Open AccessArticle
Modeling and Testing Strategies for an Interconnected Four-Pole Magnetic Bearing
Actuators 2017, 6(3), 21; doi:10.3390/act6030021 -
Abstract
An unusual idea for the construction of active magnetic bearings has been recently discussed in the literature. Theoretical results predict a greater equivalent stiffness for it, when compared with traditional active magnetic bearings. The development of a mathematical model that allows these predictions
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An unusual idea for the construction of active magnetic bearings has been recently discussed in the literature. Theoretical results predict a greater equivalent stiffness for it, when compared with traditional active magnetic bearings. The development of a mathematical model that allows these predictions and the use of recently-built prototypes for testing if the expectations hold true are the main goals of this paper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Measuring the Temperature Increase of an Ultrasonic Motor in a 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging System
Actuators 2017, 6(2), 20; doi:10.3390/act6020020 -
Abstract
This paper aims to evaluate the temperature increase caused by a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system on an ultrasonic motor (USM) used to actuate surgical robots in the MRI environment. Four fiber-optic temperature sensors were attached to the USM. Temperature was monitored
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This paper aims to evaluate the temperature increase caused by a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system on an ultrasonic motor (USM) used to actuate surgical robots in the MRI environment. Four fiber-optic temperature sensors were attached to the USM. Temperature was monitored outside the five-Gauss boundary and then inside the bore for 20 min while the USM was powered on. The USM temperature was tested for two states of the scanner, “off” and “on”, by employing common clinical imaging sequences and echo planar imaging sequences. The USM showed a slight temperature increase while operating in the static field of the MRI. A considerable temperature increase (~10 °C) was observed when the scanner was on. The temperature increased to 60 °C, which is beyond the acceptable safe temperature and can result in thermal burns. Most of the temperature increase (80%) was due to effects of the static field on the motion of the rotating parts of the motor, while the remainder (20%) derived from heat deposited in the conductive components of the USM due to radiofrequency pulses and gradient field changes. To solve the temperature increase, the metal components of the USM’s case can be replaced by silicon carbide. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Characterization of In-Plane Piezoelectric Microactuators
Actuators 2017, 6(2), 19; doi:10.3390/act6020019 -
Abstract
In this paper, two different piezoelectric microactuator designs are studied. The corresponding devices were designed for optimal in-plane displacements and different high flexibilities, proven by electrical and optical characterization. Both actuators presented two dominant vibrational modes in the frequency range below 1 MHz:
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In this paper, two different piezoelectric microactuator designs are studied. The corresponding devices were designed for optimal in-plane displacements and different high flexibilities, proven by electrical and optical characterization. Both actuators presented two dominant vibrational modes in the frequency range below 1 MHz: an out-of-plane bending and an in-plane extensional mode. Nevertheless, the latter mode is the only one that allows the use of the device as a modal in-plane actuator. Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations confirmed that the displacement per applied voltage was superior for the low-stiffness actuator, which was also verified through optical measurements in a quasi-static analysis, obtaining a displacement per volt of 0.22 and 0.13 nm/V for the low-stiffness and high-stiffness actuator, respectively. In addition, electrical measurements were performed using an impedance analyzer which, in combination with the optical characterization in resonance, allowed the determination of the electromechanical and stiffness coefficients. The low-stiffness actuator exhibited a stiffness coefficient of 5 × 104 N/m, thus being more suitable as a modal actuator than the high-stiffness actuator with a stiffness of 2.5 × 105 N/m. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Static and Dynamic Studies of Electro-Active Polymer Actuators and Integration in a Demonstrator
Actuators 2017, 6(2), 18; doi:10.3390/act6020018 -
Abstract
Nowadays, the haptic effect is used and developed for many applications—particularly in the automotive industry, where the mechanical feedback induced by a haptic system enables the user to receive information while their attention is kept on the road and on driving. This article
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Nowadays, the haptic effect is used and developed for many applications—particularly in the automotive industry, where the mechanical feedback induced by a haptic system enables the user to receive information while their attention is kept on the road and on driving. This article presents the development of a vibrotactile button based on printed piezoelectric polymer actuation. Firstly, the characterization of the electro-active polymer used as the actuator and the development of a model able to predict the electromechanical behavior of this device are summarized. Then, the design of circular membranes and their dynamic characterization are presented. Finally, this work is concluded with the construction of a fully functional demonstrator, integrating haptic buttons leading to a clear haptic sensation for the user. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Environmental Effects on the Polypyrrole Tri-layer Actuator
Actuators 2017, 6(2), 17; doi:10.3390/act6020017 -
Abstract
