Open AccessArticle
Tuning Guidelines for an Adaptive-Gain Parabolic Sliding Mode Filter
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 209; doi:10.3390/app7030209 -
Abstract
This paper quantitatively evaluates the performance of an adaptive-gain parabolic sliding mode filter (AG-PSMF), which is for removing noise in feedback control of mechatronic systems under different parameter values and noise intensities. The evaluation results show that, due to the nonlinearity of AG-PSMF,
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This paper quantitatively evaluates the performance of an adaptive-gain parabolic sliding mode filter (AG-PSMF), which is for removing noise in feedback control of mechatronic systems under different parameter values and noise intensities. The evaluation results show that, due to the nonlinearity of AG-PSMF, four performance measurements, i.e., transient time, overshoot magnitude, tracking error and computational time, vary widely under different conditions. Based on the evaluation results, the paper provides practical tuning guidelines for AG-PSMF to balance the tradeoff among the four measurements. The effectiveness of the guidelines is validated through numerical examples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Nondestructive Real-Time Detection Method of Total Viable Count in Pork by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 213; doi:10.3390/app7030213 -
Abstract
A nondestructive method was developed for assessing total viable count (TVC) in pork during refrigerated storage by using hyperspectral imaging technique in this study. The hyperspectral images in the visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) region of 400–1100 nm were acquired for fifty pork samples, and their
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A nondestructive method was developed for assessing total viable count (TVC) in pork during refrigerated storage by using hyperspectral imaging technique in this study. The hyperspectral images in the visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) region of 400–1100 nm were acquired for fifty pork samples, and their VIS/NIR diffuse reflectance spectra were extracted from the images. The reference values of TVC in pork samples were determined by classical microbiological plating method. Both partial least square regression (PLSR) model and support vector machine regression model (SVR) of TVC were built for comparative analysis to achieve better results. Different transformation methods and filtering methods were applied to improve the models. The results show that both the optimized PLSR model and SVR model can predict the TVC very well, while the SVR model based on second derivation was better, which achieved with RP (correlation coefficient of prediction set) = 0.94 and SEP (standard error of prediction set) = 0.4570 log CFU/g in the prediction set. An image processing algorithm was then developed to transfer the prediction model to every pixel of the image of the entire sample; the visualizing map of TVC would be displayed in real-time during the detection process due to the simplicity of the model. The results demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is a potential reliable approach for non-destructive and real-time prediction of TVC in pork. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dielectric and Impedance Analysis on the Electrical Response of Lead-Free Ba1−xCaxTi0.9Zr0.1O3 Ceramics at High Temperature Range
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 214; doi:10.3390/app7030214 -
Abstract
Ba1−xCaxTi0.9Zr0.1O3 (x = 0.10, 0.15, 0.18) solid solutions were synthesized by the conventional solid-state method. A perovskite-type structure was determined using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The addition of Ca2+ reduced
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Ba1−xCaxTi0.9Zr0.1O3 (x = 0.10, 0.15, 0.18) solid solutions were synthesized by the conventional solid-state method. A perovskite-type structure was determined using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The addition of Ca2+ reduced the grain size (22.6, 17.9 and 13.3 μm, respectively) for all well-sintered ceramics (≈98%). Moreover, the stability temperature ranges for the tetragonal phase were promoted by displacing the ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase’s transition temperatures while TC was maintained (86 °C). The electrical performance of the material improved as the stoichiometric composition was positioned near the morphotropic phase boundary (x = 0.15): εr ≈ 16,500 (TC) at 1 kHz. For T > TC, a thermally activated relaxation process occurred. In addition, the bulk and grain boundary processes were responsible for the conduction mechanisms. The composition x = 0.15 showed an activation energy of Ea = 1.49 eV with a maximum conductivity of σmax = 2.48 × 10−2 S·cm−1 at 580 °C. Systematic studies at high temperature for dielectric properties were accomplished for analyzing electrical inhomogeneities associated with the grain, grain boundaries or surfaces, which are important for device design and a fundamental electrical characterization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Denoising Method for an Acoustic-Based System through Empirical Mode Decomposition and an Improved Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 215; doi:10.3390/app7030215 -
