Appl. Sci.2014, 4(4), 482-492; doi:10.3390/app4040482 - published 29 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Network transformations are the techniques to obtain new functional schemes from available circuits. They are systematic methodologies, since each transformation technique can be applied to many circuits to obtain the desired functions or characteristics. A convenient network transformation method, exploiting different circuit transformations, for deriving linear sinusoidal oscillators from biquadratic band pass filters is proposed. This method with generality can be applied to any band pass filter. The oscillation frequency of the new obtained oscillator is identical to the center frequency of the original band pass filter, and the useful properties of the selected band pass filter can be retained. Two examples are illustrated to confirm the feasibility of the proposed approach. The workability of the obtained oscillators is verified with PSPICE simulations.
Appl. Sci.2014, 4(3), 468-481; doi:10.3390/app4030468 - published 22 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The effect of the calcination conditions on the catalytic activity for N2O decomposition of 2.5% RhOx/CeO2 catalysts has been investigated. Ramp and flash calcinations have been studied (starting calcinations at 25 or 250/350 °C, respectively) both for cerium nitrate and ceria-impregnated rhodium nitrate decomposition. The cerium nitrate calcination ramp has neither an effect on the physico-chemical properties of ceria, observed by XRD, Raman spectroscopy and N2 adsorption, nor an effect on the catalysts performance for N2O decomposition. On the contrary, flash calcination of rhodium nitrate improved the catalytic activity for N2O decomposition. This is attributed to the smaller size of RhOx nanoparticles obtained (smaller than 1 nm) which allow a higher rhodium oxide-ceria interface, favoring the reducibility of the ceria surface and stabilizing the RhOx species under reaction conditions.
Appl. Sci.2014, 4(3), 444-467; doi:10.3390/app4030444 - published 22 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper introduces and discusses the main aspects of multicolored femtosecond pulse generation using cascaded four-wave mixing (CFWM) in transparent bulk materials. Theoretical analysis and semi-quantitative calculations, based on the phase-matching condition of the four-wave mixing process, explain the phenomena well. Experimental studies, based on our experiments, have shown the main characteristics of the multicolored pulses, namely, broadband spectra with wide tunability, high stability, short pulse duration and relatively high pulse energy. Two-dimensional multicolored array generation in various materials are also introduced and discussed.
Appl. Sci.2014, 4(3), 402-443; doi:10.3390/app4030402 - published 19 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: It has been known for about sixty years that proton and heavy ion therapy is a very powerful radiation procedure for treating tumors. It has an innate ability to irradiate tumors with greater doses and spatial selectivity compared with electron and photon therapy and, hence, is a tissue sparing procedure. For more than twenty years, powerful lasers have generated high energy beams of protons and heavy ions and it has, therefore, frequently been speculated that lasers could be used as an alternative to radiofrequency (RF) accelerators to produce the particle beams necessary for cancer therapy. The present paper reviews the progress made towards laser driven hadron cancer therapy and what has still to be accomplished to realize its inherent enormous potential.
Appl. Sci.2014, 4(3), 390-401; doi:10.3390/app4030390 - published 5 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: High order Raman generation has received considerable attention as a possible method for generating ultrashort pulses. A large number of Raman orders can be generated when the Raman-active medium is pumped by two laser pulses that have a frequency separation equal to the Raman transition frequency. High order Raman generation has been studied in the different temporal regimes, namely: adiabatic, where the pump pulses are much longer than the coherence time of the transition; transient, where the pulse duration is comparable to the coherence time; and impulsive, where the bandwidth of the ultrashort pulse is wider than the transition frequency. To date, almost all of the work has been concerned with generating as broad a spectrum as possible, but we are interested in studying the spectra of the individual orders when pumped in the transient regime. We concentrate on looking at extra peaks that are generated when the Raman medium is pumped with linearly chirped pulses. The extra peaks are generated on the low frequency side of the Raman orders. We discuss how linear Raman scattering from two-photon dressed states can lead to the generation of these extra peaks.