Open AccessArticle
Passive Guaranteed Simulation of Analog Audio Circuits: A Port-Hamiltonian Approach
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 273; doi:10.3390/app6100273 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
We present a method that generates passive-guaranteed stable simulations of analog audio circuits from electronic schematics for real-time issues. On one hand, this method is based on a continuous-time power-balanced state-space representation structured into its energy-storing parts, dissipative parts, and external sources. [...] Read more.
We present a method that generates passive-guaranteed stable simulations of analog audio circuits from electronic schematics for real-time issues. On one hand, this method is based on a continuous-time power-balanced state-space representation structured into its energy-storing parts, dissipative parts, and external sources. On the other hand, a numerical scheme is especially designed to preserve this structure and the power balance. These state-space structures define the class of port-Hamiltonian systems. The derivation of this structured system associated with the electronic circuit is achieved by an automated analysis of the interconnection network combined with a dictionary of models for each elementary component. The numerical scheme is based on the combination of finite differences applied on the state (with respect to the time variable) and on the total energy (with respect to the state). This combination provides a discrete-time version of the power balance. This set of algorithms is valid for both the linear and nonlinear case. Finally, three applications of increasing complexities are given: a diode clipper, a common-emitter bipolar-junction transistor amplifier, and a wah pedal. The results are compared to offline simulations obtained from a popular circuit simulator. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Multi-Objective Resource Allocation Scheme for D2D Multicast with QoS Guarantees in Cellular Networks
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 274; doi:10.3390/app6100274 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Device-to-device (D2D) multicast communication can greatly improve the spectrum utilization in a content delivery scenario. However, the co-channel interference and power consumption brought by D2D bring new challenges. All the D2D multicast groups expect to achieve a higher system capacity with less [...] Read more.
Device-to-device (D2D) multicast communication can greatly improve the spectrum utilization in a content delivery scenario. However, the co-channel interference and power consumption brought by D2D bring new challenges. All the D2D multicast groups expect to achieve a higher system capacity with less extra energy cost. In this paper, we investigate the uplink resource allocation issue when D2D multicast groups share the resources with other cellular uses (CUs), while guaranteeing a certain level of quality of service (QoS) to CUs and D2D users. Firstly we address a flexible tradeoff framework in which the system power consumption and the system capacity (i.e., the number of admitted D2D links) are assigned with different weight factors so that these two objectives are jointly considered. Then we propose an efficient resource optimization scheme, which comprises sub-channel allocation and signal-to-interference- plus-noise ratio (SINR) assignment. Numerical results validate the effectiveness of the proposed framework, and demonstrate the advantages in dealing with the proposed multi-objective optimization problem. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Fuzzy Tracking and Control Algorithm for an SSVEP-Based BCI System
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 270; doi:10.3390/app6100270 -
Abstract
Subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) consistently experience decreasing quality of life because of this distinctive disease. Thus, a practical brain-computer interface (BCI) application can effectively help subjects with ALS to participate in communication or entertainment. In this study, a fuzzy tracking [...] Read more.
Subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) consistently experience decreasing quality of life because of this distinctive disease. Thus, a practical brain-computer interface (BCI) application can effectively help subjects with ALS to participate in communication or entertainment. In this study, a fuzzy tracking and control algorithm is proposed for developing a BCI remote control system. To represent the characteristics of the measured electroencephalography (EEG) signals after visual stimulation, a fast Fourier transform is applied to extract the EEG features. A self-developed fuzzy tracking algorithm quickly traces the changes of EEG signals. The accuracy and stability of a BCI system can be greatly improved by using a fuzzy control algorithm. Fifteen subjects were asked to attend a performance test of this BCI system. The canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was adopted to compare the proposed approach, and the average recognition rates are 96.97% and 94.49% for proposed approach and CCA, respectively. The experimental results showed that the proposed approach is preferable to CCA. Overall, the proposed fuzzy tracking and control algorithm applied in the BCI system can profoundly help subjects with ALS to control air swimmer drone vehicles for entertainment purposes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Analysis and Evaluation of Performance Gains and Tradeoffs for Massive MIMO Systems
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 268; doi:10.3390/app6100268 -
Abstract
Massive MIMO technique offers significant performance gains for the future of wireless communications via improving the spectral efficiency, energy efficiency and the channel quality with simple linear processing such as maximum-ratio transmission (MRT) or zero-forcing (ZF) by providing each user a large [...] Read more.
