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Proceedings, Volume 2, Symmetry 2017

The First International Conference on Symmetry (Symmetry 2017)

Barcelona, Spain | 16–18 October, 2017

Issue Editors: Iver Hakon Brevik, Kim Milton and Sergey D. Odintsov


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Cover Story (view full-size image) Symmetry 2017, the First International Conference on Symmetry, brought together experts in biology, [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEditorial Introduction–Symmetry 2017
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010194
Published: 24 January 2018
PDF Full-text (127 KB)
Abstract
Symmetry undergirds all of science. In fact, at the deepest level, the laws of nature are reflections of symmetry. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessAbstract Dynamic Feedback Balancing Algorithm for Data Management of an Integrated Sensing Network
Published: 4 January 2018
PDF Full-text (118 KB)
Abstract
With the development of an integrated sensing network (ISN) which supports generalized [..] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Modifying Effect of Released-Active and Initial Compound Forms: The Case of Contra-Directional Regulation of Model Processes
Published: 5 January 2018
PDF Full-text (120 KB)
Abstract
In recent years, there has been an increased interest in high dilutions of various substances following the discovery of the released-activity phenomenon. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Improving Space Based Snowfall Rate Retrievals with Refined Considerations of Snow Microstructure
Published: 5 January 2018
PDF Full-text (119 KB)
Abstract
Launched in 2014 as a joint mission by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Irreversibility and Quantum Information Flow under Global & Local Gauge Symmetries
Published: 5 January 2018
PDF Full-text (128 KB)
Abstract
What is the structure of general quantum processes on composite systems that respect a global or local symmetry principle? [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Suppression of Magnetization Tunneling in Rare-Earth Atoms on Surfaces of Various Symmetry
Published: 9 January 2018
PDF Full-text (150 KB)
Abstract
In the classical world, it is easy to store a bit of information. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract An Analysis of the Localized Airy-Laguerre-Gaussian Wave Packets Using Modified One-Parameter Point Symmetries
Published: 12 January 2018
PDF Full-text (114 KB)
Abstract
In their treatment of the Airy-Laguerre-Gaussian equation, Zhong, Belic and Zhang constructed an alternative solution for the azimuthal case [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract On Modified Symmetries for the Boltzmann Equation
Published: 8 February 2018
PDF Full-text (112 KB)
Abstract
In this contribution, we are using Lie group theoretical methods Full article
Open AccessAbstract Symmetry Analysis of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman Equation Arising in Financial Mathematics
Published: 15 January 2018
PDF Full-text (137 KB)
Abstract
We outline symmetry analysis on the Hamilton-Bellman-Jacobi equation [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Potassium Channel Gating Mechanism Modeled by Harmonic Oscillators
Published: 9 January 2018
PDF Full-text (115 KB)
Abstract
Potassium channels are integral membrane proteins that selectively transport K+ ions across cell membranes. They function through a pair of gates, which work in tandem to allow the passage of the ions through the channel pore in a coupled system, to which
[...] Read more.
Potassium channels are integral membrane proteins that selectively transport K+ ions across cell membranes. They function through a pair of gates, which work in tandem to allow the passage of the ions through the channel pore in a coupled system, to which I refer here as the “gate linker”. To closely examine the role of the gate linker in channel functioning, I mutated the amino acids in the cDNA of this region, either alone or together with amino acids of adjacent regions. The functional effects of these mutations suggest that the gate linker functions analogously to a triad of coiled springs arranged in series. Accordingly, I constructed a physical model of harmonic oscillators and analyzed it mechanically and mathematically. The operation of this model indeed corresponds to the phenomena observed in the mutations study. The harmonic oscillator model shows that the strength of the gate linker is crucial for gate coupling and may account for the velocity, direction, and efficiency of ion transfer through the channel. Such a physical perspective of the gating process suggests new lines of investigation regarding the coupling mode of potassium channels and may help to explain the importance of the gate linker to channel function. Full article
Open AccessAbstract Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking Related to the Onset of Instabilities in Low-Temperature Plasma
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010010
Published: 5 January 2018
PDF Full-text (128 KB)
Abstract
The study of plasma instabilities is still a hot topic because of their consequences for the development of applications. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Novel Symmetry and Symmetry-Breaking Induced Complexity in Cosmological Evolution
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010011
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (133 KB)
Abstract
Scale-Running of the propagator coupling-constants can induce complexity phenomena [1] involving novel symmetries and symmetry-breakings with antiscreening/screening effects. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract 4-Hydroxyproline Containing Podands: New Chiral Catalysts of the Asymmetric Biginelli Reaction
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010012
Published: 4 January 2018
PDF Full-text (135 KB)
Abstract
4-Aryl substituted dihydropyrimidines (DHPMs), the products of the multicomponent Biginelli [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract The Symmetric and Antisymmetric Eigenvalue Problem for Electromagnetic Equilateral Triangular Waveguides via Plane Wave Reconstruction
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010013
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (171 KB)
Abstract
A plane wave reconstruction technique is presented for the solution of Helmholtz’s equation governing wave propagation in equilateral triangular electromagnetic waveguides in order to aid in the classification of symmetric and antisymmetric modes as well as to resolve the problem of excitation of
[...] Read more.
