Open AccessArticle
Entrepreneurship Skills Development in Higher Education Courses for Teams Leaders
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020018 -
Abstract
This article analyses the concept of skills and identifies the skills needed by entrepreneurs to lead their teams. To accomplish these goals, the primary step was to determine the leadership skills developed by the universities in the entrepreneurship and innovation courses and to
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This article analyses the concept of skills and identifies the skills needed by entrepreneurs to lead their teams. To accomplish these goals, the primary step was to determine the leadership skills developed by the universities in the entrepreneurship and innovation courses and to compare it with the needed skills perceived by entrepreneurs. This research approach is framed in the Management Sciences, and the research problem is anchored to the following research questions: What leadership skills are required by students for them to be effective in entrepreneurial endeavors upon graduation? Are the skills identified by the entrepreneurs sufficiently learned in Universities in Portugal? Does the student work experience, gender or age contribute to a level of leadership skills attainment? The leadership skills identified by the entrepreneurs were pointed out by two focus groups with 15 entrepreneurs and by conceptual content analysis, establishing the existence and frequency of concepts represented by the words or phrases in the entrepreneur’s discourse. To verify if those skills are being developed in the entrepreneurship and innovation of higher education courses, an online survey was conducted with the students from the 3rd year of 2016/2017 academic year of several universities. The primary outcome of the research will be a proposal for a model of leadership skills development for students to potentiate their leadership capacity as entrepreneurs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Organising the Monies of Corporate Financial Crimes via Organisational Structures: Ostensible Legitimacy, Effective Anonymity, and Third-Party Facilitation
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020017 -
Abstract
This article analyses how the monies generated for, and from, corporate financial crimes are controlled, concealed, and converted through the use of organisational structures in the form of otherwise legitimate corporate entities and arrangements that serve as vehicles for the management of illicit
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This article analyses how the monies generated for, and from, corporate financial crimes are controlled, concealed, and converted through the use of organisational structures in the form of otherwise legitimate corporate entities and arrangements that serve as vehicles for the management of illicit finances. Unlike the illicit markets and associated ‘organised crime groups’ and ‘criminal enterprises’ that are the normal focus of money laundering studies, corporate financial crimes involve ostensibly legitimate businesses operating within licit, transnational markets. Within these scenarios, we see corporations as primary offenders, as agents, and as facilitators of the administration of illicit finances. In all cases, organisational structures provide opportunities for managing illicit finances that individuals alone cannot access, but which require some element of third-party collaboration. In this article, we draw on data generated from our Partnership for Conflict, Crime, and Security Research (PaCCS)-funded project on the misuse of corporate structures and entities to manage illicit finances to make a methodological and substantive addition to the literature in this area. We analyse two cases from our research—corporate bribery in international business and corporate tax fraud—before discussing three main findings: (1) the ostensible legitimacy created through abuse of otherwise lawful business arrangements; (2) the effective anonymity and insulation afforded through such misuse; and (3) the necessity for facilitation by third-party professionals operating within a stratified market. The analysis improves our understanding of how and why business offenders misuse what are otherwise legitimate business structures, arrangements, and practices in their criminal enterprise. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Paths and Challenges of New Technologies: The Case of Nanotechnology-Based Cosmetics Development in Brazil
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020016 -
Abstract
New technologies have challenges to overcome when applying it to new products. New products depend on the technological and market novelties. Therefore, the term product innovativeness is defined as the technological and market degree of novelty. For several industries, the nanotechnology has been
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New technologies have challenges to overcome when applying it to new products. New products depend on the technological and market novelties. Therefore, the term product innovativeness is defined as the technological and market degree of novelty. For several industries, the nanotechnology has been the latest technology, and it has also been included in Brazilian government strategic agenda. Considering the importance of new technologies and innovation, we describe the paths and challenges of nanotechnology-based cosmetics development to achieve product innovativeness. Opposing the new product development (NPD) mainstream based on efficiency, we used the evolutionary approach by highlighting the novelties. We describe three NPD stages (conception, operationalization, nd launch). For empirical evidence, we chose two Brazilian emblematic cases (suppliers for cosmetics industry) that domain nanotechnology. One case scans more potential market novelties and consequently produces indigenous nanotechnology for international industries such as cosmetics, food, and textile. The second case represents the new technology limited by the application in cosmetics. New technologies are not an innovation guarantee. Market demands must be identified in the early stage of NPD. When the focus is the novelty, the NPD evolutionary approach is useful. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperConcept Paper