Abstract
Generally, the sound signal produced by transmission unit or cutting unit contains abundant information about the working state of a machine. The acoustic-based diagnosis system presents some distinct advantages in some severe conditions particularly due to its unique non-contact measurement and unlimited use
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Generally, the sound signal produced by transmission unit or cutting unit contains abundant information about the working state of a machine. The acoustic-based diagnosis system presents some distinct advantages in some severe conditions particularly due to its unique non-contact measurement and unlimited use at the installation site. However, the original acoustic signal collected from manufacture process is always polluted by various background noises. In order to eliminate noise components from machinery sound effectively, an empirical mode decomposition (EMD) threshold denoising method optimized by an improved fruit fly optimization algorithm (IFOA) is launched in this paper. The acoustic signal was first decomposed by the adaptive EMD to obtain a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Then, the soft threshold function was applied to shrink the IMF coefficients. While the threshold of each IMF was determined by statistical estimation and empirical value for traditional EMD denoising, the denoising effect was often not desired and time-consuming. To solve these disadvantages, fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA) was introduced to search global optimal threshold of each IMF. Moreover, to enhance the group diversity during production of the next generation of fruit flies and balance the local and global searching ability, a variation coefficient and a disturbance coefficient was introduced to the basic FOA. Then, a piece of simulated acoustic signal produced by the train was applied to validate the proposed EMD and IFOA threshold denoising (EMD-IFOA). The simulation results, which decreased 35.40% and 18.92% in mean squared error (MSE) and percent root mean square difference (PRD) respectively, and increased 40.36% in signal-to-noise ratio improvement (SNRimp) compared with basic EMD denoising scheme at SNR = 5 dB, illustrated the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed approach. Finally, the proposed EMD-IFOA was conducted on an actual acoustic-based diagnosis system for cutting state recognition of the coal mining shearer to demonstrate the practical effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
DeepGait: A Learning Deep Convolutional Representation for View-Invariant Gait Recognition Using Joint Bayesian
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 210; doi:10.3390/app7030210 -
Abstract
Human gait, as a soft biometric, helps to recognize people through their walking. To further improve the recognition performance, we propose a novel video sensor-based gait representation, DeepGait, using deep convolutional features and introduce Joint Bayesian to model view variance. DeepGait is generated
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Human gait, as a soft biometric, helps to recognize people through their walking. To further improve the recognition performance, we propose a novel video sensor-based gait representation, DeepGait, using deep convolutional features and introduce Joint Bayesian to model view variance. DeepGait is generated by using a pre-trained “very deep” network “D-Net” (VGG-D) without any fine-tuning. For non-view setting, DeepGait outperforms hand-crafted representations (e.g., Gait Energy Image, Frequency-Domain Feature and Gait Flow Image, etc.). Furthermore, for cross-view setting, 256-dimensional DeepGait after PCA significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on the OU-ISR large population (OULP) dataset. The OULP dataset, which includes 4007 subjects, makes our result reliable in a statistically reliable way. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Traditional She Medicine Shi-Liang Tea Species and Closely Related Species Using the ITS2 Barcode
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 195; doi:10.3390/app7030195 -
Abstract
Traditional She medicine is part of China’s cultural heritage and has become remarkably popular worldwide. The Shi-Liang tea is made from the processed leaves of Chimonanthus salicifolius S. Y. Hu and Chimonanthus zhejiangensis M. C. Liu. To ensure the safety and efficacy of
