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Trop. Med. Infect. Dis., Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2016)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Welcome to Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease—A New Era in Open Access Publication
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2016, 1(1), 1; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed1010001
Received: 6 June 2016 / Revised: 6 June 2016 / Accepted: 6 June 2016 / Published: 14 June 2016
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Abstract
Historically, tropical medicine emerged from a multidisciplinary background as a result of progress in the areas of public health and hygiene, travel and exploration, biology and evolution, and the germ theory of disease [1].[...] Full article
Open AccessEditorial Malaria Death in an Isolated Island Garrison on New Guinea 1915
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2016, 1(1), 2; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed1010002
Received: 8 July 2016 / Accepted: 12 July 2016 / Published: 13 July 2016
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Abstract
Most military cemeteries overwhelm one with the vast number of markers that represent once living soldiers now buried far from home.[...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle Health Seeking Behaviours and Knowledge of Infectious Disease Risks in Western Australian Travellers to Southeast Asian Destinations: An Airport Survey
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2016, 1(1), 3; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed1010003
Received: 2 July 2016 / Revised: 14 July 2016 / Accepted: 14 July 2016 / Published: 18 July 2016
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Abstract
As the number of Australians engaging in short-term international travel increases, so does the opportunity for importing overseas-acquired infectious diseases. This study aimed to determine knowledge of infectious disease risks and pre-travel health advice (PTHA) seeking behaviour among Western Australians travelling to Bali,
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As the number of Australians engaging in short-term international travel increases, so does the opportunity for importing overseas-acquired infectious diseases. This study aimed to determine knowledge of infectious disease risks and pre-travel health advice (PTHA) seeking behaviour among Western Australians travelling to Bali, Indonesia or Thailand. Passengers departing from Perth International Airport were invited to participate in a self-administered survey. The survey determined PTHA seeking behaviour, knowledge of specific disease risks, and expected disease-prevention behaviours abroad. Multivariate regression modelling was used to assess demographic and travel-related factors associated with seeking PTHA. Responses from 1334 travellers were analysed. The proportion correctly identifying specific overseas disease risks ranged from 27% to 98%. High levels of planned disease-preventive behaviours were reported; however only 32% of respondents sought PTHA for their trip, most commonly from friends/family (15%) or a GP (14%). Many travellers (87%) made online travel purchases, but few (8%) used the Internet to source PTHA. WA travellers to Bali and Thailand were unlikely to seek PTHA and knowledge varied regarding infectious disease risks associated with travel. High rates of internet use when planning travel may provide an opportunity for destination-specific health promotion messaging and should be explored. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ixodes holocyclus Tick-Transmitted Human Pathogens in North-Eastern New South Wales, Australia
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2016, 1(1), 4; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed1010004
Received: 4 August 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 11 August 2016
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Abstract
A group of 14 persons who live in an area of Australia endemic for the Australian paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus, and who were involved in regularly collecting and handling these ticks, was examined for antibodies to tick-transmitted bacterial pathogens. Five (36%) had
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A group of 14 persons who live in an area of Australia endemic for the Australian paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus, and who were involved in regularly collecting and handling these ticks, was examined for antibodies to tick-transmitted bacterial pathogens. Five (36%) had antibodies to Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever and three (21%) had antibodies to spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae (Rickettsia spp). None had antibodies to Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Orientia, or Borrelia (Lymedisease) suggesting that they had not been exposed to these bacteria. A total of 149 I. holocyclus ticks were examined for the citrate synthase (gltA) gene of the SFG rickettsiae and the com1 gene of C. burnetii; 23 (15.4%) ticks were positive for Rickettsia spp. and 8 (5.6%) positive for Coxiella spp. Sequencing of fragments of the gltA gene and the 17 kDa antigen gene from a selection of the ticks showed 99% and 100% homology, respectively, to Rickettsia australis, the bacterium causing Queenslandtick typhus. Thus, it appears that persons bitten by I. holocyclus in NE NSW, Australia have an approximate one in six risk of being infected with R. australis. Risks of Q fever were also high in this region but this may have been due to exposure by aerosol from the environment rather than by tick bite. A subset of 74 I. holocyclus ticks were further examined for DNA from Borrelia spp., Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. but none was positive. Some of these recognised human bacterial pathogens associated with ticks may not be present in this Australian tick species from northeastern New South Wales. Full article
Open AccessCommunication New Foci of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae Including Rickettsia honei in Western Australia
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2016, 1(1), 5; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed1010005
Received: 2 July 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 17 August 2016
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Abstract
We describe the first reported case of spotted fever group rickettsiosis in Western Australia, and two cases of probable Rickettsia honei from a new geographic focus. These findings highlight the need to raise awareness of ricksettsial infection among local clinicians as well as