Evolving Government Information Processes for Service Delivery: Identifying Types & Impact
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020015 -
Abstract
The fulfilment of government objectives is dependent on information. Traditionally, this information originates from a classic process of input, (processing) activities, and output. However, in light of increased intergovernmental data sharing, the movement towards open data and opportunities concerning big data, traditional government
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The fulfilment of government objectives is dependent on information. Traditionally, this information originates from a classic process of input, (processing) activities, and output. However, in light of increased intergovernmental data sharing, the movement towards open data and opportunities concerning big data, traditional government information processes are evolving. This article aims to bring insight into these evolutions by creating a typology. Based on the typology, the paper further reflects on the impact these evolutions have on the processes and creation, delivery and improvement of public service. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of the Characteristics of the National Business System in the Disclosure of Gender-Related Corporate Social Responsibility Practices
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020014 -
Abstract
We analysed the influence of the characteristics of national business systems on the disclosure of gender-related corporate social responsibility practices by 150 companies in Latin America that signed the Declaration of Support for Women’s Empowerment Principles. The highest level of disclosure was related
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We analysed the influence of the characteristics of national business systems on the disclosure of gender-related corporate social responsibility practices by 150 companies in Latin America that signed the Declaration of Support for Women’s Empowerment Principles. The highest level of disclosure was related to the establishment of high-level corporate leadership for gender equality. Results show that the country’s level of “concentration of power” and “individualism”, and the “orientation towards femininity” have a negative influence on the disclosure of gender-related practices; in addition, the country’s level of “economic development” and the “pressure of unions” exert a positive influence. The results highlight the important role that some national and local institutions play in the women’s empowerment, leading companies to report information on adopted practices. The study innovates and contributes by introducing the explanation of gender-related social disclosure with the national business system approach in Latin America. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Distinctive Innovation Capabilities of Argentine Software Companies with High Innovation Results and Impacts
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020013 -
Abstract
The software sector is of growing importance and, due to its degree of dynamism, the identification of capabilities for innovation is vital. This study identifies capabilities variables that distinguish Argentine software companies with high innovation results and high innovation impacts from those with
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The software sector is of growing importance and, due to its degree of dynamism, the identification of capabilities for innovation is vital. This study identifies capabilities variables that distinguish Argentine software companies with high innovation results and high innovation impacts from those with lesser results and impacts. It is applied to a sample of 103 companies, a measurement model and the component variables of an innovation degree index for software companies (INIs) formulated in previous studies. A Principal Component Analysis and a biplot are conducted. In the analysis of results and impacts, 100% of the variability within the first two components is explained, which shows the high correlation between variables. From the biplots, it appears that companies with high results have higher degrees in the variables of motivation, strategy, leadership and internal determinants; and those with high impacts present higher degrees of structure, strategy, leadership, free software and innovation activities. The findings add elements to the theory of capabilities for innovation in the software sector and allow us to consider the relative importance of different capabilities variables in the generation of innovation results and impacts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Contextualizing Corruption: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach to Studying Corruption in Organizations
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020012 -
Abstract
This paper aims to establish how organization and management research, an extensive field that has contributed a great deal to research on corruption, could apply insights from other disciplines in order to advance the understanding of corruption, often considered as a form of