A plane wave reconstruction technique is presented for the solution of Helmholtz’s equation governing wave propagation in equilateral triangular electromagnetic waveguides in order to aid in the classification of symmetric and antisymmetric modes as well as to resolve the problem of excitation of triangular patch antennas. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Combinatoric Properties of Restriction Sites
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010014
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (115 KB)
Abstract
Endonucleases from the restriction–modification complex are known to recognise specific sites with tremendous precision. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Enhanced and Optimal Development Contributed in Finding Unknown Sources of Interference in Wireless Communication
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010015
Published: 5 January 2018
PDF Full-text (119 KB)
Abstract
Radio frequency interference has been considered a major common issue in wireless communication systems; among several other potential major issues, the emergence and massive development of Internet of things (IoT) is also considered a crucial issue as each device connected wirelessly causes enough
[...] Read more.
Radio frequency interference has been considered a major common issue in wireless communication systems; among several other potential major issues, the emergence and massive development of Internet of things (IoT) is also considered a crucial issue as each device connected wirelessly causes enough of an increment to have destructive effects on radio-frequency interference (RFI). [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Symmetric Maps on the Plane: Mathematical Properties and Numerical Experiments
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010016
Published: 9 January 2018
PDF Full-text (126 KB)
Abstract
We consider a class of discrete time two-dimensional dynamic systems that are symmetric, i.e., (x’,y’) = T(x,y) such that ToS = SoT, where S: (x,y)→(y,x) is the reflection through the diagonal. Symmetry implies some properties in terms of qualitative and quantitative dynamics, for
[...] Read more.
We consider a class of discrete time two-dimensional dynamic systems that are symmetric, i.e., (x’,y’) = T(x,y) such that ToS = SoT, where S: (x,y)→(y,x) is the reflection through the diagonal. Symmetry implies some properties in terms of qualitative and quantitative dynamics, for instance there exist synchronized trajectories, while fixed points and other invariant sets are symmetric w.r.t. the main diagonal or they are invariant as well. Synchronization may also emerge. After showing some of the main features related to this kind of systems (such as attractors and their basins), some numerical examples obtained using software MatLab will be presented and the related algorithms will be discussed. Full article
Open AccessAbstract Functionals of Harmonics Functions
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010017
Published: 9 January 2018
PDF Full-text (172 KB)
Abstract
Let CsT, with T > 0 , be the set of continuous [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Nekhoroshev Theorem for the Toda Lattice with Dirichlet Boundary Conditions
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010018
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (114 KB)
Abstract
In this paper, we prove a Nekhoroshev theorem for the Toda lattice with Dirichlet boundary conditions, i.e., fixed ends. The Toda lattice is a special case of a Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) lattice, and in view of the unexpected recurrence phenomena observed numerically in these
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we prove a Nekhoroshev theorem for the Toda lattice with Dirichlet boundary conditions, i.e., fixed ends. The Toda lattice is a special case of a Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) lattice, and in view of the unexpected recurrence phenomena observed numerically in these chains, it has been conjectured that the theory of perturbed integrable systems could be applied to these lattices, especially since the Toda lattice has been shown to be a completely integrable system. Whereas various results have already been obtained for the periodic lattice, the Dirichlet lattice is more important from the point of view of applications, since the famous numerical experiments have been performed for this type of system. Mathematically, the Dirichlet lattice can be treated by exploiting symmetries of the periodic lattice. Precisely, by considering the phase space of the Dirichlet lattice as an invariant submanifold of the periodic lattice, namely the fixed point set of a certain symmetry of the periodic lattice, the results obtained for the periodic lattice can be used to obtain similar results for the Dirichlet lattice. The Nekhoroshev theorem is a perturbation theory result which does not have the probabilistic character of other results such as those of the KAM theorem. Full article
Open AccessAbstract Generalized Circulant Matrices
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010019
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (124 KB)
Abstract
Circulant matrices have applications in signal processing, numerical calculations of Fourier transforms, as well as encryption methods. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Wormholes Created by Vacuum Fluctuations
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010020
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (136 KB)
Abstract
Possible vacuum fluctuations of quantized fields can create wormholes. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Application of Lie Symmetry Analysis to Heat and Mass Transfer Equations
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010021
