Abstract: AquaticHealth.net is an open-source aquatic biosecurity intelligence application. By combining automated data collection and human analysis, AquaticHealth.net provides fast and accurate disease outbreak detection and forecasts, accompanied with nuanced explanations. The system has been online and open to the public since 1 January 2010, it has over 200 registered expert users around the world, and it typically publishes about seven daily reports and two weekly disease alerts. We document the major trends in aquatic animal health that the system has detected over these two years, and conclude with some forecasts for the future.
Abstract: Wild rocket [Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC.] belongs to the Brassicaceae family and has its origin in the Mediterranean region. The effect of conventional and integrated cultivation practices on the nutritional properties and benefits of wild rocket [Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC.] were studied. Bioactive molecules content (vitamin C, quercetin, lutein), antioxidant properties and bioactivity of polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of rocket in Caco-2 cells were determined. Regarding antioxidant properties, FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) values ranged from 4.44 ± 0.11 mmol/kg fw to 9.92 ± 0.46 mmol/kg fw for conventional rocket and from 4.13 ± 0.17 fw mmol/kg to 11.02 ± 0.45 mmol/kg fw for integrated rocket. The characteristics of wild rocket as a dietary source of antioxidants have been pointed out. Significant differences in the quality of conventional and integrated rocket have been shown, while no influence of agronomic practice on biological activity was reported. A significant accumulation of cells in G1 phase and a consequent reduction in the S and G2 + M phases were observed in Caco-2 cells treated with rocket polyphenol extract.
Abstract: There are currently little or no data on the role of endemic disease control in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock. In the present study, we have used an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)-compliant model to calculate GHG emissions from naturally grazing lambs under four different anthelmintic drug treatment regimes over a 5-year study period. Treatments were either “monthly” (NST), “strategic” (SPT), “targeted” (TST) or based on “clinical signs” (MT). Commercial sheep farming practices were simulated, with lambs reaching a pre-selected target market weight (38 kg) removed from the analysis as they would no longer contribute to the GHG budget of the flock. Results showed there was a significant treatment effect over all years, with lambs in the MT group consistently taking longer to reach market weight, and an extra 10% emission of CO2e per kg of weight gain over the other treatments. There were no significant differences between the other three treatment strategies (NST, SPT and TST) in terms of production efficiency or cumulated GHG emissions over the experimental period. This study has shown that endemic disease control can contribute to a reduction in GHG emissions from animal agriculture and help reduce the carbon footprint of livestock farming.
Abstract: Foreign animal diseases can have a devastating impact on the American economy and agriculture system, while significantly disrupting the food supply chain, and affecting animal health and public health. Continuity of business during an animal disease outbreak aims to mitigate these agriculture-related losses by facilitating normal business operations through the managed movement of non-infected animals and non-contaminated animal products. During a foreign animal disease outbreak, there are competing objectives of trying to control and contain the outbreak while allowing non-infected premises to continue normal business operations to the greatest extent possible. Using a logic model approach, this article discusses the importance of continuity of business planning during an animal disease outbreak, providing a detailed and transparent theoretical framework for continuity of business planning for animal agriculture stakeholders. The logic model provides a basis for continuity of business planning, which is rapidly gaining focus and interest in the animal emergency management community. This unique logic model offers a framework for effective planning and subsequent evaluation of continuity of business plans and processes, by identifying explicit stakeholders, inputs, and activities, alongside the desired outputs and outcomes of such planning.
Abstract: A standardized whole cranberry extract (WCE) was used to stabilize a model sunflower-casein emulsion prototype for future formulation activities with a fresh cream cheese product. The WCE contained total organic acids (20% w/w) and polyphenols (5%), the latter consisting of total anthocyanins (10%, w/w) and proanthocyanidins (12% w/w). Antioxidant capacity of the WCE was determined by ORAC, (hydrophilic ORAC = 348.31 ± 33.45 µmol of Trolox equivalents/g; lipophilic ORAC = 11.02 ± 0.85 µmol of Trolox equivalents/g). WCE was effective at stabilizing the model emulsion at a level of 0.375% (w/w), yielding a final pH of 5.6. Generation of initial lipid peroxidation products, hexanal and pentanal was inhibited by 92.4% ± 3.9% and 66.6% ± 5.3% (n = 3), respectively, when emulsions containing WCE were incubated at 50 °C for 90 h. This information was useful for formulating a fresh cream cheese product containing WCE to produce value-added potential and good self-life. The standardized WCE gave a final pH of 5.6 for the cheese premix and also significantly (P < 0.05) lowered both the PV and CD after 28 and 21 days at 4 °C storage, respectively, compared to untreated control. We conclude that there are important functional role(s) for cranberry constituents when presented as a standardized ingredient for producing value-added, stable fresh dairy products.
Abstract: Ticks are well-known parasites that affect livestock productivity. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding the spread of ticks with their impact in animal health and the limitations to achieve effective control measures. The forecasted trends in climate play an obvious role in promoting the spread of ticks in several regions. It appears that climate warming is pivotal in the spread and colonization of new territories by Rhipicephalus microplus in several regions of Africa. The reported increase in altitude of this tick species in the mountainous regions of Central and South America appears to be driven by such general trends in climate change. This factor, however, is not the only single contributor to the spread of ticks. The poor management of farms, uncontrolled movements of domestic animals, abundance of wild animals, and absence of an adequate framework to capture the ecological plasticity of certain ticks may explain the complexity of the control measures. In this paper, we review several details regarding the relationships of ticks with the environment, wild fauna and competition with other species of ticks. Our intention is to highlight these relationships with the aim to produce a coherent framework to explore tick ecology and its relationship with animal production systems.