Open AccessReview
Phytochemical Profile of Brown Rice and Its Nutrigenomic Implications
Antioxidants 2018, 7(6), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7060071 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Whole grain foods have been promoted to be included as one of the important components of a healthy diet because of the relationship between the regular consumption of whole-grain foods and reduced risk of chronic diseases. Rice is a staple food, which has
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Whole grain foods have been promoted to be included as one of the important components of a healthy diet because of the relationship between the regular consumption of whole-grain foods and reduced risk of chronic diseases. Rice is a staple food, which has been widely consumed for centuries by many Asian countries. Studies have suggested that brown rice is associated with a wide spectrum of nutrigenomic implications such as anti-diabetic, anti-cholesterol, cardioprotective and antioxidant. This is because of the presence of various phytochemicals that are mainly located in bran layers of brown rice. Therefore, this paper is a review of publications that focuses on the bioactive compounds and nutrigenomic implications of brown rice. Although current evidence supports the fact that the consumption of brown rice is beneficial for health, these studies are heterogeneous in terms of their brown rice samples used and population groups, which cause the evaluation to be difficult. Future clinical studies should focus on the screening of individual bioactive compounds in brown rice with reference to their nutrigenomic implications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exogenous Plant-Based Nutraceutical Supplementation and Peripheral Cell Mononuclear DNA Damage Following High Intensity Exercise
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050070 -
Abstract
Plant-based nutraceuticals are categorised as nutritional supplements which contain a high concentration of antioxidants with the intention of minimising the deleterious effect of an oxidative insult. The primary aim of this novel study was to determine the effect of exogenous barley-wheat grass juice
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Plant-based nutraceuticals are categorised as nutritional supplements which contain a high concentration of antioxidants with the intention of minimising the deleterious effect of an oxidative insult. The primary aim of this novel study was to determine the effect of exogenous barley-wheat grass juice (BWJ) on indices of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Ten (n = 10) apparently healthy, recreationally trained (V̇O2max 55.9 ± 6 mL·kg−1·min−1), males (age 22 ± 2 years, height 181 ± 6 cm, weight 87 ± 8 kg, body mass index (BMI) 27 ± 1) volunteered to participant in the study. In a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover design, participants consumed either a placebo, a low dose (70 mL per day) of BWJ, or a high dose (140 mL per day) of BWJ for 7-days. Experimental exercise consisted of a standard maximal oxygen uptake test until volitional fatigue. DNA damage, as assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis comet assay, increased following high intensity exercise across all groups (time × group; p < 0.05, Effect Size (ES) = 0.7), although there was no selective difference for intervention (p > 0.05). There was a main effect for time in lipid hydroperoxide concentration (pooled-group data, pre- vs. post-exercise, p < 0.05, ES = 0.2) demonstrating that exercise increased lipid peroxidation. Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) increased by 44.7% following BWJ supplementation (pooled group data, pre- vs. post). The ascorbyl free radical (p < 0.05, ES = 0.26), α-tocopherol (p = 0.007, ES = 0.2), and xanthophyll (p = 0.000, ES = 0.5), increased between the pre- and post-exercise time points indicating a main effect of time. This study illustrates that a 7-day supplementation period of a novel plant-derived nutraceutical product is insufficient at attenuating exercise-induced oxidative damage. It is possible that with a larger sample size, and longer supplementation period, this novel plant-based nutraceutical could potentially offer effective prophylaxis against exercise-induced oxidative stress; as such, this justifies the need for further research. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Consumption on Health Outcomes: A Mini-Review
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050069 -
Abstract
Mulberry (Morus alba L.) belongs to the Moraceae family and is widely planted in Asia. Mulberry fruits are generally consumed as fresh fruits, jams and juices. They contain considerable amounts of biologically active ingredients that might be associated with some potential pharmacological
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Mulberry (Morus alba L.) belongs to the Moraceae family and is widely planted in Asia. Mulberry fruits are generally consumed as fresh fruits, jams and juices. They contain considerable amounts of biologically active ingredients that might be associated with some potential pharmacological activities that are beneficial for health. Therefore, they have been traditionally used in traditional medicine. Studies have reported that the presence of bioactive components in mulberry fruits, including alkaloids and flavonoid, are associated with bioactivities such as antioxidant. One of the most important compounds in mulberry fruits is anthocyanins which are water-soluble bioactive ingredients of the polyphenol class. Studies have shown that mulberry fruits possess several potential pharmacological health benefits including anti-cholesterol, anti-obesity and hepatoprotective effects which might be associated with the presence of some of these bioactive compounds. However, human intervention studies on the pharmacological activities of mulberry fruits are limited. Therefore, future studies should explore the effect of mulberry fruit consumption on human health and elucidate the detailed compounds. This paper provides an overview of the pharmacological activities of mulberry fruits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
