Open AccessArticle
An Optimization Algorithm Inspired by the Phase Transition Phenomenon for Global Optimization Problems with Continuous Variables
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 119; doi:10.3390/a10040119 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a novel nature-inspired meta-heuristic algorithm for continuous global optimization, named the phase transition-based optimization algorithm (PTBO). It mimics three completely different kinds of motion characteristics of elements in three different phases, which are the unstable phase, the meta-stable
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In this paper, we propose a novel nature-inspired meta-heuristic algorithm for continuous global optimization, named the phase transition-based optimization algorithm (PTBO). It mimics three completely different kinds of motion characteristics of elements in three different phases, which are the unstable phase, the meta-stable phase, and the stable phase. Three corresponding operators, which are the stochastic operator of the unstable phase, the shrinkage operator in the meta-stable phase, and the vibration operator of the stable phase, are designed in the proposed algorithm. In PTBO, the three different phases of elements dynamically execute different search tasks according to their phase in each generation. It makes it such that PTBO not only has a wide range of exploration capabilities, but also has the ability to quickly exploit them. Numerical experiments are carried out on twenty-eight functions of the CEC 2013 benchmark suite. The simulation results demonstrate its better performance compared with that of other state-of-the-art optimization algorithms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Study on Recently-Introduced Nature-Based Global Optimization Methods in Complex Mechanical System Design
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 120; doi:10.3390/a10040120 -
Abstract
Advanced global optimization algorithms have been continuously introduced and improved to solve various complex design optimization problems for which the objective and constraint functions can only be evaluated through computation intensive numerical analyses or simulations with a large number of design variables. The
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Advanced global optimization algorithms have been continuously introduced and improved to solve various complex design optimization problems for which the objective and constraint functions can only be evaluated through computation intensive numerical analyses or simulations with a large number of design variables. The often implicit, multimodal, and ill-shaped objective and constraint functions in high-dimensional and “black-box” forms demand the search to be carried out using low number of function evaluations with high search efficiency and good robustness. This work investigates the performance of six recently introduced, nature-inspired global optimization methods: Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Firefly Algorithm (FFA), Cuckoo Search (CS), Bat Algorithm (BA), Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA) and Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO). These approaches are compared in terms of search efficiency and robustness in solving a set of representative benchmark problems in smooth-unimodal, non-smooth unimodal, smooth multimodal, and non-smooth multimodal function forms. In addition, four classic engineering optimization examples and a real-life complex mechanical system design optimization problem, floating offshore wind turbines design optimization, are used as additional test cases representing computationally-expensive black-box global optimization problems. Results from this comparative study show that the ability of these global optimization methods to obtain a good solution diminishes as the dimension of the problem, or number of design variables increases. Although none of these methods is universally capable, the study finds that GWO and ABC are more efficient on average than the other four in obtaining high quality solutions efficiently and consistently, solving 86% and 80% of the tested benchmark problems, respectively. The research contributes to future improvements of global optimization methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Iterative Parameter Estimation Algorithms for Dual-Frequency Signal Models
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 118; doi:10.3390/a10040118 -
Abstract
This paper focuses on the iterative parameter estimation algorithms for dual-frequency signal models that are disturbed by stochastic noise. The key of the work is to overcome the difficulty that the signal model is a highly nonlinear function with respect to frequencies. A
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This paper focuses on the iterative parameter estimation algorithms for dual-frequency signal models that are disturbed by stochastic noise. The key of the work is to overcome the difficulty that the signal model is a highly nonlinear function with respect to frequencies. A gradient-based iterative (GI) algorithm is presented based on the gradient search. In order to improve the estimation accuracy of the GI algorithm, a Newton iterative algorithm and a moving data window gradient-based iterative algorithm are proposed based on the moving data window technique. Comparative simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches for estimating the parameters of signal models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fabric Weave Pattern and Yarn Color Recognition and Classification Using a Deep ELM Network
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 117; doi:10.3390/a10040117 -
Abstract
Usually, a fabric weave pattern is recognized using methods which identify the warp floats and weft floats. Although these methods perform well for uniform or repetitive weave patterns, in the case of complex weave patterns, these methods become computationally complex and the classification
