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Open AccessArticle
Discriminant Analysis with Graph Learning for Hyperspectral Image Classification
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 836; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060836 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) is a widely-used technique for dimensionality reduction, and has been applied in many practical applications, such as hyperspectral image classification. Traditional LDA assumes that the data obeys the Gaussian distribution. However, in real-world situations, the high-dimensional data may be
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Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) is a widely-used technique for dimensionality reduction, and has been applied in many practical applications, such as hyperspectral image classification. Traditional LDA assumes that the data obeys the Gaussian distribution. However, in real-world situations, the high-dimensional data may be with various kinds of distributions, which restricts the performance of LDA. To reduce this problem, we propose the Discriminant Analysis with Graph Learning (DAGL) method in this paper. Without any assumption on the data distribution, the proposed method learns the local data relationship adaptively during the optimization. The main contributions of this research are threefold: (1) the local data manifold is captured by learning the data graph adaptively in the subspace; (2) the spatial information within the hyperspectral image is utilized with a regularization term; and (3) an efficient algorithm is designed to optimize the proposed problem with proved convergence. Experimental results on hyperspectral image datasets show that promising performance of the proposed method, and validates its superiority over the state-of-the-art. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Histone Modulation Blocks Treg-Induced Foxp3 Binding to the IL-2 Promoter of Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells from Feline Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Cats
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060287 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
CD8+ T cells are critical for controlling HIV infection. During the chronic phase of lentiviral infection, CD8+ T cells lose their proliferative capacity and exhibit impaired antiviral function. This loss of CD8+ T cell function is due, in part, to
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CD8+ T cells are critical for controlling HIV infection. During the chronic phase of lentiviral infection, CD8+ T cells lose their proliferative capacity and exhibit impaired antiviral function. This loss of CD8+ T cell function is due, in part, to CD4+CD25+ T regulatory (Treg) cell-mediated suppression. Our research group has demonstrated that lentivirus-activated CD4+CD25+ Treg cells induce the repressive transcription factor forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) in autologous CD8+ T cells following co-culture. We have recently reported that Treg-induced Foxp3 binds the interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN- γ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) promoters in virus-specific CD8+ T cells. These data suggest an important role of Foxp3-mediated CD8+ T cell dysfunction in lentiviral infection. To elucidate the mechanism of this suppression, we previously reported that decreased methylation facilitates Foxp3 binding in mitogen-activated CD8+ T cells from feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats. We demonstrated the reduced binding of Foxp3 to the IL-2 promoter by increasing methylation of CD8+ T cells. In the studies presented here, we ask if another form of epigenetic modulation might alleviate Foxp3-mediated suppression in CD8+ T cells. We hypothesized that decreasing histone acetylation in virus-specific CD8+ T cells would decrease Treg-induced Foxp3 binding to the IL-2 promoter. Indeed, using anacardic acid (AA), a known histone acetyl transferase (HAT) inhibitor, we demonstrate a reduction in Foxp3 binding to the IL-2 promoter in virus-specific CD8+ T cells co-cultured with autologous Treg cells. These data identify a novel mechanism of Foxp3-mediated CD8+ T cell dysfunction during lentiviral infection. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Scaffolding Rubrics to Improve Student Writing: Preliminary Results of Using Rubrics in a Sociology Program to Enhance Learning and Mechanical Writing Skills
Societies 2018, 8(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc8020034 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
In the era of accreditation, academic accountability and transparency within curriculum is becoming a desired standard within and across disciplines. Through the use of course learning outcomes, program outcomes can be strengthened. Scaffolding within curricula can benefit both accountability and assessment goals. Through
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In the era of accreditation, academic accountability and transparency within curriculum is becoming a desired standard within and across disciplines. Through the use of course learning outcomes, program outcomes can be strengthened. Scaffolding within curricula can benefit both accountability and assessment goals. Through the use of Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy, scaffolding within the course can be used to aid in the accomplishment of the course learning outcomes. Scaffolding within the course curriculum can move students through Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy levels toward the mastery of specific skills. Writing is a major area of assessment as an indication of learning across disciplines. Scaffolding rubrics were used within sociology courses to specifically address both student learning and mechanical writing skills. Preliminary results of using rubrics to enhance student learning and scaffolding in eight courses (one 100-level, one 200-level, two 300-level, and four 400-level sociology courses) will be presented. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Nutrients Removal Using Reeds Straw as Carbon Source in a Laboratory Scale Constructed Wetland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061081 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
The low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and high nitrate content characteristics of agricultural runoff restricted the nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands (CWs). To resolve such problems, the economically- and easily-obtained Phragmites Australis (reeds) litters were applied and packed in the surface layer of a
