Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation of a Base Isolation System Incorporating MR Dampers with the High-Order Single Step Control Algorithm
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 344; doi:10.3390/app7040344 -
Abstract
The conventional isolation structure with rubber bearings exhibits large deformation characteristics when subjected to infrequent earthquakes, which may lead to failure of the isolation layer. Although passive dampers can be used to reduce the layer displacement, the layer deformation and superstructure acceleration responses
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The conventional isolation structure with rubber bearings exhibits large deformation characteristics when subjected to infrequent earthquakes, which may lead to failure of the isolation layer. Although passive dampers can be used to reduce the layer displacement, the layer deformation and superstructure acceleration responses will increase in cases of fortification earthquakes or frequently occurring earthquakes. In addition to secondary damages and loss of life, such excessive displacement results in damages to the facilities in the structure. In order to overcome these shortcomings, this paper presents a structural vibration control system where the base isolation system is composed of rubber bearings with magnetorheological (MR) damper and are regulated using the innovative control strategy. The high-order single-step algorithm with continuity and switch control strategies are applied to the control system. Shaking table test results under various earthquake conditions indicate that the proposed isolation method, compared with passive isolation technique, can effectively suppress earthquake responses for acceleration of superstructure and deformation within the isolation layer. As a result, this structural control method exhibits excellent performance, such as fast computation, generic real-time control, acceleration reduction and high seismic energy dissipation etc. The relative merits of the continuity and switch control strategies are also compared and discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Pulse Propagation Models with Bands of Forbidden Frequencies or Forbidden Wavenumbers: A Consequence of Abandoning the Slowly Varying Envelope Approximation and Taking into Account Higher-Order Dispersion
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 340; doi:10.3390/app7040340 -
Abstract
We study linear and nonlinear pulse propagation models whose linear dispersion relations present bands of forbidden frequencies or forbidden wavenumbers. These bands are due to the interplay between higher-order dispersion and one of the terms (a second-order derivative with respect to the propagation
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We study linear and nonlinear pulse propagation models whose linear dispersion relations present bands of forbidden frequencies or forbidden wavenumbers. These bands are due to the interplay between higher-order dispersion and one of the terms (a second-order derivative with respect to the propagation direction) which appears when we abandon the slowly varying envelope approximation. We show that as a consequence of these forbidden bands, narrow pulses radiate in a novel and peculiar way. We also show that the nonlinear equations studied in this paper have exact soliton-like solutions of different forms, some of them being embedded solitons. The solutions obtained (of the linear as well as the nonlinear equations) are interesting since several arguments suggest that the Cauchy problems for these equations are ill-posed, and therefore the specification of the initial conditions is a delicate issue. It is also shown that some of these equations are related to elliptic curves, thus suggesting that these equations might be related to other fields where these curves appear, such as the theory of modular forms and Weierstrass ℘ functions, or the design of cryptographic protocols. Full article
Open AccessReview
Guided Self-Accelerating Airy Beams—A Mini-Review
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 341; doi:10.3390/app7040341 -
Abstract
Owing to their nondiffracting, self-accelerating, and self-healing properties, Airy beams of different nature have become a subject of immense interest in the past decade. Their interesting properties have opened doors to many diverse applications. Consequently, the questions of how to properly design the
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Owing to their nondiffracting, self-accelerating, and self-healing properties, Airy beams of different nature have become a subject of immense interest in the past decade. Their interesting properties have opened doors to many diverse applications. Consequently, the questions of how to properly design the spatial manipulation of Airy beams or how to implement them in different setups have become important and timely in the development of various optical devices. Here, based on our previous work, we present a short review on the spatial control of Airy beams, including the interactions of Airy beams in nonlinear media, beam propagation in harmonic potential, and the dynamics of abruptly autofocusing Airy beams in the presence of a dynamic linear potential. We demonstrate that, under the guidance of nonlinearity and an external potential, the trajectory, acceleration, structure, and even the basic properties of Airy beams can be adjusted to suit specific needs. We describe other fascinating phenomena observed with Airy beams, such as self-Fourier transformation, periodic inversion of Airy beams, and the appearance of spatial solitons in the presence of nonlinearity. These results have promoted the development of Airy beams, and have been utilized in various applications, including particle manipulation, self-trapping, and electronic matter waves. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Design and Implementation of a Shape Shifting Rolling–Crawling–Wall-Climbing Robot
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 342; doi:10.3390/app7040342 -
Abstract
Designing an urban reconnaissance robot is highly challenging work given the nature of the terrain in which these robots are required to operate. In this work, we attempt to extend the locomotion capabilities of these robots beyond what is currently feasible. The design