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Usually, a fabric weave pattern is recognized using methods which identify the warp floats and weft floats. Although these methods perform well for uniform or repetitive weave patterns, in the case of complex weave patterns, these methods become computationally complex and the classification error rates are comparatively higher. Furthermore, the fault-tolerance (invariance) and stability (selectivity) of the existing methods are still to be enhanced. We present a novel biologically-inspired method to invariantly recognize the fabric weave pattern (fabric texture) and yarn color from the color image input. We proposed a model in which the fabric weave pattern descriptor is based on the HMAX model for computer vision inspired by the hierarchy in the visual cortex, the color descriptor is based on the opponent color channel inspired by the classical opponent color theory of human vision, and the classification stage is composed of a multi-layer (deep) extreme learning machine. Since the weave pattern descriptor, yarn color descriptor, and the classification stage are all biologically inspired, we propose a method which is completely biologically plausible. The classification performance of the proposed algorithm indicates that the biologically-inspired computer-aided-vision models might provide accurate, fast, reliable and cost-effective solution to industrial automation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Remote Sensing Image Enhancement Based on Non-Local Means Filter in NSCT Domain
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 116; doi:10.3390/a10040116 -
Abstract
In this paper, a novel remote sensing image enhancement technique based on a non-local means filter in a nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain is proposed. The overall flow of the approach can be divided into the following steps: Firstly, the image is decomposed
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In this paper, a novel remote sensing image enhancement technique based on a non-local means filter in a nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain is proposed. The overall flow of the approach can be divided into the following steps: Firstly, the image is decomposed into one low-frequency sub-band and several high-frequency sub-bands with NSCT. Secondly, contrast stretching is adopted to deal with the low-frequency sub-band coefficients, and the non-local means filter is applied to suppress the noise contained in the first high-frequency sub-band coefficients. Thirdly, the processed coefficients are reconstructed with the inverse NSCT transform. Finally, the unsharp filter is used to enhance the details of the image. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance in remote sensing image enhancement than the existing approaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Multi-Threading Algorithm to Detect and Remove Cycles in Vertex- and Arc-Weighted Digraph
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 115; doi:10.3390/a10040115 -
Abstract
A graph is a very important structure to describe many applications in the real world. In many applications, such as dependency graphs and debt graphs, it is an important problem to find and remove cycles to make these graphs be cycle-free. The common
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A graph is a very important structure to describe many applications in the real world. In many applications, such as dependency graphs and debt graphs, it is an important problem to find and remove cycles to make these graphs be cycle-free. The common algorithm often leads to an out-of-memory exception in commodity personal computer, and it cannot leverage the advantage of multicore computers. This paper introduces a new problem, cycle detection and removal with vertex priority. It proposes a multithreading iterative algorithm to solve this problem for large-scale graphs on personal computers. The algorithm includes three main steps: simplification to decrease the scale of graph, calculation of strongly connected components, and cycle detection and removal according to a pre-defined priority in parallel. This algorithm avoids the out-of-memory exception by simplification and iteration, and it leverages the advantage of multicore computers by multithreading parallelism. Five different versions of the proposed algorithm are compared by experiments, and the results show that the parallel iterative algorithm outperforms the others, and simplification can effectively improve the algorithm's performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Scale Reduction Techniques for Computing Maximum Induced Bicliques
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 113; doi:10.3390/a10040113 -
Abstract
Given a simple, undirected graph G, a biclique is a subset of vertices inducing a complete bipartite subgraph in G. In this paper, we consider two associated optimization problems, the maximum biclique problem, which asks for a biclique of the maximum cardinality in
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Given a simple, undirected graph G, a biclique is a subset of vertices inducing a complete bipartite subgraph in G. In this paper, we consider two associated optimization problems, the maximum biclique problem, which asks for a biclique of the maximum cardinality in the graph, and the maximum edge biclique problem, aiming to find a biclique with the maximum number of edges in the graph. These NP-hard problems find applications in biclustering-type tasks arising in complex network analysis. Real-life instances of these problems often involve massive, but sparse networks. We develop exact approaches for detecting optimal bicliques in large-scale graphs that combine effective scale reduction techniques with integer programming methodology. Results of computational experiments with numerous real-life network instances demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Variable Selection in Time Series Forecasting Using Random Forests
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 114; doi:10.3390/a10040114 -
Abstract
Time series forecasting using machine learning algorithms has gained popularity recently. Random forest is a machine learning algorithm implemented in time series forecasting; however, most of its forecasting properties have remained unexplored. Here we focus on assessing the performance of random forests in