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (115 KB)
Abstract
This talk is devoted to the study of equations describing the thermal diffusion process in a binary mixture via the Lie symmetry approach. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Noether’s Symmetries in Quantum Cosmology
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010022
Published: 1 February 2018
PDF Full-text (112 KB)
Abstract
We discuss the Hamiltonian dynamics for cosmologies coming from theories of gravity. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Algebraic Solutions in Scalar Field Cosmology: Reconstruction of the Dark-Energy Equation of State and the Inflationary Potential
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010023
Published: 4 January 2018
PDF Full-text (113 KB)
Abstract
An algebraic solution for arbitrary potential is presented in the context of scalar field [..] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Gluing Formula for Casimir Energies
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010024
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (124 KB)
Abstract
Let M1 and M2 be two Riemannian manifolds each of which has the boundary N. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract PT-Symmetry and Related Geometrical Structures
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010025
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (115 KB)
Abstract
In non-relativistic quantum mechanics, the dynamics of closed quantum systems is described by Hamiltonians which are self-adjoint in appropriately chosen Hilbert spaces. For PT-symmetric quantum systems, the Hamiltonians are, in general, no longer self-adjoint in standard Hilbert spaces, rather they are self-adjoint in
[...] Read more.
In non-relativistic quantum mechanics, the dynamics of closed quantum systems is described by Hamiltonians which are self-adjoint in appropriately chosen Hilbert spaces. For PT-symmetric quantum systems, the Hamiltonians are, in general, no longer self-adjoint in standard Hilbert spaces, rather they are self-adjoint in Krein spaces—Hilbert spaces endowed with indefinite metric structures. Moreover, the spectra of PT-symmetric Hamiltonians are symmetric with regard to the real axis in the spectral plane. Apart from Hamiltonians with purely real spectra, this includes also Hamiltonians whose spectra may contain sectors of pairwise complex-conjugate eigenvalues. Considering families of parameter-dependent Hamiltonians, one can arrange parameter-induced passages from sectors of purely real spectra to sectors of complex-conjugate spectral branches. Corresponding passages can be regarded as PT-phase transitions from sectors of exact PT-symmetry to sectors of spontaneously broken PT-symmetry. Approaching a PT-phase transition point, the eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian tend toward their isotropic limit—an, in general, infinite-dimensional (Krein-space) generalization of the light-cone limit in Minkowski space. At a phase transition, the Hamiltonian is no longer diagonalizable, but similar to an arrangement of nontrivial Jordan-blocks. The interplay of these structures is briefly reviewed with special emphasis on the related Lie-algebraic and Lie-group aspects. With the help of Cartan-decompositions, associated hyperbolic structures and Lie-triple-systems are discussed for finite-dimensional setups as well as for their infinite-dimensional generalizations (Hilbert-Schmidt (HS) Lie groups, HS Lie algebras, HS Grassmannians). The interconnection of Krein-space structures and PT-phase transitions is demonstrated on two exactly solvable models: PT-symmetric Bose-Hubbard models and PT-symmetric plaquette arrangements. Full article
Open AccessAbstract On the Symmetry of the Electromagnetic Energy-Momentum Tensor in Media
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010026
Published: 5 January 2018
PDF Full-text (112 KB)
Abstract
The electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor in media has been under discussion for more [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract É. Cartan’s Supersymmetry, Noncommutative Geometry and Propagation of Time in the Kaluza-Klein-Like Universe
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010027
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (159 KB)
Abstract
In order to combine internal symmetries and spacetime that has Poincaré symmetry, it is necesary to introduce supersymmetry, Supersymmetry of Connes is based on involution, and that of Cartan is based on triality. Cartan’s supersymmetry allows violation of Lorentz symmetry and time reversal
[...] Read more.
In order to combine internal symmetries and spacetime that has Poincaré symmetry, it is necesary to introduce supersymmetry, Supersymmetry of Connes is based on involution, and that of Cartan is based on triality. Cartan’s supersymmetry allows violation of Lorentz symmetry and time reversal violation can occur. Full article
Open AccessAbstract Particle Path Integrals on Maximally Symmetric Spaces and Type-A Trace Anomalies
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010028
Published: 12 January 2018
PDF Full-text (100 KB)
Abstract
Particle path integrals in curved spaces can be employed to compute trace anomalies in quantum field theories, and more generally to study properties of quantum fields coupled to gravity. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract From Kaluza-Klein to Non-Commutative Gauge Theories of Gravity
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010029
Published: 9 January 2018
PDF Full-text (114 KB)
Abstract
Firstly, a short reminder of the Kaluza-Klein programme and a review of the Coset Space Dimensional Reduction of higher dimensional gauge theories will be given. Then, the “fuzzy sphere” will be presented, as a representative example of a non-commutative coset as well as
[...] Read more.
