Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Implications of Contractual Terms of Employment for Women and Leadership: An Autoethnographic Study in UK Higher Education
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 20; doi:10.3390/admsci7020020 -
Abstract
This article is concerned with the implications of casual, non-permanent forms of employment that have become a common cultural practice in higher education. It proposes that contractual terms of employment have important implications for women and leadership in higher education, since to pursue
[...] Read more.
This article is concerned with the implications of casual, non-permanent forms of employment that have become a common cultural practice in higher education. It proposes that contractual terms of employment have important implications for women and leadership in higher education, since to pursue leadership, usually one must first gain permanency in an organization, in contractual terms. Based on an autoethnographic study by a female academic in a UK higher education institution, the article illustrates that temporary forms of employment, should they be protracted, can stifle leadership aspirations due to lack of career progression opportunities and lead to a sense of alienation from the target community of practice, and even to personal difficulties, such as feelings of isolation and poor self-esteem. The article discusses theoretical and practical implications for women’s leadership arising from the findings and makes recommendations for improvements in practice in the higher education sector. The findings and recommendations from this study will also be relevant to other organizational contexts where casual or temporary, fixed term, zero-hours non-permanent forms of employment are common. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Increasing Gender Diversity in Senior Roles in HE: Who Is Afraid of Positive Action?
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 19; doi:10.3390/admsci7020019 -
Abstract
This article argues that Higher Education Institutions should adopt positive action in recruitment and promotion to tackle women’s under-representation in senior leadership roles. In a tie-break situation where two candidates are “as qualified as each other”, section 159 of the UK Equality Act
[...] Read more.
This article argues that Higher Education Institutions should adopt positive action in recruitment and promotion to tackle women’s under-representation in senior leadership roles. In a tie-break situation where two candidates are “as qualified as each other”, section 159 of the UK Equality Act 2010 allows employers to give preference to a candidate from an under-represented group. The use of this measure, however, is often contested on the grounds that it is a form of reverse discrimination, it is tokenistic and that it can undermine meritocracy. This article seeks to challenge these objections and suggests that, far from undermining meritocracy, the use of positive action in recruitment and promotion could prove a useful tool to tackle gender bias, unpack stereotypes and re-appraise how merit is defined and assessed. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Importance of Continuing Professional Development to Career Satisfaction and Patient Care: Meeting the Needs of Novice to Mid- to Late-Career Nurses throughout Their Career Span
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 17; doi:10.3390/admsci7020017 -
Abstract
This paper provides insights into the role of ongoing training and education on nurses’ career satisfaction across different career stages and their ability to provide quality patient care. Eighteen focus groups were conducted over the course of five months in 2015 (January to
[...] Read more.
This paper provides insights into the role of ongoing training and education on nurses’ career satisfaction across different career stages and their ability to provide quality patient care. Eighteen focus groups were conducted over the course of five months in 2015 (January to May) in eight Canadian provinces. There were a total of 185 focus group participants. Each focus group lasted approximately 1.5 h and included 8–15 participants who self-selected in one of three distinct career stages (students, early-career, mid- to late-career). A thematic analysis of the data revealed that ongoing professional development is an expressed need and expectation for nurses across the various career stages. Student and early-career nurses expected sufficient training and education to facilitate workplace transitions, as well as continuing education opportunities throughout their careers for career laddering. For mid- to late-career nurses, the importance of lifelong learning was understood within the context of maintaining competency, providing quality patient care and enhancing future career opportunities. Training and education were directly linked to nurses’ career satisfaction. Healthy work environments were identified by nurses as those that invested in continuing professional development opportunities to ensure continuous growth in their practice and provide optimal quality patient care. Training and education emerged as a cross-cutting theme across all career stages and held implications for patient care, as well as retention and recruitment. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Rethinking Women’s Leadership Development: Voices from the Trenches
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 18; doi:10.3390/admsci7020018 -
Abstract
As recent graduates of a women’s-only leadership development program in higher education in the United States, we used autoethnography as a research methodology to provide critical insight into effective women’s leadership programming and evaluation. The potential of this methodology as both a learning
[...] Read more.