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The low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and high nitrate content characteristics of agricultural runoff restricted the nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands (CWs). To resolve such problems, the economically- and easily-obtained Phragmites Australis (reeds) litters were applied and packed in the surface layer of a surface flow CW as external carbon sources. The results demonstrated that the introduction of the reeds straw increased the C concentration as a result of their decomposition during the CW operation, which will help the denitrification in the ensuing operation of an entire 148 days. The total nitrogen (TN) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) () in the effluent reached the peak level of 63.2 mg/L and 83 mg/L at the fourth and the second day, respectively. Subsequently, the pollutants in the CW that were filled with straw decreased rapidly and achieved a stable removal after 13 days of operation. Moreover, the present study showed that the N removal efficiency increased with the increase of the hydraulic retention time (HRT). Under the HRT of four days, the CW presented 74.1 ± 6%, 87.4 ± 6% and 56.0 ± 6% removal for TN, NO3-, and TP, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
3D Shape Reconstruction of 3D Printed Transparent Microscopic Objects from Multiple Photographic Images Using Ultraviolet Illumination
Micromachines 2018, 9(6), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9060261 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
We propose and demonstrate a simple, low-cost, three-dimensional (3D) shape acquisition method for transparent 3D printed microscopic objects. Our method uses ultraviolet (UV) illumination to obtain high-contrast silhouette images of transparent 3D printed polymer objects. Multiple silhouette images taken from different viewpoints make
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We propose and demonstrate a simple, low-cost, three-dimensional (3D) shape acquisition method for transparent 3D printed microscopic objects. Our method uses ultraviolet (UV) illumination to obtain high-contrast silhouette images of transparent 3D printed polymer objects. Multiple silhouette images taken from different viewpoints make it possible to reconstruct the 3D shape of this transparent object. A 3D shape acquisition system consisting of a UV light-emitting diode, charge-coupled device camera and a rotation stage was constructed and used to successfully reconstruct the 3D shape of a transparent bunny model produced using micro-stereolithography. In addition, 3D printed pillar array models, with different diameters on the order of several hundred micrometers, were reconstructed. This method will be a promising tool for the 3D shape reconstruction of transparent 3D objects on both the micro- and macro-scale by changing the imaging lens. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Possible Synergistic Effects of Glutathione and C-Reactive Protein in the Progression of Liver Cirrhosis
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060678 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Liver cirrhosis is often associated with increased inflammatory responses and changes of glutathione (GSH) status. The possible interactions between these two factors in mediating damages of liver function remain unclear. Here, we measured the inflammatory responses and GSH status in liver cirrhotic patients
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Liver cirrhosis is often associated with increased inflammatory responses and changes of glutathione (GSH) status. The possible interactions between these two factors in mediating damages of liver function remain unclear. Here, we measured the inflammatory responses and GSH status in liver cirrhotic patients and compared them with healthy subjects. In addition, we assessed the relationship of the GSH status and levels of inflammatory markers with the severity of the disease. This was a cross-sectional study. In total, we recruited 63 liver cirrhotic patients with Child–Turcotte–Pugh class A scores, and 12 patients with class B–C scores, together with 110 healthy subjects. Patients with class B–C scores showed the highest level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) when compared with class A patients or healthy subjects. Patients in class A group had significantly higher GSH levels when compared with class B–C group or healthy subjects. After adjusting for potential confounders and each other, serum hs-CRP levels showed positive association with the Child–Turcotte–Pugh scores, while GSH levels showed negative association with Child–Turcotte–Pugh scores. Interactions were found between levels of plasma GSH and serum hs-CRP (β = 0.004, p = 0.016). CRP and GSH levels, which had showed interactions, were associated with the severity of liver cirrhosis. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Longitudinal Study of the Role of Epidermal Growth Factor on the Fractional Excretion of Magnesium in Children: Effect of Calcineurin Inhibitors
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060677 (registering DOI) -
Abstract
Background: It was shown in animal models and adults that the epidermal growth factor (EGF) is involved in the pathophysiology of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) induced renal magnesium loss. In children, however, the exact mechanism remains unclear, which was set as the purpose of
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Background: It was shown in animal models and adults that the epidermal growth factor (EGF) is involved in the pathophysiology of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) induced renal magnesium loss. In children, however, the exact mechanism remains unclear, which was set as the purpose of the present study. Methods: Children with nephrotic syndrome and renal transplant children treated with CNI (n = 50) and non-CNI treated children (n = 46) were included in this study. Urine and serum samples were collected at three time points to determine magnesium, creatinine, and EGF. The magnesium intake was calculated from a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Serum Mg2+ and urinary EGF/creatinine were significantly lower in the CNI treated children, with significantly more CNI-treated children developing hypomagnesaemia. In the latter patients, the fractional excretion of magnesium (FE Mg2+) was significantly higher. Urinary EGF, age, renal function, and serum magnesium were independent predictors of the FE Mg2+. Only 29% of the children reached the recommended daily intake of magnesium. The magnesium intake did not differ between hypomagnesemic and normomagnesemic patients and was not a predictor of the FE Mg2+. Conclusions: In CNI-treated children who developed hypomagnesemia, the FE Mg2+ was increased. The urinary EGF concentration, age, and renal function are independent predictors of the FE Mg2+. Full article
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