Electroactive polymer actuators such as polypyrrole (PPy) are exciting candidates to drive autonomous devices that require low weight and low power. A simple PPy tri-layer bending type cantilever which operates in the air has been demonstrated previously, but the environmental effect on this
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Electroactive polymer actuators such as polypyrrole (PPy) are exciting candidates to drive autonomous devices that require low weight and low power. A simple PPy tri-layer bending type cantilever which operates in the air has been demonstrated previously, but the environmental effect on this actuator is still unknown. The major obstacle in the development of the PPy tri-layer actuator is to create proper packaging that reduces oxidation of the electrolyte and maintains constant displacement. Here, we report the variation in the displacement as well as the charge transfer at the different environmental condition. PPy trilayer actuators were fabricated by depositing polypyrrole on gold-coated porous poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) using the electro-synthesis method. It has been demonstrated that the charge transfer of tri-layer actuators is more in an inert environment than in open air. In addition, tri-layer actuators show constant deflection and enhancement of life due to the negligible oxidation rate of the electrolyte in an inert environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Evaluation of a Semi-Active Magneto-rheological Mount for a Wheel Loader Cabin
Actuators 2017, 6(2), 16; doi:10.3390/act6020016 -
Abstract
In this study, a semi-active magneto-rheological (MR) mount is designed and manufactured to minimize unwanted vibrations for the cabin of heavy vehicles. Normally, working conditions in heavy vehicles are extremely rugged. Usually, the heavy vehicles use passive rubber mounts for the reduction of
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In this study, a semi-active magneto-rheological (MR) mount is designed and manufactured to minimize unwanted vibrations for the cabin of heavy vehicles. Normally, working conditions in heavy vehicles are extremely rugged. Usually, the heavy vehicles use passive rubber mounts for the reduction of vibrations from road. However, the passive mount has definite performance limitations because the passive mount has a fixed resonance frequency when the design is finished. An MR application is one of the solutions because the viscosity of MR fluid can be controlled. As a first step, an experimental apparatus was established for performance evaluation of the mounts. The apparatus has hydraulic excitatory, force, and displacement sensors. Performance of two different passive mounts used in industrial fields were evaluated. The passive mount data of force-displacement, force-velocity, and displacement transmissibility were collected and tested. After that, an MR mount was designed and manufactured that provides better performance using the passive mount data. The MR mount uses two different flow paths, annular duct and radial channels, for generating the required damping force. The field-dependent damping forces were then evaluated with respect to the moving stroke and input current. In this work, in order to control the damping force, an on-off controller associated with the fast Fourier transform (FFT) was used. The control results of the MR mount were compared with the results of passive rubber mounts. It was shown that the semi-active MR mount can attenuate vibrations more effectively at all frequency ranges compared with the passive rubber mount. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Power Split Based Dual Hemispherical Continuously Variable Transmission
Actuators 2017, 6(2), 15; doi:10.3390/act6020015 -
Abstract
In this work, we present a new continuously variable transmission concept: the Dual-Hemi Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). It is designed to have properties we believe are required to apply continuously variable transmissions in robotics to their full potential. These properties are a transformation
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In this work, we present a new continuously variable transmission concept: the Dual-Hemi Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). It is designed to have properties we believe are required to apply continuously variable transmissions in robotics to their full potential. These properties are a transformation range that includes both positive and negative ratios, back-drivability under all conditions, kinematically decoupled reconfiguration, high efficiency of the transmission, and a reconfiguration mechanism requiring little work for changing the transmission ratio. The design of the Dual-Hemi CVT and a prototype realisation are discussed in detail. We show that the Dual-Hemi CVT has the aforementioned desired properties. Experiments show that the efficiency of the CVT is above 90% for a large part of the range of operation of the CVT. Significant stiction in the transmission, combined with a relatively low bandwidth for changing the transmission ratio, may cause problems when applying the DH-CVT as part of an actuator in a control loop. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Development of a Compact Axial Active Magnetic Bearing with a Function of Two-Tilt-Motion Control
Actuators 2017, 6(2), 14; doi:10.3390/act6020014 -
Abstract
A compact axial active magnetic bearing with a function of two-tilt-motion control is fabricated which has a new configuration of magnetic poles. They consist of four cylindrical poles with coils and a single common pole whose opposite plane of the rotor has a
