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Nitrogen, Volume 1, Issue 1 (June 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Nitrogen: A New Cross-Disciplinary International Open Access Journal
Nitrogen 2017, 1(1), 1; doi:10.3390/nitrogen1010001
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Abstract
Nitrogen, the element that is intimately associated with essentially all processes on Earth, is the broad focus of a new online, open access journal.[...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessCommunication Biosensor-Mediated In Situ Imaging Defines the Availability Period of Assimilatory Glutamine in Maize Seedling Leaves Following Nitrogen Fertilization
Nitrogen 2017, 1(1), 2; doi:10.3390/nitrogen1010002
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract
The amino acid glutamine (Gln) is an important assimilatory intermediate between root-derived inorganic nitrogen (N) (i.e., ammonium) and downstream macromolecules, and is a central regulator in plant N physiology. The timing of Gln accumulation after N uptake by roots has been well characterized.
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The amino acid glutamine (Gln) is an important assimilatory intermediate between root-derived inorganic nitrogen (N) (i.e., ammonium) and downstream macromolecules, and is a central regulator in plant N physiology. The timing of Gln accumulation after N uptake by roots has been well characterized. However, the duration of availability of accumulated Gln at a sink tissue has not been well defined. Measuring Gln availability would require temporal measurements of both Gln accumulation and its reciprocal depletion. Furthermore, as Gln varies spatially within a tissue, whole-organ in situ visualization would be valuable. Here, the accumulation and subsequent disappearance of Gln in maize seedling leaves (Zea mays L.) was imaged in situ throughout the 48 h after N application to roots of N-deprived plants. Free Gln was imaged by placing leaves onto agar embedded with bacterial biosensor cells (GlnLux) that emit luminescence in the presence of leaf-derived Gln. Seedling leaves 1, 2, and 3 were imaged simultaneously to measure Gln availability across tissues that potentially vary in N sink strength. The results show that following root N fertilization, free Gln accumulates and then disappears with an availability period of up to 24 h following peak accumulation. The availability period of Gln was similar in all seedling leaves, but the amount of accumulation was leaf specific. As Gln is not only a metabolic intermediate, but also a signaling molecule, the potential importance of regulating its temporal availability within plant tissues is discussed. Full article
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