings in Early Picasso (1891–1895): The Awakening of Pablo Ruiz’s Critical Consciousness
Arts 2017, 6(1), 2; doi:10.3390/arts6010002 -
Abstract
In Pablo Picasso’s formative period in A Coruña (1891–1895), where he was born as an artist, the child and pre-adolescent who at that time signed himself as Pablo Ruiz, already knowing he was a genius, pursued an intense programme of creative activity while
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In Pablo Picasso’s formative period in A Coruña (1891–1895), where he was born as an artist, the child and pre-adolescent who at that time signed himself as Pablo Ruiz, already knowing he was a genius, pursued an intense programme of creative activity while devoting himself to drawing and painting. Making use of his facility for reproducing the world around him in images, he also proved to be an incipient devotee of journalism as an instrument of communication and social awareness, a satirical draughtsman and caricaturist, seeking to give his version of events, in line with the magazines and newspapers of the period, and displaying a critical ability unusual in a child, a committed gaze, not devoid of humour and sarcasm, which prefigures the later Picasso with his progressive views, acute intelligence, meta-ironic approach and support for great causes.
Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Function and Form: Shifts in Modernist Architects’ Design Thinking
Arts 2017, 6(1), 1; doi:10.3390/arts6010001 -
Abstract
Since the so-called “type-debate” at the 1914 Werkbund Exhibition in Cologne—on individual versus standardized types—the discussion about turning Function into Form has been an important topic in Architectural Theory. The aim of this article is to trace the historic shifts in the relationship
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Since the so-called “type-debate” at the 1914 Werkbund Exhibition in Cologne—on individual versus standardized types—the discussion about turning Function into Form has been an important topic in Architectural Theory. The aim of this article is to trace the historic shifts in the relationship between Function and Form: First, how Functional Thinking was turned into an Art Form; this orginates in the Werkbund concept of artistic refinement of industrial production. Second, how Functional Analysis was applied to design and production processes, focused on certain aspects, such as economic management or floor plan design. Third, how Architectural Function was used as a social or political argument; this is of particular interest during the interwar years. A comparison of theses different aspects of the relationship between Function and Form reveals that it has undergone fundamental shifts—from Art to Science and Politics—that are tied to historic developments. It is interesting to note that this happens in a short period of time in the first half of the 20th Century. Looking at these historic shifts not only sheds new light on the creative process in Modern Architecture, this may also serve as a stepstone towards a new rethinking of Function and Form. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sandals as Icons: Representations in Ancestral Pueblo Rock Art and Effigies in Stone and Wood
Arts 2016, 5(4), 7; doi:10.3390/arts5040007 -
Abstract
Dating the late 1000s to the mid-1200s CE, petroglyphs of sandal images are among others that distinguish ancient Pueblo rock art in the San Juan and Little Colorado River drainages on the Colorado Plateau from Ancestral Pueblo rock art elsewhere across the Southwest.
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Dating the late 1000s to the mid-1200s CE, petroglyphs of sandal images are among others that distinguish ancient Pueblo rock art in the San Juan and Little Colorado River drainages on the Colorado Plateau from Ancestral Pueblo rock art elsewhere across the Southwest. The sandal “track” also has counterparts as effigies in stone and wood often found in ceremonial contexts in Pueblo sites. These representations reflect the sandal styles of the times, both plain in contour and the jog-toed variety, the latter characterized by a projection where the little toe is positioned. These representations are both plain and patterned, as are their material sandal counterparts. Their significance as symbolic icons is their dominant aspect, and a ritual meaning is implicit. As a component of a symbol system that was radically altered after 1300 CE, however, there is no ethnographic information that provides clues as to the sandal icon’s meaning. While there is no significant pattern of its associations with other symbolic content in the petroglyph panels, in some western San Juan sites cases a relationship to the hunt can be inferred. It is suggested that the track itself could refer to a deity, a mythological hero, or the carver ’s social identity. In conclusion, however, no clear meaning of the images themselves is forthcoming, and further research beckons. Full article
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