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Time series forecasting using machine learning algorithms has gained popularity recently. Random forest is a machine learning algorithm implemented in time series forecasting; however, most of its forecasting properties have remained unexplored. Here we focus on assessing the performance of random forests in one-step forecasting using two large datasets of short time series with the aim to suggest an optimal set of predictor variables. Furthermore, we compare its performance to benchmarking methods. The first dataset is composed by 16,000 simulated time series from a variety of Autoregressive Fractionally Integrated Moving Average (ARFIMA) models. The second dataset consists of 135 mean annual temperature time series. The highest predictive performance of RF is observed when using a low number of recent lagged predictor variables. This outcome could be useful in relevant future applications, with the prospect to achieve higher predictive accuracy. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Mapping Higher-Order Network Flows in Memory and Multilayer Networks with Infomap
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 112; doi:10.3390/a10040112 -
Abstract
Comprehending complex systems by simplifying and highlighting important dynamical patterns requires modeling and mapping higher-order network flows. However, complex systems come in many forms and demand a range of representations, including memory and multilayer networks, which in turn call for versatile community-detection algorithms
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Comprehending complex systems by simplifying and highlighting important dynamical patterns requires modeling and mapping higher-order network flows. However, complex systems come in many forms and demand a range of representations, including memory and multilayer networks, which in turn call for versatile community-detection algorithms to reveal important modular regularities in the flows. Here we show that various forms of higher-order network flows can be represented in a unified way with networks that distinguish physical nodes for representing a complex system’s objects from state nodes for describing flows between the objects. Moreover, these so-called sparse memory networks allow the information-theoretic community detection method known as the map equation to identify overlapping and nested flow modules in data from a range of different higher-order interactions such as multistep, multi-source, and temporal data. We derive the map equation applied to sparse memory networks and describe its search algorithm Infomap, which can exploit the flexibility of sparse memory networks. Together they provide a general solution to reveal overlapping modular patterns in higher-order flows through complex systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Game Theory-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm for Global Optimization
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 111; doi:10.3390/a10040111 -
Abstract
Many approaches that model specific intelligent behaviors perform excellently in solving complex optimization problems. Game theory is widely recognized as an important tool in many fields. This paper introduces a game theory-inspired evolutionary algorithm for global optimization (GameEA). A formulation to estimate payoff
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Many approaches that model specific intelligent behaviors perform excellently in solving complex optimization problems. Game theory is widely recognized as an important tool in many fields. This paper introduces a game theory-inspired evolutionary algorithm for global optimization (GameEA). A formulation to estimate payoff expectations is provided, which is a mechanism to make a player become a rational decision-maker. GameEA has one population (i.e., set of players) and generates new offspring only through an imitation operator and a belief-learning operator. An imitation operator adopts learning strategies and actions from other players to improve its competitiveness and applies these strategies to future games where one player updates its chromosome by strategically copying segments of gene sequences from a competitor. Belief learning refers to models in which a player adjusts his/her strategies, behavior or chromosomes by analyzing the current history information to improve solution quality. Experimental results on various classes of problems show that GameEA outperforms the other four algorithms on stability, robustness, and accuracy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Properties of Vector Embeddings in Social Networks
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 109; doi:10.3390/a10040109 -
Abstract
Embedding social network data into a low-dimensional vector space has shown promising performance for many real-world applications, such as node classification, node clustering, link prediction and network visualization. However, the information contained in these vector embeddings remains abstract and hard to interpret. Methods
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Embedding social network data into a low-dimensional vector space has shown promising performance for many real-world applications, such as node classification, node clustering, link prediction and network visualization. However, the information contained in these vector embeddings remains abstract and hard to interpret. Methods for inspecting embeddings usually rely on visualization methods, which do not work on a larger scale and do not give concrete interpretations of vector embeddings in terms of preserved network properties (e.g., centrality or betweenness measures). In this paper, we study and investigate network properties preserved by recent random walk-based embedding procedures like node2vec, DeepWalk or LINE. We propose a method that applies learning to rank in order to relate embeddings to network centralities. We evaluate our approach with extensive experiments on real-world and artificial social networks. Experiments show that each embedding method learns different network properties. In addition, we show that our graph embeddings in combination with neural networks provide a computationally efficient way to approximate the Closeness Centrality measure in social networks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
DDC Control Techniques for Three-Phase BLDC Motor Position Control
Algorithms 2017, 10(4), 110; doi:10.3390/a10040110 -
Abstract
In this article, a novel hybrid control scheme is proposed for controlling the position of a three-phase brushless direct current (BLDC) motor. The hybrid controller consists of discrete time sliding mode control (SMC) with model free adaptive control (MFAC) to make a new
