Appl. Sci.2014, 4(1), 42-54; doi:10.3390/app4010042 - published online 20 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The underwater contact angle behavior on oxide layers of varying thicknesses was studied. These oxide layers were grown by thermally oxidizing C84400 copper alloys in N2-0.75 wt.% O2 and N2-5 wt.% O2 gas mixtures at 650 °C. Characterization of the oxidized specimens was effected using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and contact angle goniometer. The results from the X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed the formation of CuO, ZnO and PbO. The average sizes of the oxide granules were in the range of 70 nm to 750 nm, with the average thickness of the oxide layer increasing with the increase in the weight percent of oxygen in the N2-O2 gas mixtures. The results showed that the oxide layer growth followed the parabolic law. The underwater oil contact angles increased, due to the change in the surface morphology and porosity of the oxide layer. The small sizes and irregular packing of the oxide granules cause hierarchical rough surface layers with pores. The estimated pore sizes, in the range of 88 ± 40 to 280 ± 76, were predominant on the oxide layers of the samples processed in the N2-5 wt.% O2 gas mixture. The presence of these pores caused an increase in the porosities as the thickness of the oxide layers increased. At oxide layer thickness above 25 microns, the measured contact angle exceeded 150° as underwater superoleophobicity was recorded.
Appl. Sci.2014, 4(1), 28-41; doi:10.3390/app4010028 - published online 20 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The terahertz plasmon dispersion of a multilayer system consisting of graphene on dielectric and/or plasma thin layers is systematically investigated. We show that graphene plasmons can couple with other quasiparticles such as phonons and plasmons of the substrate; the characteristics of the plasmon dispersion of graphene are dramatically modified by the presence of the coupling effect. The resultant plasmon dispersion of the multilayer system is a strong function of the physical parameters of the spacer and the substrate, signifying the importance of the substrate selection in constructing graphene-based plasmonic devices.
Appl. Sci.2014, 4(1), 19-27; doi:10.3390/app4010019 - published online 20 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Volume phase gratings, recorded in a photosensitive polymer by two-beam interference exposure, are studied by means of optical microscopy. Transmission gratings and reflection gratings, with periods in the order of 10 μm down to 130 nm, were investigated. Mapping of holograms by means of imaging in sectional view is introduced to study reflection-type gratings, evading the resolution limit of classical optical microscopy. In addition, this technique is applied to examine so-called parasitic gratings, arising from interference from the incident reference beam and the reflected signal beam. The appearance and possible avoidance of such unintentionally recorded secondary structures is discussed.
Appl. Sci.2014, 4(1), 1-18; doi:10.3390/app4010001 - published online 22 January 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this review, recent advances in two-photon absorbing photochromic molecules, as potential materials for 3D optical memory, are presented. The investigations introduced in this review indicate that 3D data storage processing at the molecular level is possible. As 3D memory using two-photon absorption allows advantages over existing systems, the use of two-photon absorbing photochromic molecules is preferable. Although there are some photochromic molecules with good properties for memory, in most cases, the two-photon absorption efficiency is not high. Photochromic molecules with high two-photon absorption efficiency are desired. Recently, molecules having much larger two-photon absorption cross sections over 10,000 GM (GM= 10−50 cm4 s molecule−1 photon−1) have been discovered and are expected to open the way to realize two-photon absorption 3D data storage.