Massive MIMO technique offers significant performance gains for the future of wireless communications via improving the spectral efficiency, energy efficiency and the channel quality with simple linear processing such as maximum-ratio transmission (MRT) or zero-forcing (ZF) by providing each user a large degree of freedom. In this paper, the system performance gains are studied in a multi-cell downlink massive MIMO system under the main considerations such as perfect channel estimation, imperfect channel estimation and the effect of interference among cells due to pilot sequences contamination. Then, mathematical expressions are derived for these gains i.e., spatial multiplexing gain, array gain and spatial diversity gain. After that, essential tradeoffs among these gains are considered under the effect of non-orthogonal interference, these tradeoffs are: spatial diversity gain vs. spatial multiplexing gain and array gain vs. spatial multiplexing gain. Simulation results show that the unbounded number of base station antennas boosts the array gain through concentrating the energy to spatial directions where users are sited, hence diminishing loss in array gain due to pilot contamination. The simulation results reveal also that massive MIMO strengthens the spatial multiplexing gain through increasing the number of served users via the same system resources in spite the effect of inter-cell interference. Finally, the spatial diversity gain is measured in term of outage probability and the simulation results show that raising the number of antennas will improve the outage probability. Meanwhile increasing the number of served users will lead to degrade the outage probability per user due to non-orthogonal interference from other cells. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle
Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies of Sorption of Ammonium in the Soil-Water Environment in Agricultural Areas of Central Poland
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 269; doi:10.3390/app6100269 -
Abstract
Sorption characteristics of nitrogen compounds is necessary in ascertaining their fate in the soil-water environment. This paper presents a laboratory “batch” experiment for determining the sorption parameters of ammonium in the soil-water environment. Three agricultural soils (silt loam, loam, and sand) with [...] Read more.
Sorption characteristics of nitrogen compounds is necessary in ascertaining their fate in the soil-water environment. This paper presents a laboratory “batch” experiment for determining the sorption parameters of ammonium in the soil-water environment. Three agricultural soils (silt loam, loam, and sand) with different contents of the clay fraction, significantly affecting the range of the adsorption of contaminants on the surface of solid particles, were chosen as research material. Considering the composition of ammonium nitrate (a commonly used fertilizer in Poland), ammonium solutions with a concentration of 0–52 mg NH4+/L were used as markers. Pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were used to describe the mechanisms of ammonium adsorption. Experimental data obtained from the equilibrium tests have been analysed using two-parameter (Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin) and three-parameter (Redlich-Peterson, Hill, Sips) models. In order to adjust the parameters of the considered isotherms to the experimental data, the method of minimization of the sum of squared errors was used. Additionally, the maximum sorption capacities and reduction ratios of ammonium versus time were assessed. It was observed that the presence of silt loam and loam in the soil profile can increase the possibility of ammonium adsorption up to almost 20%. Taking into consideration the results of the batch tests, it was concluded that ammonium adsorption attains equilibrium within 48 h. Experimental data was best followed by the pseudo-second order equation and the adsorption isotherm conformed to the Redlich-Peterson model for loam and sand. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle
Testing of High Thermal Cycling Stability of Low Strength Concrete as a Thermal Energy Storage Material
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 271; doi:10.3390/app6100271 -
Abstract
Concrete has the potential to become a solution for thermal energy storage (TES) integrated in concentrating solar power (CSP) systems due to its good thermal and mechanical properties and low cost of material. In this study, a low strength concrete (C20) is [...] Read more.
