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Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Research

Open AccessArticle A CFD-Based Throughflow Method with Three-Dimensional Flow Features Modelling
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2017, 2(3), 11; doi:10.3390/ijtpp2030011
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 24 June 2017
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Abstract
The paper describes the development and validation of a novel computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based throughflow model. It is based on the axisymmetric Euler equations with tangential blockage and body forces and inherits its numerical scheme from a state-of-the-art CFD solver (TRAF code). Secondary
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The paper describes the development and validation of a novel computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based throughflow model. It is based on the axisymmetric Euler equations with tangential blockage and body forces and inherits its numerical scheme from a state-of-the-art CFD solver (TRAF code). Secondary and tip leakage flow features are modelled in terms of Lamb–Oseen vortices and a body force field. Source and sink terms in the governing equations are employed to model tip leakage flow effects. A realistic distribution of entropy in the meridional and spanwise directions is proposed in order to compute dissipative forces on the basis of a distributed loss model. The applications are mainly focused on turbine configurations. First, a validation of the secondary flow modelling is carried out by analyzing a linear cascade based on the T106 blade section. Then, the throughflow procedure is used to analyze the transonic CT3 turbine stage studied in the framework of the TATEF2 (Turbine Aero-Thermal External Flows) European program. The performance of the method is evaluated by comparing predicted operating characteristics and spanwise distributions of flow quantities with experimental data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Combustor Swirl on Pressure Losses and the Propagation of Coolant Flows at the Large Scale Turbine Rig (LSTR): Experimental and Numerical Investigation
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2017, 2(3), 12; doi:10.3390/ijtpp2030012
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
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Abstract
The aerothermal interaction of the combustor exit flow on the first vane row has been examined at the Large Scale Turbine Rig (LSTR) at Technische Universität Darmstadt (Darmstadt, Germany). A baseline configuration of axial inflow and a variation of swirling combustor inflow have
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The aerothermal interaction of the combustor exit flow on the first vane row has been examined at the Large Scale Turbine Rig (LSTR) at Technische Universität Darmstadt (Darmstadt, Germany). A baseline configuration of axial inflow and a variation of swirling combustor inflow have been studied. The nozzle guide vane (NGV) featured endwall cooling, airfoil film cooling and a trailing edge slot ejection as well as NGV-rotor wheel space purge flow. CO2 is injected for coolant flow tracing. The results are compared to five hole probe (5HP) measurements. The experiments for the baseline configuration are accompanied by numerical simulations using a passive scalar tracking method to validate the results and study the propagation of the coolant flow. The endwall coolant injection is detected to influence the pressure losses in the NGV. It has an impact on the Trailing Edge (TE) coolant ejection as well. For swirling combustor inflow, increased NGV pressure losses and increased mixing of Rear Inner Discharge Nozzle (RIDN) coolant and main flow is observed. An influence of the clocking position of the swirler to the vane is detected. Additional losses within the NGV row can be assigned to the swirler by means of flow tracing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Pressure Fluctuations on the Mean Value of Different Pneumatic Probes
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2017, 2(3), 13; doi:10.3390/ijtpp2030013
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
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Abstract
For this study, measurements were carried out in a one-and-a-half stage test turbine. In order to characterize the flow field and to obtain steady flow quantities, five-hole probes are used in the rig in several measurement planes. Although a very high resolution in
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For this study, measurements were carried out in a one-and-a-half stage test turbine. In order to characterize the flow field and to obtain steady flow quantities, five-hole probes are used in the rig in several measurement planes. Although a very high resolution in circumferential and radial direction is possible with five-hole probes, only certain sectors of the flow field can be measured due to quite long measurement times. For this reason, total pressure rakes, which can be traversed 360 degrees in a circumferential direction, were built for this test configuration. During foregoing measurements, differences between the total pressure measured with the rakes and the total pressure measured with a five-hole probes were observed, especially in the measurement plane downstream of the rotor where the flow is highly unsteady. It was found that the measured value for total pressure is particularly influenced by the stochastic pressure fluctuations and turbulence and can therefore deviate significantly from the “real” value. Full article
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Open AccessArticle CAD Integrated Multipoint Adjoint-Based Optimization of a Turbocharger Radial Turbine
