Open AccessArticle
Architectural Trends and Structural Design in the Middle of the Twentieth Century: Two Examples in Portugal
Arts 2018, 7(1), 8; doi:10.3390/arts7010008 -
Abstract
Inthe context of a reductive generalisation, it can be affirmed that the supporting structure had a different role in most buildings in the two halves of the previous century. This statement has as reference the examples of the International Style in the
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Inthe context of a reductive generalisation, it can be affirmed that the supporting structure had a different role in most buildings in the two halves of the previous century. This statement has as reference the examples of the International Style in the first half of the twentieth century and early Postmodernism in the second half. Reinforcing this division, the structure was assigned a representative role in the first part that faded in the second. Basedon the abovementioned statement, this work seeks to question the relationship between the design of architecture and structure: How did architectural trends change the drawing of structure in the past? Thestudy is developed through a comparison of two buildings representing opposite positions concerning the structure’s role. The buildings are located in the transition of the two halves of the 20th century, and clearly demonstrate the initial statements. The difference in the position of the structural design in these two projects is revealed in the drawings of slabs, beams and pillars, showing the trends in each. Full article
Open AccessArticle
“Indirect” and “In-Between” of Open Database Art
Arts 2018, 7(1), 7; doi:10.3390/arts7010007 -
Abstract
In the digital age, many artists use digital information mixed in various ways to create works of art. The subject of this paper’s discussion, i.e., open database art (ODA), is one such example. This form of art uses database techniques to retrieve and
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In the digital age, many artists use digital information mixed in various ways to create works of art. The subject of this paper’s discussion, i.e., open database art (ODA), is one such example. This form of art uses database techniques to retrieve and accumulate vast amounts of readily available and participant-contributed data from the internet, for the purpose of using the contents of the artwork. In other words, the work itself has no preset content, and all of the content relies on the import of external data. This paper seeks to hypothetically discuss the movement of data during its entry and the departure from an artwork, to provide a context and perspective for understanding ODA works. This paper also seeks to analyze ODAs through the conceptual notion of the “between”, to systematize and eke out the various directions that an ODA work may take, for the reference of future related studies. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Art, Science, and Technology of Human Sexuality
Arts 2018, 7(1), 6; doi:10.3390/arts7010006 -
Abstract
In Spring 2017, Abyss Creations, a 20-year old manufacturer of hyper-realistic sex dolls (trade-named “RealDoll”) with a loyal customer base, launched an artificial intelligence app (named “Harmony”) to augment the dolls’ already life-like bodies, giving them customizable personalities and allowing them to flirt
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In Spring 2017, Abyss Creations, a 20-year old manufacturer of hyper-realistic sex dolls (trade-named “RealDoll”) with a loyal customer base, launched an artificial intelligence app (named “Harmony”) to augment the dolls’ already life-like bodies, giving them customizable personalities and allowing them to flirt and converse with their owners[...] Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Arts in 2017
Arts 2018, 7(1), 5; doi:10.3390/arts7010005 -
Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Arts maintains high quality standards for its published papers.[...] Full article
Open AccessEssay
The Machine as Art (in the 20th Century): An Introduction
Arts 2018, 7(1), 4; doi:10.3390/arts7010004 -
Abstract
The machine, over the course of the 20th century, progressively integrated itself into all fields of human activity, including artistic creation; and indeed, with the first decades of that century having established a surprisingly vital and wide-ranging series of perspectives on the relationship
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The machine, over the course of the 20th century, progressively integrated itself into all fields of human activity, including artistic creation; and indeed, with the first decades of that century having established a surprisingly vital and wide-ranging series of perspectives on the relationship between art and the machine, certain artists in the wake of the Second World War no longer felt compelled to treat the machine as a mere theme or source of inspiration: the machine itself becomes art—unless it is art which seeks to become mechanical? The artist mutates into “artist-engineer”; and this transition, resonating within a specific historical context, leads not only to a questioning of the nature of the work itself, but also to a broader questioning which places us within the realm of anthropology: what is this art telling us about the actual conditions of contemporary human society, and what is it telling us about the future to which we aspire? It is the goal of this special issue of Arts to stimulate an historically conscious, protean, and global (re)thinking of the cultural relationship between man and machine; and to this end, we welcome contributions falling anywhere within the nearly infinite spectrum represented by the prismatic period during the middle of the last century in which the machine became a legitimate artistic medium. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Algorithmic Art Machines
