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Nitrogen 2017, 1(1), 2; doi:10.3390/nitrogen1010002

Biosensor-Mediated In Situ Imaging Defines the Availability Period of Assimilatory Glutamine in Maize Seedling Leaves Following Nitrogen Fertilization

Department of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
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Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract

The amino acid glutamine (Gln) is an important assimilatory intermediate between root-derived inorganic nitrogen (N) (i.e., ammonium) and downstream macromolecules, and is a central regulator in plant N physiology. The timing of Gln accumulation after N uptake by roots has been well characterized. However, the duration of availability of accumulated Gln at a sink tissue has not been well defined. Measuring Gln availability would require temporal measurements of both Gln accumulation and its reciprocal depletion. Furthermore, as Gln varies spatially within a tissue, whole-organ in situ visualization would be valuable. Here, the accumulation and subsequent disappearance of Gln in maize seedling leaves (Zea mays L.) was imaged in situ throughout the 48 h after N application to roots of N-deprived plants. Free Gln was imaged by placing leaves onto agar embedded with bacterial biosensor cells (GlnLux) that emit luminescence in the presence of leaf-derived Gln. Seedling leaves 1, 2, and 3 were imaged simultaneously to measure Gln availability across tissues that potentially vary in N sink strength. The results show that following root N fertilization, free Gln accumulates and then disappears with an availability period of up to 24 h following peak accumulation. The availability period of Gln was similar in all seedling leaves, but the amount of accumulation was leaf specific. As Gln is not only a metabolic intermediate, but also a signaling molecule, the potential importance of regulating its temporal availability within plant tissues is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: glutamine; Zea mays; assimilation; nitrogen use efficiency; utilization; biosensor; regulation glutamine; Zea mays; assimilation; nitrogen use efficiency; utilization; biosensor; regulation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Goron, T.L.; Raizada, M.N. Biosensor-Mediated In Situ Imaging Defines the Availability Period of Assimilatory Glutamine in Maize Seedling Leaves Following Nitrogen Fertilization. Nitrogen 2017, 1, 2.

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