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In this article, a novel hybrid control scheme is proposed for controlling the position of a three-phase brushless direct current (BLDC) motor. The hybrid controller consists of discrete time sliding mode control (SMC) with model free adaptive control (MFAC) to make a new data-driven control (DDC) strategy that is able to reduce the simulation time and complexity of a nonlinear system. The proposed hybrid algorithm is also suitable for controlling the speed variations of a BLDC motor, and is also applicable for the real time simulation of platforms such as a gimbal platform. The DDC method does not require any system model because it depends on data collected by the system about its Inputs/Outputs (IOS). However, the model-based control (MBC) method is difficult to apply from a practical point of view and is time-consuming because we need to linearize the system model. The above proposed method is verified by multiple simulations using MATLAB Simulink. It shows that the proposed controller has better performance, more precise tracking, and greater robustness compared with the classical proportional integral derivative (PID) controller, MFAC, and model free learning adaptive control (MFLAC). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Type-1 Fuzzy Sets and Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets
Algorithms 2017, 10(3), 106; doi:10.3390/a10030106 -
Abstract
A comparison between type-1 fuzzy sets (T1FSs) and intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs) is made. The operators defined over IFSs that do not have analogues in T1FSs are shown, and such analogues are introduced whenever possible. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Analysis of Four Decomposition-Ensemble Models for One-Day-Ahead Agricultural Commodity Futures Price Forecasting
Algorithms 2017, 10(3), 108; doi:10.3390/a10030108 -
Abstract
Agricultural commodity futures prices play a significant role in the change tendency of these spot prices and the supply–demand relationship of global agricultural product markets. Due to the nonlinear and nonstationary nature of this kind of time series data, it is inevitable for
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Agricultural commodity futures prices play a significant role in the change tendency of these spot prices and the supply–demand relationship of global agricultural product markets. Due to the nonlinear and nonstationary nature of this kind of time series data, it is inevitable for price forecasting research to take this nature into consideration. Therefore, we aim to enrich the existing research literature and offer a new way of thinking about forecasting agricultural commodity futures prices, so that four hybrid models are proposed based on the back propagation neural network (BPNN) optimized by the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and four decomposition methods: empirical mode decomposition (EMD), wavelet packet transform (WPT), intrinsic time-scale decomposition (ITD) and variational mode decomposition (VMD). In order to verify the applicability and validity of these hybrid models, we select three futures prices of wheat, corn and soybean to conduct the experiment. The experimental results show that (1) all the hybrid models combined with decomposition technique have a better performance than the single PSO–BPNN model; (2) VMD contributes the most in improving the forecasting ability of the PSO–BPNN model, while WPT ranks second; (3) ITD performs better than EMD in both cases of corn and soybean; and (4) the proposed models perform well in the forecasting of agricultural commodity futures prices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Monarch Butterfly Optimization for the Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problem
Algorithms 2017, 10(3), 107; doi:10.3390/a10030107 -
Abstract
The dynamic vehicle routing problem (DVRP) is a variant of the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) in which customers appear dynamically. The objective is to determine a set of routes that minimizes the total travel distance. In this paper, we propose a monarch butterfly
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The dynamic vehicle routing problem (DVRP) is a variant of the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) in which customers appear dynamically. The objective is to determine a set of routes that minimizes the total travel distance. In this paper, we propose a monarch butterfly optimization (MBO) algorithm to solve DVRPs, utilizing a greedy strategy. Both migration operation and the butterfly adjusting operator only accept the offspring of butterfly individuals that have better fitness than their parents. To improve performance, a later perturbation procedure is implemented, to maintain a balance between global diversification and local intensification. The computational results indicate that the proposed technique outperforms the existing approaches in the literature for average performance by at least 9.38%. In addition, 12 new best solutions were found. This shows that this proposed technique consistently produces high-quality solutions and outperforms other published heuristics for the DVRP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Internal Clustering Validation Indices for Prototype-Based Clustering
Algorithms 2017, 10(3), 105; doi:10.3390/a10030105 -
Abstract
Clustering is an unsupervised machine learning and pattern recognition method. In general, in addition to revealing hidden groups of similar observations and clusters, their number needs to be determined. Internal clustering validation indices estimate this number without any external information. The purpose of
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Clustering is an unsupervised machine learning and pattern recognition method. In general, in addition to revealing hidden groups of similar observations and clusters, their number needs to be determined. Internal clustering validation indices estimate this number without any external information. The purpose of this article is to evaluate, empirically, characteristics of a representative set of internal clustering validation indices with many datasets. The prototype-based clustering framework includes multiple, classical and robust, statistical estimates of cluster location so that the overall setting of the paper is novel. General observations on the quality of validation indices and on the behavior of different variants of clustering algorithms will be given. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Contract-Based Incentive Mechanism for Mobile Crowdsourcing Networks