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Traditional She medicine is part of China’s cultural heritage and has become remarkably popular worldwide. The Shi-Liang tea is made from the processed leaves of Chimonanthus salicifolius S. Y. Hu and Chimonanthus zhejiangensis M. C. Liu. To ensure the safety and efficacy of Shi-Liang tea, we used DNA barcoding based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA to distinguish the original plant sources of Shi-Liang tea from closely related species. All 71 ITS2 sequences were aligned by Clustal-W, and genetic distances were computed using MEGA 6.0 according to the Kimura 2-parameter model. The results indicated that the sequence lengths of ITS2 regions of the original plants of Shi-Liang tea and closely related species ranged from 256 bp to 260 bp. Interspecific genetic distances ranged from 0 to 0.078. The neighbor-joining (NJ) tree showed that the original plants of Shi-Liang tea species can be easily differentiated from closely related species. Distinct molecular differences were found between the secondary structures of ITS2 sequences from Shi-Liang tea and closely related species. The results in the present investigation suggested that the ITS2 could be an effective DNA marker to identify the original plants of Shi-Liang tea and their closely related species. These DNA barcodes can greatly benefit the supervision of the commercial circulation of She medicine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal and Fatigue Evaluation of Asphalt Mixtures Containing RAP Treated with a Bio-Agent
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 216; doi:10.3390/app7030216 -
Abstract
Environment conservation and diminishing natural resources caused an increase in popularity of the application of renewable bio-origin resources for the construction of road pavement. Currently, there are known additions of bio-origin materials for bitumen modification. Such material is also used as a flux
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Environment conservation and diminishing natural resources caused an increase in popularity of the application of renewable bio-origin resources for the construction of road pavement. Currently, there are known additions of bio-origin materials for bitumen modification. Such material is also used as a flux additive for bitumen or as a rejuvenator once working with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). This paper presents research dealing with asphalt mixtures with RAP modified with a bio-agent of rapeseed origin. The main idea of the conducted research was to apply more RAP content directly to the batch mix plant without extra RAP heating. The RAP used in this study was milled from a base asphalt layer; the addition of RAP stiffens new asphalt mixtures. A bio-agent, due to its fluxing action, was used to support the asphalt mixing process and to decrease the over-stiffening of the mixture caused by RAP addition. This research includes bitumen and mixture tests. For the bitumen study, three different bitumens (35/50, 50/70, and 70/100) were tested in a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) for complex modulus G* and for phase angle |δ| in the temperature range 0–100 °C. The reference mixture and mixtures with 2.5% bio-agent were tested to assess the influence of RAP and the bio-agent addition on the asphalt mixture properties. Low temperature behavior (TSRST), stiffness, and fatigue resistance (4PB) were tested. Based on the bitumen test, it was determined that even a low rate of bio-agent (2.5%) beneficially changes bitumen properties at a low temperature; moreover, polymerization processes occurring in the second stage of the process improves bitumen properties at a high operational temperature. The research with these asphalt mixtures demonstrates that the bio-origin flux acts as a rejuvenator and allows for an application of 30% cold RAP. Thermal cracking resistance of the mixture with RAP and 2.5% bio-agent improved. The bio-agent removes unfavorable stiffening of RAP and increases the fatigue resistance of the asphalt mixture. Full article
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Open AccessErratum
Erratum: A CMOS Multiplied Input Differential Difference Amplifier: A New Active Device and Its Applications. Applied Sciences 2017, 7, 106
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 211; doi:10.3390/app7020211 -
Abstract We wish to make the following correction to the published paper [...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling, Simulation, and Performance Analysis of Decoy State Enabled Quantum Key Distribution Systems
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 212; doi:10.3390/app7020212 -
Abstract
Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) systems exploit the laws of quantum mechanics to generate secure keying material for cryptographic purposes. To date, several commercially viable decoy state enabled QKD systems have been successfully demonstrated and show promise for high-security applications such as banking, government,
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Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) systems exploit the laws of quantum mechanics to generate secure keying material for cryptographic purposes. To date, several commercially viable decoy state enabled QKD systems have been successfully demonstrated and show promise for high-security applications such as banking, government, and military environments. In this work, a detailed performance analysis of decoy state enabled QKD systems is conducted through model and simulation of several common decoy state configurations. The results of this study uniquely demonstrate that the decoy state protocol can ensure Photon Number Splitting (PNS) attacks are detected with high confidence, while maximizing the system’s quantum throughput at no additional cost. Additionally, implementation security guidance is provided for QKD system developers and users. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Seismic Failure Mechanism of Reinforced Cold-Formed Steel Shear Wall System Based on Structural Vulnerability Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 182; doi:10.3390/app7020182 -