As recent graduates of a women’s-only leadership development program in higher education in the United States, we used autoethnography as a research methodology to provide critical insight into effective women’s leadership programming and evaluation. The potential of this methodology as both a learning process and product helped elucidate two key findings: (1) to effectively develop women leaders, work must be done at the personal, interpersonal, and organizational levels, as these levels are interrelated and interdependent; and (2) women’s multiple identities must be engaged. Therefore, relationship-building should be a central learning outcome and facilitated through program curricula, pedagogical methods, and evaluation. Including autoethnography as a program evaluation methodology fills a gap in the literature on leadership development, and supports our goal of making meaning of our personal experiences in order to enhance women’s leadership development. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Government Programme as a Strategy—The Finnish Experience
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 16; doi:10.3390/admsci7020016 -
Abstract
This article uses strategy metaphors consisting of a plan, a home and a game to study government programme formation in Finland. The strategy approach both contradicts and complements the traditional political science approach to government formation. The government programme has been strategic in
[...] Read more.
This article uses strategy metaphors consisting of a plan, a home and a game to study government programme formation in Finland. The strategy approach both contradicts and complements the traditional political science approach to government formation. The government programme has been strategic in the sense of separating the formulation and implementation parts of the strategy. The most important function of the metaphor of plan is to hold coalition parties together. The adopted austerity policy provides a meagre contribution to the expansion of services and the increase in government spending. Consequently, the home metaphor in the government programme appears in the distant future and in combating external threats. The game metaphor is apparent in the goal of making contracts with social partners. The vocabulary change from politics to strategy alters the government programme’s position in terms of catering to the needs of civil servants, citizens and stakeholders. The strategy perspective might be instrumental in shifting open democratic debates to closed and secretive policy formations. Full article
Figures

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
How Well Does the CWEQ II Measure Structural Empowerment? Findings from Applying Item Response Theory
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 15; doi:10.3390/admsci7020015 -
Abstract
The main purpose of this paper is to examine the psychometric properties of the original five-point CWEQ II using Item Response Theory (IRT) methods, followed by an examination of the revised three-point CWEQ II. (1) Background: The psychometric properties of the CWEQ II
[...] Read more.
The main purpose of this paper is to examine the psychometric properties of the original five-point CWEQ II using Item Response Theory (IRT) methods, followed by an examination of the revised three-point CWEQ II. (1) Background: The psychometric properties of the CWEQ II have not been previously assessed using more robust techniques such as IRT. (2) Methods: This is a secondary analysis of baseline data from 1067 staff nurses whose leaders had attended a leadership development program. Data were analyzed using a polytomous IRT model. (3) Results: The two versions of CWEQ II fit the SE data equally as each had only one poor-fitting item. For the five-point CWEQ II, discriminant ability was poor for a majority of the items; one item demonstrated a disordinal step difficulty parameter; and item reliability was supported for a relatively wider range of SE levels. The discriminant ability and reliability of items for the three-point CWEQ II was better than those of the five-point CWEQ II, but for a narrower range of SE levels; and the disordinal step difficulty parameter was resolved. (4) Conclusion: The appropriate use of each version of the scale depends on the conditions of the work setting targeted. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Formal Decision Processes on e-Government Projects
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 14; doi:10.3390/admsci7020014 -
Abstract
This paper studies associations between the use of formal decision-making processes in e-Government projects and the outcomes of these projects. By doing so, this study contributes to the decision sciences as well as to the fields of e-Government, information systems and public administration.
[...] Read more.
This paper studies associations between the use of formal decision-making processes in e-Government projects and the outcomes of these projects. By doing so, this study contributes to the decision sciences as well as to the fields of e-Government, information systems and public administration. Data were collected using a survey conducted among Swedish national government agencies and municipalities. Variables that have been investigated are the defining and weighting of objectives, resource allocation and assessment of whether objectives are met, as well as to what extent risk analysis was conducted. The results reveal that successful projects distinguish themselves by involving more activities related to formal decision-making procedures, especially with respect to stakeholder inclusion and weighting of objectives. These initiatives also manage more types of risks, including organizational issues. Future research should continue to explore the possible benefits of formal decision-making and risk analysis in e-Government. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Factor Structure of Almutairi’s Critical Cultural Competence Scale
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 13; doi:10.3390/admsci7020013 -
Abstract
This paper reports on a psychometric study conducted to explore the factor structure and refine the Critical Cultural Competence Scale (CCCS). Critical Cultural Competence (CCC) functions to promote the safety, equity, and well-being of patients, their families, and health care professionals. The development
[...] Read more.
