Appl. Sci.2016, 6(9), 238; doi:10.3390/app6090238 - published 24 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In this paper we present an overview of our theoretical simulations on the interaction of ultrafast laser pulses with matter. Our dedicated simulation tool, X-ray induced Thermal And Non-thermal Transitions (XTANT) can currently treat semiconductors irradiated with soft to hard X-ray femtosecond pulses. During the excitation and relaxation of solids, their optical properties such as reflectivity, transmission and absorption, are changing, affected by transient electron excitation and, at sufficiently high dose, by atomic relocations. In this review we report how the transient optical properties can be used for diagnostics of electronic and structural transitions occurring in irradiated semiconductors. The presented methodology for calculation of the complex dielectric function applied in XTANT proves to be capable of describing changes in the optical parameters, when the solids are driven out of equilibrium by intense laser pulses. Comparison of model predictions with the existing experimental data shows a good agreement. Application of transient optical properties to laser pulse diagnostics is indicated.
Appl. Sci.2016, 6(9), 235; doi:10.3390/app6090235 - published 23 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Nano materials possess unique mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. They are small, and have an ultrahigh surface area, making them suitable for air filter applications since air filtration is necessary to protect sensitive components from harmful particulates and gaseous contaminants. The electrospinning method has been recognized as an efficient technique for fabricating polymer nanofibers. In order to determine the optimum manufacturing conditions, the effects of several electrospinning process parameters on the diameter, orientation, and distribution of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber are analyzed. To improve interlaminar fracture toughness and suppress the delamination in the form of laminated non-woven fibers by using a heat roller, the performances of filter efficiency and pressure drop achieved with the PAN nanofiber air filter are evaluated experimentally.
Appl. Sci.2016, 6(9), 236; doi:10.3390/app6090236 - published 23 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We report the improvement of the electrical performance of field effect transistors (FETs) fabricated on monolayer chemical vapor deposited (CVD) MoS2, by applying an interacting fluoropolymer capping layer (Teflon-AF). The electrical characterizations of more than 60 FETs, after applying Teflon-AF cap, show significant improvement of the device properties and reduced device to device variation. The improvement includes: 50% reduction of the average gate hysteresis, 30% reduction of the subthreshold swing and about an order of magnitude increase of the current on-off ratio. These favorable changes in device performance are attributed to the reduced exposure of MoS2 channels to the adsorbates in the ambient which can be explained by the polar nature of Teflon-AF cap. A positive shift in the threshold voltage of all the measured FETs is observed, which translates to the more desirable enhancement mode transistor characteristics.
Appl. Sci.2016, 6(8), 233; doi:10.3390/app6080233 - published 19 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Titanium oxide (TiO2) films and TiO2/SiNx stacks have potential in surface passivation, anti-reflection coatings and carrier-selective contact layers for crystalline Si solar cells. A Si wafer, deposited with 8-nm-thick TiO2 film by atomic layer deposition, has a surface recombination velocity as low as 14.93 cm/s at the injection level of 1.0 × 1015 cm−3. However, the performance of silicon surface passivation of the deposited TiO2 film declines as its thickness increases, probably because of the stress effects, phase transformation, atomic hydrogen and thermal stability of amorphous TiO2 films. For the characterization of 66-nm-thick TiO2 film, the results of transmission electron microscopy show that the anatase TiO2 crystallinity forms close to the surface of the Si. Secondary ion mass spectrometry shows the atomic hydrogen at the interface of TiO2 and Si which serves for chemical passivation. The crystal size of anatase TiO2 and the homogeneity of TiO2 film can be deduced by the measurements of Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry, respectively. For the passivating contacts of solar cells, in addition, a stack composed of 8-nm-thick TiO2 film and a plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor-deposited 72-nm-thick SiNx layer has been investigated. From the results of the measurement of the reflectivity and effective carrier lifetime, TiO2/SiNx stacks on Si wafers perform with low reflectivity and some degree of surface passivation for the Si wafer.
Appl. Sci.2016, 6(8), 230; doi:10.3390/app6080230 - published 17 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: This paper presents a new energy-harvesting system with two identical piezoelectric energy harvesters in a tandem configuration. Each harvester consists of a piezoelectric beam and a circular cylinder. Experiments are performed to investigate the energy-harvesting performances of this system in water. It can be found that their energy-harvesting performances are all different from that of the single harvester (without an upstream or downstream harvester). The experimental results show that the water speed and the spacing ratio have significant effects on the energy-harvesting performances of the two tandem harvesters. The output power of the upstream harvester first increases, and then decreases with the water speed increasing. The maximum output power of 167.8 μW is achieved at the water speed of 0.306 m/s and the spacing ratio (L/D) of 2.5. Increasing the water speed results in an increase in the energy performance of the downstream harvester. Compared with the single harvester, the performance of the downstream harvester is weakened in the low water speed range, but enhanced in the higher water speed range. Further, the output power of 533 μW is obtained by the downstream harvester at the water speed of 0.412 m/s and the spacing ratio of 1.7, which is 29 times more than that of the single harvester. The results indicate the superiority of the two tandem harvesters in energy-harvesting performance.
Appl. Sci.2016, 6(8), 218; doi:10.3390/app6080218 - published 17 August 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: A new control estimator to maximize the power generated with a maximum power point estimator is introduced. The power mapping characteristics from the double-stator generator are modeled as a mathematical equation which is used to develop the estimator for maximum power tracking to maximize the generated power. The proposed estimator automatically traces the instantaneous maximum power at various load conditions. However, to stabilize the output voltage, a boost converter is used from the inverter side. The developed double-stator generator is tested with the new estimator for the maximizing power generation capability under laboratory conditions. The experimental results confirm that with the new estimator, the average power generation capability is increased by 12% and the peak value is increase by 22%.