Open AccessArticle
High Fidelity Multi-Objective Design Optimization of a Downscaled Cusped Field Thruster
Aerospace 2017, 4(4), 55; doi:10.3390/aerospace4040055 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The Cusped Field Thruster (CFT) concept has demonstrated significantly improved performance over the Hall Effect Thruster and the Gridded Ion Thruster; however, little is understood about the complexities of the interactions and interdependencies of the geometrical, magnetic and ion beam properties of the
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The Cusped Field Thruster (CFT) concept has demonstrated significantly improved performance over the Hall Effect Thruster and the Gridded Ion Thruster; however, little is understood about the complexities of the interactions and interdependencies of the geometrical, magnetic and ion beam properties of the thruster. This study applies an advanced design methodology combining a modified power distribution calculation and evolutionary algorithms assisted by surrogate modeling to a multi-objective design optimization for the performance optimization and characterization of the CFT. Optimization is performed for maximization of performance defined by five design parameters (i.e., anode voltage, anode current, mass flow rate, and magnet radii), simultaneously aiming to maximize three objectives; that is, thrust, efficiency and specific impulse. Statistical methods based on global sensitivity analysis are employed to assess the optimization results in conjunction with surrogate models to identify key design factors with respect to the three design objectives and additional performance measures. The research indicates that the anode current and the Outer Magnet Radius have the greatest effect on the performance parameters. An optimal value for the anode current is determined, and a trend towards maximizing anode potential and mass flow rate is observed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Efficient Application of the MOEA/D Algorithm for Designing Noise Abatement Departure Trajectories
Aerospace 2017, 4(4), 54; doi:10.3390/aerospace4040054 -
Abstract
In an effort to allow to increase the number of aircraft and airport operations while mitigating their negative impacts (e.g., noise and pollutant emission) on near-airport communities, the optimal design of new departure routes with less noise and fuel consumption becomes more important.
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In an effort to allow to increase the number of aircraft and airport operations while mitigating their negative impacts (e.g., noise and pollutant emission) on near-airport communities, the optimal design of new departure routes with less noise and fuel consumption becomes more important. In this paper, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D), which recently emerged as a potential method for solving multi-objective optimization problems (MOPs), is developed for this kind of problem. First, to minimize aircraft noise for departure routes while taking into account the interests of various stakeholders, bi-objective optimization problems involving noise and fuel consumption are formulated where both the ground track and vertical profile of a departure route are optimized simultaneously. Second, in order to make the design space of vertical profiles feasible during the optimization process, a trajectory parameterization technique recently proposed is employed. Furthermore, some modifications to MOEA/D that are aimed at significantly reducing the computational cost are also introduced. Two different examples of departure routes at Schiphol Airport in the Netherlands are shown to demonstrate the applicability and reliability of the proposed method. The simulation results reveal that the proposed method is an effective and efficient approach for solving this kind of problem. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design, Development and Testing of Shape Shifting Wing Model
Aerospace 2017, 4(4), 52; doi:10.3390/aerospace4040052 -
Abstract
The design and development of morphing (shape shifting) aircraft wings—an innovative technology that has the potential to increase the aerodynamic efficiency and reduce noise signatures of aircrafts—was carried out. This research was focused on reducing lift-induced drag at the flaps of the aerofoil
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The design and development of morphing (shape shifting) aircraft wings—an innovative technology that has the potential to increase the aerodynamic efficiency and reduce noise signatures of aircrafts—was carried out. This research was focused on reducing lift-induced drag at the flaps of the aerofoil and to improve the design to achieve the optimum aerodynamic efficiency. Simulation revealed a 10.8% coefficient of lift increase for the initial morphing wing and 15.4% for the optimized morphing wing as compared to conventional wing design. At angles of attack of 0, 5, 10 and 15 degrees, the optimized wing has an increase in lift-to-drag ratio of 18.3%, 10.5%, 10.6% and 4% respectively when compared with the conventional wing. Simulations also showed that there is a significant improvement on pressure distribution over the lower surface of the morphing wing aerofoil. The increase in flow smoothness and reduction in vortex size reduced pressure drag along the trailing edge of the wing as a result an increase in pressure on the lower surface was experienced. A morphing wing reduced the size of the vortices and therefore the noise levels measured were reduced by up to 50%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation of the Wake and the Wingtip Vortices of a UAV Model