Firstly, a short reminder of the Kaluza-Klein programme and a review of the Coset Space Dimensional Reduction of higher dimensional gauge theories will be given. Then, the “fuzzy sphere” will be presented, as a representative example of a non-commutative coset as well as the construction of gauge theories on such spaces. Eventually, examples will be presented of (a) a higher dimensional Unified Theory with fuzzy coset spaces as extra dimensions, (b) gravity as a gauge theory on non-commutative spaces. Full article
Open AccessAbstract Relativistic Stars in dRGT Massive Gravity
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010030
Published: 4 January 2018
PDF Full-text (122 KB)
Abstract
The de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity describes a massive spin-2 particle. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Unifying the Early-Time Inflationary Era with Late-Time Dark Epoch Universe: The Case of Modified Gravity
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010031
Published: 4 January 2018
PDF Full-text (116 KB)
Abstract
We discuss various theories of modified gravity which aim to describe the whole evolution of the universe, from early-time inflation via radiation/matter dominance and finally to the dark energy era. Such unified evolution may be described in frames of the same modified gravity.
[...] Read more.
We discuss various theories of modified gravity which aim to describe the whole evolution of the universe, from early-time inflation via radiation/matter dominance and finally to the dark energy era. Such unified evolution may be described in frames of the same modified gravity. Special attention is paid to F(R) gravity where R is scalar curvature and modified Gauss- Bonnet gravity. The modified gravity solves the problem of universe acceleration without the need to introduce inflation or unknown dark fluid. The explicit models of such F(R) gravity are presented where quantum gravity effects may also be taken into account. The possible generalizations of modified gravity to non-local gravity, string-inspired gravity, and teleparallel gravity are briefly discussed. A number of applications such as the qualitative change of mass-radius relation in neutron stars or the anti-evaporation effect in multiple-horizon black holes are mentioned. Full article
Open AccessAbstract Generalized Heisenberg-Euler Formula and Its Application to Vacuum Magnetic Birefringence Experiment
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010032
Published: 5 January 2018
PDF Full-text (120 KB)
Abstract
The Heisenberg-Euler formula, describing the non-linear effective action of a photon, is generalized to include parity violating effects. Using the formula, how to probe the dark sector via the magnetic birefringence experiments is studied, in which a new scheme has emerged. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Good vs. Bad Tetrads in f(T) Gravity and the Role of Spacetime Symmetries
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010033
Published: 9 January 2018
PDF Full-text (162 KB)
Abstract
It is well known that the field equations of f(T) gravity break local Lorentz invariance if one a priori assumes a vanishing spin connection, except in the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR) case f(T) = T + Λ. One consequence is the
[...] Read more.
It is well known that the field equations of f(T) gravity break local Lorentz invariance if one a priori assumes a vanishing spin connection, except in the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR) case f(T) = T + Λ. One consequence is the existence of “bad” tetrads, i.e., tetrads which force a constraint on the field equations, which can be satisfied only in the TEGR case, hence prohibiting any modification of the gravitational dynamics. In order to overcome this difficulty, one may either restrict oneself to “good” tetrads, from which no such constraint arises, or introduce a suitable spin connection, which cancels the constraint. However, there is no simple procedure or general formula for these good tetrads or suitable spin connections, and only particular examples have been constructed. I will show how spacetime symmetries act on good and bad tetrads, and can be used to distinguish them, hence giving a simpler criterion for good tetrads. I will also show how a sufficiently high amount of symmetry can be used to determine either the good tetrads or the required spin connection. Full article
Open AccessAbstract Weak Isospin Symmetry and the Vacuum Polarization Energy of Cosmic Strings
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010034
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (154 KB)
Abstract
The vacuum polarization energy is the leading quantum correction to the energy of a localized field configuration. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Multifield Inflation Scenarios from MSSM
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010035
Published: 12 January 2018
PDF Full-text (113 KB)
Abstract
We consider the possible application of the two-Higgs-doublet potential of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) to construct inflation scenarios. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Dual Symmetry: Magnetic Monopoles in Theory and Experiment
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010036
Published: 5 January 2018
PDF Full-text (115 KB)
Abstract
The greater symmetry imparted to the Maxwell–Heaviside equations by the existence of [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Dynamical Systems with Spatiotemporal Periodicities through the Symmetries
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010037
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (143 KB)
Abstract
Dynamical systems often contain oscillatory forces or depend on periodic potentials. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Zeta Functions: Symmetry and Applications
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010038
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (138 KB)
Abstract
A short summary of some symmetry properties of the Riemann zeta function and of different zeta functions corresponding to pseudodifferential operators will be given. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Quantum Simulation of SU(4) Symmetric Spin Lattice Models
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010039
Published: 8 January 2018
PDF Full-text (112 KB)
Abstract
Quantum spin-orbital liquids are strongly correlated states that emerge from quantum [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Intrinsic Symmetry of the Dark Fluid Electrodynamics
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010040
