Open AccessArticle
Fixing the Women or Fixing Universities: Women in HE Leadership
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 30; doi:10.3390/admsci7030030 -
Abstract
The lack of women in leadership across higher education has been problemitised in the literature. Often contemporary discourses promote ‘fixing the women’ as a solution. Consequently, interventions aimed at helping women break through ‘the glass ceiling’ abound. This article argues that the gendered
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The lack of women in leadership across higher education has been problemitised in the literature. Often contemporary discourses promote ‘fixing the women’ as a solution. Consequently, interventions aimed at helping women break through ‘the glass ceiling’ abound. This article argues that the gendered power relations at play in universities stubbornly maintain entrenched inequalities whereby, regardless of measures implemented for and by women, the problem remains. The precariousness for women of leadership careers is explored through two separate but complementary case studies (from different continents and different generations) each one illuminating gender power relations at work. The article concludes by arguing that it is universities themselves that need fixing, not the women, and that women’s growing resistance, particularly of the younger generation, reflects their dissatisfaction with higher education leadership communities of practice of masculinities. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Integrating Organizational Economics and Resource Dependence Theory to Explain the Persistence of Quasi Markets
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 29; doi:10.3390/admsci7030029 -
Abstract
The past few decades have been characterized by a growing body of profit-seeking public service areas with the understanding that profit-seeking organizations will deliver public services more efficiently than government can. These sectors include, but are not limited to, health care, corrections, education
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The past few decades have been characterized by a growing body of profit-seeking public service areas with the understanding that profit-seeking organizations will deliver public services more efficiently than government can. These sectors include, but are not limited to, health care, corrections, education and garbage collection. Governments have created quasi markets to attract private providers of services in these sectors, with varying results. Organizational economics has provided the primary explanation for quasi markets, but questions about the sought-for efficiencies actually realized through these markets persist. We integrate resource dependence theory and organizational economics to provide a more comprehensive explanation of the persistence of quasi markets. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Organizational Identity: An Ambiguous Concept in Practical Terms
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 28; doi:10.3390/admsci7030028 -
Abstract
Albert and Whetten defined organizational identity (OI) as the central, distinctive and enduring characteristics of an organization. Scholars found OI to be a difficult construct to apply to organizations and, over time, they defined it from functionalist, social constructionist, postmodernist and psychodynamic perspectives.
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Albert and Whetten defined organizational identity (OI) as the central, distinctive and enduring characteristics of an organization. Scholars found OI to be a difficult construct to apply to organizations and, over time, they defined it from functionalist, social constructionist, postmodernist and psychodynamic perspectives. All of these perspectives made great theoretical contributions to the field, but they were largely unable to integrate practice and theory in a way that could benefit organizations. Hatch and Schultz’s work is exceptional in this regard: they provided a theory that has the promise of practical implications for organizations in regard to organizational continuity. They perceived organizational continuity as existing in the balanced/responsible behavior of an organization’s members, among themselves and with key external stakeholders. They provided an effective model in this regard, but they overlooked how individuals’ political interests overshadow balanced behavior. Politics that arise as a result of individuals’ identity are generally considered to be psychological in origin and link OI to organizational learning (OL) as a co-evolving process. The present research hence operationalizes Hatch and Schultz’s model by reference to a Winnicottian framework to understand how OI is socially constructed and psychologically understood in the political interests of the management and employees, among themselves and with key external stakeholders. In doing so it explores the political implications of OI for OL, as perceived in an organization’s continuity. The context of the research is the Pakistani police. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Interest Differences and Organizational Learning
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 26; doi:10.3390/admsci7030026 -
Abstract
This paper argues that interest differences are the key to understanding the nature of organizational learning and the processes by which it occurs, yet the concept of ‘interest’ is very much underdeveloped in the organizational learning literature. Drawing on the work of Habermas
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This paper argues that interest differences are the key to understanding the nature of organizational learning and the processes by which it occurs, yet the concept of ‘interest’ is very much underdeveloped in the organizational learning literature. Drawing on the work of Habermas and Lukes, the paper proposes a model of the relationship between shared learning and interests and elaborates on it using a case study of pay and performance management change at a large Australian finance-sector company, DollarCo. The case study provides many examples of shared learning associated with both common and competing interests, including a great deal of learning resulting from tensions between DollarCo’s economic and technical interests, on the one hand, and employees’ ontological interests on the other. By doing so, it underlines the value of foregrounding interests and interest differences in studies of workplace and organizational learning and raises questions about the extent to which many published accounts of so-called ‘organizational’ learning are actually describing ‘shared interest group’ learning. Full article