Aerospace 2017, 4(4), 53; doi:10.3390/aerospace4040053 -
Abstract
An experimental investigation of the wake of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) model using flow visualization techniques and a 3D Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) system is presented in this work. Emphasis is given on the flow field at the wingtip and the investigation
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An experimental investigation of the wake of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) model using flow visualization techniques and a 3D Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) system is presented in this work. Emphasis is given on the flow field at the wingtip and the investigation of the tip vortices. A comparison of the velocity field is made with and without winglet devices installed at the wingtips. The experiments are carried out in a closed-circuit subsonic wind tunnel. The flow visualization techniques include smoke-wire and smoke-probe experiments to identify the flow phenomena, whereas for accurately measuring the velocity field point measurements are conducted using the LDA system. Apart from the measured velocities, vorticity and circulation quantities are also calculated and compared for the two cases. The results help to provide a more detailed view of the flow field around the UAV and indicate the winglets’ significant contribution to the deconstruction of wing-tip vortex structures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Air Traffic Security: Aircraft Classification Using ADS-B Message’s Phase-Pattern
Aerospace 2017, 4(4), 51; doi:10.3390/aerospace4040051 -
Abstract
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is a surveillance system used in Air Traffic Control. With this system, the aircraft transmits their own information (identity, position, velocity, etc.) to any equipped listener for surveillance scope. The ADS-B is based on a very simple protocol and
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Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is a surveillance system used in Air Traffic Control. With this system, the aircraft transmits their own information (identity, position, velocity, etc.) to any equipped listener for surveillance scope. The ADS-B is based on a very simple protocol and does not provide any kind of authentication and encryption, making it vulnerable to many types of cyber-attacks. In the paper, the use of the airplane/transmitter carrier phase is proposed as a feature to perform a classification of the aircraft and, therefore, distinguish legitimate messages from fake ones. The feature extraction process is described and a classification method is selected. Finally, a complete intruder detection algorithm is proposed and evaluated with real data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Air Traffic Control Training at the Federal Aviation Administration Academy
Aerospace 2017, 4(4), 50; doi:10.3390/aerospace4040050 -
Abstract
This paper investigates current and future uses of simulation in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Academy’s Air Traffic Control (ATC) training program to identify potential improvement areas in the areas of simulation technologies and course content. Once identified, recommendations for changes to the
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This paper investigates current and future uses of simulation in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Academy’s Air Traffic Control (ATC) training program to identify potential improvement areas in the areas of simulation technologies and course content. Once identified, recommendations for changes to the current training program are made. A literature review of the current training techniques used at the FAA Academy and training centers was conducted. In addition, interviews were held and surveys were distributed to collect data regarding a variety of ATC training interest areas, such as virtual reality, current maintenance schedules, and simulator features. Finally, a cost-benefit analysis was conducted to determine the potential improvement areas with the highest feasibility for implementation and the highest potential to reduce training costs and/or time. The primary findings of this research revealed three feasible improvement areas to the current training process and simulation technologies: (1) reducing the dependence on instructors during simulation training, (2) utilizing web-based training methods, and (3) updating current simulator systems to include new features, such as recording and playback features. These changes were recommended to be implemented first, with voice recognition and virtual reality improvement areas being recommended as priority focus areas for future studies and/or implementation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rarefication Effects on Jet Impingement Loads