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A compact axial active magnetic bearing with a function of two-tilt-motion control is fabricated which has a new configuration of magnetic poles. They consist of four cylindrical poles with coils and a single common pole whose opposite plane of the rotor has a permanent magnet to achieve multi-degree-of-freedom zero power control. Modal control is applied because local zero power control may make the whole system unstable when the number of control channels is larger than the number of freedoms of motion to be controlled. In the developed system, a disk-shape rotor is sandwiched between two axial magnetic bearing stators that are operated differentially. Such a configuration makes it possible to rotate the rotor without disturbing the axial motion. The characteristics of the fabricated magnetic bearing system including rotation are studied experimentally. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A System Identification Technique Using Bias Current Perturbation for the Determination of the Magnetic Axes of an Active Magnetic Bearing
Actuators 2017, 6(2), 13; doi:10.3390/act6020013 -
Abstract
Inherent in every Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) are differences between the expected geometric axes and the actual magnetic axes due to a combination of discrepancies, including physical variation from manufacturing tolerances and misalignment from mechanical assembly, fringing and leakage effects, as well as
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Inherent in every Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) are differences between the expected geometric axes and the actual magnetic axes due to a combination of discrepancies, including physical variation from manufacturing tolerances and misalignment from mechanical assembly, fringing and leakage effects, as well as variations in magnetic material properties within a single AMB. A method is presented here for locating the magnetic axes of an AMB that will facilitate the accurate characterization of the bearing air gaps for potential improvement in field tuning, performance analyses and certain shaft force measurement techniques. This paper presents an extension of the application of the bias current perturbation method for the determination of the magnetic center to the determination of magnetic axes for the further development of accurate current-based force measurement techniques. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Modeling and Realization of a Bearingless Flux-Switching Slice Motor
Actuators 2017, 6(2), 12; doi:10.3390/act6020012 -
Abstract
This work introduces a novel bearingless slice motor design: the bearingless flux-switching slice motor. In contrast to state-of-the-art bearingless slice motors, the rotor in this new design does not include any permanent rotor magnets. This offers advantages for disposable devices, such as those
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This work introduces a novel bearingless slice motor design: the bearingless flux-switching slice motor. In contrast to state-of-the-art bearingless slice motors, the rotor in this new design does not include any permanent rotor magnets. This offers advantages for disposable devices, such as those used in the medical industry, and extends the range of bearingless slice motors toward high-temperature applications. In this study, our focus is on the analytical modeling of the suspension force torque generation of a single coil and the bearingless motor. We assessed motor performance in relation to motor topology by applying performance factors. A prototype motor was optimized, designed, and manufactured. We also presented the state-of-the-art nonlinear feedback control scheme used. The motor was operated, and both static and dynamic measurements were taken on a test bench, thus successfully demonstrating the functionality and applicability of the novel bearingless slice motor concept. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Proposal of Magnetic Suspension using Laterally Control Flux-Path Mechanism
Actuators 2017, 6(1), 11; doi:10.3390/act6010011 -
Abstract
A novel flux control magnetic suspension system that places control plates beside the magnetic source (permanent magnet) is proposed. In a conventional flux-path control magnetic suspension system, the control plates were inserted between the magnetic source and the suspended object (floator). In contrast,
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A novel flux control magnetic suspension system that places control plates beside the magnetic source (permanent magnet) is proposed. In a conventional flux-path control magnetic suspension system, the control plates were inserted between the magnetic source and the suspended object (floator). In contrast, the control plates were placed beside the magnetic source in the proposed system. In such a configuration, the effective gap becomes larger than in the conventional system. Basic characteristics of the proposed magnetic suspension system were studied both numerically and experimentally. The numerical analyses show that the attractive force acting on the floator increases as the position of the lateral ring-shape control plate increases. The variation of the attractive force is sufficient for the stabilization of the suspension system. It is also shown that lateral force can be generated by dividing the plates into halves and moving them differentially. The predicted characteristics are confirmed experimentally in a fabricated apparatus with a three-axis force sensor and a gap adjustment mechanism. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Pump-Controlled Circuit for Single Rod Actuators
Actuators 2017, 6(1), 10; doi:10.3390/act6010010 -
Abstract
Pump-controlled hydraulic circuits are more efficient than valve-controlled circuits, as they eliminate the energy losses due to flow throttling in valves and require less cooling effort. Presently existing pump-controlled solutions for single rod cylinders encounter an undesirable performance during certain operating conditions. This