Abstract
A series of structural vulnerability analyses are conducted on a reinforced cold-formed steel (RCFS) shear wall system and a traditional cold-formed steel (CFS) shear wall system subjected to earthquake hazard based on forms in order to investigate their failure mechanisms. The RCFS shear
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A series of structural vulnerability analyses are conducted on a reinforced cold-formed steel (RCFS) shear wall system and a traditional cold-formed steel (CFS) shear wall system subjected to earthquake hazard based on forms in order to investigate their failure mechanisms. The RCFS shear wall adopts rigid beam-column joints and continuous concrete-filled CFS tube end studs rather than coupled-C section end studs that are used in traditional CFS shear walls, to achieve the rigid connections in both beam-column joints and column bases. The results show that: the RCFS and traditional CFS shear wall systems both exhibit the maximum vulnerability index associated with the failure mode in the first story. Therefore, the first story is likely to be a weakness of the CFS shear wall system. Once the wall is damaged, the traditional CFS shear wall system would collapse because the shear wall is the only lateral-resisting component. However, the collapse resistance of the RCFS shear wall system is effectively enhanced by the second defense, which is provided by a framework integrated by rigid beam-column joints and fixed column bases. The predicted collapse mode with maximum vulnerability index that was obtained by structural vulnerability analysis agrees well with the experimental result, and the structural vulnerability method is thereby verified to be reasonable to identify the weaknesses of framed structures and predict their collapse modes. Additionally, the quantitative vulnerability index indicates that the RCFS shear wall system exhibits better robustness compared to the traditional one. Furthermore, the “strong frame weak wallboard” and the “strong column weak beam” are proposed in this study as conceptional designations for the RCFS shear wall systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Application of the DC Offset Cancellation Method and S Transform to Gearbox Fault Diagnosis
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 207; doi:10.3390/app7020207 -
Abstract
In this paper, the direct current (DC) offset cancellation and S transform-based diagnosis method is verified using three case studies. For DC offset cancellation, correlated kurtosis (CK) is used instead of the cross-correlation coefficient in order to determine the optimal iteration number. Compared
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In this paper, the direct current (DC) offset cancellation and S transform-based diagnosis method is verified using three case studies. For DC offset cancellation, correlated kurtosis (CK) is used instead of the cross-correlation coefficient in order to determine the optimal iteration number. Compared to the cross-correlation coefficient, CK enhances the DC offset cancellation ability enormously because of its excellent periodic impulse signal detection ability. Here, it has been proven experimentally that it can effectively diagnose the implanted bearing fault. However, the proposed method is less effective in the case of simultaneously present bearing and gear faults, especially for extremely weak bearing faults. In this circumstance, the iteration number of DC offset cancellation is determined directly by the high-speed shaft gear mesh frequency order. For the planetary gearbox, the application of the proposed method differs from the fixed-axis gearbox, because of its complex structure. For those small fault frequency parts, such as planet gear and ring gear, the DC offset cancellation’s ability is less effective than for the fixed-axis gearbox. In these studies, the S transform is used to display the time-frequency characteristics of the DC offset cancellation processed results; the performances are evaluated, and the discussions are given. The fault information can be more easily observed in the time-frequency contour than the frequency domain. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
LED Current Balance Using a Variable Voltage Regulator with Low Dropout vDS Control
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 206; doi:10.3390/app7020206 -
Abstract
A cost-effective light-emitting diode (LED) current balance strategy using a variable voltage regulator (VVR) with low dropout vDS control is proposed. This can regulate the multiple metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) of the linear current regulators (LCR), maintaining low dropout vDS on the flat