Open AccessArticle
No Room for Mistakes: The Impact of the Social Unconscious on Organizational Learning in Kazakhstan
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 27; doi:10.3390/admsci7030027 -
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to add to existing work on the theme of power, emotion, and organizational learning. The study was undertaken in Kazakhstan, where tensions between old and new regimes provide an environment that is rich in emotion and power/politics;
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The aim of this paper is to add to existing work on the theme of power, emotion, and organizational learning. The study was undertaken in Kazakhstan, where tensions between old and new regimes provide an environment that is rich in emotion and power/politics; and offer an opportunity to study the interplay between emotion and power during individual and organizational attempts to learn. The social unconscious is used as a conceptual frame to identify underlying dynamics that impact on organizational learning. The empirical study illustrates a social fantasy concerning the fear of mistakes and its consequences. This fantasy is sustained through blaming and punishing the people who make mistakes, and through feelings of internalised embarrassment and guilt that are enacted through interpersonal relations of shaming and being ashamed. Our contribution to knowledge arises from employing a concept (social unconscious) that has not been used to study organizational learning within a social and organizational context for organizational learning (Kazakhstan) that has not yet been studied. The practical purpose of this paper is to improve our knowledge of the social and political context of organizational learning in post-Soviet Kazakhstan through understanding unconscious dynamics that both inform and undermine attempts to learn. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
E-Governance and Political Modernization: An Empirical Study Based on Asia from 2003 to 2014
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 25; doi:10.3390/admsci7030025 -
Abstract
This study aims to analyze whether E-governance matters for political modernization in Asia. According to the literature review, E-gcovernance can be operated by three elements: open data, online service, and E-participation. Political modernization can also be divided into three elements: the government’s transparency,
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This study aims to analyze whether E-governance matters for political modernization in Asia. According to the literature review, E-gcovernance can be operated by three elements: open data, online service, and E-participation. Political modernization can also be divided into three elements: the government’s transparency, the offline political participation, and the level of liberty. Analyzing second-hand data from several databases, this study draws such conclusions. Firstly, the development of E-governance will lead to the improvement of political modernization in Asia. Specifically, open data have a positive impact on the government’s transparency. E-participation has a positive impact on the offline political participation and the level of liberty. Secondly, it is difficult to confirm which aspect of E-governance has the greatest impact on political modernization, as open data and E-participation have an impact on different aspects of political modernization. Based on the result, Asian countries should emphasize the importance of E-governance so that political modernization in this region could be improved continuously. Full article
Open AccessCommentary
Social Impact Bonds and the Perils of Aligned Interests
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 24; doi:10.3390/admsci7030024 -
Abstract
Social impact bonds (SIBs) have been welcomed enthusiastically as a new funding tool for social innovation, yet also condemned as an instrument that neglects beneficiaries’ and taxpayers’ interests, opening profit opportunities in the field of social politics for smart private investors. We will
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Social impact bonds (SIBs) have been welcomed enthusiastically as a new funding tool for social innovation, yet also condemned as an instrument that neglects beneficiaries’ and taxpayers’ interests, opening profit opportunities in the field of social politics for smart private investors. We will shed a more analytical light on SIBs, assuming that, like any contract, SIBs try to align interests between partners with partly converging, partly diverging goals. Thus, it remains mainly a matter of negation, and non-profit social service providers as well as public agencies should avoid particular perils and pitfalls. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
More Dynamic Than You Think: Hidden Aspects of Decision-Making
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 23; doi:10.3390/admsci7030023 -
Abstract
Decision-making is a multifaceted, socially constructed, human activity that is often non-rational and non-linear. Although the decision-making literature has begun to recognize the effect of affect on decisions, examining for example the contribution of bodily sensations to affect, it continues to treat the