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Pump-controlled hydraulic circuits are more efficient than valve-controlled circuits, as they eliminate the energy losses due to flow throttling in valves and require less cooling effort. Presently existing pump-controlled solutions for single rod cylinders encounter an undesirable performance during certain operating conditions. This paper investigates the performance issues in common pump-controlled circuits for the single rod actuators. Detailed analysis is conducted that identifies these regions in a load-velocity plane and the factors affecting them. The findings are validated by experimental results. A new design is then proposed that employs a limited throttling valve alongside two pilot operated check valves for differential flow compensation to improve the performance. The valve is of the flow control type and is chosen to have a throttling effect over critical regions; it has the least throttling over other operating regions, thus maintaining efficiency. Experimental work demonstrates improved performance in a full operating range of the actuator as compared to a circuit that uses only the pilot-operated check valves. This circuit is energy efficient and capable of recuperating energy. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Transpermeance Amplifier Applied to Magnetic Bearings
Actuators 2017, 6(1), 9; doi:10.3390/act6010009 -
Abstract
The most conventional approach of controlling magnetic forces in active magnetic bearings (AMBs) is through current feedback amplifiers: transconductance. This enables the operation of the AMB to be understood in terms of a relatively simple current-based model as has been widely reported on
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The most conventional approach of controlling magnetic forces in active magnetic bearings (AMBs) is through current feedback amplifiers: transconductance. This enables the operation of the AMB to be understood in terms of a relatively simple current-based model as has been widely reported on in the literature. The alternative notion of using transpermeance amplifiers, which approximate the feedback of gap flux rather than current, has been in commercial use in some form for at least thirty years, however is only recently seeing more widespread acceptance as a commercial standard. This study explores how such alternative amplifiers should be modeled and then examines the differences in behavior between AMBs equipped with transconductance and transpermeance amplifiers. The focus of this study is on two aspects. The first is the influence of rotor displacement on AMB force, commonly modeled as a constant negative equivalent mechanical stiffness, and it is shown that either scheme actually leads to a finite bandwidth effect, but that this bandwidth is much lower when transpermeance is employed. The second aspect is the influence of eddy currents. Using a very simple model of eddy currents (a secondary short-circuited coil), it is demonstrated that transpermeance amplifiers can recover significant actuator bandwidth compared with transconductance, but at the cost of needing increased peak current headroom. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Piezoelectric Inertia Motors—A Critical Review of History, Concepts, Design, Applications, and Perspectives
Actuators 2017, 6(1), 7; doi:10.3390/act6010007 -
Abstract
Piezoelectric inertia motors—also known as stick-slip motors or (smooth) impact drives—use the inertia of a body to drive it in small steps by means of an uninterrupted friction contact. In addition to the typical advantages of piezoelectric motors, they are especially suited for
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Piezoelectric inertia motors—also known as stick-slip motors or (smooth) impact drives—use the inertia of a body to drive it in small steps by means of an uninterrupted friction contact. In addition to the typical advantages of piezoelectric motors, they are especially suited for miniaturisation due to their simple structure and inherent fine-positioning capability. Originally developed for positioning in microscopy in the 1980s, they have nowadays also found application in mass-produced consumer goods. Recent research results are likely to enable more applications of piezoelectric inertia motors in the future. This contribution gives a critical overview of their historical development, functional principles, and related terminology. The most relevant aspects regarding their design—i.e., friction contact, solid state actuator, and electrical excitation—are discussed, including aspects of control and simulation. The article closes with an outlook on possible future developments and research perspectives. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Applying Standard Industrial Components for Active Magnetic Bearings
Actuators 2017, 6(1), 8; doi:10.3390/act6010008 -
Abstract
With the increasing number of active magnetic bearing applications, satisfying additional requirements is becoming increasingly more important. As for every technology, moving away from being a niche product and achieving a higher level of maturity, these requirements relate to robustness, reliability, availability, safety,
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With the increasing number of active magnetic bearing applications, satisfying additional requirements is becoming increasingly more important. As for every technology, moving away from being a niche product and achieving a higher level of maturity, these requirements relate to robustness, reliability, availability, safety, security, traceability, certification, handling, flexibility, reporting, costs, and delivery times. Employing standard industrial components, such as those from flexible modular motion control drive systems, is an approach that allows these requirements to be satisfied while achieving rapid technological innovation. In this article, we discuss technical and non-technical aspects of using standard industrial components in magnetic bearing applications. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Miniature Pneumatic Bending Rubber Actuator Controlled by Using the PSO-SVR-Based Motion Estimation Method with the Generalized Gaussian Kernel
Actuators 2017, 6(1), 6; doi:10.3390/act6010006 -
Abstract
Soft actuators have been employed in various fields recently. A miniature pneumatic bending rubber actuator is one of the soft actuators. This actuator will be used for medical and biological fields. Its flexibility and high safety are suitable for fragile objects. However, its