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Designing an urban reconnaissance robot is highly challenging work given the nature of the terrain in which these robots are required to operate. In this work, we attempt to extend the locomotion capabilities of these robots beyond what is currently feasible. The design and unique features of our bio-inspired reconfigurable robot, called Scorpio, with rolling, crawling, and wall-climbing locomotion abilities are presented in this paper. The design of the Scorpio platform is inspired by Cebrennus rechenbergi, a rare spider species that has rolling, crawling and wall-climbing locomotion attributes. This work also presents the kinematic and dynamic model of Scorpio. The mechanical design and system architecture are introduced in detail, followed by a detailed description on the locomotion modes. The conducted experiments validated the proposed approach and the ability of the Scorpio platform to synthesise crawling, rolling and wall-climbing behaviours. Future work is envisioned for using these robots as active, unattended, mobile ground sensors in urban reconnaissance missions. The accompanying video demonstrates the shape shifting locomotion capabilities of the Scorpio robot. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Using Thermal Shock to Inhibit Biofilm Formation in the Treated Sewage Source Heat Pump Systems
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 343; doi:10.3390/app7040343 -
Abstract
Treated sewage source heat pump systems can reuse the waste energy in the treated sewage. However, biofilms in the heat exchangers decrease the system efficiency. This work investigates the feasibility of thermal shock at accessible temperatures in heat exchangers for biofilm inhibition. Bacillus
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Treated sewage source heat pump systems can reuse the waste energy in the treated sewage. However, biofilms in the heat exchangers decrease the system efficiency. This work investigates the feasibility of thermal shock at accessible temperatures in heat exchangers for biofilm inhibition. Bacillus subtilis biofilms were formed on coupons and in a miniaturized plate heat exchanger. Thermal shocks at different temperatures (50–80 °C) for different exposure times (1–60 min) were used to treat the biofilms. The results showed that thermal shock had a significant bactericidal and biofilm inhibition effect, and the effect was enhanced as the temperature and the exposure time increased. Data fitting of the biomass showed that temperature had a more significant influence on the biofilm inhibition effect than exposure time. The results of the heat exchanging experiments showed that high temperature thermal shock could significantly mitigate the heat transfer deterioration caused by the biofilms, indicating that thermal shock could be used as a viable biofilm inhibition approach for heat exchangers. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Acoustic Emission and Modal Frequency Variation in Concrete Specimens under Four-Point Bending
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 339; doi:10.3390/app7040339 -
Abstract
The Acoustic Emission (AE) and Dynamic Identification (DI) techniques were applied simultaneously, in an original way, to examine the stress dependent damage progress in pre-notched concrete beams tested in four-point bending. The damage mechanisms were characterized by analyzing the AE signals registered during
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The Acoustic Emission (AE) and Dynamic Identification (DI) techniques were applied simultaneously, in an original way, to examine the stress dependent damage progress in pre-notched concrete beams tested in four-point bending. The damage mechanisms were characterized by analyzing the AE signals registered during the tests, conducted by increasing the specimen’s vertical deflection. In particular, the dominant fracture mode was identified, and correlations between dissipated and emitted energies were investigated. Moreover, variations in the natural bending frequencies, produced by the crack advancement under loading, were detected and put in relation with the cumulated AE energy. Two different types of piezoelectric (PZT) sensors, operating in well distinct frequency ranges, were used to measure AE and modal signals. This study may be of interest with an outlook on possible correlations between a multi-parameter structural monitoring and the solution of inverse problems by numerical models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Target Tracking Based on a Nonsingular Fast Terminal Sliding Mode Guidance Law by Fixed-Wing UAV
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 333; doi:10.3390/app7040333 -
Abstract
This paper proposes a modified nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode (NFTSM) guidance law to solve the problem of ground moving target tracking for fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in a planar environment. Firstly, the loitering algorithm is analysed, which can steer the UAV
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This paper proposes a modified nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode (NFTSM) guidance law to solve the problem of ground moving target tracking for fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in a planar environment. Firstly, the loitering algorithm is analysed, which can steer the UAV to follow and circle around a ground moving target with the desired distance by heading angle control. Secondly, the effects of different parameters on the convergence time of sliding manifold is presented which is helpful for the designing of sliding manifold. Singularity can be avoided by using a modified saturation function which is obtained through a small range around the null point. Moreover, the NFTSM sliding manifold is used in the loitering algorithm. By using the Lyapunov theory, the finite-time convergence of the proposed method has been proved in the the reaching phase and the sliding phase. In order to verify the approach’s feasibility and benefits, numerical simulations are performed by using a moving target with three different motion states in comparison with the conventional sliding model control method. Simulation results indicate that, under the proposed NFTSM guidance law, the UAV can reach the desired distance in a short time. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Perception-Driven Obstacle-Aided Locomotion for Snake Robots: The State of the Art, Challenges and Possibilities
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 336; doi:10.3390/app7040336 -
Abstract
In nature, snakes can gracefully traverse a wide range of different and complex environments. Snake robots that can mimic this behaviour could be fitted with sensors and transport tools to hazardous or confined areas that other robots and humans are unable to access.