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This paper aims to establish how organization and management research, an extensive field that has contributed a great deal to research on corruption, could apply insights from other disciplines in order to advance the understanding of corruption, often considered as a form of unethical behavior in organizations. It offers an analysis of important contributions of corruption research, taking a ‘rationalist perspective’, and highlights the central tensions and debates within this vast body of literatures. It then shows how these debates can be addressed by applying insights from corruption studies, adopting anthropological lens. The paper thus proposes a cross-disciplinary approach, which focuses on studying corruption by looking at what it means to individuals implicated by the phenomenon while engaging in social relations and situated in different contexts. It also offers an alternative approach to the study of corruption amidst claims that anti-corruption efforts have failed to achieve desirable results. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Technology and Innovation Management in Higher Education—Cases from Latin America and Europe
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020011 -
Abstract
To solve common bottlenecks in the innovation and development process known as the “European Paradox” or the “Latin American Innovative Gap”, we introduce different experiences of training and education at graduate level. The main objective of this study is to analyze different cases
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To solve common bottlenecks in the innovation and development process known as the “European Paradox” or the “Latin American Innovative Gap”, we introduce different experiences of training and education at graduate level. The main objective of this study is to analyze different cases from Europe and Latin America to synthetize a model of technology and innovation management. Conceptually, the model focuses on competences, tools, skills and behaviors. From this knowledge base, we derive a new model of learning for higher education, using an organizational framework. Our model of learning includes different ways to obtain a panoply of competencies to identify technology and innovation management issues at individual business and regional level, particularly for small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The model addresses innovation challenges related to new innovative relationships and product opportunities emerging from traditional sectors, but also from nanotechnology, biotech and ICT fields, with particular emphasis on environmental and sustainability problems. We suggest that our two models may serve as the foundation for designing a curricular master’s program for higher education, in accordance with the Latin American and European realities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Case Study Based Model to Propose the Integration of Suppliers in a Central State in Mexico
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020010 -
Abstract
This paper addresses the situation of an industrial park in Mexico from the perspective of its community. It exposes a case study approach with the points of view of residents, businesses, and authorities to improve the socioeconomic conditions of the region: Sahagun, Hidalgo.
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This paper addresses the situation of an industrial park in Mexico from the perspective of its community. It exposes a case study approach with the points of view of residents, businesses, and authorities to improve the socioeconomic conditions of the region: Sahagun, Hidalgo. The result of this article comes from a project ran by the Ministry of Economy of the state, to trigger the development of this area. The background of the topic is presented, its theoretical basis, and the methodological design. Finally, an integrative model is exposed to show the necessary actions to articulate enterprises—the society and the government to develop the town. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Linking Transformational Leadership, Absorptive Capacity, and Corporate Entrepreneurship
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020009 -
Abstract
This study aims to analyze the nexus between transformational leadership and corporate entrepreneurship through an integration of dispersed scholarly work on transformational leadership, absorptive capacity, and corporate entrepreneurship under one framework. A survey method was employed for the collection of data from small
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This study aims to analyze the nexus between transformational leadership and corporate entrepreneurship through an integration of dispersed scholarly work on transformational leadership, absorptive capacity, and corporate entrepreneurship under one framework. A survey method was employed for the collection of data from small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of Pakistan. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) technique to empirically test the hypotheses. The results demonstrate that transformational leadership positively affects corporate entrepreneurship and its dimensions—namely, innovation, new business venturing, self-renewal, proactivity, and risk-taking—both directly and through absorptive capacity. The potential of transformational leadership to influence corporate entrepreneurship via absorptive capacity added additional interesting substitutes. Future studies may produce novel insights by examining different leadership styles, settings, or utilizing qualitative technique. Firms should invest to initiate transformational leadership training programs for their managers. Additionally, if these firms are aiming to promote corporate entrepreneurship, they should focus on hiring managers that have attributes of transformational leadership. Furthermore, they should also invest in absorptive capacity to utilize outside knowledge for the enhancement of entrepreneurial activities. This study exploits research work on the relationship between transformational leadership and corporate entrepreneurship in a novel way; it investigates the dimensions of entrepreneurship individually, as well as unidimensionally, and includes the mediating role of absorptive capacity and tests several other hypotheses that previously have been ignored. This study, compared to the existing research, contributes to the impact of transformational leadership on corporate entrepreneurship and absorptive capacity, especially in Pakistan’s business settings. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