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Soft actuators have been employed in various fields recently. A miniature pneumatic bending rubber actuator is one of the soft actuators. This actuator will be used for medical and biological fields. Its flexibility and high safety are suitable for fragile objects. However, its modeling is difficult due to its nonlinearity. There are no suitable sensors to measure the output of this actuator. In this paper, the particle swarm optimization-support vector regression (PSO-SVR)-based estimation method with the generalized Gaussian kernel is proposed. An experimental result with the operator-based robust nonlinear control system is employed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Re-Engineering a High Performance Electrical Series Elastic Actuator for Low-Cost Industrial Applications
Actuators 2017, 6(1), 5; doi:10.3390/act6010005 -
Abstract
Cost is an important consideration when transferring a technology from research to industrial and educational use. In this paper, we introduce the design of an industrial grade series elastic actuator (SEA) performed via re-engineering a research grade version of it. Cost-constrained design requires
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Cost is an important consideration when transferring a technology from research to industrial and educational use. In this paper, we introduce the design of an industrial grade series elastic actuator (SEA) performed via re-engineering a research grade version of it. Cost-constrained design requires careful consideration of the key performance parameters for an optimal performance-to-cost component selection. To optimize the performance of the new design, we started by matching the capabilities of a high-performance SEA while cutting down its production cost significantly. Our posit was that performing a re-engineering design process on an existing high-end device will significantly reduce the cost without compromising the performance drastically. As a case study of design for manufacturability, we selected the University of Texas Series Elastic Actuator (UT-SEA), a high-performance SEA, for its high power density, compact design, high efficiency and high speed properties. We partnered with an industrial corporation in China to research the best pricing options and to exploit the retail and production facilities provided by the Shenzhen region. We succeeded in producing a low-cost industrial grade actuator at one-third of the cost of the original device by re-engineering the UT-SEA with commercial off-the-shelf components and reducing the number of custom-made parts. Subsequently, we conducted performance tests to demonstrate that the re-engineered product achieves the same high-performance specifications found in the original device. With this paper, we aim to raise awareness in the robotics community on the possibility of low-cost realization of low-volume, high performance, industrial grade research and education hardware. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fractional Order PID Control of Rotor Suspension by Active Magnetic Bearings
Actuators 2017, 6(1), 4; doi:10.3390/act6010004 -
Abstract
One of the key issues in control design for Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) systems is the tradeoff between the simplicity of the controller structure and the performance of the closed-loop system. To achieve this tradeoff, this paper proposes the design of a fractional
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One of the key issues in control design for Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) systems is the tradeoff between the simplicity of the controller structure and the performance of the closed-loop system. To achieve this tradeoff, this paper proposes the design of a fractional order Proportional-Integral-Derivative (FOPID) controller. The FOPID controller consists of only two additional parameters in comparison with a conventional PID controller. The feasibility of FOPID for AMB systems is investigated for rotor suspension in both the radial and axial directions. Tuning methods are developed based on the evolutionary algorithms for searching the optimal values of the controller parameters. The resulting FOPID controllers are then tested and compared with a conventional PID controller, as well as with some advanced controllers such as Linear Quadratic Gausian (LQG) and H controllers. The comparison is made in terms of various stability and robustness specifications, as well as the dimensions of the controllers as implemented. Lastly, to validate the proposed method, experimental testing is carried out on a single-stage centrifugal compressor test rig equipped with magnetic bearings. The results show that, with a proper selection of gains and fractional orders, the performance of the resulting FOPID is similar to those of the advanced controllers. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Actuators in 2016
Actuators 2017, 6(1), 3; doi:10.3390/act6010003 -
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Generalized Unbiased Control Strategy for Radial Magnetic Bearings
Actuators 2017, 6(1), 1; doi:10.3390/act6010001 -
Abstract
The present work extends a method of unbiased control originally developed for three-pole radial magnetic bearings into a generalized unbiased control strategy that encompasses bearings with an arbitrary number of poles. By allowing the control of bearings with more than three poles, the
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The present work extends a method of unbiased control originally developed for three-pole radial magnetic bearings into a generalized unbiased control strategy that encompasses bearings with an arbitrary number of poles. By allowing the control of bearings with more than three poles, the applicability of the approach is broadened to the case of large rotors. Other ramifications of this generalized unbiased control strategy are fault tolerant unbiased bearings, control of bearings with more than three poles using 3-phase drives, and a novel approach to the unbiased control of eight-pole magnetic bearings. Full article
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