Arts 2018, 7(1), 3; doi:10.3390/arts7010003 -
Abstract
The article reviews the author’s personal development in relation to art made by algorithmic machines and discusses both the nature of such systems and the future implications for art. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
“Festive Customs” and “Everyday Beauty”. The Agenda and Self-Conception of the Nordic Life Reform Movement
Arts 2018, 7(1), 2; doi:10.3390/arts7010002 -
Abstract
In the second half of the 19th century, a wave of modernization, industrialization and urbanization swept the Nordic countries, catapulting what had until then been lagging and primarily rural countries into modernity. These major upheavals, however, also plunged the Nordic countries into a
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In the second half of the 19th century, a wave of modernization, industrialization and urbanization swept the Nordic countries, catapulting what had until then been lagging and primarily rural countries into modernity. These major upheavals, however, also plunged the Nordic countries into a profound social and cultural crisis resulting from their consciousness of their own backwardness vis-a-vis the countries on the European continent, as well as the recognition that a nostalgic nationalism recalling a mythical past had become obsolete in the industrial age. In response to this crisis, a life reform movement emerged that was based on Arts and Crafts movements as well as various artistic and literary reform movements and—equally absorbing rural traditions and progressive social ideas—tried to establish a new national everyday culture. In this article, the two key terms coined by Ellen Key, “Festive Customs” (“festvanor”) and “Everyday Beauty” (“vardagsskönhet”)—the programmatic core of the Nordic life reform movement—are analysed and illustrated in various typical manifestations. It also examines to what extent the Nordic life reform movement with these two key concepts as its core agenda found expression in arts and crafts, in painting as well as in the architecture of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century and contributed to the progress of social and cultural renewal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ornament in Contemporary Iranian Architecture (Case Study: Prominent Buildings in Tehran after the Islamic Revolution)
Arts 2018, 7(1), 1; doi:10.3390/arts7010001 -
Abstract
This paper addresses the status of ornamental practices in contemporary Iranian architecture, specifically after the Islamic revolution, using a descriptive–analytical method. In this regard, the external appearances of 92 prominent buildings constructed in Tehran between 1979–2013, were examined, and their means of visual
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This paper addresses the status of ornamental practices in contemporary Iranian architecture, specifically after the Islamic revolution, using a descriptive–analytical method. In this regard, the external appearances of 92 prominent buildings constructed in Tehran between 1979–2013, were examined, and their means of visual expression were analyzed. The results indicate that half of the samples lack ornament; in the others, a noticeable increase in the ornamental element size and visual complexity, as well as a significant decrease in their semantic contents (as compared with traditional ornament) were observed. These are changes that mostly resulted from modernization and subsequent processes such as industrialization and rationalization, as well as the long-lasting influence of modernists’ arguments against such practices. The presence of ornament in architecture, however, is necessary due to its crucial role in increasing the visual coherence of the environment and fulfilling the human desire for order and beauty. Therefore, this paper suggests the replacement of the current dualistic model of thought, which is dominant in the profession and schools of architecture in Iran, with one that provides an opportunity for the coexistence of concepts such as ornament and structure, form and function, and the sensuous and the rational, hence providing a revitalization of ornament in contemporary architecture. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Geometrical Method for Sound-Hole Size and Location Enhancement in Lute Family Musical Instruments: The Golden Method
Arts 2017, 6(4), 20; doi:10.3390/arts6040020 -
Abstract
This paper presents a new analytical approach, the Golden Method, to enhance sound-hole size and location in musical instruments of the lute family in order to obtain better sound damping characteristics based on the concept of the golden ratio and the instrument geometry.
