Abstract: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a thrombophilic disorder that classically presents with vascular thrombosis and/or obstetric complications. APS is associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: a heterogeneous group of autoantibodies that are directed against membrane phospholipids in complex with phospholipid-binding proteins. Beta-2-glycoprotein I (B2GPI) binds anionic phospholipids and is considered to be the predominant antigen in APS and antibodies against B2GPI (anti-B2GPI) are recognised in the laboratory criteria for APS diagnosis. This review focuses on the part played by anti-B2GPI in the pathogenesis of APS, their associations with different clinical phenotypes of the disorder and new avenues for refining the diagnostic potential of anti-B2GPI testing.
Abstract: Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are a hallmark of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which is the most commonly acquired thrombophilia. To date there is consensus that aPL cause the clinical manifestations of this potentially devastating disorder. However, there is good evidence that not all aPL are pathogenic. For instance, aPL associated with syphilis show no association with the manifestations of APS. While there has been intensive research on the pathogenetic role of aPL, comparably little is known about the origin and development of aPL. This review will summarize the current knowledge and understanding of the origin and development of aPL derived from animal and human studies.
Abstract: The threshold between low and medium antibody levels for anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ2GPI) for the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) remains a matter of discussion. Our goal was to create a protocol for determining the low/medium antibody cut-off for aCL antibody methods based on a clinical approach, and utilize it to establish the clinically-relevant low/medium threshold for QUANTA Flash aCL chemiluminescent immunoassay (CIA) results. The study included 288 samples from patients with primary APS (n = 70), secondary APS (n = 42), suspected APS (n = 36), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without APS (n = 96) and other connective tissue diseases (n = 44). All samples were tested for IgG and IgM aCL antibodies with QUANTA Flash CIA, along with traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (QUANTA Lite). The assay specific low/medium threshold for QUANTA Flash aCL IgG and IgM assays (i.e., the equivalent of 40 GPL and MPL units) was established as 95 and 31 chemiluminescent units (CU), respectively, based on clinical performance and comparison to QUANTA Lite ELISAs. Agreement between CIA and ELISA assay results improved substantially when the platform-specific low/medium antibody threshold was used, as compared to agreement obtained on results generated with the assay cutoff: Cohen’s kappa increased from 0.85 to 0.91 for IgG aCL, and from 0.59 to 0.75 for IgM aCL results. This study describes a clinical approach for establishing the low/medium antibody threshold for aPL antibody assays, and successfully employs it to define 95 and 31 CU, respectively, as the low/medium cut point for QUANTA Flash aCL IgG and IgM results. This study can serve as a model for labs wishing to establish the appropriate low/medium aPL antibody threshold when implementing new aPL antibody assays.
Abstract: Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding with zinc ions was examined using zinc ions immobilized on chelating Sepharose beads (Zn-beads). Human IgG bound to Zn-beads but not to Sepharose beads (control beads). Mouse, rat, bovine and equine IgGs also bound to Zn-beads, similar to human IgG. The human IgG F(c) fragment showed zinc ion–binding activity whereas the Fab fragment did not. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-treated Zn-beads no longer bound human IgG; however, washing the beads, followed by the addition of zinc ions, restored the binding activity towards human IgG. Zn-beads saturated with human fibrinogen could bind human IgG, and Zn-beads saturated with human IgG could bind fibrinogen. These results suggest that animal IgGs, including human, specifically bind zinc ions, probably through a zinc-binding site in the F(c) fragment and not in the Fab fragment. In addition, IgG and fibrinogen interact with each other and/or bind zinc ions through different mechanisms.
Abstract: Anti-beta 2 glycoprotein 1 (anti-β2GP1) antibodies are commonly found in patients with autoimmune diseases such as the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Their presence is highly associated with increased risk of vascular thrombosis and/or recurrent pregnancy-related complications. Although they are a subtype of anti-phospholipid (APL) antibody, anti-β2GP1 antibodies form complexes with β2GP1 before binding to different receptors associated with anionic phospholipids on structures such as platelets and endothelial cells. β2GP1 consists of five short consensus repeat termed “sushi” domains. It has three interchangeable conformations with a cryptic epitope at domain 1 within the molecule. Anti-β2GP1 antibodies against this cryptic epitope are referred to as ‘type A’ antibodies, and have been suggested to be more strongly associated with both vascular and obstetric complications. In contrast, ‘type B’ antibodies, directed against other domains of β2GP1, are more likely to be benign antibodies found in asymptomatic patients and healthy individuals. Although the interactions between anti-β2GP1 antibodies, β2GP1, and platelets have been investigated, the actual targeted metabolic pathway(s) and/or receptor(s) involved remain to be clearly elucidated. This review will discuss the current understanding of the interaction between anti-β2GP1 antibodies and β2GP1, with platelet receptors and associated signalling pathways.
Abstract: One of the most important classes of proteins in terms of drug targets is cell surface membrane proteins, and yet it is a challenging set of proteins for generating high-quality affinity reagents. In this review, we focus on the use of phage libraries, which display antibody fragments, for generating recombinant antibodies to membrane proteins. Such affinity reagents generally have high specificity and affinity for their targets. They have been used for cell staining, for promoting protein crystallization to solve three-dimensional structures, for diagnostics, and for treating diseases as therapeutics. We cover publications on this topic from the past 10 years, with a focus on the various formats of membrane proteins for affinity selection and the diverse affinity selection strategies used. Lastly, we discuss the challenges faced in this field and provide possible directions for future efforts.