Antibodies2015, 4(1), 12-33; doi:10.3390/antib4010012 - published 26 January 2015 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Engineered antibodies are key players in therapy, diagnostics and research. In addition to full size immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) molecules, smaller formats of recombinant antibodies, such as single-chain variable fragments (scFv) and antigen binding fragments (Fab), have emerged as promising alternatives since they possess different advantageous properties. Cell-based production technologies of antibodies and antibody fragments are well-established, allowing researchers to design and manufacture highly specific molecular recognition tools. However, as these technologies are accompanied by the drawbacks of being rather time-consuming and cost-intensive, efficient and powerful cell-free protein synthesis systems have been developed over the last decade as alternatives. So far, prokaryotic cell-free systems have been the focus of interest. Recently, eukaryotic in vitro translation systems have enriched the antibody production pipeline, as these systems are able to mimic the natural pathway of antibody synthesis in eukaryotic cells. This review aims to overview and summarize the advances made in the production of antibodies and antibody fragments in cell-free systems.
Antibodies2015, 4(1), 1-10; doi:10.3390/antib4010001 - published 24 December 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: The phenotypical consequences of a combined deficiency of the Fas-Fas Ligand (FasL) and one or both Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) signaling pathways were investigated. Mice, which expressed a non-functional FasL suffered from a pathological accumulation of both B and T cells leading to splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy and, depending on the genetic background, pathogenic self-reactive antibodies (generalized lymphoproliferative disorder (gld)-phenotype). If mice additionally lacked TNF, they displayed a significantly ameliorated gld-phenotype while TNF Receptor-1-deficient gld mice (B6.gld.TNFR1−/−) displayed a more severe phenotype. To complement this combination, we also generated TNF Receptor-2-deficient gld mice (B6.gld.TNFR2−/−). Both double knockouts followed in their splenic structure the respective TNFR contribution to the phenotype. TNFR1−/− mice showed an absence of B cell follicles in the spleen while TNFR2−/− mice were comparable to WT mice. In general, we demonstrated a strong contribution of both TNFR signaling pathways to the symptoms of gld with the notable exception of splenomegaly where only TNFR1−/− played a role.
Antibodies2014, 3(4), 289-302; doi:10.3390/antib3040289 - published 11 December 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Antibody fragments have long been used as chaperones in crystallography, but have more recently been applied to the definition of biologically relevant conformations among the dynamic ensemble of target protein conformational sampling. This review charts the progress being made in understanding function in the context of structure using this approach, and highlights new opportunities for drug discovery.
Antibodies2014, 3(4), 272-288; doi:10.3390/antib3040272 - published 28 October 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Clostridium difficile infection has emerged as a growing worldwide health problem. The colitis of Clostridium difficile infection results from the synergistic action of C. difficile secreted toxins A and B upon the colon mucosa. A human monoclonal IgG anti-toxin has demonstrated the ability in combination therapy to reduce mortality in C. difficile challenged hamsters. This antibody is currently in a clinical trial for the treatment of human Clostridium difficile infection. More than one group of investigators has considered using polyclonal bovine colostral antibodies to toxins A and B as an oral passive immunization. A significant proportion of the healthy human population possesses polyclonal antibodies to the Clostridium difficile toxins. We have demonstrated that polyclonal IgA derived from the pooled plasma of healthy donors possesses specificity to toxins A and B and can neutralize these toxins in a cell-based assay. This suggests that secretory IgA prepared from such pooled plasma IgA may be able to be used as an oral treatment for Clostridium difficile infection.
Antibodies2014, 3(3), 253-271; doi:10.3390/antib3030253 - published 29 August 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Reduced culture temperature is an increasingly popular practice to improve recombinant protein yields in CHO cells. Recent studies have attributed the enhancement of protein titers at sub-physiological temperatures to increased mRNA levels as well as extended stationary phase. We observed that reducing the culture temperature arrested cell growth, prolonged viability, and increased cell size. However, the reduced culture temperature had a differential effect on protein and mRNA expression of closely related antibody mutants from stable cell lines. The highly expressing mutant (Ala) exhibited similar or decreased specific productivity and decreased volumetric productivity over the culture lifetime at 32 °C compared to 37 °C. In contrast, the specific and volumetric productivity of the poorly expressing mutant (Gly) was enhanced at the lower culture temperature. The difference in specific productivity was reflected in the amounts of heavy- and light-chain mRNA. Analysis of the secondary and tertiary configurations of the purified antibodies by circular dichroism revealed fundamental structural differences imposed by the Ala to Gly mutation as well as reduced culture temperature. We propose that the effect of reduced culture temperature on expression is protein-dependent; protein folding fidelity and assembly is improved at lower temperatures, enhancing the expression of proteins that have a propensity to misfold.