How Organizational Culture Shapes Women’s Leadership Experiences
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8020008 -
Abstract
This article presents the findings of a grounded theory study that examined the role of organizational culture and organizational fit in the leadership aspirations and experiences of 16 women working in faith-based colleges and universities in the U.S. Specifically, the researchers sought to
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This article presents the findings of a grounded theory study that examined the role of organizational culture and organizational fit in the leadership aspirations and experiences of 16 women working in faith-based colleges and universities in the U.S. Specifically, the researchers sought to understand what aspects of organizational culture at the home institutions of these participants influenced their employment experiences, including their considerations and decisions related to aspiring to and/or advancing into leadership. Analysis of the interview data indicated that the participants clustered into four subgroups: (1) participants who did not perceive that gender issues in the culture influenced their work or roles within the institution; (2) participants who reported that they did not perceive gender issues to be an institutional problem; however, they cited examples of problematic systems and cultures; (3) participants who identified gender inequalities at their institution, but indicated that such problems impacted them only minimally, if at all; and (4) participants who offered explicit criticism regarding the gendered dynamics evident in the culture in their institutions and in Christian higher education more broadly. Influences on leadership aspirations or experiences were identified as either being “push” (i.e., propelling the participant away from the organization and thus diminishing aspirations or willingness to move into or remain in leadership) or “pull” (i.e., drawing the participant into further engagement with the organization, thus increasing the desire to become or remain a leader in that context), with particular attention to the context of faith-based higher education. The article concludes with a brief discussion of implications for practice for individuals and postsecondary institutions. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Ascending: An Exploration of Women’s Leadership Advancement in the Role of Board of Trustee Chair
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8010007 -
Abstract
While women have made strides in leadership in the higher education sector there continues to be dismal representation of women in executive level roles of governance at colleges and universities. This article presents findings from a study that explored skills that women have
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While women have made strides in leadership in the higher education sector there continues to be dismal representation of women in executive level roles of governance at colleges and universities. This article presents findings from a study that explored skills that women have identified as being useful in their ascent to the role of trustee board chair. The ascension patterns of the participants are explored through a qualitative process to provide a path to success for other women to follow. The article concludes with suggestions for increasing the number of women serving in the capacity of board chair. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Firm Readiness Level for Innovation Projects: A New Decision-Making Tool for Innovation Managers
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8010006 -
Abstract
Innovation projects represent a major challenge for business managers due to their associated uncertainty degree. The already existing methodologies to support the innovation projects are aimed at piloting them and establishing the management stages in a flexible and agile way during their deployment.
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Innovation projects represent a major challenge for business managers due to their associated uncertainty degree. The already existing methodologies to support the innovation projects are aimed at piloting them and establishing the management stages in a flexible and agile way during their deployment. This paper proposes a complementary ex-ante methodology that seeks to aid the decision-making of companies to choose whether or not to launch a potential innovation project. This methodology evaluates to what extent the technological system of the company has the minimum required maturity degree of competencies to successfully achieve the innovation project. Thus, in first instance, an innovation project is characterized according to its novelty degree; both inside the company and in its environment. Subsequently, according to the previous characterization, the future project will have an impact on the technological system of the company. The capabilities of the firm are represented by a set of good practices associated with the innovation projects’ management that the company is able to deploy. Finally, the minimum maturity degree required by a particular project of these practices is determined. Then, the gap between the maturity requirement profile and the current profile of the company is established enabling to decide on the implementation of the project or not. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Frank and Fearless: Supporting Academic Career Progression for Women in an Australian Program
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8010005 -
Abstract
The underrepresentation of women in senior positions continues to be a major challenge in higher education and most other industries. In Australia, the career trajectory for academic women stalls at a lower level than that of their male counterparts. Concern about this situation
