Appl. Sci.2015, 5(4), 1431-1439; doi:10.3390/app5041431 (registering DOI) - published 27 November 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Nonlinear ultrashort pulse propagation in a mode-locked Yb:YAG laser with a highly nonlinear intra-cavity medium is analyzed using a nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The output spectra are extended by the increased laser intensity, and spectral bandwidths wider than those of the gain medium are achieved. Moreover, pulse widths are shortened by increased laser intensity to considerably less than those of the gain medium. The simulation results qualitatively agree with the experimental results.
Appl. Sci.2015, 5(4), 1412-1430; doi:10.3390/app5041412 (registering DOI) - published 27 November 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The current stage of non-destructive evaluation techniques imposes the development of new electromagnetic methods that are based on high spatial resolution and increased sensitivity. Printed circuit boards, integrated circuit boards, composite materials with polymeric matrix containing conductive fibers, as well as some types of biosensors are devices of interest in using such evaluation methods. In order to achieve high performance, the work frequencies must be either radiofrequencies or microwaves. At these frequencies, at the dielectric/conductor interface, plasmon polaritons can appear, propagating between conductive regions as evanescent waves. Detection of these waves, containing required information, can be done using sensors with metamaterial lenses. We propose in this paper the enhancement of the spatial resolution using electromagnetic methods, which can be accomplished in this case using evanescent waves that appear in the current study in slits of materials such as the spaces between carbon fibers in Carbon Fibers Reinforced Plastics or in materials of interest in the nondestructive evaluation field with industrial applications, where microscopic cracks are present. We propose herein a unique design of the metamaterials for use in nondestructive evaluation based on Conical Swiss Rolls configurations, which assure the robust concentration/focusing of the incident electromagnetic waves (practically impossible to be focused using classical materials), as well as the robust manipulation of evanescent waves. Applying this testing method, spatial resolution of approximately λ/2000 can be achieved. This testing method can be successfully applied in a variety of applications of paramount importance such as defect/damage detection in materials used in a variety of industrial applications, such as automotive and aviation technologies.
Appl. Sci.2015, 5(4), 1399-1411; doi:10.3390/app5041399 (registering DOI) - published 27 November 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In order to model multi-dimensions and multi-granularities oriented complex systems, this paper firstly proposes a kind of multi-relational Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) to simulate the multi-relational system and its auto construct algorithm integrating Nonlinear Hebbian Learning (NHL) and Real Code Genetic Algorithm (RCGA). The multi-relational FCM fits to model the complex system with multi-dimensions and multi-granularities. The auto construct algorithm can learn the multi-relational FCM from multi-relational data resources to eliminate human intervention. The Multi-Relational Data Mining (MRDM) algorithm integrates multi-instance oriented NHL and RCGA of FCM. NHL is extended to mine the causal relationships between coarse-granularity concept and its fined-granularity concepts driven by multi-instances in the multi-relational system. RCGA is used to establish high-quality high-level FCM driven by data. The multi-relational FCM and the integrating algorithm have been applied in complex system of Mutagenesis. The experiment demonstrates not only that they get better classification accuracy, but it also shows the causal relationships among the concepts of the system.
Appl. Sci.2015, 5(4), 1379-1398; doi:10.3390/app5041379 - published 25 November 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: We review our recent progress on the realisation of pulse shaping in passively-mode-locked fibre lasers by inclusion of an amplitude and/or phase spectral filter into the laser cavity. We numerically show that depending on the amplitude transfer function of the in-cavity filter, various regimes of advanced waveform generation can be achieved, including ones featuring parabolic-, flat-top- and triangular-profiled pulses. An application of this approach using a flat-top spectral filter is shown to achieve the direct generation of high-quality sinc-shaped optical Nyquist pulses with a widely tunable bandwidth from the laser oscillator. We also present the operation of an ultrafast fibre laser in which conventional soliton, dispersion-managed soliton (stretched-pulse) and dissipative soliton mode-locking regimes can be selectively and reliably targeted by adaptively changing the dispersion profile and bandwidth programmed on an in-cavity programmable filter. The results demonstrate the strong potential of an in-cavity spectral pulse shaper for achieving a high degree of control over the dynamics and output of mode-locked fibre lasers.
Appl. Sci.2015, 5(4), 1350-1378; doi:10.3390/app5041350 - published 24 November 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Engineering techniques used to evaluate strain-stress fields, materials’ mechanical properties, and load transfer mechanisms, among others, are useful tools in the study of biomechanical applications. These engineering tools, as experimental and numerical ones, were imported to biomechanics, in particular in dental biomechanics, a few decades ago. Several experimental techniques have been used in dental biomechanics, like photoelasticity, ESPI (Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry), strain gages, and other kinds of transducers. However, these techniques have some limitations. For instance, photoelasticity and ESPI give the overall field pattern of the strain, showing the stress-strain concentration points. These methods cannot give an accurate measurement at all points. On the contrary, strain gages can be used to perform local measurements. However, as they use electrical resistances, their use is limited to perform in vivo measurements. Optical fiber sensors have already been used in dentistry, for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, and in dental biomechanics studies. Lasers have also been used in clinical dentistry for a few decades. Other optical technologies, like optical coherence tomography (OCT), became suitable for dental practice and nowadays it is perhaps one that has had more development in dentristry, along with lasers.
Appl. Sci.2015, 5(4), 1337-1349; doi:10.3390/app5041337 - published 23 November 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The actual grinding result of ceramics has not been well predicted by the present mechanical models. No allowance is made for direct effects of materials microstructure and almost all the mechanical models were obtained based on crystalline ceramics. In order to improve the mechanical models of ceramics, surface grinding experiments on crystalline ceramics and non-crystalline ceramics were conducted in this research. The normal and tangential grinding forces were measured to calculate single grit force and specific grinding energy. Grinding surfaces were observed. For crystalline alumina ceramics, the predictive modeling of normal force per grit fits well with the experimental result, when the maximum undeformed chip thickness is less than a critical depth, which turns out to be close to the grain size of alumina. Meanwhile, there is a negative correlation between the specific grinding energy and the maximum undeformed chip thickness. With the decreasing maximum undeformed chip thickness, the proportions of ductile removal and transgranular fracture increase. However, the grinding force models are not applicable for non-crystalline ceramic fused silica and the specific grinding energy fluctuates irregularly as a function of maximum undeformed chip thickness seen from the experiment.