This paper reports on a psychometric study conducted to explore the factor structure and refine the Critical Cultural Competence Scale (CCCS). Critical Cultural Competence (CCC) functions to promote the safety, equity, and well-being of patients, their families, and health care professionals. The development process of this measurement scale was systematic and iterative, and included generating a pool of potential items based on the theoretical definitions of CCC. In this study, conducted with a sample of 170 registered nurses from British Columbia, Canada, we used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to explore the factor structure of the initial set of 84 items as a final step in developing the CCCS. The final version of the measure consists of 43 items, and the PCA results supported a four-factor solution consistent with the theoretical underpinnings of the scale. Future research is recommended to further assess the construct validity of this newly created scale. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Classification of Program Activities: How Nonprofits Create Social Value
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 12; doi:10.3390/admsci7020012 -
Abstract
This paper defines and describes a framework to classify program activities utilized by nonprofit organizations to achieve public benefit objectives. Drawing on theory and practice from strategy, nonprofit management, and program planning, the paper proposes five program activities differentiated by the value created.
[...] Read more.
This paper defines and describes a framework to classify program activities utilized by nonprofit organizations to achieve public benefit objectives. Drawing on theory and practice from strategy, nonprofit management, and program planning, the paper proposes five program activities differentiated by the value created. Several factors define and differentiate the approaches and serve as decision areas for nonprofit managers when developing program strategies. Classifying program activities facilitates further research as it provides a common language and framework to analyze strategic choices enacted in nonprofit organizations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Cluster Activities in Different Institutional Environments. Case Studies of ICT-Clusters from Austria, Germany, Ukraine and Serbia
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 11; doi:10.3390/admsci7020011 -
Abstract
In recent decades, numerous cluster associations with public and/or private support have been established to facilitate clusters. These cluster associations have launched a number of activities and services aiming to increase the competitiveness, innovation, and productivity of their members and beyond. At the
[...] Read more.
In recent decades, numerous cluster associations with public and/or private support have been established to facilitate clusters. These cluster associations have launched a number of activities and services aiming to increase the competitiveness, innovation, and productivity of their members and beyond. At the same time, it appears that many of these associations apply similar activity bundles to reach their objectives. However, the institutional context differs between clusters and their countries. This paper questions how these activity bundles are influenced by different sets of institutional conditions and proposes a framework for the explorative analysis of cluster activity bundles in specific institutional environments. Moreover, using the framework, a detailed review of cluster associations and their activities in different information and communication technologies (ICT) clusters is presented, the development of which is central to regional advanced industrial transformation in the context of regional smart specialization and the Industrial Renaissance. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Success through Trust, Control, and Learning? Contrasting the Drivers of SME Performance between Different Modes of Foreign Market Entry
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 9; doi:10.3390/admsci7020009 -
Abstract
Globalization and international competition have driven a large number of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to enter foreign markets. However, current knowledge on which factors determine SMEs’ foreign market performance and secure their success is limited. Using empirical data on 280 German SMEs’
[...] Read more.
Globalization and international competition have driven a large number of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to enter foreign markets. However, current knowledge on which factors determine SMEs’ foreign market performance and secure their success is limited. Using empirical data on 280 German SMEs’ activities in Arab markets, we contrast the performance effect of trust with those of control and learning (three of the most prominently studied success factors) across three different structural modes of market entry: non-equity entry, cooperative entry, and wholly-owned subsidiaries. Our results reveal marked differences between the three entry modes and we offer a detailed discussion of the underlying structural and cultural reasons. Consequently, this study allows for a comprehensive understanding of the determinants of SMEs’ foreign market performance and provides relevant advice as to which managerial approach to emphasize for which mode of foreign market entry. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Leader Purposefulness within Servant Leadership: Examining the Effect of Servant Leadership, Leader Follower-Focus, Leader Goal-Orientation, and Leader Purposefulness in a Large U.S. Healthcare Organization
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 10; doi:10.3390/admsci7020010 -
Abstract
As the study of servant leadership expands beyond theoretical exploration, empirical research continues to validate the positive effect of servant leadership behaviors and attitudes on diverse follower and organizational measures. This study expands the conversation by engaging the theme of leader purposefulness within
[...] Read more.