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The underrepresentation of women in senior positions continues to be a major challenge in higher education and most other industries. In Australia, the career trajectory for academic women stalls at a lower level than that of their male counterparts. Concern about this situation in one Australian university led to the design and delivery of a career progression program to support women’s advancement from senior lecturer to associate professor. This study details the main features of the program, designed to facilitate women’s transition from being leading academics to academic leaders through a focus on leadership and career progression. We report the participants’ perceptions of its value based on survey data. We conclude that leadership development is difficult work and requires a supportive environment where risk-taking is encouraged, where frank and fearless feedback is provided, and where the individual is required to examine assumptions and biases and to assume a leadership identity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Corruption in Organizations: Ethical Climate and Individual Motives
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8010004 -
Abstract
The aim of this research was to examine how organizational and individual factors, in concert, shape corruption. We examined whether the ethical climate of organizations is related to corruption, and if so, whether it affects corruption through individual motives for corruption. A large-scale
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The aim of this research was to examine how organizational and individual factors, in concert, shape corruption. We examined whether the ethical climate of organizations is related to corruption, and if so, whether it affects corruption through individual motives for corruption. A large-scale questionnaire study was conducted among public officials (n = 234) and business employees (n = 289) who were in a position to make corrupt decisions. The findings suggest that public and private sector employees who perceive their organizational climate as more egoistic and less ethical are more prone to corruption. This relationship was fully mediated by individual motives, specifically by personal and social norms on corruption. These results indicate that employees who perceive their organization’s ethical climate as more egoistic and less ethical experience weaker personal and social norms to refrain from corruption, making them more corruption-prone. Hence, strategies addressing the interplay between organizational factors and individual motives seem promising in curbing corruption. To effectively withhold employees from engaging in corruption, organizations could deploy measures that strengthen an organizations’ ethical climate and encourage ethical decision-making based on concern for the wellbeing of others, as well as measures increasing the strength of personal and social norms to refrain from corruption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Methods for Predicting the Financial Vulnerability of Nonprofit Organizations
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8010003 -
Abstract
Using hazard analysis procedures, this study undertakes a longitudinal examination of Israeli Nonprofit Organizations’ (NPOs’) financial vulnerability arising from governmental funding instability. Funding instability is characterized by time-at-risk, which measures the level of financial instability faced by an NPO and reflects the different
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Using hazard analysis procedures, this study undertakes a longitudinal examination of Israeli Nonprofit Organizations’ (NPOs’) financial vulnerability arising from governmental funding instability. Funding instability is characterized by time-at-risk, which measures the level of financial instability faced by an NPO and reflects the different funding situations it encounters. The vulnerability is expressed by the hazard rate (HR), which measures the speed at which NPOs’ close at a given point in time. The probability of an NPO failure is then estimated. The improvements presented in the current work are concerned with the methods of estimation of time at risk, which is a key variable in the hazard analysis, and testing a robustness of the method. The generalized time-at-risk, which measures the “level of instability” more consistently reflecting different situations encountered by a NPO, is introduced. The definition of generalized time-at-risk contains arbitrary coefficients whose values the current study determines using some optimization procedure. The optimization incorporates the idea of testing a possibility of using the results for predicting financial vulnerability by dividing the set of 2660 NPOs into two approximately equivalent samples. The coefficients in the time-at-risk definition are optimized by minimizing the average distance between the HR–time-at-risk curves based on these two samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Workplace Integration: Key Considerations for Internationally Educated Nurses and Employers
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8010002 -
Abstract
Integration of internationally educated nurses (IENs) in the workplace over the long term, has not been a clear focus in nursing. The role of the employer organization in facilitating workplace integration for IENs has also not been emphasized in research. The overall aim