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Decision-making is a multifaceted, socially constructed, human activity that is often non-rational and non-linear. Although the decision-making literature has begun to recognize the effect of affect on decisions, examining for example the contribution of bodily sensations to affect, it continues to treat the various processes involved in coming to a decision as compartmentalized and static. In this paper, we use five theories to contribute to our understanding of decision-making, and demonstrate that it is much more fluid, multi-layered and non-linear than previously acknowledged. Drawing on a group experience of deciding, we investigate the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and collective states that are at play. These states are shown to be iterative: each being reinforced or dampened in a complex interaction of thought, affect, social space and somatic sensations in a dynamic flux, whilst individuals try to coalesce on a decision. This empirical investigation contributes to theory, method and practice by suggesting that Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity and Ambiguity (VUCA) is a human condition. VUCA permeates and impacts decision-making in a multitude of ways, beyond researchers’ previous understanding. The innovation generated through this paper resides in a set of propositions that will accelerate progress in the theory, method, and practice of decision-making. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Towards Social Justice in Institutions of Higher Learning: Addressing Gender Inequality in Science & Technology through Capability Approach
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 22; doi:10.3390/admsci7030022 -
Abstract
The focus of the study is to examine and relocate gender equality in higher education using Capability Approach as the background frame. The paper discusses how gender relations are rooted in the socio-cultural matrix in India. It attempts to explore the factors prevalent
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The focus of the study is to examine and relocate gender equality in higher education using Capability Approach as the background frame. The paper discusses how gender relations are rooted in the socio-cultural matrix in India. It attempts to explore the factors prevalent in the structure which impacts woman’s opportunities and functionalities in the higher education. The database includes faculty from one of the central universities of South India, the study deals with the dynamics of constructs in Science and Technology indicating socio-psychological obstructions faced by women. Based on thorough analysis, the oppressed capabilities are conceptualized thereby enabling the researchers to relocate the gender equality and the capabilities that need to be enriched for women can be contemplated which helps in reducing the existing disparity. The intention of the study is essentially not to quantify the attributes of inequality to make them measurable but to choose attributes which enable an effective comparative basis to address inequality. The empirical study reveals an existence of the element of stereotyping as a single entity and capability approach restores the uniqueness by the fractional combination of capabilities listed. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Women and Leadership in Higher Education in China: Discourse and the Discursive Construction of Identity
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 21; doi:10.3390/admsci7030021 -
Abstract
Prior research indicates that just 4.5 percent of mainland China’s higher educational institution leaders are female. This article extends theory and research by drawing attention to identity and Discourse as an important, yet under-researched, aspect of the problem of women’s underrepresentation in higher
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Prior research indicates that just 4.5 percent of mainland China’s higher educational institution leaders are female. This article extends theory and research by drawing attention to identity and Discourse as an important, yet under-researched, aspect of the problem of women’s underrepresentation in higher education leadership. Drawing on in-depth qualitative interviews with nine female academics in Chinese universities and informed by discursive approaches to identity and constructionist views, we analyze how women construct multiple identities, the interplay of identities, and the influence of broader societal Discourses of gender and leadership. The findings highlight the interplay between competing multiple identities, and illustrate how the women’s identities are shaped and constrained by dominant historical and cultural Discourses in Chinese society, which results in identity regulation (Alvesson and Billing 2009), notably identity positioning that is congruent with social norms and conventions. A key finding is that the female academics reject the leader identity. This is true for those in middle management positions, as well as women in early career stages, who might otherwise aspire to leadership. Implications for the leadership pipeline in China’s universities is discussed and recommendations are made for future research directions. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Implications of Contractual Terms of Employment for Women and Leadership: An Autoethnographic Study in UK Higher Education
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 20; doi:10.3390/admsci7020020 -
Abstract
This article is concerned with the implications of casual, non-permanent forms of employment that have become a common cultural practice in higher education. It proposes that contractual terms of employment have important implications for women and leadership in higher education, since to pursue
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This article is concerned with the implications of casual, non-permanent forms of employment that have become a common cultural practice in higher education. It proposes that contractual terms of employment have important implications for women and leadership in higher education, since to pursue leadership, usually one must first gain permanency in an organization, in contractual terms. Based on an autoethnographic study by a female academic in a UK higher education institution, the article illustrates that temporary forms of employment, should they be protracted, can stifle leadership aspirations due to lack of career progression opportunities and lead to a sense of alienation from the target community of practice, and even to personal difficulties, such as feelings of isolation and poor self-esteem. The article discusses theoretical and practical implications for women’s leadership arising from the findings and makes recommendations for improvements in practice in the higher education sector. The findings and recommendations from this study will also be relevant to other organizational contexts where casual or temporary, fixed term, zero-hours non-permanent forms of employment are common. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Increasing Gender Diversity in Senior Roles in HE: Who Is Afraid of Positive Action?