No Reported Renal Stones with Intravenous Vitamin C Administration: A Prospective Case Series Study
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050068 -
Abstract
A few cases associating high dose intravenous vitamin C (IVC) administration with renal stone formation have been reported in the literature, however, no long-term studies investigating IVC administration and reported renal stones have been carried out. Our aim was to measure the frequency
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A few cases associating high dose intravenous vitamin C (IVC) administration with renal stone formation have been reported in the literature, however, no long-term studies investigating IVC administration and reported renal stones have been carried out. Our aim was to measure the frequency of reported renal stones in patients receiving IVC therapy. We carried out a prospective case series study of 157 adult patients who commenced IVC therapy at Integrated Health Options clinic between 1 September 2011 and 31 August 2012, with follow-up for 12 months. Inquiries into the occurrence of renal stones were conducted at enrolment, 6 and 12 months, and renal function blood tests were conducted at enrolment, 4 weeks and every 12 weeks thereafter in a subgroup of patients. No renal stones were reported by any patients in the study, despite 8% of the patients having a history of renal stones. In addition, the majority of patients investigated had stable renal function during the study period as evidenced by little change in serum creatinine levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) following IVC. In conclusion, IVC therapy was not associated with patient-reported renal stones. Although not the primary focus of this study, it was also observed that there was no significant change in mean serum creatinine or eGFR for those who had follow-up renal function blood tests. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Antioxidant Capacity of Rigenase®, a Specific Aqueous Extract of Triticum vulgare
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050067 -
Abstract
Reactive species of oxygen (ROS), responsible for oxidative stress, accumulate in various tissues damaged by burns, decubitus ulcers, and vascular lesions. Antioxidants play an important and well-documented role in healing of chronic and acute wounds. Rigenase®, a specific extract of Triticum
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Reactive species of oxygen (ROS), responsible for oxidative stress, accumulate in various tissues damaged by burns, decubitus ulcers, and vascular lesions. Antioxidants play an important and well-documented role in healing of chronic and acute wounds. Rigenase®, a specific extract of Triticum vulgare manufactured by Farmaceutici Damor, is employed in products used for the regeneration of tissue injuries. In this work, we show that Rigenase® exhibits a scavenging effect toward free radicals, thus pointing to its relevant antioxidant activity. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Selenium-Dependent Antioxidant Enzymes: Actions and Properties of Selenoproteins
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050066 -
Abstract
Unlike other essential trace elements that interact with proteins in the form of cofactors, selenium (Se) becomes co-translationally incorporated into the polypeptide chain as part of 21st naturally occurring amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec), encoded by the UGA codon. Any protein that includes Sec
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Unlike other essential trace elements that interact with proteins in the form of cofactors, selenium (Se) becomes co-translationally incorporated into the polypeptide chain as part of 21st naturally occurring amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec), encoded by the UGA codon. Any protein that includes Sec in its polypeptide chain is defined as selenoprotein. Members of the selenoproteins family exert various functions and their synthesis depends on specific cofactors and on dietary Se. The Se intake in productive animals such as chickens affect nutrient utilization, production performances, antioxidative status and responses of the immune system. Although several functions of selenoproteins are unknown, many disorders are related to alterations in selenoprotein expression or activity. Selenium insufficiency and polymorphisms or mutations in selenoproteins’ genes and synthesis cofactors are involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases, including cardiovascular disorders, immune dysfunctions, cancer, muscle and bone disorders, endocrine functions and neurological disorders. Finally, heavy metal poisoning decreases mRNA levels of selenoproteins and increases mRNA levels of inflammatory factors, underlying the antagonistic effect of Se. This review is an update on Se dependent antioxidant enzymes, presenting the current state of the art and is focusing on results obtained mainly in chicken. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Polyphenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts from Uncaria tomentosa Bark and Leaves
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050065 -
Abstract
Uncaria tomentosa constitutes an important source of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities mainly attributed until recently to alkaloids and triterpenes. We have previously reported for the first-time the polyphenolic profile of extracts from U. tomentosa, using a multi-step process involving organic