Concrete has the potential to become a solution for thermal energy storage (TES) integrated in concentrating solar power (CSP) systems due to its good thermal and mechanical properties and low cost of material. In this study, a low strength concrete (C20) is tested at high temperatures up to 600 °C. Specimens are thermally cycled at temperatures in the range of 400–300 °C, 500–300 °C, and 600–300 °C, which TES can reach in operation. For comparison, specimens also cycled at temperature in the range of 400–25 °C (room temperature), 500–25 °C, and 600–25 °C. It is found from the test results that cracks are not observed on the surfaces of concrete specimens until the temperature is elevated up to 500 °C. There is mechanical deterioration of concrete after exposure to high temperature, especially to high thermal cycles. The residual compressive strength of concrete after 10 thermal cycles between 600 °C and 300 °C is about 58.3%, but the specimens remain stable without spalling, indicating possible use of low strength concrete as a TES material. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle
Dry Sintered Metal Coating of Halloysite Nanotubes
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(9), 265; doi:10.3390/app6090265 -
Abstract
Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are a naturally-occurring aluminosilicate whose dimensions measure microns in length and tens of nanometers in diameter. Bonding defects between the alumina and silica lead to net negative and positive charges on the exterior and interior lumen, respectively. HNTs have [...] Read more.
Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are a naturally-occurring aluminosilicate whose dimensions measure microns in length and tens of nanometers in diameter. Bonding defects between the alumina and silica lead to net negative and positive charges on the exterior and interior lumen, respectively. HNTs have been shown to enhance the material properties of polymer matrices and enable the sustained release of loaded chemicals, drugs, and growth factors. Due to the net charges, these nanotubes can also be readily coated in layered-depositions using the HNT exterior lumen’s net negative charge as the basis for assembly. These coatings are primarily done through wet chemical processes, the majority of which are limited in their use of desired chemicals, due to the polarity of the halloysite. Furthermore, this restriction in the type of chemicals used often requires the use of more toxic chemicals in place of greener options, and typically necessitates the use of a significantly longer chemical process to achieve the desired coating. In this study, we show that HNTs can be coated with metal acetylacetonates—compounds primarily employed in the synthesis of nanoparticles, as metal catalysts, and as NMR shift reagents—through a dry sintering process. This method was capable of thermally decaying the metal acetylacetonate, resulting in a free positively-charged metal ion that readily bonded to the negatively-charged HNT exterior, resulting in metallic coatings forming on the HNT surface. Our coating method may enable greater deposition of coated material onto these nanotubes as required for a desired application. Furthermore, the use of chemical processes using toxic chemicals is not required, thus eliminating exposure to toxic chemicals and costs associated with the disposal of the resultant chemical waste. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle
Fault Localization Method by Partitioning Memory Using Memory Map and the Stack for Automotive ECU Software Testing
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(9), 266; doi:10.3390/app6090266 -
Abstract
Recently, the usage of the automotive Electronic Control Unit (ECU) and its software in cars is increasing. Therefore, as the functional complexity of such software increases, so does the likelihood of software-related faults. Therefore, it is important to ensure the reliability of [...] Read more.
Recently, the usage of the automotive Electronic Control Unit (ECU) and its software in cars is increasing. Therefore, as the functional complexity of such software increases, so does the likelihood of software-related faults. Therefore, it is important to ensure the reliability of ECU software in order to ensure automobile safety. For this reason, systematic testing methods are required that can guarantee software quality. However, it is difficult to locate a fault during testing with the current ECU development system because a tester performs the black-box testing using a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulator. Consequently, developers consume a large amount of money and time for debugging because they perform debugging without any information about the location of the fault. In this paper, we propose a method for localizing the fault utilizing memory information during black-box testing. This is likely to be of use to developers who debug automotive software. In order to observe whether symbols stored in the memory have been updated, the memory is partitioned by a memory map and the stack, thus the fault candidate region is reduced. A memory map method has the advantage of being able to finely partition the memory, and the stack method can partition the memory without a memory map. We validated these methods by applying these to HiL testing of the ECU for a body control system. The preliminary results indicate that a memory map and the stack reduce the possible fault locations to 22% and 19% of the updated memory, respectively. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Estimation of Lamina Stiffness and Strength of Quadriaxial Non-Crimp Fabric Composites Based on Semi-Laminar Considerations
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(9), 267; doi:10.3390/app6090267 -
Abstract
Quadriaxial non-crimp fabric (QNCF) composites are increasingly being used as primary structural materials in aircraft and automotive applications. Predicting the mechanical properties of QNCF lamina is more complicated compared with that of unidirectional (UD) composites, because of the knitting connection of different [...] Read more.