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In nature, snakes can gracefully traverse a wide range of different and complex environments. Snake robots that can mimic this behaviour could be fitted with sensors and transport tools to hazardous or confined areas that other robots and humans are unable to access. In order to carry out such tasks, snake robots must have a high degree of awareness of their surroundings (i.e., perception-driven locomotion) and be capable of efficient obstacle exploitation (i.e., obstacle-aided locomotion) to gain propulsion. These aspects are pivotal in order to realise the large variety of possible snake robot applications in real-life operations such as fire-fighting, industrial inspection, search-and-rescue, and more. In this paper, we survey and discuss the state of the art, challenges, and possibilities of perception-driven obstacle-aided locomotion for snake robots. To this end, different levels of autonomy are identified for snake robots and categorised into environmental complexity, mission complexity, and external system independence. From this perspective, we present a step-wise approach on how to increment snake robot abilities within guidance, navigation, and control in order to target the different levels of autonomy. Pertinent to snake robots, we focus on current strategies for snake robot locomotion in the presence of obstacles. Moreover, we put obstacle-aided locomotion into the context of perception and mapping. Finally, we present an overview of relevant key technologies and methods within environment perception, mapping, and representation that constitute important aspects of perception-driven obstacle-aided locomotion. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Piecewise-Linear Frequency Shifting Algorithm for Frequency Resolution Enhancement in Digital Hearing Aids
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 335; doi:10.3390/app7040335 -
Abstract
In human hearing, frequency resolution is a term used to determine how well the ear can separate and distinguish two sounds that are close in frequency. This capability of breaking speech sounds into various frequency components plays a key role in processing and
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In human hearing, frequency resolution is a term used to determine how well the ear can separate and distinguish two sounds that are close in frequency. This capability of breaking speech sounds into various frequency components plays a key role in processing and understanding speech information. In this paper, a piecewise-linear frequency shifting algorithm for digital hearing aids is proposed. The algorithm specifically aims at improving the frequency resolution capability. In the first step, frequency discrimination thresholds are processed by a computer testing software. Then, the input signal is parsed through the proposed piecewise-linear frequency shifting algorithm, which comprises of linearly stretching and compressing the frequency content at different frequency ranges. Experimental results showed that by using the proposed frequency shifting algorithm, the separation of formant tracks was increased in the stretching region and slightly squeezed in the adjacent compression region. Subjective assessment on six hearing-impaired persons with V-shaped audiograms demonstrated that nearly a 10% improvement of speech discrimination score was achieved for monosyllabic word lists tested in a quiet acoustic setting. In addition, the speech reception threshold was also improved by 2~8 dB when disyllabic word listswere tested in a noisy acoustic scenario. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Reel-to-Reel Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Treatment of Polypropylene Films
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 337; doi:10.3390/app7040337 -
Abstract
Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of the surface of a polypropylene film can significantly increase its surface energy and, thereby improve the printability of the film. A laboratory-scale dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system has therefore been developed, which simulates the electrode configuration and reel-to-reel
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Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of the surface of a polypropylene film can significantly increase its surface energy and, thereby improve the printability of the film. A laboratory-scale dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system has therefore been developed, which simulates the electrode configuration and reel-to-reel web transport mechanism used in a typical industrial-scale system. By treating the polypropylene in a nitrogen discharge, we have shown that the water contact angle could be reduced by as much as 40° compared to the untreated film, corresponding to an increase in surface energy of 14 mNm−1. Ink pull-off tests showed that the DBD plasma treatment resulted in excellent adhesion of solvent-based inks to the polypropylene film. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Fatigue Life Estimation of Medium-Carbon Steel with Different Surface Roughness
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 338; doi:10.3390/app7040338 -
Abstract
Medium-carbon steel is commonly used for the rail, wire ropes, tire cord, cold heading, forging steels, cold finished steel bars, machinable steel and so on. Its fatigue behavior analysis and fatigue life estimation play an important role in the machinery industry. In this
