Abstract: This paper proposes a novel Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method of thermoelectric power generation for the constant load. This paper reveals the characteristics and the internal resistance of thermoelectric power module (TM). Analyzing the thermoelectric power generation system with boost chopper by state space averaging method, the output voltage and current of TM are estimated by with only single current sensor. The proposed method can seek without calculating the output power of TM in this proposed method. The basic principle of the proposed MPPT control method is discussed, and then confirmed by digital computer simulation using PSIM. Simulation results demonstrate that the output voltage can track the maximum power point voltage by the proposed MPPT control method. The generated power of the TM is 0.36 W when the temperature difference is 35 °C. This is well accorded with the V-P characteristics.
Abstract: Spatiotemporal compression of ultrashort pulses is one of the key issues of chirped pulse amplification (CPA), the most common method to achieve high intensity laser beams. Successful shaping of the temporal envelope and recombination of the spectral components of the broadband pulses need careful alignment of the stretcher-compressor stages. Pulse parameters are required to be measured at the target as well. Several diagnostic techniques have been developed so far for the characterization of ultrashort pulses. Some of these methods utilize nonlinear optical processes, while others based on purely linear optics, in most cases, combined with spectrally resolving device. The goal of this work is to provide a review on the capabilities and limitations of the latter category of the ultrafast diagnostical methods. We feel that the importance of these powerful, easy-to-align, high-precision techniques needs to be emphasized, since their use could gradually improve the efficiency of different CPA systems. We give a general description on the background of spectrally resolved linear interferometry and demonstrate various schematic experimental layouts for the detection of material dispersion, angular dispersion and carrier-envelope phase drift. Precision estimations and discussion of potential applications are also provided.
Abstract: The present paper reviews some aspects concerned with the development of green technologies in the photopolymerization area: use of visible light sources (Xe and Hg-Xe lamps, diode lasers), soft irradiation conditions (household lamps: halogen lamp, fluorescence bulbs, LED bulbs), sunlight exposure, development of very efficient photoinitiating systems and use of renewable monomers. The drawbacks/breakthroughs encountered when going on the way of a greener approach are discussed. Examples of recent achievements are presented.
Abstract: Given the water scarcity becoming endemic to a large portion of the globe, arid region irrigation has resorted to the use of treated, partially treated, or even untreated wastewaters. Such waters contain a number of pollutants, including surfactants. Applied to agricultural lands, these surfactants could affect the fate and transport of other chemicals in the soil, particularly pesticides. A field lysimeter study was undertaken to investigate the effect of nonionic surfactant, Brij35, on the in-soil fate and transport of a commonly used herbicide, metribuzin [4-amino-6-tert-butyl-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)-one]. Nine PVC lysimeters, 1.0 m long × 0.45 m diameter, were packed with a sandy soil to a bulk density of 1.35 mg m−3. Antibiotic-free cattle manure was applied (10 mg ha−1) at the surface of the lysimeters. Metribuzin was then applied to the soil surface of all lysimeters at a rate of 1.00 kg a.i. ha−1. Each of three aqueous Brij35 solutions, 0, 0.5 and 5 mg L−1 (i.e., “good”, “poor” and “very poor” quality irrigation water) were each applied to the lysimeters in triplicate. Analysis for metribuzin residues in samples of both soil and leachate, collected over a 90-day period, showed the surfactant Brij35 to have increased the mobility of metribuzin in soil, indicating that continued use of poor quality water could influence pesticide transport in agricultural soils, and increase the risk of groundwater contamination.
Abstract: A series of new 1,3-diaryl-5-(1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-chloropyrazol-4-yl)-4,5-dihydropyrazole derivatives have been synthesized under sonication conditions in ethanol or methanol/glacial acetic acid mixture (5/1 ratio) with two equivalents of hydrazines and seven kinds of chalcone-like heteroanalogues obtained from 5-chloro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde. The structures were established on the basis of NMR, IR, MS and element analysis. This method provides several advantages over current reaction methodologies, including a simple work-up procedure, shorter reaction times (2–20 min) and good yields (65%–80%).
Abstract: This paper presents a simple control strategy for the operation of a variable speed stand-alone wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The PMSG is connected to a three phase resistive load through a switch mode rectifier and a voltage source inverter. Control of the generator side converter is used to achieve maximum power extraction from the available wind power. Control of the DC-DC bidirectional buck-boost converter, which is connected between batteries bank and DC-link voltage, is used to maintain the DC-link voltage at a constant value. It is also used to make the batteries bank stores the surplus of wind energy and supplies this energy to the load during a wind power shortage. The load side voltage source inverter uses a relatively complex vector control scheme to control the output load voltage in terms of amplitude and frequency. The control strategy works under wind speed variation as well as with variable load. Extensive simulation results have been performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.