Aerospace 2017, 4(3), 48; doi:10.3390/aerospace4030048 -
Abstract
Rarefication effects on jet impingement loads are studied by comparing recent new formulas at the collisionless flow limit and numerical simulations. The jet exit size is finite, and can be either planar or round. In the simulations, the jets have different degrees of
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Rarefication effects on jet impingement loads are studied by comparing recent new formulas at the collisionless flow limit and numerical simulations. The jet exit size is finite, and can be either planar or round. In the simulations, the jets have different degrees of rarefication, with a Knudsen (Kn) number ranging from 0 to infinity; i.e., the jet flows can be continuum, collisional, or collisionless. The comparison results indicate that (1) the new surface load formulas are accurate at the collisionless flow limit; (2) in general, the formulas offer upper limits for the peak loads; (3) however, it is improper to assert that local loads always decrease. The new formulas can offer fast estimations of impingement loads. This may be quite helpful for applications in space engineering by significantly reducing the amount of simulations and experiment costs. Those expressions explicitly include non-dimensional parameters, and their contribution and influence on the loads can be studied in a systematic manner (e.g., with a swift parameter study). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Radar and ADS-B Influences on Aircraft Detect and Avoid (DAA) Systems
Aerospace 2017, 4(3), 49; doi:10.3390/aerospace4030049 -
Abstract
Detect and Avoid (DAA) systems are complex communication and locational technologies comprising multiple independent components. DAA technologies support communications between ground-based and space-based operations with aircraft. Both manned and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) rely on DAA communication and location technologies for safe flight
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Detect and Avoid (DAA) systems are complex communication and locational technologies comprising multiple independent components. DAA technologies support communications between ground-based and space-based operations with aircraft. Both manned and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) rely on DAA communication and location technologies for safe flight operations. We examined the occurrence and duration of communication losses between radar and automatic dependent surveillance–broadcast (ADS-B) systems with aircraft operating in proximate airspace using data collected during actual flight operations. Our objectives were to identify the number and duration of communication losses for both radar and ADS-B systems that occurred within a discrete time period. We also investigated whether other unique communication behavior and anomalies were occurring, such as reported elevation deviations. We found that loss of communication with both radar and ADS-B systems does occur, with variation in the length of communication losses. We also discovered that other unexpected behaviors were occurring with communications. Although our data were gathered from manned aircraft, there are also implications for UAS that are operating within active airspaces. We are unaware of any previously published work on occurrence and duration of communication losses between radar and ADS-B systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evolutionary Approach to Lambert’s Problem for Non-Keplerian Spacecraft Trajectories
Aerospace 2017, 4(3), 47; doi:10.3390/aerospace4030047 -
Abstract
In this paper, we use differential evolution (DE), with best-evolved results refined using a Nelder–Mead optimization, to solve boundary-value complex problems in orbital mechanics relevant to low Earth orbits (LEO). A class of Lambert-type problems is examined to evaluate the performance of this
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In this paper, we use differential evolution (DE), with best-evolved results refined using a Nelder–Mead optimization, to solve boundary-value complex problems in orbital mechanics relevant to low Earth orbits (LEO). A class of Lambert-type problems is examined to evaluate the performance of this evolutionary method in its application to solving nonlinear boundary value problems (BVP) arising in mission planning. In this method, we evolve impulsive initial velocity vectors giving rise to intercept trajectories that take a spacecraft from given initial position in space to specified target position. The positional error of the final position is minimized subject to time-of-flight and/or energy (fuel) constraints. The method is first validated by demonstrating its ability to recover known analytical solutions obtainable with the assumption of Keplerian motion; the method is then applied to more complex non-Keplerian problems incorporating trajectory perturbations arising in low Earth orbit (LEO) due to the Earth’s oblateness and rarefied atmospheric drag. The viable trajectories obtained for these challenging problems demonstrate the ability of this computational approach to handle Lambert-type problems with arbitrary perturbations, such as those occurring in realistic mission trajectory design. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling Airport Pollutants Dispersion at High Resolution
