Algorithms2014, 7(4), 538-553; doi:10.3390/a7040538 - published 16 October 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Predicting student academic performance with a high accuracy facilitates admission decisions and enhances educational services at educational institutions. This raises the need to propose a model that predicts student performance, based on the results of standardized exams, including university entrance exams, high school graduation exams, and other influential factors. In this study, an approach to the problem based on the artificial neural network (ANN) with the two meta-heuristic algorithms inspired by cuckoo birds and their lifestyle, namely, Cuckoo Search (CS) and Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm (COA) is proposed. In particular, we used previous exam results and other factors, such as the location of the student’s high school and the student’s gender as input variables, and predicted the student academic performance. The standard CS and standard COA were separately utilized to train the feed-forward network for prediction. The algorithms optimized the weights between layers and biases of the neuron network. The simulation results were then discussed and analyzed to investigate the prediction ability of the neural network trained by these two algorithms. The findings demonstrated that both CS and COA have potential in training ANN and ANN-COA obtained slightly better results for predicting student academic performance in this case. It is expected that this work may be used to support student admission procedures and strengthen the service system in educational institutions.
Algorithms2014, 7(4), 523-537; doi:10.3390/a7040523 - published 14 October 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Multi-sensor and information fusion technology based on Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is applied in the system of a building fire alarm to realize early detecting and alarming. By using a multi-sensor to monitor the parameters of the fire process, such as light, smoke, temperature, gas and moisture, the range of fire monitoring in space and time is expanded compared with a single-sensor system. Then, the D-S evidence theory is applied to fuse the information from the multi-sensor with the specific fire model, and the fire alarm is more accurate and timely. The proposed method can avoid the failure of the monitoring data effectively, deal with the conflicting evidence from the multi-sensor robustly and improve the reliability of fire warning significantly.
Algorithms2014, 7(4), 510-522; doi:10.3390/a7040510 - published 13 October 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Cognitive radio (CR) method was introduced in smart grid communication systems to resolve potential maladies such as the coexistence of heterogeneous networks, overloaded data flow, diversity in data structures, and unstable quality of service (QOS). In this paper, a cognitive spectrum allocation algorithm based on non-cooperative game theory is proposed. The CR spectrum allocation model was developed by modifying the traditional game model via the insertion of a time variable and a critical function. The computing simulation result shows that the improved spectrum allocation algorithm can achieve stable spectrum allocation strategies and avoid the appearance of multi-Nash equilibrium at the expense of certain sacrifices in the system utility. It is suitable for application in distributed cognitive networks in power grids, thus contributing to the improvement of the isomerism and data capacity of power communication systems.
Algorithms2014, 7(4), 492-509; doi:10.3390/a7040492 - published 26 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: In electric power systems, power cable operation under normal conditions is very important. Various cable faults will happen in practical applications. Recognizing the cable faults correctly and in a timely manner is crucial. In this paper we propose a method that an annealed chaotic competitive learning network recognizes power cable types. The result shows a good performance using the support vector machine (SVM) and improved Particle Swarm Optimization (IPSO)-SVM method. The experimental result shows that the fault recognition accuracy reached was 96.2%, using 54 data samples. The network training time is about 0.032 second. The method can achieve cable fault classification effectively.
Algorithms2014, 7(3), 471-491; doi:10.3390/a7030471 - published 22 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: Dynamic resource supply is a complex issue to resolve in a cyber-physical system (CPS). In our previous work, a resource model called the dynamic resource supply model (DRSM) has been proposed to handle resources specification, management and allocation in CPS. In this paper, we are integrating the DRSM with service-oriented architecture and applying it to a smart grid (SG), one of the most complex CPS examples. We give the detailed design of the SG for electricity charging request and electricity allocation between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and DRSM through the Android system. In the design, we explain a mechanism for electricity consumption with data collection and re-allocation through ZigBee network. In this design, we verify the correctness of this resource model for expected electricity allocation.
Algorithms2014, 7(3), 456-470; doi:10.3390/a7030456 - published 10 September 2014 Show/Hide Abstract
Abstract: At the center of the macula, fovea plays an important role in computer-aided diagnosis. To locate the fovea, this paper proposes a vessel origin (VO)-based parabolic model, which takes the VO as the vertex of the parabola-like vasculature. Image processing steps are applied to accurately locate the fovea on retinal images. Firstly, morphological gradient and the circular Hough transform are used to find the optic disc. The structure of the vessel is then segmented with the line detector. Based on the characteristics of the VO, four features of VO are extracted, following the Bayesian classification procedure. Once the VO is identified, the VO-based parabolic model will locate the fovea. To find the fittest parabola and the symmetry axis of the retinal vessel, an Shift and Rotation (SR)-Hough transform that combines the Hough transform with the shift and rotation of coordinates is presented. Two public databases of retinal images, DRIVE and STARE, are used to evaluate the proposed method. The experiment results show that the average Euclidean distances between the located fovea and the fovea marked by experts in two databases are 9.8 pixels and 30.7 pixels, respectively. The results are stronger than other methods and thus provide a better macular detection for further disease discovery.