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 19; doi:10.3390/admsci7020019 -
Abstract
This article argues that Higher Education Institutions should adopt positive action in recruitment and promotion to tackle women’s under-representation in senior leadership roles. In a tie-break situation where two candidates are “as qualified as each other”, section 159 of the UK Equality Act
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This article argues that Higher Education Institutions should adopt positive action in recruitment and promotion to tackle women’s under-representation in senior leadership roles. In a tie-break situation where two candidates are “as qualified as each other”, section 159 of the UK Equality Act 2010 allows employers to give preference to a candidate from an under-represented group. The use of this measure, however, is often contested on the grounds that it is a form of reverse discrimination, it is tokenistic and that it can undermine meritocracy. This article seeks to challenge these objections and suggests that, far from undermining meritocracy, the use of positive action in recruitment and promotion could prove a useful tool to tackle gender bias, unpack stereotypes and re-appraise how merit is defined and assessed. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Importance of Continuing Professional Development to Career Satisfaction and Patient Care: Meeting the Needs of Novice to Mid- to Late-Career Nurses throughout Their Career Span
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 17; doi:10.3390/admsci7020017 -
Abstract
This paper provides insights into the role of ongoing training and education on nurses’ career satisfaction across different career stages and their ability to provide quality patient care. Eighteen focus groups were conducted over the course of five months in 2015 (January to
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This paper provides insights into the role of ongoing training and education on nurses’ career satisfaction across different career stages and their ability to provide quality patient care. Eighteen focus groups were conducted over the course of five months in 2015 (January to May) in eight Canadian provinces. There were a total of 185 focus group participants. Each focus group lasted approximately 1.5 h and included 8–15 participants who self-selected in one of three distinct career stages (students, early-career, mid- to late-career). A thematic analysis of the data revealed that ongoing professional development is an expressed need and expectation for nurses across the various career stages. Student and early-career nurses expected sufficient training and education to facilitate workplace transitions, as well as continuing education opportunities throughout their careers for career laddering. For mid- to late-career nurses, the importance of lifelong learning was understood within the context of maintaining competency, providing quality patient care and enhancing future career opportunities. Training and education were directly linked to nurses’ career satisfaction. Healthy work environments were identified by nurses as those that invested in continuing professional development opportunities to ensure continuous growth in their practice and provide optimal quality patient care. Training and education emerged as a cross-cutting theme across all career stages and held implications for patient care, as well as retention and recruitment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rethinking Women’s Leadership Development: Voices from the Trenches
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 18; doi:10.3390/admsci7020018 -
Abstract
As recent graduates of a women’s-only leadership development program in higher education in the United States, we used autoethnography as a research methodology to provide critical insight into effective women’s leadership programming and evaluation. The potential of this methodology as both a learning
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As recent graduates of a women’s-only leadership development program in higher education in the United States, we used autoethnography as a research methodology to provide critical insight into effective women’s leadership programming and evaluation. The potential of this methodology as both a learning process and product helped elucidate two key findings: (1) to effectively develop women leaders, work must be done at the personal, interpersonal, and organizational levels, as these levels are interrelated and interdependent; and (2) women’s multiple identities must be engaged. Therefore, relationship-building should be a central learning outcome and facilitated through program curricula, pedagogical methods, and evaluation. Including autoethnography as a program evaluation methodology fills a gap in the literature on leadership development, and supports our goal of making meaning of our personal experiences in order to enhance women’s leadership development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Government Programme as a Strategy—The Finnish Experience
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 16; doi:10.3390/admsci7020016 -
Abstract
This article uses strategy metaphors consisting of a plan, a home and a game to study government programme formation in Finland. The strategy approach both contradicts and complements the traditional political science approach to government formation. The government programme has been strategic in
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This article uses strategy metaphors consisting of a plan, a home and a game to study government programme formation in Finland. The strategy approach both contradicts and complements the traditional political science approach to government formation. The government programme has been strategic in the sense of separating the formulation and implementation parts of the strategy. The most important function of the metaphor of plan is to hold coalition parties together. The adopted austerity policy provides a meagre contribution to the expansion of services and the increase in government spending. Consequently, the home metaphor in the government programme appears in the distant future and in combating external threats. The game metaphor is apparent in the goal of making contracts with social partners. The vocabulary change from politics to strategy alters the government programme’s position in terms of catering to the needs of civil servants, citizens and stakeholders. The strategy perspective might be instrumental in shifting open democratic debates to closed and secretive policy formations. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
How Well Does the CWEQ II Measure Structural Empowerment? Findings from Applying Item Response Theory
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 15; doi:10.3390/admsci7020015 -
Abstract
The main purpose of this paper is to examine the psychometric properties of the original five-point CWEQ II using Item Response Theory (IRT) methods, followed by an examination of the revised three-point CWEQ II. (1) Background: The psychometric properties of the CWEQ II
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The main purpose of this paper is to examine the psychometric properties of the original five-point CWEQ II using Item Response Theory (IRT) methods, followed by an examination of the revised three-point CWEQ II. (1) Background: The psychometric properties of the CWEQ II have not been previously assessed using more robust techniques such as IRT. (2) Methods: This is a secondary analysis of baseline data from 1067 staff nurses whose leaders had attended a leadership development program. Data were analyzed using a polytomous IRT model. (3) Results: The two versions of CWEQ II fit the SE data equally as each had only one poor-fitting item. For the five-point CWEQ II, discriminant ability was poor for a majority of the items; one item demonstrated a disordinal step difficulty parameter; and item reliability was supported for a relatively wider range of SE levels. The discriminant ability and reliability of items for the three-point CWEQ II was better than those of the five-point CWEQ II, but for a narrower range of SE levels; and the disordinal step difficulty parameter was resolved. (4) Conclusion: The appropriate use of each version of the scale depends on the conditions of the work setting targeted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Formal Decision Processes on e-Government Projects
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 14; doi:10.3390/admsci7020014 -
Abstract
This paper studies associations between the use of formal decision-making processes in e-Government projects and the outcomes of these projects. By doing so, this study contributes to the decision sciences as well as to the fields of e-Government, information systems and public administration.