Algorithms 2017, 10(3), 104; doi:10.3390/a10030104 -
Abstract
Mobile crowdsourcing networks (MCNs) are a promising method of data collecting and processing by leveraging the mobile devices’ sensing and computing capabilities. However, because of the selfish characteristics of the service provider (SP) and mobile users (MUs), crowdsourcing participants only aim to maximize
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Mobile crowdsourcing networks (MCNs) are a promising method of data collecting and processing by leveraging the mobile devices’ sensing and computing capabilities. However, because of the selfish characteristics of the service provider (SP) and mobile users (MUs), crowdsourcing participants only aim to maximize their own benefits. This paper investigates the incentive mechanism between the above two parties to create mutual benefits. By modeling MCNs as a labor market, a contract-based crowdsourcing model with moral hazard is proposed under the asymmetric information scenario. In order to incentivize the potential MUs to participate in crowdsourcing tasks, the optimization problem is formulated to maximize the SP’s utility by jointly examining the crowdsourcing participants’ risk preferences. The impact of crowdsourcing participants’ attitudes of risks on the incentive mechanism has been studied analytically and experimentally. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed contract design scheme for the crowdsourcing incentive. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Enhanced Dynamic Spectrum Allocation Algorithm Based on Cournot Game in Maritime Cognitive Radio Communication System
Algorithms 2017, 10(3), 103; doi:10.3390/a10030103 -
Abstract
The recent development of maritime transport has resulted in the demand for a wider communication bandwidth being more intense. Cognitive radios can dynamically manage resources in a spectrum. Thus, building a new type of maritime cognitive radio communication system (MCRCS) is an effective
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The recent development of maritime transport has resulted in the demand for a wider communication bandwidth being more intense. Cognitive radios can dynamically manage resources in a spectrum. Thus, building a new type of maritime cognitive radio communication system (MCRCS) is an effective solution. In this paper, the enhanced dynamic spectrum allocation algorithm (EDSAA) is proposed, which is based on the Cournot game model. In EDSAA, the decision-making center (DC) sets the weights according to the detection capability of the secondary user (SU), before adding these weighting coefficients in the price function. Furthermore, the willingness of the SU will reduce after meeting their basic communication needs when it continues to increase the leasable spectrum by adding the elastic model in the SU’s revenue function. On this basis, the profit function is established. The simulation results show that the EDSAA has Nash equilibrium and conforms to the actual situation. It shows that the results of spectrum allocation are fair, efficient and reasonable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Local Community Detection in Dynamic Graphs Using Personalized Centrality
Algorithms 2017, 10(3), 102; doi:10.3390/a10030102 -
Abstract
Analyzing massive graphs poses challenges due to the vast amount of data available. Extracting smaller relevant subgraphs allows for further visualization and analysis that would otherwise be too computationally intensive. Furthermore, many real data sets are constantly changing, and require algorithms to update
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Analyzing massive graphs poses challenges due to the vast amount of data available. Extracting smaller relevant subgraphs allows for further visualization and analysis that would otherwise be too computationally intensive. Furthermore, many real data sets are constantly changing, and require algorithms to update as the graph evolves. This work addresses the topic of local community detection, or seed set expansion, using personalized centrality measures, specifically PageRank and Katz centrality. We present a method to efficiently update local communities in dynamic graphs. By updating the personalized ranking vectors, we can incrementally update the corresponding local community. Applying our methods to real-world graphs, we are able to obtain speedups of up to 60× compared to static recomputation while maintaining an average recall of 0.94 of the highly ranked vertices returned. Next, we investigate how approximations of a centrality vector affect the resulting local community. Specifically, our method guarantees that the vertices returned in the community are the highly ranked vertices from a personalized centrality metric. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Study of Type-2 Fuzzy Particle Swarm, Bee Colony and Bat Algorithms in Optimization of Fuzzy Controllers
Algorithms 2017, 10(3), 101; doi:10.3390/a10030101 -
Abstract
In this paper, a comparison among Particle swarm optimization (PSO), Bee Colony Optimization (BCO) and the Bat Algorithm (BA) is presented. In addition, a modification to the main parameters of each algorithm through an interval type-2 fuzzy logic system is presented. The main
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In this paper, a comparison among Particle swarm optimization (PSO), Bee Colony Optimization (BCO) and the Bat Algorithm (BA) is presented. In addition, a modification to the main parameters of each algorithm through an interval type-2 fuzzy logic system is presented. The main aim of using interval type-2 fuzzy systems is providing dynamic parameter adaptation to the algorithms. These algorithms (original and modified versions) are compared with the design of fuzzy systems used for controlling the trajectory of an autonomous mobile robot. Simulation results reveal that PSO algorithm outperforms the results of the BCO and BA algorithms. Full article
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