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J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2017, 1(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp1020023

Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Water-Atomized Iron-Based Powders: Process Optimization

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, École de technologie supérieure, 1100 Notre-Dame Street West, Montreal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada
2
Research and Development, Rio Tinto Metal Powders, 1655, route Marie-Victorin, Sorel-Tracy, QC J3R 4R4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 17 December 2017
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Abstract

The laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) technology was adapted for use with non-spherical low-cost water-atomized iron powders. A simplified numerical and experimental modeling approach was applied to determine—in a first approximation—the operation window for the selected powder in terms of laser power, scanning speed, hatching space, and layer thickness. The operation window, delimited by a build rate ranging from 4 to 25 cm3/h, and a volumetric energy density ranging from 50 to 190 J/mm3, was subsequently optimized to improve the density, the mechanical properties, and the surface roughness of the manufactured specimens. Standard L-PBF-built specimens were subjected to microstructural (porosity, grain size) and metrological (accuracy, shrinkage, minimum wall thickness, surface roughness) analyses and mechanical testing (three-point bending and tensile tests). The results of the microstructural, metrological and mechanical characterizations of the L-PBF-built specimens subjected to stress relieve annealing and hot isostatic pressing were then compared with those obtained with conventional pressing-sintering technology. Finally, by using an energy density of 70 J/mm3 and a build rate of 9 cm3/h, it was possible to manufacture 99.8%-dense specimens with an ultimate strength of 330 MPa and an elongation to failure of 30%, despite the relatively poor circularity of the powder used. View Full-Text
Keywords: additive manufacturing; laser powder bed fusion; process optimization; water atomized; iron based powder additive manufacturing; laser powder bed fusion; process optimization; water atomized; iron based powder
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Letenneur, M.; Brailovski, V.; Kreitcberg, A.; Paserin, V.; Bailon-Poujol, I. Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Water-Atomized Iron-Based Powders: Process Optimization. J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2017, 1, 23.

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