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This paper presents a new analytical approach, the Golden Method, to enhance sound-hole size and location in musical instruments of the lute family in order to obtain better sound damping characteristics based on the concept of the golden ratio and the instrument geometry. The main objective of the paper is to increase the capability of lute family musical instruments in keeping a note for a certain time at a certain level to enhance the instruments’ orchestral characteristics. For this purpose, a geometry-based analytical method, the Golden Method is first described in detail in an itemized feature. A new musical instrument is then developed and tested to confirm the ability of the Golden Method in optimizing the acoustical characteristics of musical instruments from a damping point of view by designing the modified sound-hole. Finally, the new-developed instrument is tested, and the obtained results are compared with those of two well-known instruments to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. The experimental results show that the suggested method is able to increase the sound damping time by at least 2.4% without affecting the frequency response function and other acoustic characteristics of the instrument. This methodology could be used as the first step in future studies on design, optimization and evaluation of musical instruments of the lute family (e.g., lute, oud, barbat, mandolin, setar, and etc.). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
What Is Body, What Is Space? Performance and the Cinematic Body in a Non-Anthropocentric Cinema
Arts 2017, 6(4), 19; doi:10.3390/arts6040019 -
Abstract
The assumption of a clear demarcation and hierarchy between figure and ground has long informed key approaches in film studies to bodies and space. However, many filmmakers working in both animation and live cinema have confounded this hierarchy, working with an integration of
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The assumption of a clear demarcation and hierarchy between figure and ground has long informed key approaches in film studies to bodies and space. However, many filmmakers working in both animation and live cinema have confounded this hierarchy, working with an integration of figure and ground on equal terms to explore the full performative potential of the cinematic body. In the animation work of Einar Baldvin, this strategy is an Expressionist one, blurring the boundaries between figure and ground in order to project affective and psychic states onto the space around the body. In Wong Kar-wai’s The Grandmaster, this blurring of boundaries between figure and ground eschews an Expressionist mode, working instead to render, in aesthetic form, a biophilosophy that emphasizes the continuity between bodies and environment to explore the possibilities of non-anthropocentric cinematic modes. An experimental writing style here serves to trace the energetic unfolding of these strategies across both films in order to frame the question, ‘what is body here, what is space’, and to ask how we as viewers engage with this embodied mode. Full article
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Open AccessEssay
Art in the Age of Machine Intelligence
Arts 2017, 6(4), 18; doi:10.3390/arts6040018 -
Abstract
In this wide‐ranging essay, the leader of Google’s Seattle AI group and founder of the Artists and Machine Intelligence program discusses the long‐standing and complex relationship between art and technology. The transformation of artistic practice and theory that attended the 19th century photographic
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In this wide‐ranging essay, the leader of Google’s Seattle AI group and founder of the Artists and Machine Intelligence program discusses the long‐standing and complex relationship between art and technology. The transformation of artistic practice and theory that attended the 19th century photographic revolution is explored as a parallel for the current revolution in machine intelligence, which promises not only to mechanize (or democratize) the means of reproduction, but also of production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Oval Engravings of Nabara 2 (Ennedi, Chad)
Arts 2017, 6(4), 16; doi:10.3390/arts6040016 -
Abstract
By revisiting the Nabara 2 shelter in the southern Ennedi (Chad), some previously unreported paintings and a whole set of unexpected oval engravings were surveyed. These engravings, internally decorated with patterns of lines, some featured by a single longitudinal element or a sort
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By revisiting the Nabara 2 shelter in the southern Ennedi (Chad), some previously unreported paintings and a whole set of unexpected oval engravings were surveyed. These engravings, internally decorated with patterns of lines, some featured by a single longitudinal element or a sort of reticular structure, make Nabara 2 an unparalleled site among the hundreds known in the region. Comparison with similar motifs associated to human depictions found at the western termination of the Ennedi Highland suggests these engravings could be depictions of shields, attributable to the pastoral period. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Model of Triadic Post-Tonality for a Neoconservative Postmodern String Quartet by Sky Macklay
Arts 2017, 6(4), 15; doi:10.3390/arts6040015 -
Abstract
This article proposes a non-plural perspective on the analysis of triadic music, offering Sky Macklay’s Many Many Cadences as a case study. Part one is a discussion of the work’s harmony-voice leading nexus, followed by a discussion of the five conditions of correspondence