As the study of servant leadership expands beyond theoretical exploration, empirical research continues to validate the positive effect of servant leadership behaviors and attitudes on diverse follower and organizational measures. This study expands the conversation by engaging the theme of leader purposefulness within servant leadership studies. A sample of over 1700 employees from a large U.S. healthcare organization provided responses to five research instruments. Follower perspectives on servant leadership, leader follower-focus, leader goal-orientation, and leader purposefulness were assessed using the Purpose in Leadership Inventory and each of these independent variables were analyzed for hypothesized positive relationships with four dependent variables: follower job satisfaction, follower organizational commitment, follower person-organization fit, and follower perception of leadership effectiveness. Each of the 16 hypothesized relationships were supported at a statistically significant level (<0.001) with positive correlations ranging from 0.40 to 0.88. Regression analyses were conducted to provide predictive modeling and indicators of the relative importance of each independent variable on the related dependent variables. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Cross-Cultural Invariance of the Servant Leadership Survey: A Comparative Study across Eight Countries
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 8; doi:10.3390/admsci7020008 -
Abstract
This paper tests and confirms the cross-cultural equivalence of the Servant Leadership Survey (SLS) in eight countries and languages: The Netherlands, Portugal, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Spain, Turkey and Finland. A composite sample consisting of 5201 respondents from eight countries that all filled out
[...] Read more.
This paper tests and confirms the cross-cultural equivalence of the Servant Leadership Survey (SLS) in eight countries and languages: The Netherlands, Portugal, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Spain, Turkey and Finland. A composite sample consisting of 5201 respondents from eight countries that all filled out the SLS was used. A three-step approach was adopted to test configural invariance, measurement equivalence, and structural equivalence. For the full 30-item version of the SLS, configural invariance and partial measurement equivalence were confirmed. Implications of these results for the use of the SLS within cross-cultural studies are discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Heavy Perceived Nurse Workloads on Patient and Nurse Outcomes
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 7; doi:10.3390/admsci7010007 -
Abstract
This study investigated the relationships between seven workload factors and patient and nurse outcomes. (1) Background: Health systems researchers are beginning to address nurses’ workload demands at different unit, job and task levels; and the types of administrative interventions needed for specific workload
[...] Read more.
This study investigated the relationships between seven workload factors and patient and nurse outcomes. (1) Background: Health systems researchers are beginning to address nurses’ workload demands at different unit, job and task levels; and the types of administrative interventions needed for specific workload demands. (2) Methods: This was a cross-sectional correlational study of 472 acute care nurses from British Columbia, Canada. The workload factors included nurse reports of unit-level RN staffing levels and patient acuity and patient dependency; job-level nurse perceptions of heavy workloads, nursing tasks left undone and compromised standards; and task-level interruptions to work flow. Patient outcomes were nurse-reported frequencies of medication errors, patient falls and urinary tract infections; and nurse outcomes were emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. (3) Results: Job-level perceptions of heavy workloads and task-level interruptions had significant direct effects on patient and nurse outcomes. Tasks left undone mediated the relationships between heavy workloads and nurse and patient outcomes; and between interruptions and nurse and patient outcomes. Compromised professional nursing standards mediated the relationships between heavy workloads and nurse outcomes; and between interruptions and nurse outcomes. (4) Conclusion: Administrators should work collaboratively with nurses to identify work environment strategies that ameliorate workload demands at different levels. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Can Servant Leaders Fuel the Leadership Fire? The Relationship between Servant Leadership and Followers’ Leadership Avoidance
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 6; doi:10.3390/admsci7010006 -
Abstract
This study tested the effect of servant leadership on followers’ inclinations to strive for and, in contrast, to avoid leadership responsibility. Results from a study in the health care context, including two waves of data from 222 employees, revealed that servant leadership had
[...] Read more.
This study tested the effect of servant leadership on followers’ inclinations to strive for and, in contrast, to avoid leadership responsibility. Results from a study in the health care context, including two waves of data from 222 employees, revealed that servant leadership had a small but positive effect on followers’ leadership avoidance. This effect was influenced by followers’ implicit conception of an ideal leader. Specifically, servant leadership was found to reduce leadership avoidance when the congruence with the followers’ ideal leader prototype was high. Furthermore, followers’ core self-evaluations and affective motivation to lead mediated the relationship between servant leadership and reduced leadership avoidance. Implications of these patterns for theory and practice and avenues for future research are discussed. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
The Functions of a Servant Leader
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 5; doi:10.3390/admsci7010005 -
Abstract
Servant leadership has been researched internationally and various types of favourable individual, team, and organisational outcomes have been linked to the construct. Different servant leadership measures have been validated to date and a clear distinction has been made between the theory of servant
[...] Read more.