Aerospace 2017, 4(3), 46; doi:10.3390/aerospace4030046 -
Abstract
Local air quality is a major concern for the population regularly exposed to high levels of air pollution. Due mainly to its aircraft engine activities during taxiing and take-off, the airport is often submitted to heterogeneous but important concentrations of NOx and
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Local air quality is a major concern for the population regularly exposed to high levels of air pollution. Due mainly to its aircraft engine activities during taxiing and take-off, the airport is often submitted to heterogeneous but important concentrations of NOx and Particulate Matter (PM). The study suggests an innovative approach to determining the air traffic impact on air quality at the scale of the airport, its runways, and its terminals, to be able to locate the persistent high-concentration spots, for example. The pollutant concentrations at 10 m resolution and 1 s time step are calculated in order to identify the most affected areas of an airport platform and their contributors. A real day of air traffic on a regional airport is simulated, using observations and aircraft trajectories data from radar streams. In order to estimate the aircraft emissions, the Air Transport Systems Evaluation Infrastructure (IESTA) is used. Regarding local air quality, IESTA relies on the non-hydrostatic meso-scale atmospheric model Meso-NH using its grid-nesting capabilities with three domains. The detailed cartography of the airport distinguishes between grassland, parking, and terminals, allowing the computation of exchanges of heat, water, and momentum between the different types of surfaces and the atmosphere as well as the interactions with the building using a drag force. The dynamic parameters like wind, temperature, turbulent kinetic energy, and pollutants concentration are computed at 10 m resolution over the 2 km × 4 km airport domain. The pollutants are considered in this preliminary study as passive tracers, without chemical reactions. This study aims at proving the feasibility of high-scale modelling over an airport with state-of-the-art physical models in order to better understand the repartition of pollutants over an airport, taking into account advection and turbulence in interactions with buildings and regional trends, emissions, Auxiliary Power Units (APU), taxiing, parking, take off. All these processes drive the model at each time step and are not averaged over one hour or more like in Gaussian or Lagrangian ones. This study is investigating the feasibility of high spatio-temporal air quality modelling for research purposes but not for operational forecasting. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hybrid Electric Aircraft Propulsion Case Study for Skydiving Mission
Aerospace 2017, 4(3), 45; doi:10.3390/aerospace4030045 -
Abstract
This paper describes a case study for applying innovative architectures related to electrified propulsion for aircraft. Electric and hybrid electric propulsion for aircraft has gained widespread and significant attention over the past decade. The driver for industry interest has principally been the need
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This paper describes a case study for applying innovative architectures related to electrified propulsion for aircraft. Electric and hybrid electric propulsion for aircraft has gained widespread and significant attention over the past decade. The driver for industry interest has principally been the need to reduce emissions of combustion engine exhaust products and noise, but increasingly studies revealed potential for overall improvement in energy efficiency and mission flexibility of new aircraft types. In this work, a conceptual new type for a skydiver lift mission aircraft is examined. The opportunities which electric hybridisation offers for this role is analysed in comparison with conventional legacy type propulsion systems. For a conventional commercial skydiving mission, an all-electric propulsion system is shown as viable, and a hybrid-electric system is shown to reduce aircraft fuel costs and CO2 emissions whilst maintaining conventional aero-engine operational benefits. The new paradigm for aircraft development which hybrid electric propulsion enables has highlighted significant issues with aircraft certification practices as they exist today. The advancement of aircraft design and production to harness the value of new propulsion systems may require adaption and development of certification standards to cater for these new technologies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
GPS Based Navigation Performance Analysis within and beyond the Space Service Volume for Different Transmitters’ Antenna Patterns
Aerospace 2017, 4(3), 44; doi:10.3390/aerospace4030044 -
Abstract
