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Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(1), 3; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed3010003

Tick-, Flea-, and Louse-Borne Diseases of Public Health and Veterinary Significance in Nigeria

Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health, Georgia Southern University, 501 Forest Drive, Statesboro, GA 30458-8015, USA
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Received: 12 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Past and Present Threat of Rickettsial Diseases)
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Abstract

Mosquito-borne diseases are common high-impact diseases in tropical and subtropical areas. However, other non-mosquito vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) may share their geographic distribution, seasonality, and clinical manifestations, thereby contributing their share to the morbidity and mortality caused by febrile illnesses in these regions. The purpose of this work was to collect and review existing information and identify knowledge gaps about tick, flea-, and louse-borne diseases of veterinary and public health significance in Nigeria. Full-length articles about VBPs were reviewed and relevant information about the vectors, their hosts, geographic distribution, seasonality, and association(s) with human or veterinary diseases was extracted. Specific laboratory tools used for detection and identification of VBPs in Nigeria were also identified. A total of 62 original publications were examined. Substantial information about the prevalence and impacts of ticks and fleas on pet and service dogs (18 articles), and livestock animals (23 articles) were available; however, information about their association with and potential for causing human illnesses was largely absent despite the zoonotic nature of many of these peri-domestic veterinary diseases. Recent publications that employed molecular methods of detection demonstrated the occurrence of several classic (Ehrlichia canis, Rickettsia africae, Bartonella sp.) and emerging human pathogens (R. aeschlimannii, Neoehrlichia mikurensis) in ticks and fleas. However, information about other pathogens often found in association with ticks (R. conorii) and fleas (R. typhi, R. felis) across the African continent was lacking. Records of louse-borne epidemic typhus in Nigeria date to 1947; however, its current status is not known. This review provides an essential baseline summary of the current knowledge in Nigeria of non-mosquito VBPs, and should stimulate improvements in the surveillance of the veterinary and human diseases they cause in Nigeria. Due to increasing recognition of these diseases in other African countries, veterinary and public health professionals in Nigeria should expand the list of possible diseases considered in patients presenting with fever of unknown etiology. View Full-Text
Keywords: tick; flea; louse; vector-borne diseases; rickettsial diseases; public health; veterinary health; Nigeria tick; flea; louse; vector-borne diseases; rickettsial diseases; public health; veterinary health; Nigeria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oguntomole, O.; Nwaeze, U.; Eremeeva, M.E. Tick-, Flea-, and Louse-Borne Diseases of Public Health and Veterinary Significance in Nigeria. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3, 3.

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