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (131 KB)
Abstract
Cosmic Dark Fluid is considered as a non-stationary medium, in which electromagnetic waves propagate, and magneto-electric field structures emerge and evolve. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Quantum Metrology and Relativistic Symmetries
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010041
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (135 KB)
Abstract
Modern metrology is based on quantum and relativistic physics. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract An Analyst’s Take on Gauge Theory
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010042
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (115 KB)
Abstract
We work with a pair of complex-valued scalar fields over a 4-manifold. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Generalization of the Noether Theorem: Global and Local Symmetries, Dynamical Functionals and Boundary Conditions
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010043
Published: 4 January 2018
PDF Full-text (124 KB)
Abstract
We consider the most general form of the Noether theorem which is suitable for the treatment of global symmetries, described by symmetry-groups, and local symmetries, described by symmetry-algebras, which may not be integrable to symmetry groups. The principle new notion is specific dynamical
[...] Read more.
We consider the most general form of the Noether theorem which is suitable for the treatment of global symmetries, described by symmetry-groups, and local symmetries, described by symmetry-algebras, which may not be integrable to symmetry groups. The principle new notion is specific dynamical functionals which solve the problem by replacing the standard action functionals. We also discuss the compatibility of the boundary conditions and the corresponding variational principles. Many illustrative examples are shown. Full article
Open AccessAbstract Modified Gravity and Relativistic Stars
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010044
Published: 5 January 2018
PDF Full-text (125 KB)
Abstract
We construct nonperturbative models of compact stars [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Symmetries in the Set-Theoretic Universe and the Higher Infinite
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010045
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (113 KB)
Abstract
The set-theoretic universe, as described by the standard Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms of set theory plus the Axiom of Choice (ZFC) [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract On Symmetry Restoration in General Relativity
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010046
Published: 12 January 2018
PDF Full-text (108 KB)
Abstract
Einstein’s theory of general relativity is often regarded as the best theory of gravity that we know. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Physics in the Complex Domain
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010047
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (109 KB)
Abstract
The theory of complex variables is extremely useful because it helps to explain the mathematical behavior of functions of a real variable. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Assessing Fluctuating Asymmetry of Cucumis sativus Leaves for Virtual Plant Models
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010048
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (127 KB)
Abstract
Fluctuating asymmetry in plant leaves is a widely used measure in geometric morphometrics. For example, starting from a Procrustes superimposition of a prototype leaf, measurements can be fitted before performing statistical analyses of symmetry. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Effects of Task Performance Symmetry on Human Collective Decision-Making
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010049
Published: 12 January 2018
PDF Full-text (114 KB)
Abstract
In human joint decision-making, a prevalent question is whether the two persons could have solved the tasks equally well on their own, or possibly better as individual task-decision-makers? [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Behavioural Instability; What Is Next. A Holistic Approach to Behavioural Studies
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010050
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (121 KB)
Abstract
Phenotypic variability and fluctuating asymmetry are the most often used indices for the estimation of developmental instability of an individual. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Lie Symmetry Analysis for the SIS Model of Epidemiology
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010051
Published: 8 February 2018
PDF Full-text (113 KB)
Abstract
A system of three nonlinear ordinary differential equations Full article
Open AccessAbstract Palindromic Symmetry in Genomes and Evolution
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010052
Published: 12 January 2018
PDF Full-text (196 KB)
Abstract
Any genome is a symbol sequence from a four-letter alphabet. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Fluctuating Asymmetry, Sexual Dimorphism and Attractiveness in Humans: The Development towards a 3D Approach
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010053
Published: 5 January 2018
PDF Full-text (117 KB)
Abstract
Perfect bilateral symmetry is the optimal outcome of the development of bilateral traits in the absence of developmental perturbations. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Fluctuating Asymmetry, Developmental Instability and Developmental Stress: Insights from Zebra Finches, Sticklebacks, Rabbits, Humans and Opuntia Cacti
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010054
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (114 KB)
Abstract
The use of fluctuating asymmetry as a measure of developmental instability and stress experienced during development has become one of the most controversial topics in evolutionary biology and ecology. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Symmetry in a Four-Cluster Triangle Structure of the Siberian Stone Pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) Transcriptome
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010055
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (136 KB)
Abstract
The RNA isolated from three different tissues of Siberian stone pine—cambium, needles and buds—were sequenced and assembled for each tissue separately. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Symmetry in the Transcriptome and Genome Sequences of Siberian Larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.)
