Appl. Sci.2015, 5(3), 472-484; doi:10.3390/app5030472 - published 27 August 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We report a novel rotary piezoelectric motor using bending transducers in this work. Three transducers are used to drive a disk-shaped rotor together by the elliptical movements of their driving tips; these motions are produced by the hybrid of two first bending vibration modes. The proposed piezoelectric transducer has a simple structure as it only contains an aluminum alloy beam and four pieces of PZT plates. Symmetrical structure is the only necessary condition in the design process as it will ensure the resonance frequencies of the two orthogonal first bending modes are equal. Transducers with first bending resonance frequency of about 53 kHz were fabricated and assembled into a rotary motor. The proposed motor exhibits good performance on speed and torque control. Under a working frequency of 53.2 kHz, the maximum no-load speed and the maximum torque of the prototype are tested to be 53.3 rpm and of 27 mN·m.
Appl. Sci.2015, 5(3), 459-471; doi:10.3390/app5030459 - published 26 August 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Enhanced proton acceleration to high energy by relatively modest ultrashort laser pulses and structured dynamic plasma snow targets was demonstrated experimentally. High proton yield emitted to narrow solid angle with energies of up 25 MeV were detected from interaction of a 5 TW laser with snow targets. The high yield was attributed to a carefully planned prepulse and microstructured snow targets. We studied experimentally the minimal energy requirements for the adequate prepulse and we are using PIC simulations to study the dynamics of acceleration process. Based on our simulations, we predict that using the proposed scheme protons can be accelerated to energies above 150 MeV by 100 TW laser systems.
Appl. Sci.2015, 5(3), 446-458; doi:10.3390/app5030446 - published 21 August 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Currently, the demand for information security of industrial control systems is becoming more and more urgent, but the security model proposed by OPC UA cannot meet the practical requirements of industrial control systems. For this reason, this paper proposes a new security communication model to provide integrity and authentication in OPC UA. This model uses the Whirlpool hash function to check integrity and generates digital signature along with RSA in message transmission. Compared to SHA-1, Whirlpool has a higher calculation speed and lower collision rate. Through this model, terminals in the upper layer can communicate with field devices via a channel with high security and efficiency.
Appl. Sci.2015, 5(3), 427-445; doi:10.3390/app5030427 - published 21 August 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Charged particle acceleration using ultra-intense and ultra-short laser pulses has gathered a strong interest in the scientific community and it is now one of the most attractive topics in the relativistic laser-plasma interaction research. Indeed, it could represent the future of particle acceleration and open new scenarios in multidisciplinary fields, in particular, medical applications. One of the biggest challenges consists of using, in a future perspective, high intensity laser-target interaction to generate high-energy ions for therapeutic purposes, eventually replacing the old paradigm of acceleration, characterized by huge and complex machines. The peculiarities of laser-driven beams led to develop new strategies and advanced techniques for transport, diagnostics and dosimetry of the accelerated particles, due to the wide energy spread, the angular divergence and the extremely intense pulses. In this framework, the realization of the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical applications) beamline, developed by INFN-LNS (Catania, Italy) and installed in 2017 as a part of the ELIMAIA beamline at the ELI-Beamlines (Extreme Light Infrastructure Beamlines) facility in Prague, has the aim to investigate the feasibility of using laser-driven ion beams in multidisciplinary applications. ELIMED will represent the first user’s open transport beam line where a controlled laser-driven ion beam will be used for multidisciplinary and medical studies. In this paper, an overview of the beamline, with a detailed description of the main transport elements, will be presented. Moreover, a description of the detectors dedicated to diagnostics and dosimetry will be reported, with some preliminary results obtained both with accelerator-driven and laser-driven beams.
Appl. Sci.2015, 5(3), 415-426; doi:10.3390/app5030415 - published 19 August 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A greener synthesis protocol for noble nanometals is developed using vitamin B12 as a reducing and capping agent in conjunction with the use of microwaves. Successful assembly of nanoparticles or microparticles with varied shapes and sizes have been demonstrated. The synthesized Ag, Au, and Pd samples were thoroughly characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission microscopy, and UV-visible spectrophotometry, confirming that metallic Ag, Au, and Pd were synthesized by the green chemistry method.
Appl. Sci.2015, 5(3), 402-414; doi:10.3390/app5030402 - published 18 August 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper presents the design and simulation of improved circuits of Fuzzifier and capacitance to voltage (C2V) converter. The Fuzzifier circuit is designed based on analog advantages such as low die area, high accuracy, and simplicity which are added to the fuzzy system advantages. For implementing this idea, a programmable Membership Function Generator (MFG) including differential pair circuit as a Fuzzifier is proposed. The MFG generates arbitrary forms of Gaussian, Trapezoidal, and Triangular shapes. The shape types are achieved using control switches and different reference voltages. This structure is also general purpose in tuning the slope of Membership Functions (MFs) using scaled transistors with different W/L ratios. With a specific purpose in mind, we used it here to generate fuzzy language terms from sensed classic data of a blood glucose microsensor. Thus we proposed a C2V circuit to convert capacitance variations (from MEMS glucose microsensor) to voltage values as classic data. The proposed mentioned circuits can be applicable in design of Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) chips to detect blood glucose, process its data in Fuzzy environment, and control insulin injection of diabetic patients by MEMS micropumps. The simulation results are achieved by MATLAB and Hspice software in 0.35 μm CMOS standard technology.