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Uncaria tomentosa constitutes an important source of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities mainly attributed until recently to alkaloids and triterpenes. We have previously reported for the first-time the polyphenolic profile of extracts from U. tomentosa, using a multi-step process involving organic solvents, as well as their antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity on aerial bacteria, and cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines. These promising results prompted the present study using food grade solvents suitable for the elaboration of commercial extracts. We report a detailed study on the polyphenolic composition of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of U. tomentosa bark and leaves (n = 16), using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/TQ-ESI-MS). A total of 32 compounds were identified, including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols monomers, procyanidin dimers and trimers, flavalignans–cinchonains and propelargonidin dimers. Our findings showed that the leaves were the richest source of total phenolics and proanthocyanidins, in particular propelargonidin dimers. Two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicated that the contents of procyanidin and propelargonidin dimers were significantly different (p < 0.05) in function of the plant part, and leaves extracts showed higher contents. Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) values indicated higher antioxidant capacity for the leaves (p < 0.05). Further, correlation between both methods and procyanidin dimers was found, particularly between ORAC and propelargonidin dimers. Finally, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) analysis results clearly indicated that the leaves are the richest plant part in proanthocyanidins and a very homogenous material, regardless of their origin. Therefore, our findings revealed that both ethanol and water extraction processes are adequate for the elaboration of potential commercial extracts from U. tomentosa leaves rich in proanthocyanidins and exhibiting high antioxidant activity. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Duncan, K.R., Suzuki, Y.J. Vitamin E Nicotinate. Antioxidants 2017, 6, 20
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050064 -
Abstract
In the original version of our article [1], three lines were omitted from the α-tocopherol and α-tocopheryl nicotinate structures in Figure 1 during the manuscript processing[...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ketogenic Diet: New Perspectives for Neuroprotection in Alzheimer’s Disease
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050063 -
Abstract
The ketogenic diet, originally developed for the treatment of epilepsy in non-responder children, is spreading to be used in the treatment of many diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. The main activity of the ketogenic diet has been related to improved mitochondrial function and decreased
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The ketogenic diet, originally developed for the treatment of epilepsy in non-responder children, is spreading to be used in the treatment of many diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. The main activity of the ketogenic diet has been related to improved mitochondrial function and decreased oxidative stress. B-Hydroxybutyrate, the most studied ketone body, has been shown to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), improving mitochondrial respiration: it stimulates the cellular endogenous antioxidant system with the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), it modulates the ratio between the oxidized and reduced forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and it increases the efficiency of electron transport chain through the expression of uncoupling proteins. Furthermore, the ketogenic diet performs anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) activation and nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome as well as inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs), improving memory encoding. The underlying mechanisms and the perspectives for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease are discussed. Full article
Open AccessReview
Glutathione: Antioxidant Properties Dedicated to Nanotechnologies
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050062 -
Abstract
Which scientist has never heard of glutathione (GSH)? This well-known low-molecular-weight tripeptide is perhaps the most famous natural antioxidant. However, the interest in GSH should not be restricted to its redox properties. This multidisciplinary review aims to bring out some lesser-known aspects of
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Which scientist has never heard of glutathione (GSH)? This well-known low-molecular-weight tripeptide is perhaps the most famous natural antioxidant. However, the interest in GSH should not be restricted to its redox properties. This multidisciplinary review aims to bring out some lesser-known aspects of GSH, for example, as an emerging tool in nanotechnologies to achieve targeted drug delivery. After recalling the biochemistry of GSH, including its metabolism pathways and redox properties, its involvement in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling is described. Analytical methods for the dosage and localization of GSH or glutathiolated proteins are also covered. Finally, the various therapeutic strategies to replenish GSH stocks are discussed, in parallel with its use as an addressing molecule in drug delivery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fruit and Vegetable By-Products to Fortify Spreadable Cheese
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050061 -
Abstract
In this work, spreadable cheese was enriched with flours from by-products (red and white grape pomace, tomato peel, broccoli, corn bran, and artichokes) as sources of fibres and antioxidant compounds. The physicochemical and the sensory properties of all the cheese samples were analysed.