Quadriaxial non-crimp fabric (QNCF) composites are increasingly being used as primary structural materials in aircraft and automotive applications. Predicting the mechanical properties of QNCF lamina is more complicated compared with that of unidirectional (UD) composites, because of the knitting connection of different plies. In this study, to analyze the stiffness and strength of the QNCF composites, a novel modeling strategy for the meso-scale features is presented based on the semi-laminar assumption. Following the view of the mechanical properties of single composite lamina, the complex QNCF layer is decomposed into individual plies. Three different representative unit cells along fiber direction are selected to predict the mechanical performance of QNCF, including in-plane stiffness, damage initiation, and stiffness degradation. To validate the developed modeling strategy, the predictions are compared with existing experimental results, where a good agreement is presented on the prediction of in-plane stiffness and strength. Furthermore, the effect of in-plane fiber distortion, induced by the stitching yarn on the mechanical properties, is studied. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle
Output Filter Design for a Novel Dual-Input PV-Wind Power Converter by Energy Balance Principle
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(9), 263; doi:10.3390/app6090263 -
Abstract
In this paper, a detailed and systematic derivation of the output filter in a novel dual-input photovoltaic (PV)-wind converter (DIPWC) is presented. The theoretical derivation is based on an energy balance principle. While the DIPWC operates in steady state, the amount of [...] Read more.
In this paper, a detailed and systematic derivation of the output filter in a novel dual-input photovoltaic (PV)-wind converter (DIPWC) is presented. The theoretical derivation is based on an energy balance principle. While the DIPWC operates in steady state, the amount of charged energy of the output filter will be equal to that of the energy pumped away within one switching cycle. From this zero net change in energy, the minimum value of the output filter can be found. With the determined value, the DIPWC is able to operate in continuous conduction for high power applications. The developed procedure of the inductance determination can be applied to other types of dual-input converters. Therefore, it makes significant contributions to the design toward a green-energy, multi-input converter. To verify the correctness of the mathematical analysis, the DIPWC—with the derived output inductance—is built and tested. Practical measurements and results have verified the inductance determination. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
Raman Spectra of ZrS2 and ZrSe2 from Bulk to Atomically Thin Layers
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(9), 264; doi:10.3390/app6090264 -
Abstract
In the race towards two-dimensional electronic and optoelectronic devices, semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) from group VIB have been intensively studied in recent years due to the indirect to direct band-gap transition from bulk to the monolayer. However, new materials still need [...] Read more.
In the race towards two-dimensional electronic and optoelectronic devices, semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) from group VIB have been intensively studied in recent years due to the indirect to direct band-gap transition from bulk to the monolayer. However, new materials still need to be explored. For example, semiconducting TMDCs from group IVB have been predicted to have larger mobilities than their counterparts from group VIB in the monolayer limit. In this work we report the mechanical exfoliation of ZrX2 (X = S, Se) from bulk down to the monolayer and we study the dimensionality dependence of the Raman spectra in ambient conditions. We observe Raman signal from bulk to few layers and no shift in the peak positions is found when decreasing the dimensionality. While a Raman signal can be observed from bulk to a bilayer for ZrS2, we could only detect signal down to five layers for flakes of ZrSe2. These results show the possibility of obtaining atomically thin layers of ZrX2 by mechanical exfoliation and represent one of the first steps towards the investigation of the properties of these materials, still unexplored in the two-dimensional limit. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Plasmonic and Dielectric Metasurfaces: Design, Fabrication and Applications
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(9), 239; doi:10.3390/app6090239 -
Abstract
Two-dimensional metasurfaces are widely focused on for their ability for flexible light manipulation (phase, amplitude, polarization) over sub-wavelength propagation distances. Most of the metasurfaces can be divided into two categories by the material type of unit structure, i.e., plasmonic metasurfaces and dielectric [...] Read more.
