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Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Research

Open AccessArticle A POD-Based Procedure for the Split of Unsteady Losses of an LPT Cascade
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2017, 2(4), 17; doi:10.3390/ijtpp2040017
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 4 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
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Abstract
A time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) system has been employed to investigate the unsteady propagation of upstream wakes in a low-pressure turbine cascade. Data are obtained in the steady state condition and for two passing wake reduced frequencies. The study is focused on
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A time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) system has been employed to investigate the unsteady propagation of upstream wakes in a low-pressure turbine cascade. Data are obtained in the steady state condition and for two passing wake reduced frequencies. The study is focused on the identification and split of the different dynamics responsible for deterministic and random oscillations, thus loss generation by means of a new procedure based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The paper takes advantage of the properties of POD that reduce the data set to a low number of modes that represent the most energetic dynamics of the system. It is clearly shown that the phase averaged flow field can be represented by a few number of POD modes related to the wake passing event for the unsteady cases. Proper orthogonal decomposition is also able to capture flow features affecting the instantaneous flow field not directly related to the wake passage (i.e., the vortex shedding phenomenon induced by the intermittent separation developing between adjacent wakes), which are smeared out in the phase averaged results. A procedure exploiting the biorthogonality condition of the POD modes, and the related temporal coefficients, has been developed for the quantification of the contribution due to the different POD modes to the overall turbulence kinetic energy production, or, equivalently, the mean flow energy dissipation rate. Results into the paper clearly show that losses due to wake migration, boundary layer and vortex shedding related phenomena can be distinguished and separately quantified for the different tested conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Investigation on the Flow in a Rotor-Stator Cavity with Centripetal Through-Flow
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2017, 2(4), 18; doi:10.3390/ijtpp2040018
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
Daily and Nece distinguished four flow regimes in an enclosed rotor-stator cavity, which are dependent on the circumferential Reynolds number and dimensionless axial gap width. A diagram of the different flow regimes including the respective mean profiles for both tangential and radial velocity
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Daily and Nece distinguished four flow regimes in an enclosed rotor-stator cavity, which are dependent on the circumferential Reynolds number and dimensionless axial gap width. A diagram of the different flow regimes including the respective mean profiles for both tangential and radial velocity was developed. The coefficients for the different flow regimes have also been correlated. In centrifugal pumps and turbines, the centripetal through-flow is quite common from the outer radius of the impeller to the impeller eye, which has a strong influence on the radial pressure distribution, axial thrust and frictional torque. The influence of the centripetal through-flow on the cavity flow with different circumferential Reynolds numbers and dimensionless axial gap width is not sufficiently investigated. It is also quite important to convert the 2D Daily and Nece diagram into 3D by introducing the through-flow coefficient. In order to investigate the impact of the centripetal through-flow, a test rig is designed and built up at the University of Duisburg-Essen. The design of the test rig is described. The impact of the above mentioned parameters on the velocity profile, pressure distribution, axial thrust and frictional torque are presented and analyzed in this paper. The 3D Daily and Nece diagram introducing the through-flow coefficient is also organized in this paper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Vaneless Diffuser Stall Instability in a Centrifugal Compressor
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2017, 2(4), 19; doi:10.3390/ijtpp2040019
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
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Abstract
Numerical simulations based on the large eddy simulation approach were conducted with the aim to explore vaneless diffuser rotating stall instability in a centrifugal compressor. The effect of the impeller blade passage was included as an inlet boundary condition with sufficiently low flow
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Numerical simulations based on the large eddy simulation approach were conducted with the aim to explore vaneless diffuser rotating stall instability in a centrifugal compressor. The effect of the impeller blade passage was included as an inlet boundary condition with sufficiently low flow angle relative to the tangent to provoke the instability and cause circulation in the diffuser core flow. Flow quantities, velocity and pressure, were extracted to accumulate statistics for calculating mean velocity and mean Reynolds stresses in the wall-to-wall direction. The paper focuses on the assessment of the complex response of the system to the velocity perturbations imposed, the resulting pressure gradient and flow curvature effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Parameterised Model of 2D Combustor Exit Flow Conditions for High-Pressure Turbine Simulations
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2017, 2(4), 20; doi:10.3390/ijtpp2040020
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
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Abstract
An algorithm is presented generating a complete set of inlet boundary conditions for Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes computational fluid dynamics (RANS CFD) of high-pressure turbines to investigate their interaction with lean and rich burn combustors. The method shall contribute to understanding the sensitivities of turbine
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An algorithm is presented generating a complete set of inlet boundary conditions for Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes computational fluid dynamics (RANS CFD) of high-pressure turbines to investigate their interaction with lean and rich burn combustors. The method shall contribute to understanding the sensitivities of turbine aerothermal performance in a systematic approach. The boundary conditions are based on a set of input parameters controlling velocity, temperature, and turbulence fields. All other quantities are derived from operating conditions and additional modelling assumptions. The algorithm is coupled with a CFD solver by applying the generated profiles as inlet boundary conditions. The successive steps to derive consistent flow profiles are described and results are validated against flow fields extracted from combustor CFD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Performance of Rim-Seals in Upstream and Downstream Cavities over a Range of Flow Coefficients
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2017, 2(4), 21; doi:10.3390/ijtpp2040021
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents measurements of CO2 concentration and pressure in a new, highly instrumented and versatile, 1.5-stage gas turbine facility. The rig, which has been specifically designed for investigations related to hot gas ingestion, features interchangeable rim-seals, blading configurations, and the capability
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This paper presents measurements of CO2 concentration and pressure in a new, highly instrumented and versatile, 1.5-stage gas turbine facility. The rig, which has been specifically designed for investigations related to hot gas ingestion, features interchangeable rim-seals, blading configurations, and the capability to operate at a wide range of flow coefficients. The turbine section includes an upstream and a downstream wheel-space on either side of a rotor disc featuring turned blades. Measurements of CO2 concentration and steady static pressure were used to assess the pressure field in the turbine annulus and to investigate the performance of a radial clearance rim seal in both wheel-spaces. The wealth of data presented will be of great significance for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation studies considering downstream cavities. Pressure measurements were made at various locations in the turbine annulus for a range of flow coefficients. In the annulus upstream of the rotor blades the square root of the peak-to-trough pressure difference was shown to increase linearly with the flow coefficient. The radial variation in concentration effectiveness in the upstream and downstream wheel-spaces is provided for a range of sealing flow rates at an operating point near the design condition for the stage. In both cases, the concentration on the stator walls was virtually invariant with the radius and equal to that in the rotating core. The results also showed that for the same effectiveness, a smaller value of non-dimensional sealing flow is required in the downstream wheel-space, indicating a weaker driver for ingress. Off-design measurements of the value of the sealing flow parameter when the concentration effectiveness is 95% in both wheel-spaces are also provided for a range of flow coefficients. In the upstream wheel-space, the sealing flow parameter, and hence ingress, is shown to increase linearly with flow coefficient and be proportional to the square root of the peak-to-trough difference of the circumferential pressure variation in the annulus. Downstream of the blades, both the sealing flow parameter and the square root of the peak-to-trough pressure difference reach a minimum near the operating point, indicating that ingress is affected by the vane pressure field immediately downstream of the seal clearance. Full article
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