In recent years, global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-based navigation in high earth orbits (HEOs) has become a field of research interest since it can increase the spacecraft’s autonomy, thereby reducing the operating costs. However, the GNSS availability and the GNSS-based navigation performance for
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In recent years, global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-based navigation in high earth orbits (HEOs) has become a field of research interest since it can increase the spacecraft’s autonomy, thereby reducing the operating costs. However, the GNSS availability and the GNSS-based navigation performance for a spacecraft orbiting above the GNSS constellation are strongly constrained by the signals’ power levels at the receiver position and the sensitivity. The simulated level of signal power at the receiver’s position may considerably increase or decrease when assuming different gain/attenuation values of the transmitter antenna for a certain azimuth and elevation. Assuming a slightly different antenna pattern therefore may significantly change the simulated signal’s availability results and accordingly the simulated navigation accuracy, leading to an inexact identification of the requirements for the GNSS receiver. This problem particularly concerns the case of orbital trajectories above the GNSS constellation, where most of the signals received are radiated from the secondary lobe of the transmitters’ antennas, for which typically very little information is known. At the time of this study, it was possible to model quite accurately the global positioning system (GPS) L1 antenna patterns for the IIR and IIR-M Blocks because of the precise information available. No accurate information was available for the GPS L1 antenna patterns of the IIF Block. Even less accurate information was available on the GPS L5 antenna patterns. In this context, this paper aims at investigating the effect of different antenna pattern assumptions on the simulated signal availability and on the consequent simulated navigation performance of a spaceborne receiver orbiting in a very highly elliptical orbit from the Earth to the Moon. Initially the impact of averaging the transmitter’s antenna gain over the azimuth, a typical assumption in many studies, is analyzed. Afterwards, we also consider three different L5 antenna patterns assumed in the literature (the precise L5 patterns are unfortunately not yet fully available). For each of the considered antenna pattern assumptions, we simulate received signal power level, availability, geometric dilution of precision (GDOP), and navigation accuracy in order to evaluate their different effects. After identifying the most conservative assumptions for the transmitters’ antenna patterns, for each elevation of the receiver antenna, we also compute the number of available GNSS observations and analyze their distribution. Moreover, possible aiding of the acquisition process using the prediction of the elevation at which the signal is transmitted, as well as the elevation at which the signal is received, are discussed. Finally, the impact on the GDOP of using only signals transmitted from certain angle intervals of the transmitter antenna pattern and the importance of selecting the transmitters that provide the best GDOP (in the case of a receiver with a limited number of channels) are considered and discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Algorithm for a k-out-of-N System Reliability Modeling-Case Study: Pitot Sensors System for Aircraft Velocity
Aerospace 2017, 4(3), 43; doi:10.3390/aerospace4030043 -
Abstract
The k-out-of-N system is widely applied in several industrial systems. This structure is a part of fault-tolerant systems for which both parallel and series systems are special cases. Because of the importance of industrial systems reliability determination for production and maintenance
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The k-out-of-N system is widely applied in several industrial systems. This structure is a part of fault-tolerant systems for which both parallel and series systems are special cases. Because of the importance of industrial systems reliability determination for production and maintenance management purposes, a number of techniques and methods are incorporated to formulate and estimate its analytic expression. In this paper, an algorithm is put forward for a k-out-of-N system with identical components under information about the influence factors that affect the system efficiency. The developed approach is applied in the case of the Pitot sensors system. However, the algorithm application could be generalized for any device which during a mission is subject to environmental and operational factors that affect its degradation process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vibratory Reliability Analysis of an Aircraft’s Wing via Fluid–Structure Interactions
Aerospace 2017, 4(3), 40; doi:10.3390/aerospace4030040 -
Abstract
The numerical simulation of multiphysics problems has grown steadily in recent years. This development is due to both the permanent increase of IT resources and the considerable progress made in modeling, mathematical and numerical analysis of many problems in fluid and solid mechanics.