Two-dimensional metasurfaces are widely focused on for their ability for flexible light manipulation (phase, amplitude, polarization) over sub-wavelength propagation distances. Most of the metasurfaces can be divided into two categories by the material type of unit structure, i.e., plasmonic metasurfaces and dielectric metasurfaces. For plasmonic metasurfaces, they are made on the basis of metallic meta-atoms whose optical responses are driven by the plasmon resonances supported by metallic particles. For dielectric metasurfaces, the unit structure is constructed with high refractive index dielectric resonators, such as silicon, germanium or tellurium, which can support electric and magnetic dipole responses based on Mie resonances. The responses of plasmonic and dielectric metasurfaces are all relevant to the characteristics of unit structure, such as dimensions and materials. One can manipulate the electromagnetic field of light wave scattered by the metasurfaces through designing the dimension parameters of each unit structure in the metasurfaces. In this review article, we give a brief overview of our recent progress in plasmonic and dielectric metasurface-assisted nanophotonic devices and their design, fabrication and applications, including the metasurface-based broadband and the selective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) carrying vector beams, N-fold OAM multicasting using a V-shaped antenna array, a metasurface on conventional optical fiber facet for linearly-polarized mode (LP11) generation, graphene split-ring metasurface-assisted terahertz coherent perfect absorption, OAM beam generation using a nanophotonic dielectric metasurface array, as well as Bessel beam generation and OAM multicasting using a dielectric metasurface array. It is believed that metasurface-based nanophotonic devices are one of the devices with the most potential applied in various fields, such as beam steering, spatial light modulator, nanoscale-resolution imaging, sensing, quantum optics devices and even optical communication networks. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle
Variability of the Wind Turbine Power Curve
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(9), 262; doi:10.3390/app6090262 -
Abstract
Wind turbine power curves are calibrated by turbine manufacturers under requirements stipulated by the International Electrotechnical Commission to provide a functional mapping between the mean wind speed v¯ and the mean turbine power output P¯. Wind plant operators employ [...] Read more.
Wind turbine power curves are calibrated by turbine manufacturers under requirements stipulated by the International Electrotechnical Commission to provide a functional mapping between the mean wind speed v¯ and the mean turbine power output P¯. Wind plant operators employ these power curves to estimate or forecast wind power generation under given wind conditions. However, it is general knowledge that wide variability exists in these mean calibration values. We first analyse how the standard deviation in wind speed σv affects the mean P¯ and the standard deviation σP of wind power. We find that the magnitude of wind power fluctuations scales as the square of the mean wind speed. Using data from three planetary locations, we find that the wind speed standard deviation σv systematically varies with mean wind speed v¯, and in some instances, follows a scaling of the form σv=C×v¯α; C being a constant and α a fractional power. We show that, when applicable, this scaling form provides a minimal parameter description of the power curve in terms of v¯ alone. Wind data from different locations establishes that (in instances when this scaling exists) the exponent α varies with location, owing to the influence of local environmental conditions on wind speed variability. Since manufacturer-calibrated power curves cannot account for variability influenced by local conditions, this variability translates to forecast uncertainty in power generation. We close with a proposal for operators to perform post-installation recalibration of their turbine power curves to account for the influence of local environmental factors on wind speed variability in order to reduce the uncertainty of wind power forecasts. Understanding the relationship between wind’s speed and its variability is likely to lead to lower costs for the integration of wind power into the electric grid. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Control and Modulation Techniques for a Centralized PV Generation System Grid Connected via an Interleaved Inverter
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(9), 261; doi:10.3390/app6090261 -
Abstract
In the context of grid connected photovoitaic (PV) generation systems, there are two paramount aspects regarding the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of the photovoltaic units and the continuity of the service. The most diffused MPPT algorithms are based on either perturb [...] Read more.
In the context of grid connected photovoitaic (PV) generation systems, there are two paramount aspects regarding the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of the photovoltaic units and the continuity of the service. The most diffused MPPT algorithms are based on either perturb and observe, or on an incremental conductance approach and need both PV current and voltage measurements. Several topology reconfigurable converters are also associated with the PV plants, guaranteeing fault-tolerant features. The generation continuity can also be assured by interleaved inverters, which keep the system operating at reduced maximum power in case of failure. In this paper, an evolution of a hysteresis based MPPT algorithm is presented, based on the measurement of only one voltage, together with a novel space vector modulation suitable for a two-channel three-phase grid connected interleaved inverter. The proposed MMPT algorithm and modulation technique are tested by means of several numerical analyses on a PV generation system of about 200 kW maximum power. The results testify the validity of the proposed strategies, showing good performance, even during a fault occurrence and in the presence of deep shading conditions. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle
Performance Assessment and Scooter Verification of Nano-Alumina Engine Oil
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(9), 258; doi:10.3390/app6090258 -
Abstract
The performance assessment and vehicle verification of nano-alumina (Al2O3) engine oil (NAEO) were conducted in this study. The NAEO was produced by mixing Al2O3 nanoparticles with engine oil using a two-step synthesis method. The weight [...] Read more.
