Abstract: Radiation therapy (RT) evolved to be a primary treatment modality for cancer patients. Unfortunately, the cure or relief of symptoms is still accompanied by radiation-induced side effects with severe acute and late pathophysiological consequences. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are potentially useful in this regard because radioprotection of normal tissue and/or radiosensitizing effects on tumor tissue have been described for several compounds of this structurally diverse class. This review aims to substantiate the hypothesis that antioxidant COX-2 inhibitors are promising radioprotectants because of intercepting radiation-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in normal tissue, especially the vascular system. For this, literature reporting on COX inhibitors exerting radioprotective and/or radiosensitizing action as well as on antioxidant COX inhibitors will be reviewed comprehensively with the aim to find cross-points of both and, by that, stimulate further research in the field of radioprotective agents.
Abstract: Berries are rich in polyphenols such as anthocyanins. Various favorable functions of berries cannot be explained by their anti-oxidant properties, and thus, berries are now receiving great interest as food ingredients with “beyond antioxidant” functions. In this review, we discuss the potential health benefits of anthocyanin-rich berries, with a focus on prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes. To better understand the physiological functionality of berries, the exact molecular mechanism of their anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effect should be clarified. Additionally, the relationship of metabolites and degradation products with health benefits derived from anthocyanins needs to be elucidated. The preventive effects of berries and anthocyanin-containing foods on the metabolic syndrome are not always supported by findings of interventional studies in humans, and thus further studies are necessary. Use of standardized diets and conditions by all research groups may address this problem. Berries are tasty foods that are easy to consume, and thus, investigating their health benefits is critical for health promotion and disease prevention.
Abstract: Antioxidants have been considered essential for preventing cell damage by scavenging deleterious free radicals. The consumption of antioxidant-rich plants is associated with a reduced risk of some chronic diseases. This study evaluates the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities of aqueous extracts obtained from different parts of Diplotaxis simplex and Diplotaxis harra from Tunisia. The study also aimed to investigate the action of simulated gastrointestinal juice on antioxidant activities of both extracts. The total phenolic, flavone and flavonol, and flavanone and dihydroflavonol contents were determined by Folin–Ciocalteau, aluminum chloride and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine colorimetric methods, respectively. The metal ion chelating activity, acetylcholinesterase inhibition capacity, and free radical scavenging potential of the extracts towards ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), hydroxyl, superoxide and nitric oxide were also evaluated. The action of simulated gastro-intestinal fluids on the flavone and flavonol content and total antioxidant activity of the flower extracts was surveyed. Extracts from the seeds and flowers of D. simplex and D. harra displayed the highest amounts of phenols (2691.7 and 2694.5 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent (CAE)/100 mg; 3433.4 and 2647.2 mg CAE/100 mg, respectively) and flavonols/flavones (2144.4 and 2061.1 mg Rutin Equivalent (RE)/100 g; 1922.6 and 1461.1 mg RE/100 g, respectively). The flower and seed extracts exhibited the highest rates of antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities. A decrease in the flavonoid content and antioxidant activity was observed after extract exposure to simulated saliva. Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities were noted to depend on plant species and plant parts. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion is useful in assessing the bio-accessibility of compounds with biological activities from food. The simulated gastrointestinal fluids influenced the flavonoid concentration and antioxidant activity.
Abstract: The common bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. Sprengel) is a ubiquitous procumbent evergreen shrub located throughout North America, Asia, and Europe. The fruits are almost tasteless but the plant contains a high concentration of active ingredients. The antioxidant activity of bearberry leaf extract in the 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay was 90.42 mmol Trolox equivalents/g dry weight (DW). The scavenging ability of the methanol extract of bearberry leaves against methoxy radicals generated in the Fenton reaction was measured via electron paramagnetic resonance. Lipid oxidation was retarded in an oil–water emulsion by adding 1 g/kg lyophilised bearberry leaf extract. Also, 1 g/kg of lyophilised bearberry leaf extract incorporated into a gelatin-based film displayed high antioxidant activity to retard the degradation of lipids in muscle foods. The present results indicate the potential of bearberry leaf extract for use as a natural food antioxidant.
Abstract: The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p < 0.05). Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.
Abstract: Ziziphus oxyphylla and Cedrela Serrata plants have a folkloric use in Pakistan for treatments of different ailments, i.e., Jaundice, Hepatitis, Diabetes, and antimicrobial. Until now, none of the research studies have reported any phytochemical work on leaves of these two plants. This study aimed to isolate and perform phytochemical analysis in order to search for the constituent having the active role in treatment of the aforementioned ailments. A bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation procedure was used to isolate the concerned phytochemicals present in leaf extracts of Z. oxyphylla and C. serrata. The process involved the hyphenated techniques, i.e., Flash Chromatography, Semi-Preparative HPLC/DAD, UPLC/MS, and NMR in order to isolate and elucidate the structure of the phytochemicals. Seven compounds (1–7) were isolated and identified as flavonoids, more in particular glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. They showed DPPH scavenging activity, compound 3 (isoquercitrin) being the most active one with an IC50 of 10.8 µg/mL (positive control quercetin; IC50 3.6 µg/mL). The superoxide-radical scavenging and total antioxidant (ABTS) assays indicated IC50 values ranging from 200 to 910 µg/mL and 170 to 320 µg/mL, respectively (positive control quercetin: 374 and 180 µg/mL, respectively). Furthermore, these compounds had low IC50 values for inhibition of protein glycation (AGEs inhibition), ranging from 530 to 818 µg/mL, comparable to aminoguanidine (510 µg/mL) used as a positive control. This study resulted in the identification of seven flavonoid glycosides for the first time from the leaves of Z. oxyphylla and C. serrata with antioxidative and antiglycating activities.