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The numerical simulation of multiphysics problems has grown steadily in recent years. This development is due to both the permanent increase of IT resources and the considerable progress made in modeling, mathematical and numerical analysis of many problems in fluid and solid mechanics. The phenomena related to fluid/structure mechanical coupling occurs in many industrial situations, and the influence it may have on the dynamic behavior of mechanical systems is often significant. In this paper, a numerical vibratory study is conducted on a three-dimensional aircraft’s wing subjected to aerodynamic loads. Finite volume method (FVM) is used for the discretization of the fluid problem, and finite element method (FEM) is used for the structure’s approximation. In this context, a deterministic model has been proposed in our study, then stochastic analysis has been developed to deal with the statistical nature of fluid–structure interaction parameters. Moreover, probabilistic-based reliability analysis intends to find safe and cost-effective projects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Ability of the DDES Turbulence Modeling Approach to Simulate the Wake of a Bluff Body
Aerospace 2017, 4(3), 41; doi:10.3390/aerospace4030041 -
Abstract
A detailed numerical investigation of the flow behind a square cylinder at a Reynolds number of 21,400 is conducted to assess the ability of the delayed detached-eddy simulation (DDES) modeling approach to accurately predict the velocity recovery in the wake of a bluff
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A detailed numerical investigation of the flow behind a square cylinder at a Reynolds number of 21,400 is conducted to assess the ability of the delayed detached-eddy simulation (DDES) modeling approach to accurately predict the velocity recovery in the wake of a bluff body. Three-dimensional unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) and DDES simulations making use of the Spalart–Allmaras turbulence model are carried out using the open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) toolbox OpenFOAM-2.1.x, and are compared with available experimental velocity measurements. It is found that the DDES simulation tends to overestimate the averaged streamwise velocity component, especially in the near wake, but a better agreement with the experimental data is observed further downstream of the body. The velocity fluctuations also match reasonably well with the experimental data. Moreover, it is found that the spanwise domain length has a significant impact on the flow, especially regarding the fluctuations of the drag coefficient. Nonetheless, for both the averaged and fluctuating velocity components, the DDES approach is shown to be superior to the URANS approach. Therefore, for engineering purposes, it is found that the DDES approach is a suitable choice to simulate and characterize the velocity recovery in a wake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Concept for Multi-Criteria Environmental Assessment of Aircraft Trajectories
Aerospace 2017, 4(3), 42; doi:10.3390/aerospace4030042 -
Abstract
Comprehensive assessment of the environmental aspects of flight movements is of increasing interest to the aviation sector as a potential input for developing sustainable aviation strategies that consider climate impact, air quality and noise issues simultaneously. However, comprehensive assessments of all three environmental
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Comprehensive assessment of the environmental aspects of flight movements is of increasing interest to the aviation sector as a potential input for developing sustainable aviation strategies that consider climate impact, air quality and noise issues simultaneously. However, comprehensive assessments of all three environmental aspects do not yet exist and are in particular not yet operational practice in flight planning. The purpose of this study is to present a methodology which allows to establish a multi-criteria environmental impact assessment directly in the flight planning process. The method expands a concept developed for climate optimisation of aircraft trajectories, by representing additionally air quality and noise impacts as additional criteria or dimensions, together with climate impact of aircraft trajectory. We present the mathematical framework for environmental assessment and optimisation of aircraft trajectories. In that context we present ideas on future implementation of such advanced meteorological services into air traffic management and trajectory planning by relying on environmental change functions (ECFs). These ECFs represent environmental impact due to changes in air quality, noise and climate impact. In a case study for Europe prototype ECFs are implemented and a performance assessment of aircraft trajectories is performed for a one-day traffic sample. For a single flight fuel-optimal versus climate-optimized trajectory solution is evaluated using prototypic ECFs and identifying mitigation potential. The ultimate goal of such a concept is to make available a comprehensive assessment framework for environmental performance of aircraft operations, by providing key performance indicators on climate impact, air quality and noise, as well as a tool for environmental optimisation of aircraft trajectories. This framework would allow studying and characterising changes in traffic flows due to environmental optimisation, as well as studying trade-offs between distinct strategic measures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical and Experimental Investigations of an Elasto-Flexible Membrane Wing at a Reynolds Number of 280,000
Aerospace 2017, 4(3), 39; doi:10.3390/aerospace4030039 -