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2017, 2(3), 14; doi:10.3390/ijtpp2030014
Received: 17 June 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
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Abstract
The adjoint method is considered as the most efficient approach to compute gradients with respect to an arbitrary number of design parameters. However, one major challenge of adjoint-based shape optimization methods is the integration into a computer-aided design (CAD) workflow for practical industrial
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The adjoint method is considered as the most efficient approach to compute gradients with respect to an arbitrary number of design parameters. However, one major challenge of adjoint-based shape optimization methods is the integration into a computer-aided design (CAD) workflow for practical industrial cases. This paper presents an adjoint-based framework that uses a tailored shape parameterization to satisfy geometric constraints due to mechanical and manufacturing requirements while maintaining the shape in a CAD representation. The system employs a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm and in-house developed libraries for the CAD and grid generation as well as a 3D Navier–Stokes flow and adjoint solver. The developed method is applied to a multipoint optimization of a turbocharger radial turbine aiming at maximizing the total-to-static efficiency at multiple operating points while constraining the output power and the choking mass flow of the machine. The optimization converged in a few design cycles in which the total-to-static efficiency could be significantly improved over a wide operating range. Additionally, the imposed aerodynamic constraints with strict convergence tolerances are satisfied and several geometric constraints are inherently respected due to the parameterization of the turbine. In particular, radial fibered blades are used to avoid bending stresses in the turbine blades due to centrifugal forces. The methodology is a step forward towards robustness and consistency of gradient-based optimization for practical industrial cases, as it maintains the optimal shape in CAD representation. As shown in this paper, this avoids shape approximations and allows manufacturing constraints to be included. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Hot Streaks on a High Pressure Turbine Vane Cascade with Showerhead Film Cooling
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2017, 2(3), 15; doi:10.3390/ijtpp2030015
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
Hot streak migration in a linear vane cascade with showerhead film cooling was experimentally and numerically investigated at isentropic exit Mach number of Ma2is = 0.40, with an inlet turbulence intensity level of Tu1 = 9%. Two tangential positions of the
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Hot streak migration in a linear vane cascade with showerhead film cooling was experimentally and numerically investigated at isentropic exit Mach number of Ma2is = 0.40, with an inlet turbulence intensity level of Tu1 = 9%. Two tangential positions of the hot streak center were taken into account: 0% of pitch (hot streak is aligned with the vane leading edge) and 45% of pitch. After demonstrating that computations correctly predict hot streak attenuation through the vane passage with no showerhead blowing, the numerical method was used to investigate hot streak interaction with showerhead film cooling, at blowing ratio of BR = 3.0, corresponding to a coolant-to-mainstream mass flow ratio of MFR = 1.15%. The effects of mixing and coolant interaction on the hot streak reduction were interpreted under the light of the superposition principle, whose accuracy was within 12% on the leading edge region, in the central section of the vane span. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Distortion on Turbofan Tonal Noise at Cutback with Hybrid Methods
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2017, 2(3), 16; doi:10.3390/ijtpp2030016
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
New ultra high bypass ratio architectures may significantly affect the fan tonal noise of future aircraft engines. Indeed, such a noise source is supposed to be dominated by the interaction of fan-blade wakes with outlet guide vanes. However, shorter nacelles in these engines
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New ultra high bypass ratio architectures may significantly affect the fan tonal noise of future aircraft engines. Indeed, such a noise source is supposed to be dominated by the interaction of fan-blade wakes with outlet guide vanes. However, shorter nacelles in these engines are expected to trigger an important air-inlet distortion that can be responsible for new acoustic sources on the fan blades. Full annulus simulations based on the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations are presently used to study this effect. Simulation results show that the air-inlet distortion has a main effect in the fan-tip region, leading to a strong variation of the fan-blade unsteady loading. It also significantly modifies the shape of the fan-blade wakes and, consequently, the unsteady loading of the outlet guide vanes. Acoustic predictions based on the extension of Goldstein’s analogy to an annular duct in a uniform axial flow are presented and show that the fan sources notably contribute to the fan tonal noise. The air-inlet distortion is responsible for an increase of the noise radiated by both the fan and the outlet guide vane sources, leading to a global noise penalty of up to three decibels. Full article
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