Appl. Sci.2014, 4(3), 380-389; doi:10.3390/app4030380 - published 29 August 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The influence of three types of halogen-substituted E-β-methyl-β-nitrostyrenes (such as Compounds B, D, H) to overcome bacterial activity that is currently a significant health threat was studied. The evaluations of their bio-potency was measured and related to their structure and activity relationships for the purposes of serving to inhibit and overcoming resistant microorganisms. In particular, fluorine-containing β-nitrostyrenes were found to be highly active antimicrobial agents. The addition of the β-bromo group enhanced the antibacterial activity significantly. Our work has illustrated that halogen substituents at both the 4-position in the aromatic ring and also at the β-position on the alkene side chain of nitropropenyl arenes enhanced the antimicrobial activity of these compounds.
Appl. Sci.2014, 4(3), 366-379; doi:10.3390/app4030366 - published 22 August 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper proposes the re-planning operation method using Tabu Search for direct current (DC) smart house with photovoltaic (PV), solar collector (SC), battery and heat pump system. The proposed method is based on solar radiation forecasting using reported weather data, Fuzzy theory and Recurrent Neural Network. Additionally, the re-planning operation method is proposed with consideration of solar radiation forecast error, battery and inverter losses. In this paper, it is assumed that the installation location for DC smart house is Okinawa, which is located in Southwest Japan. The validity of proposed method is confirmed by comparing the simulation results.
Appl. Sci.2014, 4(3), 351-365; doi:10.3390/app4030351 - published 18 August 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We propose a graphene nanoribbon-based heterojunction, where a defect-free interface separates two zigzag graphene nanoribbons prepared in opposite antiferromagnetic spin configurations. This heterospin junction is found to allow the redirecting of low-energy electrons from one edge to the other. The basic scattering mechanisms and their relation to the system’s geometry are investigated through a combination of Landauer–Green’s function and the S-matrix and eigen-channel methods within a tight-binding + Hubbard model validated with density functional theory. The findings demonstrate the possibility of using zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons (zGNRs) in complex networks where current can be transmitted across the entire system, instead of following the shortest paths along connected edges belonging to the same sub-lattice.
Appl. Sci.2014, 4(3), 331-350; doi:10.3390/app4030331 - published 8 August 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper introduces a confidence measure scheme in a bimodal camera setup for automatically selecting visible-light or a thermal infrared in response to natural environmental changes. The purpose of the setup is to robustly detect people in dynamic outdoor scenarios under very different conditions. For this purpose, two efficient segmentation algorithms, one dedicated to the visible-light spectrum and another one to the thermal infrared spectrum, are implemented. The segmentation algorithms are applied to five different video sequences recorded under very different environmental conditions. The results of the segmentation in both spectra allow one to establish the best-suited confidence interval thresholds and to validate the overall approach. Indeed, the confidence measures take linguistic values LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH, depending on the reliability of the results obtained in visible-light, as well as in thermal infrared video.
Appl. Sci.2014, 4(3), 318-330; doi:10.3390/app4030318 - published 1 July 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We investigatefour-wave mixing in hydrogen gas using a gas cell and a hollow fiber for the generation of high-energy, multicolor femtosecond (fs) optical pulses. Both a hydrogen-filled gas cell and hollow fiber lead to the generation of multicolor fs pulses in a broad spectral range from the deep ultraviolet to the near infrared. However, there is a difference in the energy distribution of the multicolor emission between the gas cell and the hollow fiber. The hydrogen-filled gas cell generates visible pulses with higher energies than the pulses created by the hollow fiber. We have generated visible pulses with energies of several tens of microjoules. The hydrogen-filled hollow fiber, on the other hand, generates ultraviolet pulses with energies of a few microjoules, which are higher than the energies of the ultraviolet pulses generated in the gas cell. In both schemes, the spectral width of each emission line supports a transform-limited pulse duration shorter than 15 fs. Four-wave mixing in hydrogen gas therefore can be used for the development of a light source that emits sub-20 fs multicolor pulses in a wavelength region from the deep ultraviolet to the near infrared with microjoule pulse energies.
Appl. Sci.2014, 4(2), 305-317; doi:10.3390/app4020305 - published 30 May 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A semi-classical electrodynamical model is derived to describe the electrical transport along graphene, based on the modified Boltzmann transport equation. The model is derived in the typical operating conditions predicted for future integrated circuits nano-interconnects, i.e., a low bias condition and an operating frequency up to 1 THz. A generalized non-local dispersive Ohm’s law is derived, which can be regarded as the constitutive equation for the material. The behavior of the electrical conductivity is studied with reference to a 2D case (the infinite graphene layer) and a 1D case (the graphene nanoribbons). The modulation effects of the nanoribbons’ size and chirality are highlighted, as well as the spatial dispersion introduced in the 2D case by the dyadic nature of the conductivity.