The performance assessment and vehicle verification of nano-alumina (Al2O3) engine oil (NAEO) were conducted in this study. The NAEO was produced by mixing Al2O3 nanoparticles with engine oil using a two-step synthesis method. The weight fractions of the Al2O3 nanoparticles in the four test samples were 0 (base oil), 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 wt. %. The measurement of basic properties included: (1) density; (2) viscosity at various sample temperatures (20–80 °C). A rotary tribology testing machine with a pin-on-disk apparatus was used for the wear test. The measurement of the before-and-after difference of specimen (disk) weight (wear test) indicates that the NAEO with 1.5 wt. % Al2O3 nanoparticles (1.5 wt. % NAEO) was the chosen candidate for further study. For the scooter verification on an auto-pilot dynamometer, there were three tests, including: (1) the European Driving Cycle (ECE40) driving cycle; (2) constant speed (50 km/h); and (3) constant throttle positions (20%, 40%, 60%, and 90%). For the ECE40 driving cycle and the constant speed tests, the fuel consumption was decreased on average by 2.75%, while it was decreased by 3.57% for the constant throttle case. The experimental results prove that the engine oil with added Al2O3 nanoparticles significantly decreased the fuel consumption. In the future, experiments with property tests of other nano-engine oils and a performance assessment of the nano-engine-fuel will be conducted. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Scattering of Dirac Electrons by Randomly Distributed Nitrogen Substitutional Impurities in Graphene
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(9), 256; doi:10.3390/app6090256 -
Abstract
The propagation of wave packets in a monolayer graphene containing a random distribution of dopant atoms has been explored. The time-dependent, two-dimensional Weyl-Dirac equation was solved numerically to propagate an initial Gaussian-type wave front and to investigate how the set of impurities [...] Read more.
The propagation of wave packets in a monolayer graphene containing a random distribution of dopant atoms has been explored. The time-dependent, two-dimensional Weyl-Dirac equation was solved numerically to propagate an initial Gaussian-type wave front and to investigate how the set of impurities influences its motion. It has been observed that the charge transport in doped graphene differs from the pristine case. In particular, nitrogen substitutional doping reduces the charge mobility in graphene due to backscattering effects. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle
RCLED Optimization and Nonlinearity Compensation in a Polymer Optical Fiber DMT System
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(9), 260; doi:10.3390/app6090260 -
Abstract
In polymer optical fiber (POF) systems, the nonlinear transfer function of the resonant cavity light emitting diode (RCLED) drastically degrades the communication performance. After investigating the characteristics of the RCLED nonlinear behavior, an improved digital look-up-table (LUT) pre-distorter, based on an adaptive [...] Read more.
In polymer optical fiber (POF) systems, the nonlinear transfer function of the resonant cavity light emitting diode (RCLED) drastically degrades the communication performance. After investigating the characteristics of the RCLED nonlinear behavior, an improved digital look-up-table (LUT) pre-distorter, based on an adaptive iterative algorithm, is proposed. Additionally, the system parameters, including the bias current, the average electrical power, the LUT size and the step factor are also jointly optimized to achieve a trade-off between the system linearity, reliability and the computational complexity. With the proposed methodology, both the operating point and efficiency of RCLED are enhanced. Moreover, in the practical 50 m POF communication system with the discrete multi-tone (DMT) modulation, the bit error rate performance is improved by over 12 dB when RCLED is operating in the nonlinear region. Therefore, the proposed pre-distorter can both resist the nonlinearity and improve the operating point of RCLED. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Fourier Series Learning Control for Torque Ripple Minimization in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(9), 254; doi:10.3390/app6090254 -
Abstract
A new Fourier Series Learning Controller (FSLC) for velocity control on a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is proposed and implemented. An analysis of the error convergence for the FSLC is presented, and the update law for the Fourier series coefficients is [...] Read more.
