Appl. Sci.2014, 4(3), 402-443; doi:10.3390/app4030402 (registering DOI) - published 19 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: It has been known for about sixty years that proton and heavy ion therapy is a very powerful radiation procedure for treating tumors. It has an innate ability to irradiate tumors with greater doses and spatial selectivity compared with electron and photon therapy and, hence, is a tissue sparing procedure. For more than twenty years, powerful lasers have generated high energy beams of protons and heavy ions and it has, therefore, frequently been speculated that lasers could be used as an alternative to radiofrequency (RF) accelerators to produce the particle beams necessary for cancer therapy. The present paper reviews the progress made towards laser driven hadron cancer therapy and what has still to be accomplished to realize its inherent enormous potential.
Appl. Sci.2014, 4(3), 390-401; doi:10.3390/app4030390 - published 5 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: High order Raman generation has received considerable attention as a possible method for generating ultrashort pulses. A large number of Raman orders can be generated when the Raman-active medium is pumped by two laser pulses that have a frequency separation equal to the Raman transition frequency. High order Raman generation has been studied in the different temporal regimes, namely: adiabatic, where the pump pulses are much longer than the coherence time of the transition; transient, where the pulse duration is comparable to the coherence time; and impulsive, where the bandwidth of the ultrashort pulse is wider than the transition frequency. To date, almost all of the work has been concerned with generating as broad a spectrum as possible, but we are interested in studying the spectra of the individual orders when pumped in the transient regime. We concentrate on looking at extra peaks that are generated when the Raman medium is pumped with linearly chirped pulses. The extra peaks are generated on the low frequency side of the Raman orders. We discuss how linear Raman scattering from two-photon dressed states can lead to the generation of these extra peaks.
Appl. Sci.2014, 4(3), 380-389; doi:10.3390/app4030380 - published 29 August 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The influence of three types of halogen-substituted E-β-methyl-β-nitrostyrenes (such as Compounds B, D, H) to overcome bacterial activity that is currently a significant health threat was studied. The evaluations of their bio-potency was measured and related to their structure and activity relationships for the purposes of serving to inhibit and overcoming resistant microorganisms. In particular, fluorine-containing β-nitrostyrenes were found to be highly active antimicrobial agents. The addition of the β-bromo group enhanced the antibacterial activity significantly. Our work has illustrated that halogen substituents at both the 4-position in the aromatic ring and also at the β-position on the alkene side chain of nitropropenyl arenes enhanced the antimicrobial activity of these compounds.
Appl. Sci.2014, 4(3), 366-379; doi:10.3390/app4030366 - published 22 August 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper proposes the re-planning operation method using Tabu Search for direct current (DC) smart house with photovoltaic (PV), solar collector (SC), battery and heat pump system. The proposed method is based on solar radiation forecasting using reported weather data, Fuzzy theory and Recurrent Neural Network. Additionally, the re-planning operation method is proposed with consideration of solar radiation forecast error, battery and inverter losses. In this paper, it is assumed that the installation location for DC smart house is Okinawa, which is located in Southwest Japan. The validity of proposed method is confirmed by comparing the simulation results.
Appl. Sci.2014, 4(3), 351-365; doi:10.3390/app4030351 - published 18 August 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We propose a graphene nanoribbon-based heterojunction, where a defect-free interface separates two zigzag graphene nanoribbons prepared in opposite antiferromagnetic spin configurations. This heterospin junction is found to allow the redirecting of low-energy electrons from one edge to the other. The basic scattering mechanisms and their relation to the system’s geometry are investigated through a combination of Landauer–Green’s function and the S-matrix and eigen-channel methods within a tight-binding + Hubbard model validated with density functional theory. The findings demonstrate the possibility of using zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons (zGNRs) in complex networks where current can be transmitted across the entire system, instead of following the shortest paths along connected edges belonging to the same sub-lattice.
Appl. Sci.2014, 4(3), 331-350; doi:10.3390/app4030331 - published 8 August 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper introduces a confidence measure scheme in a bimodal camera setup for automatically selecting visible-light or a thermal infrared in response to natural environmental changes. The purpose of the setup is to robustly detect people in dynamic outdoor scenarios under very different conditions. For this purpose, two efficient segmentation algorithms, one dedicated to the visible-light spectrum and another one to the thermal infrared spectrum, are implemented. The segmentation algorithms are applied to five different video sequences recorded under very different environmental conditions. The results of the segmentation in both spectra allow one to establish the best-suited confidence interval thresholds and to validate the overall approach. Indeed, the confidence measures take linguistic values LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH, depending on the reliability of the results obtained in visible-light, as well as in thermal infrared video.