CAD Integrated Multipoint Adjoint-Based Optimization of a Turbocharger Radial Turbine
Received: 17 June 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
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The adjoint method is considered as the most efficient approach to compute gradients with respect to an arbitrary number of design parameters. However, one major challenge of adjoint-based shape optimization methods is the integration into a computer-aided design (CAD) workflow for practical industrial
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The adjoint method is considered as the most efficient approach to compute gradients with respect to an arbitrary number of design parameters. However, one major challenge of adjoint-based shape optimization methods is the integration into a computer-aided design (CAD) workflow for practical industrial cases. This paper presents an adjoint-based framework that uses a tailored shape parameterization to satisfy geometric constraints due to mechanical and manufacturing requirements while maintaining the shape in a CAD representation. The system employs a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm and in-house developed libraries for the CAD and grid generation as well as a 3D Navier–Stokes flow and adjoint solver. The developed method is applied to a multipoint optimization of a turbocharger radial turbine aiming at maximizing the total-to-static efficiency at multiple operating points while constraining the output power and the choking mass flow of the machine. The optimization converged in a few design cycles in which the total-to-static efficiency could be significantly improved over a wide operating range. Additionally, the imposed aerodynamic constraints with strict convergence tolerances are satisfied and several geometric constraints are inherently respected due to the parameterization of the turbine. In particular, radial fibered blades are used to avoid bending stresses in the turbine blades due to centrifugal forces. The methodology is a step forward towards robustness and consistency of gradient-based optimization for practical industrial cases, as it maintains the optimal shape in CAD representation. As shown in this paper, this avoids shape approximations and allows manufacturing constraints to be included.