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This article proposes a non-plural perspective on the analysis of triadic music, offering Sky Macklay’s Many Many Cadences as a case study. Part one is a discussion of the work’s harmony-voice leading nexus, followed by a discussion of the five conditions of correspondence as implied by this string quartet that articulate a single tonal identity. Part three focuses on a strictly kinematic analysis of the work’s harmonic progressions that evinces this identity and establishes its general applicability. In the final section, the data generated by this analysis conveys the inherent possibility of a single, all-encompassing kinematic, thereby pointing beyond the particularities of Many Many Cadences while informing my formal interpretation of the work. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prescriptive Methodology as a Generative Tool: A Case Study Conducted at Introductory Interior Design Studio Level in the United Arab Emirates
Arts 2017, 6(4), 17; doi:10.3390/arts6040017 -
Abstract
In the U.A.E. (United Arab Emirates), interior design education is often misunderstood as interior decoration, wherein the former is a more comprehensive design approach to spaces formed by structural boundaries and curation of human interaction. The conducted case study addressed a small number
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In the U.A.E. (United Arab Emirates), interior design education is often misunderstood as interior decoration, wherein the former is a more comprehensive design approach to spaces formed by structural boundaries and curation of human interaction. The conducted case study addressed a small number of students enrolled in Interior Design Studio I at Zayed University, Abu Dhabi campus. In addition to traditional teaching methods compromised of individual desk critique sessions, group pin-ups and presentations, three innovative methods were implemented as a means of guiding students through the process: direct sequential instruction executed within an assigned time frame, reflection on the surfaced result and use of flat photography or panoramas as means of space communication. Throughout the three implemented stages of the project, and through utilizing the above-described generative methodology, students achieved complex representation and revealed higher spatial order related to human occupation and space inhabitation. This methodology allowed students to channel their work through complex sets of interconnected information and derived an outcome from an accumulative multi-layered resolution. The article presents the process and analyses the achieved outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pop-Up, Liquid Architecture for a Liquid World
Arts 2017, 6(3), 14; doi:10.3390/arts6030014 -
Abstract
The present paper will translate the term liquid modernity into architecture: What is liquid architecture? In the contemporary world, particularly in big cities, we are observing the spread of a wide range of events that generates sudden demands for transitory and short-term lodgings.
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The present paper will translate the term liquid modernity into architecture: What is liquid architecture? In the contemporary world, particularly in big cities, we are observing the spread of a wide range of events that generates sudden demands for transitory and short-term lodgings. International fairs and expos, cultural festivals and sport meets all share the factor of having a strong impact on their urban context with temporary and unstable buildings (forms). These buildings are not just designed by architects but also by artists, graphic designers, musicians, photographers, and even cooks. Therefore, can we call them buildings? How is this liquid architecture? Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Screen in Fresco Paintings: A Study of the ‘Screen-Style Frescoes’ in the Temples of Gaoping County in China
Arts 2017, 6(3), 13; doi:10.3390/arts6030013 -
Abstract
Screen-style frescoes, found in the temples of Gaoping County, Shanxi Province, China, and originating mostly from the Qing Dynasty, present a unique painting form. Folk artists not only painted the screen, a common object in everyday life in ancient China, on the wall
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Screen-style frescoes, found in the temples of Gaoping County, Shanxi Province, China, and originating mostly from the Qing Dynasty, present a unique painting form. Folk artists not only painted the screen, a common object in everyday life in ancient China, on the wall surfaces, but also created a variety of paintings inside the screen panels, whereby the viewer sees a painting within a painting. This article, based on multiple field trips, aims to analyze screen-style frescoes in terms of their locations, styles, and unique artistic characteristics such as subject matter, color usage, and brushwork. By studying the influence of literati paintings from the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the author also reveals the aesthetic transition from religious scenes to secular life as presented in the temple frescoes in ancient Gaoping County. Full article
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Open AccessProject Report
Mobility, Mood and Place—Co-Designing Age-Friendly Cities: A Report on Collaborations between Older People and Students of Architecture