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Medium-carbon steel is commonly used for the rail, wire ropes, tire cord, cold heading, forging steels, cold finished steel bars, machinable steel and so on. Its fatigue behavior analysis and fatigue life estimation play an important role in the machinery industry. In this paper, the estimation of fatigue life of medium-carbon steel with different surface roughness using established S-N and P-S-N curves is presented. To estimate the fatigue life, the effect of the average surface roughness on the fatigue life of medium-carbon steel has been investigated using 75 fatigue tests in three groups with average surface roughness (Ra): 0.4 μm, 0.8 μm, and 1.6 μm, respectively. S-N curves and P-S-N curves have been established based on the fatigue tests. The fatigue life of medium-carbon steel is then estimated based on Tanaka-Mura crack initiation life model, the crack propagation life model using Paris law, and material constants of the S-N curves. Six more fatigue tests have been conducted to validate the presented fatigue life estimation formulation. The experimental results have shown that the presented model could estimate well the mean fatigue life of medium-carbon steel with different surface roughness. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Fouling in Membrane Distillation, Osmotic Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 334; doi:10.3390/app7040334 -
Abstract
Various membrane separation processes are being used for seawater desalination and treatment of wastewaters in order to deal with the worldwide water shortage problem. Different types of membranes of distinct morphologies, structures and physico-chemical characteristics are employed. Among the considered membrane technologies, membrane
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Various membrane separation processes are being used for seawater desalination and treatment of wastewaters in order to deal with the worldwide water shortage problem. Different types of membranes of distinct morphologies, structures and physico-chemical characteristics are employed. Among the considered membrane technologies, membrane distillation (MD), osmotic distillation (OD) and osmotic membrane distillation (OMD) use porous and hydrophobic membranes for production of distilled water and/or concentration of wastewaters for recovery and recycling of valuable compounds. However, the efficiency of these technologies is hampered by fouling phenomena. This refers to the accumulation of organic/inorganic deposits including biological matter on the membrane surface and/or in the membrane pores. Fouling in MD, OD and OMD differs from that observed in electric and pressure-driven membrane processes such electrodialysis (ED), membrane capacitive deionization (MCD), reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), ultrafiltration (UF), microfiltration (MF), etc. Other than pore blockage, fouling in MD, OD and OMD increases the risk of membrane pores wetting and reduces therefore the quantity and quality of the produced water or the concentration efficiency of the process. This review deals with the observed fouling phenomena in MD, OD and OMD. It highlights different detected fouling types (organic fouling, inorganic fouling and biofouling), fouling characterization techniques as well as various methods of fouling reduction including pretreatment, membrane modification, membrane cleaning and antiscalants application. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Improvement of a Fuzzy Logic-Controlled Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm for Photovoltic Applications
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 326; doi:10.3390/app7040326 -
Abstract
This paper presents an improved maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm using a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) in order to extract potential maximum power from photovoltaic cells. The objectives of the proposed algorithm are to improve the tracking speed, and to simultaneously solve
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This paper presents an improved maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm using a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) in order to extract potential maximum power from photovoltaic cells. The objectives of the proposed algorithm are to improve the tracking speed, and to simultaneously solve the inherent drawbacks such as slow tracking in the conventional perturb and observe (P and O) algorithm. The performances of the conventional P and O algorithm and the proposed algorithm are compared by using MATLAB/Simulink in terms of the tracking speed and steady-state oscillations. Additionally, both algorithms were experimentally validated through a digital signal processor (DSP)-based controlled-boost DC-DC converter. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs with a shorter tracking time, smaller output power oscillation, and higher efficiency, compared with the conventional P and O algorithm. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Collision Avoidance for Cooperative UAVs with Rolling Optimization Algorithm Based on Predictive State Space
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 329; doi:10.3390/app7040329 -
Abstract
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have recently received notable attention because of their wide range of applications in urban civilian use and in warfare. With air traffic densities increasing, it is more and more important for UAVs to be able to predict and avoid
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Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have recently received notable attention because of their wide range of applications in urban civilian use and in warfare. With air traffic densities increasing, it is more and more important for UAVs to be able to predict and avoid collisions. The main goal of this research effort is to adjust real-time trajectories for cooperative UAVs to avoid collisions in three-dimensional airspace. To explore potential collisions, predictive state space is utilized to present the waypoints of UAVs in the upcoming situations, which makes the proposed method generate the initial collision-free trajectories satisfying the necessary constraints in a short time. Further, a rolling optimization algorithm (ROA) can improve the initial waypoints, minimizing its total distance. Several scenarios are illustrated to verify the proposed algorithm, and the results show that our algorithm can generate initial collision-free trajectories more efficiently than other methods in the common airspace. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Large-Scale Permanent Slide Imaging and Image Analysis for Diatom Morphometrics