Servant leadership has been researched internationally and various types of favourable individual, team, and organisational outcomes have been linked to the construct. Different servant leadership measures have been validated to date and a clear distinction has been made between the theory of servant leadership and other leadership theories. However, it seems that research on the implementation of servant leadership within an organisation is still in need. The main functions of a servant leader are not yet conceptualised in the literature to help researchers or practitioners to implement servant leadership successfully within organisations. After conducting a systematic literature review, the main functions of a servant leader were identified. These functions were clustered into strategic servant leadership and operational servant leadership and supported by servant leadership characteristics and competencies as defined by current literature. The results of this study might help practitioners to develop servant leaders more effectively and assist organisations to cultivate a servant leadership culture within companies. Limitations and future research needs are discussed. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Strategy Implementation Style and Public Service Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 4; doi:10.3390/admsci7010004 -
Abstract
Strategic decision-making theories suggest that organizations that combine rational and incremental strategy implementation styles are likely to perform better than those that emphasize a single style. To assess whether these arguments apply to the public sector; we explore the strategy implementation style and
[...] Read more.
Strategic decision-making theories suggest that organizations that combine rational and incremental strategy implementation styles are likely to perform better than those that emphasize a single style. To assess whether these arguments apply to the public sector; we explore the strategy implementation style and perceived service effectiveness, efficiency and equity of Turkish municipal government departments. Using fuzzy cluster analysis, we identify four distinctive though inter-related styles of strategy implementation in our sample organizations: logical-incremental; mostly rational; mostly incremental; and no clear approach. A logical-incremental and mostly rational style of implementation are associated with better effectiveness, efficiency and equity; with the absence of an implementation style associated with worse performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Retailers’ Responsibility towards Consumers and Key Drivers of Their Development in Poland
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 3; doi:10.3390/admsci7010003 -
Abstract
Multinational retailers are now very powerful and their activities could influence whole economies. In this paper, we investigate why they engage in corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices towards consumers, how it fosters sustainable development, and what the role of institutions are in the
[...] Read more.
Multinational retailers are now very powerful and their activities could influence whole economies. In this paper, we investigate why they engage in corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices towards consumers, how it fosters sustainable development, and what the role of institutions are in the process of developing CSR strategies. Changes that have taken place in Poland since 1989, when the transition process into a market economy started, constituted an excellent research field due to the fact that the retail market was not saturated at the beginning, consumers were only slightly protected by the law, and there were no institutions promoting the implementation of social responsibility standards by companies. Research involving analysis of secondary data drawn from retailers’ websites, CSR reports, and published data relating to the CSR institutions allowed the following: (1) identification of three stages of development in consumers’ conception of CSR characterized by the immoral, amoral, and moral management; (2) showing that these activities have a business case; and (3) explaining the role of institutions and competition in this process. It is also shown how multinational retailers could contribute to the sustainable development of less mature markets in which they invest. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Administrative Sciences in 2016
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 2; doi:10.3390/admsci7010002 -
Abstract The editors of Administrative Sciences would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Determinants of Academic Startups’ Orientation toward International Business Expansion
Adm. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 1; doi:10.3390/admsci7010001 -
Abstract
This study explores the determinants of academic startups’ orientation toward international business expansion, focusing on their technological capabilities, availability of public support, the regional characteristics of their locations, and the research standards of their parent universities. Using unique survey data on 448 academic
[...] Read more.
This study explores the determinants of academic startups’ orientation toward international business expansion, focusing on their technological capabilities, availability of public support, the regional characteristics of their locations, and the research standards of their parent universities. Using unique survey data on 448 academic startups in Japan and by estimating an ordered logit model, we find that academic startups are strongly oriented toward expanding their businesses internationally if they have strong technological capabilities, receive public support, are established in regions with a high ratio of exporting small firms, or are affiliated with a parent university with an excellent research reputation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1