Arts 2017, 6(3), 12; doi:10.3390/arts6030012 -
Abstract
Mobility, Mood and Place explores how places can be designed collaboratively to make pedestrian mobility easy, enjoyable and meaningful for older people. The built environment often excludes marginalised groups such as older people, single mothers and others with special needs. ‘Co-design’ is emerging
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Mobility, Mood and Place explores how places can be designed collaboratively to make pedestrian mobility easy, enjoyable and meaningful for older people. The built environment often excludes marginalised groups such as older people, single mothers and others with special needs. ‘Co-design’ is emerging as an important approach in architectural and urban design, which diversifies stakeholder participation and representation. Participatory co-design approaches can include such stakeholders so as to address their priorities and ensure that other stakeholders empathise with their perspective. This can enhance students’ methodological flexibility and empathy. This paper critically reflects on architecture students’ experiences, together with older adults (including stroke-survivors and those with dementia), in producing co-design research on age-friendly environments and offers some methodological insights. It also discusses competing objectives between a co-design research project that involved students of architecture and landscape design on post-graduate academic programmes. Finally, the paper will offer contributions to architects interested in designing places that take into account the needs of older people. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Features of Vernacular Architecture: Housing of Eastern Black Sea Region as a Case Study
Arts 2017, 6(3), 11; doi:10.3390/arts6030011 -
Abstract
The contributions of sustainability to architectural designs are steadily increasing in parallel with developments in technology. Although sustainability seems to be a new concept in today’s architecture, in reality, it is not. This is because, much of sustainable architectural design principles depend on
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The contributions of sustainability to architectural designs are steadily increasing in parallel with developments in technology. Although sustainability seems to be a new concept in today’s architecture, in reality, it is not. This is because, much of sustainable architectural design principles depend on references to vernacular architecture, and there are many examples found in different parts of the world to which architects can refer. When the world seeks for more sustainable buildings, it is acceptable to revisit the past in order to understand sustainable features of vernacular architecture. It is clear that vernacular architecture has a knowledge that matters to be studied and classified from a sustainability point of view. This work aims to demonstrate that vernacular architecture can contribute to improving sustainability in construction. In this sense, the paper evaluates specific vernacular housing in Eastern Black Sea Region in Turkey and their response to nature and ecology. In order to explain this response, field work was carried out and the vernacular architectural accumulation of the region was examined on site. The features of the examples have been identified and debated in today’s sustainable architectural concept. This work holistically evaluates this architectural manifestation, in the light of current knowledge, in order to find scientific justification for its knowledge to verify and promote its application in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reappraising the Visionary Work of Arata Isozaki: Six Decades and Four Phases
Arts 2017, 6(3), 10; doi:10.3390/arts6030010 -
Abstract
This article analyses the work and presents a portrait of Japanese architect Arata Isozaki. His designs and buildings span six decades and it is suggested that these can be categorised into four distinctively different phases. As a former collaborator of Isozaki during the
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This article analyses the work and presents a portrait of Japanese architect Arata Isozaki. His designs and buildings span six decades and it is suggested that these can be categorised into four distinctively different phases. As a former collaborator of Isozaki during the 1990s, the author is able to draw from first-hand observations and knowledge to explain relevant projects. As the discussion points out, Isozaki’s work is highly unusual, original, complex and personal in its absorption of a multitude of influences and its interdisciplinary approach; thus, one could say that he has created ideas and concepts for spaces that defy characterisation as belonging to any single school of thought. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sites with Paintings in Morocco and the Atlantic Sahara
Arts 2017, 6(3), 9; doi:10.3390/arts6030009 -
Abstract
This article lists the rock art sites in Morocco with painted images so far published. It updates and includes the inventory of such sites published over 15 years ago. Short descriptions of the situation and contents of both new and old sites are
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This article lists the rock art sites in Morocco with painted images so far published. It updates and includes the inventory of such sites published over 15 years ago. Short descriptions of the situation and contents of both new and old sites are given. Full article
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