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Soil Syst. 2018, 2(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/soilsystems2020023

Centennial Fertilization-Induced Soil Processes Control Trace Metal Dynamics. Lessons from a Long-Term Bare Fallow Experiment

1
INRA-AgroParisTech, UMR 1402 EcoSys, Soil Ecotoxicology, RD10, F-78026 Versailles CEDEX, France
2
Facultade de Farmacia, Departamento de Edafoloxía e Química Agrícola, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
3
INRA, US 0010 Laboratoire d’Analyse des Sols, 273 Route de Cambrai, F-62000 Arras, France
4
INRA, UR 0272 Science du Sol, F-45075 Orléans CEDEX 2, France
5
Université de Bourgogne—Franche Comté, UMR 6298, ArTéHis, CNRS-Culture, 6 bd Gabriel, Bât. Gabriel, F-21000 Dijon, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Processes Controlling Contaminant Dynamics)
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Abstract

Long-term bare fallow (LTBF) experiments with historical sample archives offer unique opportunities to study long-term impacts of anthropogenic activities on mineral soil fractions. In natural agro- and ecosystems, such impacts are often masked by organic matter due to its buffering action and rapid turnover. The 42-plot LTBF trial of INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique) started in Versailles (France) in 1928 to assess the impacts of prolonged application of fertilizers and amendments on the composition and properties of loamy soils. Here, we established geochemical budgets of major and trace elements on surface samples from 1929 and 2014 for four groups of treatments relevant for developed soil processes. We considered accompanying effects of soil compaction or decompaction due to changing physicochemical conditions over 85 years. Element losses from the surface horizon were quantified via fertilization-induced or -amplified soil processes: clay leaching favored by Na- or K-based fertilization, and lixiviation of major and trace elements in acidic or alkaline soil conditions. Enhanced mineral weathering was shown for acidified and nonamended plots. Conclusions on trace metal migration were confirmed by selected analyses on subsurface horizons. Additional information was provided on specific element inputs via fertilizers and/or diffuse inputs via atmospheric deposition. View Full-Text
Keywords: fertilization; bare fallow soils; long-term agronomic experiments; loess Luvisol; acidification; lixiviation; clay leaching; geochemical budgets; major elements; trace metals fertilization; bare fallow soils; long-term agronomic experiments; loess Luvisol; acidification; lixiviation; clay leaching; geochemical budgets; major elements; trace metals
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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van Oort, F.; Paradelo, R.; Proix, N.; Delarue, G.; Baize, D.; Monna, F. Centennial Fertilization-Induced Soil Processes Control Trace Metal Dynamics. Lessons from a Long-Term Bare Fallow Experiment. Soil Syst. 2018, 2, 23.

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