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Integration of internationally educated nurses (IENs) in the workplace over the long term, has not been a clear focus in nursing. The role of the employer organization in facilitating workplace integration for IENs has also not been emphasized in research. The overall aim of this paper is to highlight findings from an instrumental qualitative case study research informed by critical social theory, which examined workplace integration of IENs. The study explored what is meant by ‘integration’ and how the employer organizational context affects workplace integration of IENs. A purposeful sample of twenty-eight participants was involved. The participants included: stakeholders from various vantage points within the case organization as well as IENs from diverse backgrounds who were beyond the process of transitioning into the Canadian workplace—they had worked in Canada for an average of eleven years. Four methods of data collection were used: semi-structured interviews; socio-demographic survey; review of documents; and focus group discussions (FGDs). Thematic analysis methods guided the within subcase analysis first, followed by an across subcase analysis. FGDs were used as a platform for member-checking to establish the credibility of study findings. The resulting definition and conceptual framework point to workplace integration of IENs as a two-way process requiring efforts on the part of the IENs as well as the employer organization. This paper elaborates on selected themes of how beyond transition, workplace integration entails IENs progressing on their leadership journey, while persevering to overcome challenges. Organizational factors such as workforce diversity, leadership commitment to equity and engagement with the broader community serve as critical enablers and the importance of workplaces striving to avoid common pitfalls in addressing the priority of IEN integration are also discussed. This paper concludes with implications and key considerations for workplace integration of IENs. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Administrative Sciences in 2017
Adm. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci8010001 -
Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Administrative Sciences maintains high quality standards for its published papers.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Examination of the Relationships between Urban Form and Urban Public Services Expenditure in China
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci7040039 -
Abstract
This econometric study contributes to the ongoing debate about the costs and benefits of urban form by employing interdisciplinary means—urban planning, econometrics and public administration—to explore the relationship between urban form and urban public services expenditure. In China, particularly, rapid urbanization is accompanied
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This econometric study contributes to the ongoing debate about the costs and benefits of urban form by employing interdisciplinary means—urban planning, econometrics and public administration—to explore the relationship between urban form and urban public services expenditure. In China, particularly, rapid urbanization is accompanied by an increase of urban public services expenditure and a difference in efficiency, which undermines the promotion of urban public service development. The Chinese government has paid great attention to urban sustainable development and promoting urban public services performance; however, until recently there has been a lack of empirical studies exploring the relationship between urban public services expenditure and urban form. Thus, the present research aims to analyze this issue by using relevant indicators based on an econometric model. The results provide a promising basis for improving urban public services expenditure efficiency. Based on the urban area interpreted by remote sensing data and geographic information system, two urban form metrics, the compactness ratio and the elongation ratio, are selected and quantified to describe urban compactness and urban sprawl accurately. Panel data analyses are performed using a cross-sectional dataset of the 30 cities for the years 2007, 2010 and 2013 to assess the likelihood of association between indicators of urban form and urban public services expenditure, while controlling for other determinants, such as educational level, income per capita, degree of industrialization, and unemployment rate. The results indicate that urban elongation is positively correlated to per capita urban public services expenditure and urban compactness is insignificantly correlated to it. Thus, it is recommended that policymakers consider the relationship between urban form and public services expenditure as part of urban planning and on-going strategies to promote public service efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Positive Disposition in the Prediction of Strategic Independence among Millennials
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci7040038 -
Abstract
Research on the dispositional traits of Millennials (born in 1980–2000) finds that this generation, compared to earlier generations, tends to be more narcissistic, hold themselves in higher regard and feel more entitled to rewards. The purpose of this intragenerational study is to counter
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Research on the dispositional traits of Millennials (born in 1980–2000) finds that this generation, compared to earlier generations, tends to be more narcissistic, hold themselves in higher regard and feel more entitled to rewards. The purpose of this intragenerational study is to counter balance extant research by exploring how the positive dispositional traits of proactive personality, core self-evaluation, grit and self-control predict strategic independence in a sample of 311 young adults. Strategic independence is a composite variable measuring a person’s tendency to make plans and achieve long-term goals. A confirmatory factor analysis and hierarchical regression found evidence of discriminant validity across the scales and that three of the four independent variables were statistically significant and positive predictors of strategic independence in the study. The paper discusses research and practical implications, strengths and limitations and areas for future research. Full article
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