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In this work, spreadable cheese was enriched with flours from by-products (red and white grape pomace, tomato peel, broccoli, corn bran, and artichokes) as sources of fibres and antioxidant compounds. The physicochemical and the sensory properties of all the cheese samples were analysed. Results revealed that total phenolic content, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of samples containing grape pomace significantly increased, followed by broccoli, artichoke, corn bran, and tomato peel by-products, compared to the control cheese. Specifically, cheeses containing white and red grape pomace recorded high phenolic content (2.74 ± 0.04 and 2.34 ± 0.15 mg GAEs/g dw, respectively) compared to the control (0.66 mg GAEs/g dw). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Milling the Mistletoe: Nanotechnological Conversion of African Mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus) Intoantimicrobial Materials
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040060 -
Abstract
Nanosizing represents a straight forward technique to unlock the biological activity of complex plant materials. The aim of this study was to develop herbal nanoparticles with medicinal value from dried leaves and stems of Loranthus micranthus with the aid of ball-milling, high speed
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Nanosizing represents a straight forward technique to unlock the biological activity of complex plant materials. The aim of this study was to develop herbal nanoparticles with medicinal value from dried leaves and stems of Loranthus micranthus with the aid of ball-milling, high speed stirring, and high-pressure homogenization techniques. The milled nanoparticles were characterized using laser diffraction analysis, photon correlation spectroscopy analysis, and light microscopy. The average size of leaf nanoparticles was around 245 nm and that of stem nanoparticles was around 180 nm. The nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial and nematicidal properties against a Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, a Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus carnosus, fungi Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a nematode Steinernemafeltiae. The results show significant activities for both leaf and (particularly) stem nanoparticles of Loranthus micranthus on all organisms tested, even at a particle concentration as low as 0.01% (w/w). The results observed indicate that nanoparticles (especially of the stem) of Loranthus micranthus could serve as novel antimicrobial agents with wide-ranging biomedical applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Use of Olive Oil Industrial By-Product for Pasta Enrichment
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040059 -
Abstract
Background: During recent years food industries generally produce a large volume of wastes both solid and liquid, representing a disposal and potential environmental pollution problem. Objective: The goal of the study was to optimize, from both sensory and nutritional points of view, the
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Background: During recent years food industries generally produce a large volume of wastes both solid and liquid, representing a disposal and potential environmental pollution problem. Objective: The goal of the study was to optimize, from both sensory and nutritional points of view, the formulation of durum wheat spaghetti enriched with an olive oil industrial by-product, indicated as olive paste. Methods: Three consecutive steps were carried out. In the first one, the olive paste was air-dried at low temperature, milled to record olive paste flour and properly analyzed for its biochemical composition. In the second step, the olive paste flour was added to the pasta dough at 10% and 15% (w/w). In the last step, different concentrations of transglutaminase were added to enriched pasta (10% olive paste) to further improve the quality. Sensory properties and nutritional content of enriched and control pasta were properly measured. Results: Spaghetti with 10% olive paste flour and 0.6% transglutaminase were considered acceptable to the sensory panel test. Nutritional analyses showed that addition of 10% olive paste flour to pasta considerably increased content of flavonoids and total polyphenols. Conclusions: The proper addition of olive paste flour and transglutaminase for pasta enrichment could represent a starting point to valorize olive oil industrial by-products and produce new healthy food products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Macronutrient and Major Food Group Intake in a Cohort of Southern Italian Adults
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040058 -
Abstract
Background: Dietary intake of macronutrient and foods is considered crucial to decrease the risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Methods: The aim of this study was to describe the intake of major food groups and macronutrients in a random sample of 1838 southern Italian