Abstract
This work presents numerical and experimental investigations of an elasto-flexible membrane wing at a Reynolds number of 280,000. Such a concept has the capacity to adapt itself to the incoming flow offering a wider range of the flight envelope. This adaptation is clearly
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This work presents numerical and experimental investigations of an elasto-flexible membrane wing at a Reynolds number of 280,000. Such a concept has the capacity to adapt itself to the incoming flow offering a wider range of the flight envelope. This adaptation is clearly observed in the numerical study: the camber of the airfoil changes with the dynamic pressure and the angle of attack, which permits a smoother and delayed stall. The numerical results, obtained from Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) simulations, also show that the laminar-turbulent transition influences the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing, as it directly affects the pressure distribution on the membrane and the geometry of the airfoil. Two different turbulence models were therefore tested. Furthermore, experimental investigations are considered in this paper to estimate the precision of the FSI simulations. It appears that the FSI study overestimates the lift coefficient, and the drag coefficient is undervalued, which can be explained by dynamic calibration of the model. Nevertheless, the velocity field obtained with the hot-wire anemometry system shows good agreement on the upper side of the model. The membrane deflection measurements also appear to be consistent with the expected geometry of the deformed airfoil from the FSI simulations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
METRIC: A Dedicated Earth-Orbiting Spacecraft for Investigating Gravitational Physics and the Space Environment
Aerospace 2017, 4(3), 38; doi:10.3390/aerospace4030038 -
Abstract
A dedicated mission in low Earth orbit is proposed to test predictions of gravitational interaction theories and to directly measure the atmospheric density in a relevant altitude range, as well as to provide a metrological platform able to tie different space geodesy techniques.
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A dedicated mission in low Earth orbit is proposed to test predictions of gravitational interaction theories and to directly measure the atmospheric density in a relevant altitude range, as well as to provide a metrological platform able to tie different space geodesy techniques. The concept foresees a small spacecraft to be placed in a dawn-dusk eccentric orbit between 450 and 1200 km of altitude. The spacecraft will be tracked from the ground with high precision, and a three-axis accelerometer package on-board will measure the non-gravitational accelerations acting on its surface. Estimates of parameters related to fundamental physics and geophysics should be obtained by a precise orbit determination, while the accelerometer data will be instrumental in constraining the atmospheric density. Along with the mission scientific objectives, a conceptual configuration is described together with an analysis of the dynamical environment experienced by the spacecraft and the accelerometer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bio-Inspired Flexible Flapping Wings with Elastic Deformation
Aerospace 2017, 4(3), 37; doi:10.3390/aerospace4030037 -
Abstract
Over the last decades, there has been great interest in understanding the aerodynamics of flapping flight and development of flapping wing Micro Air Vehicles (FWMAVs). The camber deformation and twisting has been demonstrated quantitatively in a number of insects, but making artificial wings
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Over the last decades, there has been great interest in understanding the aerodynamics of flapping flight and development of flapping wing Micro Air Vehicles (FWMAVs). The camber deformation and twisting has been demonstrated quantitatively in a number of insects, but making artificial wings that mimic those features is a challenge. This paper reports the development and characterization of artificial wings that can reproduce camber and twisting deformations. By replacing the elastic material at the wing root vein, the root vein would bend upward and inward generating an angle of attack, camber, and twisting deformations while the wing was flapping due to the aerodynamic forces acting on the wing. The flapping wing apparatus was employed to study the flexible wing kinematics and aerodynamics of real scale insect wings. Multidisciplinary experiments were conducted to provide the natural frequency, the force production, three-dimensional wing kinematics, and the effects of wing flexibility experienced by the flexible wings. The results have shown that the present artificial wing was able to mimic the two important features of insect wings: twisting and camber generation. From the force measurement, it is found that the wing with the uniform deformation showed the higher lift/power generation in the flapping wing system. The present developed artificial wing suggests a new guideline for the bio-inspired wing of the FWMAV. Full article
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Open AccessBook Review
Time Series Analysis Methods and Applications for Flight Data. By Jianye Zhang and Peng Zhang. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany, 2017; pp. 1–240; ISBN: 978-3-662-53430-4
Aerospace 2017, 4(3), 36; doi:10.3390/aerospace4030036 -
Abstract
This book [1] aims to present the best application for managing and clearly representing the massive amount of Flight Data (FD) that exists. [...] Full article
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