A new Fourier Series Learning Controller (FSLC) for velocity control on a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is proposed and implemented. An analysis of the error convergence for the FSLC is presented, and the update law for the Fourier series coefficients is specified. The field-oriented control method is used as a basic element to implement three different controllers for a PMSM. The performance of the FSLC is compared with two control methods, a classical PI (Proportional Integral) controller and an artificial neural network controller. The periodic nature of torque ripple in PMSMs is considered as a periodic disturbance, which must be compensated by the controller. With the FSLC implementation, a substantial reduction of the velocity ripple is obtained. Furthermore, a higher speed of learning is achieved with the FSLC in comparison with the artificial neural network. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle
Overview of 3D Micro- and Nanocoordinate Metrology at PTB
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(9), 257; doi:10.3390/app6090257 -
Abstract
Improved metrological capabilities for three-dimensional (3D) measurements of various complex micro- and nanoparts are increasingly in demand. This paper gives an overview of the research activities carried out by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the national metrology institute of Germany, to meet this [...] Read more.
Improved metrological capabilities for three-dimensional (3D) measurements of various complex micro- and nanoparts are increasingly in demand. This paper gives an overview of the research activities carried out by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the national metrology institute of Germany, to meet this demand. Examples of recent research advances in the development of instrumentation and calibration standards are presented. An ultra-precision nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NMM) has been upgraded with regard to its mirror corner, interferometers and angle sensors, as well as its weight compensation, its electronic controller, its vibration damping stage and its instrument chamber. Its positioning noise has been greatly reduced, e.g., from 1σ = 0.52 nm to 1σ = 0.13 nm for the z-axis. The well-known tactile-optical fibre probe has been further improved with regard to its 3D measurement capability, isotropic probing stiffness and dual-sphere probing styli. A 3D atomic force microscope (AFM) and assembled cantilever probes (ACPs) have been developed which allow full 3D measurements of smaller features with sizes from a few micrometres down to tens of nanometres. In addition, several measurement standards for force, geometry, contour and microgear measurements have been introduced. A type of geometry calibration artefact, referred to as the “3D Aztec artefact”, has been developed which applies wet-etched micro-pyramidal marks for defining reference coordinates in 3D space. Compared to conventional calibration artefacts, it has advantages such as a good surface quality, a well-defined geometry and cost-effective manufacturing. A task-specific micro-contour calibration standard has been further developed for ensuring the traceability of, e.g., high-precision optical measurements at microgeometries. A workpiece-like microgear standard embodying different gear geometries (modules ranging from 0.1 mm to 1 mm) has also been developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Chronic Inflammation in the Epidermis: A Mathematical Model
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(9), 252; doi:10.3390/app6090252 -
Abstract
The epidermal tissue is the outmost component of the skin that plays an important role as a first barrier system in preventing the invasion of various environmental agents, such as bacteria. Recent studies have identified the importance of microbial competition between harmful [...] Read more.
The epidermal tissue is the outmost component of the skin that plays an important role as a first barrier system in preventing the invasion of various environmental agents, such as bacteria. Recent studies have identified the importance of microbial competition between harmful and beneficial bacteria and the diversity of the skin surface on our health. We develop mathematical models (M1 and M2 models) for the inflammation process using ordinary differential equations and delay differential equations. In this paper, we study microbial community dynamics via transcription factors, protease and extracellular cytokines. We investigate possible mechanisms to induce community composition shift and analyze the vigorous competition dynamics between harmful and beneficial bacteria through immune activities. We found that the activation of proteases from the transcription factor within a cell plays a significant role in the regulation of bacterial persistence in the M1 model. The competition model (M2) predicts that different cytokine clearance levels may lead to a harmful bacteria persisting system, a bad bacteria-free state and the co-existence of harmful and good bacterial populations in Type I dynamics, while a bi-stable system without co-existence is illustrated in the Type II dynamics. This illustrates a possible phenotypic switch among harmful and good bacterial populations in a microenvironment. We also found that large time delays in the activation of immune responses on the dynamics of those bacterial populations lead to the onset of oscillations in harmful bacteria and immune activities. The mathematical model suggests possible annihilation of time-delay-driven oscillations by therapeutic drugs. Full article
Figures