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 330; doi:10.3390/app7040330 -
Abstract
Light microscopy analysis of diatom frustules is widely used in basic and applied research, notably taxonomy, morphometrics, water quality monitoring and paleo-environmental studies. Although there is a need for automation in these applications, various developments in image processing and analysis methodology supporting these
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Light microscopy analysis of diatom frustules is widely used in basic and applied research, notably taxonomy, morphometrics, water quality monitoring and paleo-environmental studies. Although there is a need for automation in these applications, various developments in image processing and analysis methodology supporting these tasks have not become widespread in diatom-based analyses. We have addressed this issue by combining our automated diatom image analysis software SHERPA with a commercial slide-scanning microscope. The resulting workflow enables mass-analyses of a broad range of morphometric features from individual frustules mounted on permanent slides. Extensive automation and internal quality control of the results helps to minimize user intervention, but care was taken to allow the user to stay in control of the most critical steps (exact segmentation of valve outlines and selection of objects of interest) using interactive functions for reviewing and revising results. In this contribution, we describe our workflow and give an overview of factors critical for success, ranging from preparation and mounting through slide scanning and autofocus finding to final morphometric data extraction. To demonstrate the usability of our methods we finally provide an example application by analysing Fragilariopsis kerguelensis valves originating from a sediment core, which substantially extends the size range reported in the literature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation of Permanent Deformation in High-Modulus Asphalt Pavement with Sloped and Horizontally Curved Alignment
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 331; doi:10.3390/app7040331 -
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the permanent deformation of high-modulus asphalt pavement in special road using viscoelastic theory. Based on the creep test, the Prony series representation of Burgers model parameters for different asphalt mixtures were obtained and used in the deformation simulation
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This study aims to evaluate the permanent deformation of high-modulus asphalt pavement in special road using viscoelastic theory. Based on the creep test, the Prony series representation of Burgers model parameters for different asphalt mixtures were obtained and used in the deformation simulation of a high-modulus asphalt pavement situated in a horizontally curved ramp. The orthogonal design method was used to show the effect of different factors on the deformation. Results reveal that rutting in curved ramp was greater than in straightaway. Further, evident upheaval was found on the downhill pavement surface and outer pavement parts of the curve due to longitudinal friction force and sideway force. In addition, the upper and middle asphalt courses in such road seemed more crucial to pavement anti-rutting performance, since inclusion of shear force changed pavement deformation characteristic and the potential rutting area tended to move up. Finally, a preliminary equation to predict rutting in sloped and curved road with widely accepted pavement structure in China was proposed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Independent Internal Cooling System for Promoting Heat Dissipation during Dry Cutting with Numerical and Experimental Verification
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 332; doi:10.3390/app7040332 -
Abstract
The cooling system has emerged as an effective way to alleviate the excessive heat generation during dry cutting processes. In this paper, we investigated a novel type of internal cooling system, independent of additional mechanical accessories, as a promising cooling alternative. The proposed
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The cooling system has emerged as an effective way to alleviate the excessive heat generation during dry cutting processes. In this paper, we investigated a novel type of internal cooling system, independent of additional mechanical accessories, as a promising cooling alternative. The proposed system is devised as connected internal fluid channels of a-“V” shape created according to the geometric shape of the tool-holder. Enabling quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed system, a new numerical approach is established. Within the approach, heat transfer equations are deduced according to thermodynamics; parameters of the equations are specified via analytical modeling. As a result, cutting temperatures can be estimated with high precision according to the outlet temperature. Moreover, a cutting experiment was carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed numerical approach. Tool-chip interface temperatures were measured using an infrared thermal imager. Smooth measurements with suppressed noises are derived based on a new adaptive mean filter originated by empirical mode decomposition (EMD). The experimental results demonstrate the proposed system can reduce the temperature substantially (almost 30% at the measuring point) and the results are highly consistent with those of numerical simulation. The proposed cooling system is a prospective enhancement for development of smart cutting tools. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Substrate-Reclamation Technology for GaN-Based Lighting-Emitting Diodes Wafer