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Background: Dietary intake of macronutrient and foods is considered crucial to decrease the risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Methods: The aim of this study was to describe the intake of major food groups and macronutrients in a random sample of 1838 southern Italian adults. Results: No significant differences of macronutrient consumption between sexes were found. By contrast, younger individuals had significantly higher intake of animal protein than older ones. Men reported consuming significantly more total processed meats and less eggs than women; egg consumption significantly increased by age groups. Significantly lower intake of fruit in the younger age group compared to older ones was found. Various patterns of correlation between food groups were described. More than half of individuals reached the suggested recommendations for carbohydrate and fiber intake, and about two-thirds met the recommendations for total protein and cholesterol intake, while only a minority met for total fat intake. Total and plant protein, monounsaturated and omega-6 fatty acids, were significantly inversely related with BMI (body mass index), while trans fatty acids and cholesterol were directly correlated. A direct association with unprocessed meats and an inverse association with processed meats was also found. Conclusions: The overall findings suggest that relatively healthy dietary habits are common in southern Italy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Selenium-Rich Ricegrass Juice Improves Antioxidant Properties and Nitric Oxide Inhibition in Macrophage Cells
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040057 -
Abstract
Ricegrass juice (Oryza sativa L.) was introduced as a functional food as the consumption of sprouts or seedlings has been claimed to provide high nutritive value. Selenium (Se) is a trace mineral that plays a key role in the human antioxidation scheme.
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Ricegrass juice (Oryza sativa L.) was introduced as a functional food as the consumption of sprouts or seedlings has been claimed to provide high nutritive value. Selenium (Se) is a trace mineral that plays a key role in the human antioxidation scheme. Supplementation of Se into plants is one strategy to enhance plant bioactivities, and the consumption of Se plant foods may confer superior health benefits. In this study, ricegrass juice extract was analyzed for its major phenolic components. The effect of ricegrass juice extracts bio-fortified with 0, 10 and 40 mg Se/L named as RG0, RG10, and RG40, respectively, were investigated for a percentage of cell viability, changes of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide inhibition in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Flavone glycosides, namely chrysoeriol arabinosyl arabinoside derivatives, were found to be the foremost bioactive components in ricegrass juice extract indicated by UHPLC-MS. The results of cell culture assessment revealed that RG40 showed an ability to promote macrophage cell proliferation at low concentration. Ricegrass juice extract in all treatments possessed the ability to reduce malondialdehyde content, which may be regarded as the bioactivity of phenolic compounds. Moreover, Se also played a role in this effect since RG40 showed the greatest ability via increasing the level of GPx enzyme. It was also discovered that phenolic compounds in the extracts played a role in inhibiting nitric oxide in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, RG40 expressed significantly higher NO inhibition properties at IC50 118.76 µg/mL compared to RG0 and RG10, at 147.02 and 147.73 µg/mL, respectively. Se bio-fortified ricegrass juice could be considered as a new potent functional food that can lower the risk of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fluid Intake and Beverage Consumption Description and Their Association with Dietary Vitamins and Antioxidant Compounds in Italian Adults from the Mediterranean Healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyles (MEAL) Study
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040056 -
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the total water intake (TWI) from drinks and foods and to evaluate the correlation between the different types of drinks on energy and antioxidant intake. The cohort comprised 1602 individuals from the city of
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the total water intake (TWI) from drinks and foods and to evaluate the correlation between the different types of drinks on energy and antioxidant intake. The cohort comprised 1602 individuals from the city of Catania in Southern Italy. A food frequency questionnaire was administered to assess dietary and water intake. The mean total water intake was 2.7 L; more than about two thirds of the sample met the European recommendations for water intake. Water and espresso coffee were the most consumed drinks. Alcohol beverages contributed about 3.0% of total energy intake, and sugar sweetened beverages contributed about 1.4%. All antioxidant vitamins were significantly correlated with TWI. However, a higher correlation was found for water from food rather than water from beverages, suggesting that major food contributors to antioxidant vitamin intake might be fruits and vegetables, rather than beverages other than water. A mild correlation was found between fruit juices and vitamin C; coffee, tea and alcohol, and niacin and polyphenols; and milk and vitamin B12. The findings from the present study show that our sample population has an adequate intake of TWI and that there is a healthy association between beverages and dietary antioxidants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cebpd Is Essential for Gamma-Tocotrienol Mediated Protection against Radiation-Induced Hematopoietic and Intestinal Injury