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We describe the first reported case of spotted fever group rickettsiosis in Western Australia, and two cases of probable Rickettsia honei from a new geographic focus. These findings highlight the need to raise awareness of ricksettsial infection among local clinicians as well as those treating visitors to this region, important for outdoor recreation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Chronic Liver Diseases: Evidence of an Association
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2016, 1(1), 7; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed1010007
Received: 26 July 2016 / Revised: 26 October 2016 / Accepted: 26 October 2016 / Published: 1 November 2016
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Abstract
Toxoplasmosis may present as a severe disease among some Egyptian patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) due to their impaired immune system, changing the course of the disease. The classical diagnosis of toxoplasmosis by serological tests is inadequate for such patients. This study
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Toxoplasmosis may present as a severe disease among some Egyptian patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) due to their impaired immune system, changing the course of the disease. The classical diagnosis of toxoplasmosis by serological tests is inadequate for such patients. This study was performed to highlight the role of real-time quantitative PCR (qrtPCR) test in the accurate diagnosis of toxoplasmosis among Egyptian patients with CLD. Seventy patients with CLD and 50 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. All were subjected to full clinical examinations, abdominal ultrasonography, and biochemical analysis of liver enzymes and they were investigated for markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). In addition, Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) parasitemia was determined using qrtPCR. The results showed that T. gondii parasitemia was positive in 30% of CLD patients with highly statistically significant (p < 0.001) compared with the control group (6%). Co-infection in both T. gondii/HBV and T. gondii/HCV was 33.3% and 31.4%, respectively, with a highly significant association between T. gondii parasitemia and HCV viral load. Moreover, the results showed a significant increase of liver enzymes in the serum of patients positive for T. gondii compared with negative patients. An association between T. gondii infection and CLD was observed, and further studies will be needed to define the mechanism of this association. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Human Monkeypox: Current State of Knowledge and Implications for the Future
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2016, 1(1), 8; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed1010008
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 11 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
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Abstract
The zoonosis human monkeypox (MPX) was discovered in 1970, twelve years after the discovery of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in a Danish laboratory in 1958. Historically confined to West Africa (WA) and the Congo basin (CB), new epidemics in Sudan and the United States
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The zoonosis human monkeypox (MPX) was discovered in 1970, twelve years after the discovery of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in a Danish laboratory in 1958. Historically confined to West Africa (WA) and the Congo basin (CB), new epidemics in Sudan and the United States of America (USA) have fuelled new research highlighting environmental factors contributing to the expanded geographical spread of monkeypox virus (MPXV). A systematic literature review was conducted in MEDLINE® (Ovid), MEDLINE® (PubMed) and Google Scholar databases using the search terms: monkeypox, MPXV and “human monkeypox”. The literature revealed MPX has classic prodromal symptoms followed by a total body rash. The sole distinguishing clinical characteristic from other pox-like illnesses is the profound lymphadenopathy. Laboratory diagnosis of MPX is essential, a suitable test for endemic areas is under development but not yet available. For the time being anti-poxvirus antibodies in an unvaccinated individual with a history of severe illness and rash can suggest MPX infection. The reservoir host remains elusive yet the rope squirrel and Gambian pouched rat appear to be the most likely candidates. Transmission includes fomite, droplet, direct contact with infected humans or animals and consumption of infected meat. Though smallpox vaccination is protective against MPXV, new non-immune generations contribute to increasing incidence. Environmental factors are increasing the frequency of contact with potential hosts, thus increasing the risk of animal-to-human transmission. Increased risk of transmission through globalisation, conflict and environmental influences makes MPX a more realistic threat to previously unaffected countries. Health worker training and further development and accessibility of suitable diagnostic tests, vaccinations and anti-viral treatment is becoming increasingly necessary. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report Severe Dengue Fever with Haemolytic Anaemia—A Case Study
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2016, 1(1), 6; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed1010006
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 8 September 2016 / Published: 8 October 2016
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Abstract
Dengue fever, the most common arthropod-borne viral infection in South East Asia, is increasing in prevalence due partially to increased awareness and better diagnostic methods. While haematologic complications, such as cytopeniae and bleeding, may occur in severe dengue infection due to a variety
[...] Read more.
Dengue fever, the most common arthropod-borne viral infection in South East Asia, is increasing in prevalence due partially to increased awareness and better diagnostic methods. While haematologic complications, such as cytopeniae and bleeding, may occur in severe dengue infection due to a variety of aetiologies, reports of haemolytic anaemia in dengue fever are scant. We report a case of severe dengue fever with haemolytic anaemia following the critical phase of infection. Full article
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