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A cost-effective light-emitting diode (LED) current balance strategy using a variable voltage regulator (VVR) with low dropout vDS control is proposed. This can regulate the multiple metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) of the linear current regulators (LCR), maintaining low dropout vDS on the flat vGS-characteristic curves and making all drain currents almost the same. Simple group LCRs respectively loaded with a string LED are employed to implement the theme. The voltage VVdc from a VVR is synthesized by a string LED voltage NvD, source voltage vR, and a specified low dropout vDS = VQ. The VVdc updates instantly, through the control loop of the master LCR, which means that all slave MOSFETs have almost the same biases on their flat vGS-characteristic curves. This leads to all of the string LED currents being equal to each other, producing an almost even luminance. An experimental setup with microchip control is built to verify the estimations. Experimental results show that the luminance of all of the string LEDs are almost equal to one another, with a maximum deviation below 1% during a wide dimming range, while keeping all vDS of the MOSFETs at a low dropout voltage, as expected. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Study on the Damping Effect of a Lateral Damping Buffer under a Debris Flow Load
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 201; doi:10.3390/app7020201 -
Abstract
Simulating the impact of debris flows on structures and exploring the feasibility of applying energy dissipation devices or shock isolators to reduce the damage caused by debris flows can make great contribution to the design of disaster prevention structures. In this paper, we
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Simulating the impact of debris flows on structures and exploring the feasibility of applying energy dissipation devices or shock isolators to reduce the damage caused by debris flows can make great contribution to the design of disaster prevention structures. In this paper, we propose a new type of device, a lateral damping buffer, to reduce the vulnerability of building structures to debris flows. This lateral damping buffer has two mechanisms of damage mitigation: when debris flows impact on a building, it acts as a buffer, and when the structure vibrates due to the impact, it acts as a shock absorber, which can reduce the maximum acceleration response and subsequent vibration respectively. To study the effectiveness of such a lateral damping buffer, an impact test is conducted, which mainly involves a lateral damping buffer attached to a two-degree-of-freedom structure under a simulated debris flow load. To enable the numerical study, the equation of motion of the structure along with the lateral damping buffer is derived. A subsequent parametric study is performed to optimize the lateral damping buffer. Finally, a practical design procedure is also provided. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Overload Control in Smart Transformer-Fed Grid
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 208; doi:10.3390/app7020208 -
Abstract
Renewable energy resources and new loads—such as electric vehicles—challenge grid management. Among several scenarios, the smart transformer represents a solution for simultaneously managing low- and medium-voltage grids, providing ancillary services to the distribution grid. However, unlike conventional transformers, the smart transformer has a
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Renewable energy resources and new loads—such as electric vehicles—challenge grid management. Among several scenarios, the smart transformer represents a solution for simultaneously managing low- and medium-voltage grids, providing ancillary services to the distribution grid. However, unlike conventional transformers, the smart transformer has a very limited overload capability, because the junction temperature—which must always be below its maximum limit—is characterized by a short time constant. In this work, an overload control for smart transformer by means of voltage and frequency variations has been proposed and verified by means of simulations and experiments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of SiC Nanoparticles for the Efficient Adsorptive Removal of Nitroimidazole Antibiotics from Aqueous Solution
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 205; doi:10.3390/app7020205 -
Abstract
Environmental pollution caused by the improper disposal of pharmaceuticals is a matter of global concern, and warrants immediate attention. Of particular concern is the aquatic contamination caused by the increasing use of antibiotics, which could give rise to superbugs. While researchers have mainly
