Antibodies2016, 5(2), 11; doi:10.3390/antib5020011 (registering DOI) - published 2 May 2016 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: One of the most important classes of proteins in terms of drug targets is cell surface membrane proteins, and yet it is a challenging set of proteins for generating high-quality affinity reagents. In this review, we focus on the use of phage libraries, which display antibody fragments, for generating recombinant antibodies to membrane proteins. Such affinity reagents generally have high specificity and affinity for their targets. They have been used for cell staining, for promoting protein crystallization to solve three-dimensional structures, for diagnostics, and for treating diseases as therapeutics. We cover publications on this topic from the past 10 years, with a focus on the various formats of membrane proteins for affinity selection and the diverse affinity selection strategies used. Lastly, we discuss the challenges faced in this field and provide possible directions for future efforts.
Abstract: Little is known about the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. The identification of autoantibodies targeting the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R), which causes neurological and psychiatric symptoms, has reinvigorated the hypothesis that other patient subgroups may also suffer from an underlying autoimmune condition. In recent years, a wide range of neuropsychiatric diseases and autoantibodies targeting ion-channels or neuronal receptors including NMDA-R, voltage gated potassium channel complex (VGKC complex), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA-R), γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA-R) and dopamine receptor (DR) were studied and conflicting reports have been published regarding the seroprevalence of these autoantibodies. A clear causative role of autoantibodies on psychiatric symptoms has as yet only been shown for the NMDA-R. Several other autoantibodies have been related to the presence of certain symptoms and antibody effector mechanisms have been proposed. However, extensive clinical studies with large multicenter efforts to standardize diagnostic procedures for autoimmune etiology and animal studies are needed to confirm the pathogenicity of these autoantibodies. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of neuronal autoantibodies in the major neuropsychiatric disorders: psychotic, major depression, autism spectrum, obsessive-compulsive and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders.
Abstract: The innate immune response, which is usually referred to as the first line of defense, protects the hosts against pathogenic micro-organisms. Some of the biomolecules released from the pathogens, such as proteins, lipoproteins and nucleic acids, which are collectively termed as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), elicit signaling mechanisms that trigger immune responses in the hosts. Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) on the host cells recognize these PAMPs and initiate intracellular signaling through toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), and other pathways which induce production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons. Recently, different members of tripartite motif containing proteins (TRIM) family of proteins were identified to intercept and regulate these cellular pathways. Specific targets of TRIM proteins have been identified and their molecular mechanisms were unraveled and identified unique domains involved in protein-protein interactions. Though innate immunity represents a tight and well conserved immune system in the host, gene expression in innate immunity was identified to be influenced by several epigenetic mechanisms including regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs). In this review, we present critical analysis of the findings on the identification of specific miRNAs that modulate expression of target genes involved in the regulation of innate immunity.
Abstract: Sialoadhesin (Sn) is a surface receptor expressed on a subset of macrophages in steady state conditions. During inflammation and diseases, Sn is highly upregulated on macrophages and blood monocytes. Therefore, therapies using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to target Sn-positive (Sn+) cells are a potential strategy for targeted treatment. It has been shown that Sn internalizes after binding with a mAb, though it is not clear whether this is species-specific. In this study, new Sn-specific mAbs were developed and analyzed for cross-reactivity between species. In addition, the newly developed mAbs were compared to mAbs used in previous research for their epitope recognition and other Sn-specific characteristics. Both species-specific and cross-reactive antibodies could be identified. Furthermore, sialic acid-binding of red blood cells (RBC) could be inhibited with mAbs recognizing different epitopes and all mAb showed internalization of Sn. The newly developed mAbs can be used as novel tools for Sn research and further analysis of Sn internalization in different species.
Abstract: Bispecific antibodies offer a promising approach for the treatment of cancer but can be challenging to engineer and manufacture. Here we report the development of PF-06671008, an extended-half-life dual-affinity re-targeting (DART®) bispecific molecule against P-cadherin and CD3 that demonstrates antibody-like properties. Using phage display, we identified anti-P-cadherin single chain Fv (scFv) that were subsequently affinity-optimized to picomolar affinity using stringent phage selection strategies, resulting in low picomolar potency in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) killing assays in the DART format. The crystal structure of this disulfide-constrained diabody shows that it forms a novel compact structure with the two antigen binding sites separated from each other by approximately 30 Å and facing approximately 90° apart. We show here that introduction of the human Fc domain in PF-06671008 has produced a molecule with an extended half-life (-4.4 days in human FcRn knock-in mice), high stability (Tm1 > 68 °C), high expression (>1 g/L), and robust purification properties (highly pure heterodimer), all with minimal impact on potency. Finally, we demonstrate in vivo anti-tumor efficacy in a human colorectal/human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) co-mix xenograft mouse model. These results suggest PF-06671008 is a promising new bispecific for the treatment of patients with solid tumors expressing P-cadherin.