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040055 -
Abstract
Gamma-tocotrienol (GT3) confers protection against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced injury. However, the molecular targets that underlie the protective functions of GT3 are not yet known. We have reported that mice lacking CCAAT enhancer binding protein delta (Cebpd−/−) display increased mortality to
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Gamma-tocotrienol (GT3) confers protection against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced injury. However, the molecular targets that underlie the protective functions of GT3 are not yet known. We have reported that mice lacking CCAAT enhancer binding protein delta (Cebpd−/−) display increased mortality to IR due to injury to the hematopoietic and intestinal tissues and that Cebpd protects from IR-induced oxidative stress and cell death. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Cebpd mediates the radio protective functions of GT3. We found that GT3-treated Cebpd−/− mice showed partial recovery of white blood cells compared to GT3-treated Cebpd+/+ mice at 2 weeks post-IR. GT3-treated Cebpd−/− mice showed an increased loss of intestinal crypt colonies, which correlated with increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, increased levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) after exposure to IR compared to GT3-treated Cebpd+/+ mice. Cebpd is induced by IR as well as a combination of IR and GT3 in the intestine. Studies have shown that granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), mediates the radioprotective functions of GT3. Interestingly, we found that IR alone as well as the combination of IR and GT3 caused robust augmentation of plasma G-CSF in both Cebpd+/+ and Cebpd−/− mice. These results identify a novel role for Cebpd in GT3-mediated protection against IR-induced injury, in part via modulation of IR-induced inflammation and oxidative/nitrosative stress, which is independent of G-CSF. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Iron and the Breastfed Infant
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040054 -
Abstract
The first 6 months of life is a crucial time in meeting iron needs. The purpose of this review is to examine iron in mother’s milk and whether or not it meets the physiological needs of the growing infant. Key issues include iron
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The first 6 months of life is a crucial time in meeting iron needs. The purpose of this review is to examine iron in mother’s milk and whether or not it meets the physiological needs of the growing infant. Key issues include iron content and iron transport from the mammary gland as well as when and what foods should be added to the solely breastfed infant. We examine these topics in light of new molecular biology findings in the mammary gland. Full article
Open AccessReview
Betalains in Some Species of the Amaranthaceae Family: A Review
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040053 -
Abstract
Natural pigments are largely distributed in the plant kingdom. They belong to diverse groups, with distinct biochemical pathways. Betalains with colours that range from yellow to red-violet can de divided into two main subgroups: betaxanthins and betacyanins. These types of pigments are confined
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Natural pigments are largely distributed in the plant kingdom. They belong to diverse groups, with distinct biochemical pathways. Betalains with colours that range from yellow to red-violet can de divided into two main subgroups: betaxanthins and betacyanins. These types of pigments are confined into 13 families of the order Caryophyllales and in some genera of higher fungi (Amanita muscaria, Hygrocybe and Hygrophorus). The Amaranthaceae family includes diverse genera in which betalains are present: Alternanthera, Amaranthus, Beta, Chenopodium, Celosia and Gomphrena. The biosynthesis of betalains and their general biological properties were reviwed in the present work. In addition, the types of betalains present in some species of the aforementioned genera, their stability and production, as well as biological attributes, were reviewed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Activities and Caffeic Acid Content in New Zealand Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) Roots Extracts
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040052 -
Abstract
Asparagus officinalis are perennial plants that require re-planting every 10–20 years. The roots are traditionally mulched in the soil or treated as waste. The A. officinalis roots (AR) contain valuable bioactive compounds that may have some health benefiting properties. The aim of this
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Asparagus officinalis are perennial plants that require re-planting every 10–20 years. The roots are traditionally mulched in the soil or treated as waste. The A. officinalis roots (AR) contain valuable bioactive compounds that may have some health benefiting properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively) and antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays) activities of New Zealand AR extract. The antioxidant activity decreased with a longer extraction time. Full article
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