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Environmental pollution caused by the improper disposal of pharmaceuticals is a matter of global concern, and warrants immediate attention. Of particular concern is the aquatic contamination caused by the increasing use of antibiotics, which could give rise to superbugs. While researchers have mainly focused on improving the adsorption capacity of mostly activated carbon-based adsorbents, we have developed a non-conventional adsorbent (SiC nanoparticles) in the present work for the adsorptive removal of four different nitroimidazole antibiotics, namely metronidazole (MNZ), dimetridazole (DMZ), ronidazole (RNZ), and tinidazole (TNZ). In addition to the unique properties which are inherent to SiC, the present adsorbent not only possesses a high adsorption capacity, but also shows one of the highest adsorption rates; both of which are prerequisites for an efficient and cost-effective adsorption-based separation technology. Silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles, synthesized by a microwave-assisted method, were thoroughly characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method. The adsorption isotherm data were accurately described by the Langmuir isotherm model. On the other hand, the adsorption kinetics, closely represented by the pseudo-second order kinetic model, were faster than most previously reported adsorbents. The reaction rate constants were 0.0089, 0.0079, 0.0072, and 0.0055 g/(mg min), for MNZ, DMZ, RNZ, and TNZ, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Adaptive Buffering Scheme for P2P Live and Time-Shifted Streaming
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 204; doi:10.3390/app7020204 -
Abstract
Recently, P2P streaming techniques have been a promising solution to a large-scale live streaming system because of their high scalability and low installation cost. In P2P live streaming systems, however, it is difficult to manage peers’ buffers effectively, because they can buffer only
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Recently, P2P streaming techniques have been a promising solution to a large-scale live streaming system because of their high scalability and low installation cost. In P2P live streaming systems, however, it is difficult to manage peers’ buffers effectively, because they can buffer only a limited amount of data around a live broadcasting time in the main memory and suffer from long playback lag due to the nature of P2P structures. In addition, the number of peers decreases rapidly as the playback position moves further from this time by performing time-shifted viewing. These situations widen the distribution of peers’ playback positions, thereby decreasing the degree of data duplication among peers. Moreover, it is hard to use each peer’s buffer as the caching area because the buffer area where the chunks that have already been played back are stored can be overwritten at any time by new chunks that will arrive soon. In this paper, we therefore propose a novel buffering scheme to significantly increase data duplication in buffering periods among peers in P2P live and time-shifted streaming systems. In our proposed scheme, the buffer ratio of each peer is adaptively adjusted according to its relative playback position in a group by increasing the ratio of the caching area in its buffer as its playback position moves earlier in time and increasing the ratio of the prefetching area as its playback position moves later. Through extensive simulations, we demonstrate that our proposed adaptive buffering scheme outperforms the conventional buffering technique considerably in terms of startup delay, average jitter ratio, and the ratio of necessary chunks in a buffermap. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Surface Quality of Staggered PCD End Mill in Milling of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 199; doi:10.3390/app7020199 -
Abstract
Machined surface quality determines the reliability, wear resistance and service life of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) workpieces. In this work, the formation mechanism of the surface topography and the machining defects of CFRPs are proposed, and the influence of milling parameters and
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Machined surface quality determines the reliability, wear resistance and service life of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) workpieces. In this work, the formation mechanism of the surface topography and the machining defects of CFRPs are proposed, and the influence of milling parameters and fiber cutting angles on the surface quality of CFRPs is obtained, which can provide a reference for extended tool life and good surface quality. Trimming and slot milling tests of unidirectional CFRP laminates are performed. The surface roughness of the machined surface is measured, and the influence of milling parameters on the surface roughness is analyzed. A regression model for the surface roughness of CFRP milling is established. A significance test of the regression model is conducted. The machined surface topography of milling CFRP unidirectional laminates with different fiber orientations is analyzed, and the effect of fiber cutting angle on the surface topography of the machined surface is presented by using a digital super depth-of-field microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). To study the influence of fiber cutting angle on machining defects, the machined topography under different fiber orientations is analyzed. The slot milling defects and their formation mechanism under different fiber cutting angles are investigated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation on Soft Galloping and Hard Galloping of Triangular Prisms
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 198; doi:10.3390/app7020198 -
Abstract