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010056
Published: 5 January 2018
PDF Full-text (136 KB)
Abstract
We studied the structuredness and order in draft assemblies of the Siberian larch [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Symmetry in Icosahedral Viruses: How It Is Exploited in the XFEL
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010057
Published: 5 January 2018
PDF Full-text (135 KB)
Abstract
We propose a new method of determining the structure of an icosahedral virus by exploiting the point-group icosahedral symmetry in the virus particle, which Caspar and Klug (1962) said was very common in virus structures [1]. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract “Symmetry and Minimum Principle at the Basis of the Genetic Code” Paul SORBA (LAPTH, CNRS, France)
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010058
Published: 12 January 2018
PDF Full-text (130 KB)
Abstract
The importance of the notion of symmetry in physics is well established: could it also be the case for the genetic code? [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Fluctuating Asymmetry and Sexual Selection: Integrating Cross- and within-Population Tests of Key Predictions
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010059
Published: 9 January 2018
PDF Full-text (115 KB)
Abstract
The relationship between morphological symmetry and mating success in animals varies dramatically across species and populations. The reasons for this heterogeneity in effect size are poorly understood, which has lead to intense debate among evolutionary biologists. I will evaluate the general hypothesis that
[...] Read more.
The relationship between morphological symmetry and mating success in animals varies dramatically across species and populations. The reasons for this heterogeneity in effect size are poorly understood, which has lead to intense debate among evolutionary biologists. I will evaluate the general hypothesis that differences in the level of developmental instability (DI) across populations accounts for heterogeneity in the effect of symmetry on sexual selection. According to this hypothesis, most populations have levels of DI insufficient to propel adaptive processes such as mate selection; only when DI levels surpass a critical threshold will selection operate and be detectable. I will test this hypothesis using results of our work with Drosophila bipectinata Duda (Diptera: Drosophilidae), focusing on fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and size of the male sex comb, a model secondary sexual trait for animal studies. The following key predictions will be tested: (1) Intensity of sexual selection depends on the level of DI in the population. Data from nine distinct populations sampled throughout Australasia and the South Pacific will be evaluated for this test; (2) the level of DI in a population, in turn, is the result of the particular history of directional selection for trait size experienced by that population. This prediction will be evaluated using comparative data as well as the results of artificial selection for increasing trait size under laboratory conditions. This study will provide a framework for understanding the dramatic variation in effect size across FA-sexual selection studies. Full article
Open AccessAbstract Human Form—An Evolutionary Psychological Approach to Beauty
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010060
Published: 4 January 2018
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Abstract
Humans tend to judge and sort parts of their social and non-social environment permanently into a few basic categories: those parts they like and those parts they do not. Indeed, we have developed aesthetic preferences for those things and people we are exposed
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Humans tend to judge and sort parts of their social and non-social environment permanently into a few basic categories: those parts they like and those parts they do not. Indeed, we have developed aesthetic preferences for those things and people we are exposed to. Furthermore, needless to say, these preferences shape our behavioural choices—our tendency to seek out or avoid what the world has to offer to us. Humans and other animals have evolved preferences for food and habitats, for naturally occurring sensations such as smells and sounds, as well as for the broad array of culturally created artefacts Full article
Open AccessAbstract Selection of Amino Acid Chirality via the Stark Effect in Stellar Environments
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010061
Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract
An astro-biological model is presented in which atomic nuclei bound in amino acids interact via the weak interaction in stellar environments. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract The Superrotor Model for the Rovibrational Motion of CH5+, an Extremely Flexible Molecule
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010062
Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract
We discuss here the low-energy rotation-vibration problem [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Effect of Bond Tangency/Gap on the Crystallization of Athermal Polymer Packings
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010063
Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract
We present results from extensive Monte Carlo simulations on dense and nearly-jammed packings of chains of hard spheres of uniform size [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Spectroscopic Study of (all-R,R)-cyclohexanohemicucurbit[8]uril and Its Host-Guest Supramolecular Hexafluorophosphate Complexes
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010064
Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract
(all-R,R)-Cyclohexanohemicucurbit[8]uril (cycHC[8]) is a chiral macrocycle binding anions [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Symmetry Breaking and Polarity Formation in Molecular Crystals
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010065
Published: 4 January 2018
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Abstract
Dipolar molecules restricted to one single degree of freedom (180° orientation disorder) can produce growth-induced polar order in particular sectors of molecular crystals. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Chiral Recognition by Dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization NMR Spectroscopy