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 325; doi:10.3390/app7040325 -
Abstract
This study reports on the use of a substrate-reclamation technology for a gallium nitride (GaN)-based lighting-emitting diode (LED) wafer. There are many ways to reclaim sapphire substrates of scrap LED wafers. Compared with a common substrate-reclamation method based on chemical mechanical polishing, this
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This study reports on the use of a substrate-reclamation technology for a gallium nitride (GaN)-based lighting-emitting diode (LED) wafer. There are many ways to reclaim sapphire substrates of scrap LED wafers. Compared with a common substrate-reclamation method based on chemical mechanical polishing, this research technology exhibits simple process procedures, without impairing the surface morphology and thickness of the sapphire substrate, as well as the capability of an almost unlimited reclamation cycle. The optical performances of LEDs on non-reclaimed and reclaimed substrates were consistent for 28.37 and 27.69 mcd, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Experimental Study of the Temperature Effect on the Interfacial Properties of Fully Grouted Rock Bolt
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 327; doi:10.3390/app7040327 -
Abstract
This study analyzes the phenomenon of performance deterioration in fully grouted rock bolts in tunnels with a dry, hot environment and high geothermal activity with a focus on temperature effects on interfacial bond performance. Three groups of fully grouted rock bolt specimens were
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This study analyzes the phenomenon of performance deterioration in fully grouted rock bolts in tunnels with a dry, hot environment and high geothermal activity with a focus on temperature effects on interfacial bond performance. Three groups of fully grouted rock bolt specimens were designed based on similar mechanical principles. They were produced and maintained at 20 °C, 35 °C, and 50 °C. Through the indoor gradual loading tensile test of specimens, variations of axial force and shear stress between the rock bolt and mortar adhesive interface were obtained under different environmental temperatures. Distribution of the axial force and shear stress on the anchorage section were found under different tensile forces. Results showed that, with an increase in specimen environmental temperature, maximum shear stress of the rock bolt section became smaller, while shear stress distribution along the rock bolt segment became more uniform. In addition, the axial force value at the same position along the pull end was greater, while axial stress along the anchorage’s length decayed faster. With an increase in tensile force under different temperatures, the axial force and maximum shear stress of rock bolt specimens along the anchorage section has a corresponding increase. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation Analysis and Experiment of Variable-Displacement Asymmetric Axial Piston Pump
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 328; doi:10.3390/app7040328 -
Abstract
The variable displacement pump control system has greater energy-saving advantages and application prospects than the valve control system. However, the variable displacement pump control of differential cylinder is not concurrent with the existing technologies. The asymmetric pump-controlled cylinder is, therefore, used to balance
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The variable displacement pump control system has greater energy-saving advantages and application prospects than the valve control system. However, the variable displacement pump control of differential cylinder is not concurrent with the existing technologies. The asymmetric pump-controlled cylinder is, therefore, used to balance the unequal volume flow through a single rod cylinder in closed-circuit system. This is considered to be an effective method. Nevertheless, the asymmetric axial piston pump (AAPP) is a constant displacement pump. In this study, variable-displacement asymmetric axial piston pump (VAPP) is investigated according to the same principle used in investigating AAPP. This study, therefore, aims at investigating the characteristics of VAPP. The variable-displacement output of VAPP is implemented by controlling the swash plate angle with angle feedback control circuit, which is composed of a servo proportional valve and an angular displacement sensor. The angular displacement sensor is connected to the swash plate. The simulation model of VAPP, which is set up through the ITI-SimulationX simulation platform, is used to predict VAPP’s characteristics. The purpose of implementing the experiment is to verify the theoretical results. Both the simulation and the experiment results demonstrated that the swash plate angle is controlled by a variable mechanism; when the swash plate angle increases, the flow of Port B and Port T increases while the response speed of Port B and Port T also accelerates. When the swash plate angle is constant, the flow of Port B and Port T increases along with the increase of pump speed, although the pressure-response speed of Port B is faster than that of Port T. Consequently, the flow pulsation of Port B and Port T tends to decrease gradually along with the increase of pump speed. When the pressure loaded on Port B equals to that of Port T, the flow ripple cycle of Port B is longer than that of Port T, whereas the peak flow of Port B is higher than that of Port T. Since the flow ripple of Port T is bigger than that of Port B, Port T should be connected to the low pressure sides or the oil tank so that it does not affect VAPP’s performance. Further, to avoid the backflow of VAPP from Port T to Port B, Port T cannot be loaded alone, and the loading pressure of Port T also cannot exceed that of Port B. Full article
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