The studies currently on soft galloping (SG) and hard galloping (HG) are scarce. In this study, SG and HG of spring-mounted triangular prisms in a water channel are investigated experimentally. A power take-off system (PTO), a spring system, additional weights, and different triangular
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The studies currently on soft galloping (SG) and hard galloping (HG) are scarce. In this study, SG and HG of spring-mounted triangular prisms in a water channel are investigated experimentally. A power take-off system (PTO), a spring system, additional weights, and different triangular prisms were used to achieve the variations in damping coefficient c, system stiffness K, oscillation mass m and section aspect ratios α, respectively. The present paper proves that the VIV (vortex-induced vibration) lower branch can be observed in the SG response. In SG response, VIV branches are incomplete while the galloping branch is complete, and galloping can be self-initiated only in the self-excited region. On the contrary, in HG response, VIV branches are complete, the galloping branch is incomplete, and galloping can only be initiated by external excitation at a velocity exceeding the critical velocity. As c and m increase, or K and α decrease, the oscillation mode of a triangular prism gradually transitions from SG to CG (critical galloping), and continues to HG. The amplitude in VIV branch is the main reason causing the onset of galloping in SG response. A critical damping coefficient cc, which is dependent on m, K and α, is proposed to predict the occurrences of SG, CG and HG. When c < cc, SG occurs; when c > cc, HG occurs; when c = cc, CG occurs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dielectric Characterization of Chinese Standard Concrete for Compressive Strength Evaluation
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 177; doi:10.3390/app7020177 -
Abstract
Dielectric characterization of concrete is essential for the wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) of concrete structures. Guo Biao (GB) concrete refers to the concrete mixed and cast in accordance with the Chinese standard. Currently, China is the largest producer and consumer of concrete
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Dielectric characterization of concrete is essential for the wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) of concrete structures. Guo Biao (GB) concrete refers to the concrete mixed and cast in accordance with the Chinese standard. Currently, China is the largest producer and consumer of concrete in the world. However, minimal attention has been paid to the dielectric properties of GB concrete. This paper presents the results of the dielectric constant of GB concrete, where three regression models have been used to present the measurement data from 10 MHz to 6 GHz. The objective is to provide a data set of nominal values of the dielectric constant for ordinary GB concrete. The final goal is to facilitate a compressive strength evaluation via the measured dielectric constant. Measurements of the dielectric constant and compressive strength for five types of ordinary concrete have been undertaken, after 28 days of curing. As the main contribution in this work, the correlation model between the compressive strength and dielectric constant of GB concrete is realized. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Interactions of Dihydroquinazolin Derivatives with Human Serum Albumin Observed via Multiple Spectroscopy
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 200; doi:10.3390/app7020200 -
Abstract
The interactions of dihydroquinazolines with human serum albumin (HSA) were studied in pH 7.4 aqueous solution via fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques. In this work, 6-chloro-1-(3,3-dimethyl-butanoyl)-2(un)substitutedphenyl-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one (PDQL) derivatives were designed and synthesized to study the impact of
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The interactions of dihydroquinazolines with human serum albumin (HSA) were studied in pH 7.4 aqueous solution via fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques. In this work, 6-chloro-1-(3,3-dimethyl-butanoyl)-2(un)substitutedphenyl-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one (PDQL) derivatives were designed and synthesized to study the impact of five similar substituents (methyl, methoxy, cyano, trifluoromethyl and isopropyl) on the interactions between PDQL and HSA using a comparative methodology. The results revealed that PDQL quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA through a static quenching process. Displacement experiments with site-specific markers revealed that PDQL binds to HSA at site II (subdomain IIIA) and that there may be only one binding site for PDQL on HSA. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that hydrophobic interactions mainly drove the interactions between PDQL and HSA. The substitution using five similar groups in the benzene ring could increase the interactions between PDQL and HSA to some extent through the van der Waals force or hydrogen bond effects in the proper temperature range. Isopropyl substitution could particularly enhance the binding affinity, as observed via comparative studies Full article
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