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This paper studies associations between the use of formal decision-making processes in e-Government projects and the outcomes of these projects. By doing so, this study contributes to the decision sciences as well as to the fields of e-Government, information systems and public administration. Data were collected using a survey conducted among Swedish national government agencies and municipalities. Variables that have been investigated are the defining and weighting of objectives, resource allocation and assessment of whether objectives are met, as well as to what extent risk analysis was conducted. The results reveal that successful projects distinguish themselves by involving more activities related to formal decision-making procedures, especially with respect to stakeholder inclusion and weighting of objectives. These initiatives also manage more types of risks, including organizational issues. Future research should continue to explore the possible benefits of formal decision-making and risk analysis in e-Government. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Factor Structure of Almutairi’s Critical Cultural Competence Scale
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 13; doi:10.3390/admsci7020013 -
Abstract
This paper reports on a psychometric study conducted to explore the factor structure and refine the Critical Cultural Competence Scale (CCCS). Critical Cultural Competence (CCC) functions to promote the safety, equity, and well-being of patients, their families, and health care professionals. The development
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This paper reports on a psychometric study conducted to explore the factor structure and refine the Critical Cultural Competence Scale (CCCS). Critical Cultural Competence (CCC) functions to promote the safety, equity, and well-being of patients, their families, and health care professionals. The development process of this measurement scale was systematic and iterative, and included generating a pool of potential items based on the theoretical definitions of CCC. In this study, conducted with a sample of 170 registered nurses from British Columbia, Canada, we used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to explore the factor structure of the initial set of 84 items as a final step in developing the CCCS. The final version of the measure consists of 43 items, and the PCA results supported a four-factor solution consistent with the theoretical underpinnings of the scale. Future research is recommended to further assess the construct validity of this newly created scale. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Classification of Program Activities: How Nonprofits Create Social Value
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 12; doi:10.3390/admsci7020012 -
Abstract
This paper defines and describes a framework to classify program activities utilized by nonprofit organizations to achieve public benefit objectives. Drawing on theory and practice from strategy, nonprofit management, and program planning, the paper proposes five program activities differentiated by the value created.
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This paper defines and describes a framework to classify program activities utilized by nonprofit organizations to achieve public benefit objectives. Drawing on theory and practice from strategy, nonprofit management, and program planning, the paper proposes five program activities differentiated by the value created. Several factors define and differentiate the approaches and serve as decision areas for nonprofit managers when developing program strategies. Classifying program activities facilitates further research as it provides a common language and framework to analyze strategic choices enacted in nonprofit organizations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Cluster Activities in Different Institutional Environments. Case Studies of ICT-Clusters from Austria, Germany, Ukraine and Serbia
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 11; doi:10.3390/admsci7020011 -
Abstract
In recent decades, numerous cluster associations with public and/or private support have been established to facilitate clusters. These cluster associations have launched a number of activities and services aiming to increase the competitiveness, innovation, and productivity of their members and beyond. At the
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In recent decades, numerous cluster associations with public and/or private support have been established to facilitate clusters. These cluster associations have launched a number of activities and services aiming to increase the competitiveness, innovation, and productivity of their members and beyond. At the same time, it appears that many of these associations apply similar activity bundles to reach their objectives. However, the institutional context differs between clusters and their countries. This paper questions how these activity bundles are influenced by different sets of institutional conditions and proposes a framework for the explorative analysis of cluster activity bundles in specific institutional environments. Moreover, using the framework, a detailed review of cluster associations and their activities in different information and communication technologies (ICT) clusters is presented, the development of which is central to regional advanced industrial transformation in the context of regional smart specialization and the Industrial Renaissance. Full article
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