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010066
Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract
The recognition of enantiomeric molecules by chemical analytical techniques is still a challenge. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Chirogenesis in Supramolecular Systems on the Basis of Porphyrinoids
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010067
Published: 4 January 2018
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Abstract
Chirogenesis is a phenomenon of symmetry breaking in achiral multi- or unimolecular host [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract High Symmetry of Fluoro- and Oxofluoroelpasolites as a Consequence of Dynamic Orientational Disorder
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010068
Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract
There is a large family of A2BMX6 compounds (A, B = monovalent cations or ammonium; M = metal; X = O, F) [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Using the Continuous Shape and Symmetry Measures to Correlate Atomic Structure and Chemical Properties
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010069
Published: 1 February 2018
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Abstract
In the field of structural chemistry, many geometrical and structural measures of molecules, clusters or crystals have been largely used to correlate them with physical or chemical properties. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Chromophores Supramolecular Organization in Polymer Materials with Quadratic Nonlinear-Optical Activity: Symmetry Aspects
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010070
Published: 4 January 2018
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Abstract
Organic dipole chromophores incorporated into a polymer matrix serve as molecular sources of its nonlinear-optical (NLO) activity. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Where Chemistry Meets Art: An Exploration of Nano World through Mathematical Beading
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010071
Published: 5 January 2018
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Abstract
Polyhedra excite the imagination not only of mathematicians, engineers, architects, and artists, but also of biologists and chemists. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Batch and Flow Asymmetric Catalysis for the Synthesis of Chiral Active Pharmaceutical Compounds
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010072
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (113 KB)
Abstract
Continuous-flow systems have emerged as a powerful technology for performing chemical transformations and have recently attracted attention also for the preparation of chiral APIs [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract A Geometric View on the Symmetries of Differential Equations
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010073
Published: 4 January 2018
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Abstract
We study the Lie and Noether point symmetries of a class of systems of second-order differential [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Construction of Symmetric Determinantal Representations of Hyperbolic Forms
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010075
Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract
Let A be an n-by-n matrix. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Secure SCADA-IoT Platform for Industrial Automation and Control: A Collaborative-Communication Designed Model
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010078
Published: 9 January 2018
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Abstract
This paper discusses the new auspicious trends of internet of things (IoT) and its advanced developments in various sectors of today’s IT arena, including for industrial sectors. Each object acts as a communication node (or entity) that is able to communicate with other
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This paper discusses the new auspicious trends of internet of things (IoT) and its advanced developments in various sectors of today’s IT arena, including for industrial sectors. Each object acts as a communication node (or entity) that is able to communicate with other nodes, and corresponding information could be accessed and controlled, via several of today’s commonly used electronic devices such as laptops and cellular devices, etc., through an IoT-designed platform. Moreover, in industrial automation sectors, the employment of IoT is very advantageous, in terms of remote communication support; low-cost operations and maintenance; and autonomous collaborations among remote networked field devices, etc. The facility of autonomous collaborations provisioned by IoT, in the context of a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system as part of an industrial control system, somehow exists in a distributed network protocol (DNP3) during automation and controls. Therefore, the current study takes the step to model a new IoT framework for a SCADA system, which will be efficient at facilitating industrial automation through the collaborative DNP3-Modbus acquisitions and automation, called the SCADA-IoT system. An IoT gateway is employed and configured that supports for both SCADA protocols, such as DNP3 and Modbus and is efficient at communicating, from networked field devices, with inter-processing from both. In the overall SCADA-IoT design, the transmission is carried from an enormous amount of sensors and/or field devices, employing proprietary and nonproprietary protocols; further, sent information is analyzed via big data, stored in a cloud center, monitored and controlled over a SCADA-IoT supportive platform. At the same time, information security (IS) is a big associated challenge and one of the main contributions of this study. Thus, this study also analyzed the potential security mechanisms for securing SCADA-IoT and found cryptography to be a noteworthy security solution, based on the proposed system requirements and its communication demands. Full article
Open AccessAbstract On Conservation Laws of Generalized KP and Boussinesq Equations in Two Dimensions
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010079
Published: 5 January 2018
PDF Full-text (116 KB)
Abstract
