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Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2017, 2(2), 13; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed2020013

Cost and Relative Value of Road Kill Surveys for Enhanced Rabies Surveillance in Raccoon Rabies Management

1
National Rabies Management Program, Wildlife Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 59 Chenell Drive, Suite 2, Concord, NH 03301, USA
2
New York Program, Wildlife Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 230 Timerman Hall, SUNY Potsdam, Potsdam, NY 13676, USA
3
Laboratory of Zoonotic Disease and Clinical Virology, Griffin Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, 61 Mordella Road, Albany, NY 12205, USA
4
Rabies Laboratory, Griffin Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, 5668 State Farm Rd., Slingerlands, NY 12159, USA
5
New Jersey Program, Wildlife Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Pittstown, NJ 08867, USA
6
Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Cedar City, UT 84721, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Charles Rupprecht and Bernhard Dietzschold
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rabies Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prophylaxis and Treatment)
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Abstract

Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) requires knowledge of the spatial-temporal distribution of rabies virus variants targeted for control. Rabies-exposure based public health surveillance alone may not provide a sound basis for ORV decisions. The value and cost of road kill surveys was evaluated for the late spring–early fall 2005–2007 as a part of enhanced rabies surveillance in northern New York, where raccoon rabies is enzootic and ORV has occurred since the late 1990s. Structured surveys were conducted to collect raccoons and other meso-carnivores for rabies testing at the New York State Rabies Laboratory. Of the 209 meso-carnivore heads collected and submitted for testing, 175 were testable by direct fluorescent antibody; none was rabid. Rabies was also not reported through public health surveillance in survey zones during 2005–2007. Overall, survey costs were $37,118 (2016 USD). Salaries and benefits accounted for 61% of costs, followed by fuel (22%), vehicle depreciation (14%), and sample shipping (3%). Mean daily distance driven was 303 ± 37 km and 381 ± 28 km for total road kills and raccoons, respectively. Costs/road kill collected and submitted was $176/all species and $224/raccoon. This study provides costs for planning road kill surveys and underscores the need to continually improve enhanced rabies surveillance approaches to support ORV decision making. View Full-Text
Keywords: raccoon; skunk; rabies; enhanced rabies surveillance; road kill; oral rabies vaccination (ORV); meso-carnivores raccoon; skunk; rabies; enhanced rabies surveillance; road kill; oral rabies vaccination (ORV); meso-carnivores
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Slate, D.; Kirby, J.D.; Morgan, D.P.; Algeo, T.P.; Trimarchi, C.V.; Nelson, K.M.; Rudd, R.J.; Randall, A.R.; Carrara, M.S.; Chipman, R.B. Cost and Relative Value of Road Kill Surveys for Enhanced Rabies Surveillance in Raccoon Rabies Management. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2017, 2, 13.

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