Nonlinear generalizations of integrable equations in one-dimension, such as the KdV and Bousinesq equations with p-power nonlinearities, arise in many physical applications and are interesting in analysis due to their critical behaviour. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Symmetry, Entropy and Computer Science
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010080
Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract
We analyze Symmetry, Entropy, and therefore, Uncertainty Measures, to obtain new ways to model adequate conditions, constructed from vague pieces of information. Over time, it was adapted by Shannon, thus creating the Information Theory. However, the Hungarian mathematician Rényi shows that there exist
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We analyze Symmetry, Entropy, and therefore, Uncertainty Measures, to obtain new ways to model adequate conditions, constructed from vague pieces of information. Over time, it was adapted by Shannon, thus creating the Information Theory. However, the Hungarian mathematician Rényi shows that there exist different and valid entropy measures, according to the need of applications. So, it will be very necessary to clarify the different types of measures, and their mutual relationships. Full article
Open AccessAbstract On a Class of Weighted Isoperimetric Inequalities
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010081
Published: 4 January 2018
PDF Full-text (135 KB)
Abstract
We study a class of isoperimetric problems on RN with respect to weights that are powers of the distance to the origin. We consider different weights in the volume and in the perimeter. We investigate cases in which, among all smooth sets
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We study a class of isoperimetric problems on RN with respect to weights that are powers of the distance to the origin. We consider different weights in the volume and in the perimeter. We investigate cases in which, among all smooth sets Ω in RN with fixed weighted measure, the ball centered at the origin has minimum weighted perimeter. The results also imply a weighted Pólya- Szegö principle. In turn, we establish radiality of optimizers in some Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg inequalities, and we obtain sharp bounds for eigenvalues of some nonlinear problems. Full article
Open AccessAbstract Bismut’s Way of the Malliavin Calculus for Large Order Generators on a Lie Group
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010082
Published: 5 January 2018
PDF Full-text (114 KB)
Abstract
We give an adaptation of the Malliavin Calculus of Bismut type in order to show that an operator [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Chirogenesis in Supramolecular Systems on the Basis of Porphyrinoids
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010083
Published: 5 January 2018
PDF Full-text (139 KB)
Abstract
Noether’s theorem provides a systematic method to obtain conservation laws (conserved [..] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Obvious and Hidden Symmetries of Mathematical Objects
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010084
Published: 9 January 2018
PDF Full-text (113 KB)
Abstract
One of the core concepts essential to understanding natural phenomena and the dynamics of social systems is the concept of “relation”. Social and interconnection networks, traffic systems, chemical structures, etc. can be expressed as relational structures. Furthermore, scientists rely on relational structures with
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One of the core concepts essential to understanding natural phenomena and the dynamics of social systems is the concept of “relation”. Social and interconnection networks, traffic systems, chemical structures, etc. can be expressed as relational structures. Furthermore, scientists rely on relational structures with high levels of symmetry because of their optimal behavior and high performance. A mathematical model capturing the essence of this situation is a graph exhibiting a high level of symmetry. The underlying mathematical discipline is algebraic graph theory involving a wide range of methods from combinatorics, algebra, algorithms, geometry, topology, etc. While some symmetries are obvious, certain additional symmetries remain hidden or difficult to grasp. Knowing the full (or as near as possible) set of symmetries of an object is important because it provides the most complete description of that object's structure. This brings us to the crucial question: given a graph or more general a discrete mathematical object, are there any symmetries beyond the obvious ones, and, if yes, how can one determine the full set? In this talk I will present some recent developments with regards to this question together with some applications within mathematics as well as other scientific disciplines. Full article
Open AccessAbstract On Classification of Symmetry Reductions for Partial Differential Equations
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010085
Published: 15 January 2018
PDF Full-text (124 KB)
Abstract
Symmetry reduction is one of the most powerful tools [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract GraphDraw—A Tool for the Represention of Graphs Using Inherent Symmetry
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010086
Published: 5 January 2018
PDF Full-text (117 KB)
Abstract
When drawing small graphs (with up to five or six vertices) we can use their underlying symmetry to represent them in a clear and natural way. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Lie and Conditional Symmetry of Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems: Definitions, Algorithms and Applications
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010087
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (134 KB)
Abstract
Nowadays, Lie and conditional symmetries are widely applied to study nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) (including multidimensional PDEs), notably for their reductions to ordinary differential equations and construction of exact solutions. [...] Full article
Open AccessAbstract Projections of Periodic Functions and Mode Interactions
Proceedings 2018, 2(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2010088
Published: 3 January 2018
PDF Full-text (110 KB)
Abstract
This work is related to the study of pattern formation in symmetric physical systems. [...] Full article
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